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The tangerine ( Citrus
Citrus
tangerina)[1] is a group of orange-colored citrus fruit consisting of hybrids of mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata). The name was first used for fruit coming from Tangier, Morocco, described as a mandarin variety.[2] Under the Tanaka classification system, Citrus
Citrus
tangerina is considered a separate species. Under the Swingle system, tangerines are considered to be a group of mandarin (C. reticulata) varieties.[3] Genetic study has shown tangerines to be mandarin orange hybrids containing some pomelo DNA.[4][5] Some differ only in disease resistance.[6] The term is currently applied to any reddish-orange mandarin[citation needed] (and, in some jurisdictions, mandarin-like hybrids, including some tangors).[7][8]) Tangerines are smaller and less rounded than common oranges. The taste is considered less sour, as well as sweeter and stronger, than that of an orange.[9] A ripe tangerine is firm to slightly soft, heavy for its size[citation needed], and pebbly-skinned with no deep grooves, as well as orange in color. The peel is very thin, with very little bitter white mesocarp,[10] which makes them usually easier to peel and to split into segments.[citation needed] All of these traits are shared by mandarins generally. Peak tangerine season lasts from autumn to spring. Tangerines are most commonly peeled and eaten out of hand. The fresh fruit is also used in salads, desserts and main dishes. The peel is used fresh or dried as a spice or zest for baking and drinks, and eaten coated in chocolate. Fresh tangerine juice and frozen juice concentrate are commonly available in the United States. The number of seeds in each segment (carpel) varies greatly.

Contents

1 Nomenclature and varieties 2 Nutrition 3 Etymology 4 References 5 External links

Nomenclature and varieties[edit] See also: Mandarin varieties Tangerines were first grown and cultivated as a distinct crop in the Americas by a Major Atway in Palatka, Florida.[11] Atway was said to have imported them from Morocco
Morocco
(capital Tangiers), which was the origin of the name "Tangerine". Major Atway sold his groves to N. H. Moragne in 1843, giving the Moragne tangerine the other part of its name.[12] The Moragne tangerine produced a seedling which became one of the oldest and most popular American varieties, the Dancy tangerine (zipper-skin tangerine, kid-glove orange).[12] Genetic analysis has shown the parents of the Dancy to have been two mandarin orange hybrids each with a small pomelo contribution, a Ponkan
Ponkan
mandarin orange and a second unidentified mandarin.[4] The Dancy is no longer widely commercially grown; it is too delicate to handle and ship well, it is susceptible to Alternaria
Alternaria
fungus, and it bears more heavily in alternate years.[13][14] Dancys are still grown for personal consumption, and many hybrids of the Dancy are grown commercially. Until the 1970s, the Dancy was the most widely grown tangerine in the US;[15] the popularity of the fruit led to the term "tangerine" being broadly applied as a marketing name. Florida
Florida
classifies tangerine-like hybrid fruits as tangerines for the purposes of sale and regulation;[7] this classification is widely used but regarded as technically inaccurate in the industry.[8] Among the most important tangerine hybrids of Florida
Florida
are murcotts, a late-fruiting type of tangor marketed as "honey tangerine"[16] and Sunbursts (an early-fruiting complex tangerine-orange-grapefruit hybrid).[17] The fallglo, also a three-way hybrid (5/8 tangerine, 1/4 orange and 1/8 grapefruit) is also grown.[18]

A tangerine

A botanical illustration of a Manurco tangerine, painted by Royal Charles Steadman in January, 1926.

Nutrition[edit]

Tangerines, raw

A Murcott, likely a tangerine hybrid

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 223 kJ (53 kcal)

Carbohydrates

13.34 g

Sugars 10.58 g

Dietary fiber 1.8 g

Fat

0.31 g

Protein

0.81 g

Vitamins

Vitamin
Vitamin
A equiv. beta-Carotene

(4%) 34 μg

(1%) 155 μg

Thiamine
Thiamine
(B1)

(5%) 0.058 mg

Riboflavin
Riboflavin
(B2)

(3%) 0.036 mg

Niacin
Niacin
(B3)

(3%) 0.376 mg

Pantothenic acid
Pantothenic acid
(B5)

(4%) 0.216 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
B6

(6%) 0.078 mg

Folate
Folate
(B9)

(4%) 16 μg

Choline

(2%) 10.2 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
C

(32%) 26.7 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
E

(1%) 0.2 mg

Minerals

Calcium

(4%) 37 mg

Iron

(1%) 0.15 mg

Magnesium

(3%) 12 mg

Manganese

(2%) 0.039 mg

Phosphorus

(3%) 20 mg

Potassium

(4%) 166 mg

Sodium

(0%) 2 mg

Zinc

(1%) 0.07 mg

Other constituents

Water 85.2 g

Link to USDA Database entry

Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Tangerines contain 85% water, 13% carbohydrates, and negligible amounts of fat and protein (table). Among micronutrients, only vitamin C is in significant content (32% of the Daily Value) in a 100 gram reference serving, with all other nutrients in low amounts. Etymology[edit] According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "tangerine" was originally an adjective meaning "Of or pertaining to, or native of Tangier, a seaport in Morocco, on the Strait of Gibraltar" and "a native of Tangier." The OED cites this usage from Addison's The Tatler in 1710 with similar uses from the 1800s. The adjective was applied to the fruit, once known scientifically as " Citrus
Citrus
nobilis var. tangeriana" which grew in the region of Tangiers. This usage appears in the 1800s[19] References[edit]

^ " Citrus
Citrus
tangerina Yu.Tanaka — The Plant List". theplantlist.org.  ^ "Home : Oxford English Dictionary". oed.com.  ^ "New universal mitochondrial PCR markers reveal new information on maternal citrus phylogeny". Tree Genetics. 7: 49–61. doi:10.1007/s11295-010-0314-x.  ^ a b Wu, Guohong Albert; Terol, Javier; Ibanez, Victoria; López-García, Antonio; Pérez-Román, Estela; Borredá, Carles; Domingo, Concha; Tadeo, Francisco R; Carbonell-Caballero, Jose; Alonso, Roberto; Curk, Franck; Du, Dongliang; Ollitrault, Patrick; Roose, Mikeal L. Roose; Dopazo, Joaquin; Gmitter Jr, Frederick G.; Rokhsar, Daniel; Talon, Manuel (2018). "Genomics of the origin and evolution of Citrus". Nature. 554: 311–316. doi:10.1038/nature25447.  and Supplement ^ G Albert Wu; et al. "Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pomelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication". Nature Biotechnology. 32: 656–662. doi:10.1038/nbt.2906. PMC 4113729 . PMID 24908277.  ^ Li, Xiaomeng; Xie, Rangjin; Lu, Zhenhua; Zhou, Zhiqin (2010). "The Origin of Cultivated Citrus
Citrus
as Inferred from Internal Transcribed Spacer and Chloroplast DNA Sequence and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Fingerprints". Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 135: 341–350.  ^ a b Commernet, 2011. "20-13.0061. Sunburst Tangerines; Classification and Standards, 20-13. Market Classification, Maturity Standards And Processing Or Packing Restrictions For Hybrids, D20. Departmental, 20. Department of Citrus, Florida
Florida
Administrative Code". State of Florida. Retrieved 14 May 2015.  ^ a b Larry K. Jackson & Stephen H. Futch. "HS178/CH073: Robinson Tangerine". Retrieved 14 May 2015.  ^ Pittman & Davis (1999-02-22). "Pittman & Davis – Premium Citrus
Citrus
Fruit
Fruit
Gifts – Why Are Tangerines So Tangy?". Pittmandavis.com. Retrieved 2012-11-17.  ^ David Karp (2011-01-28). "Market Watch: The wild and elusive Dancy". LA Times. Retrieved 2015-07-19.  ^ H. Harold Hume (1913). Citrus
Citrus
Fruits and Their Culture. O. Judd Company. p. 101.  ^ a b http://www.citrusvariety.ucr.edu/citrus/dancy.html ^ Larry K. Jackson & Stephen H. Futch. "HS169/CH074: Dancy Tangerine". ufl.edu.  ^ "Satsuma cultivars: The best and the worst". AL.com. Retrieved 14 May 2015.  ^ http://www.slowfoodusa.org/ark-item/dancy-tangerine ^ "HS174/CH078: Murcott (Honey Tangerine)". Edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Retrieved 2012-11-17.  ^ "HS168/CH079: Sunburst Tangerine". Edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Retrieved 2012-11-17.  ^ Larry K. Jackson & Stephen H. Futch. "HS173/CH075: Fallglo Tangerine". Retrieved 14 May 2015.  ^ . See the Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition, 1989.

External links[edit]

Data related to Citrus
Citrus
tangerina at Wikispecies Tangerine
Tangerine
at Wikibook Cookbooks Media related to Tangerines at Wikimedia Commons

v t e

Citrus

True species

Australian and Papuan wild limes Byeonggyul Citron Clymenia Indian wild orange Ichang papeda Kumquat Mandarin Mangshanyegan Micrantha Pomelo

Major hybrids

Grapefruit Lemon Lime Orange

True and hybrid cultivars

Alemow Amanatsu Bergamot orange Bizzaria Bitter orange Blood lime Blood orange Buddha's hand Cam sành Cara cara navel Cherry orange Citrange Citrumelo Clementine Daidai Dekopon Fairchild tangerine Florentine citron Hassaku orange Hebesu Hyuganatsu Imperial lemon Iyokan Jabara Jaffa orange Kabbad Kabosu Kaffir lime Kakadu lime Kalpi Key lime Khasi papeda Kinnow Kishumikan Kiyomi Komikan Laraha Lumia Mandelo Mandora Melanesian papeda Melogold Meyer lemon Murcott Myrtle-leaved orange tree Ōgonkan Orangelo/Chironja Oroblanco Palestinian sweet lime Persian lime Pixie mandarin Ponderosa lemon Ponkan Rangpur Reikou Rhobs el Arsa Rough lemon Sanboken Satsuma mandarin Setoka Shangjuan Shonan Gold Sudachi Sweet lemon Sweet limetta Tangelo Tangerine Tangor Ugli fruit Valencia orange Variegated pink lemon Winged lime Xã Đoài orange Yuukou mandarin Yuzu

Citrons

Balady citron Corsican citron Diamante citron Fingered citron Greek citron Moroccan citron Yemenite citron

Mandarin oranges

Cleopatra mandarin Shīkwāsā Nanfengmiju

Papedas

Citrus
Citrus
halimii or Mountain "citron" Ichang papeda

Pomelos

Banpeiyu Dangyuja

Australian and Papuan citrus (Microcitrus, Eromocitrus, Clymenia and Oxanthera subgenera)

Australian outback lime Australian round lime Brown River finger lime Desert lime Mount white lime (Microcitrus) New Guinea wild lime Russell River lime Clymenia Oxanthera

Kumquat
Kumquat
hybrids (×Citrofortunella)

Calamondin Citrangequat Limequat Orangequat Procimequat Sunquat Yuzuquat

Related genus

Poncirus/Trifoliate orange

Drinks

Chūhai Curaçao Grapefruit
Grapefruit
juice Lemonade Limeade Orange juice Yuja-hwachae Yuja tea

Products

Calcium citrate Citric acid Lemonene Limonene Neroli Orange flower water Orange oil Orangeat Succade Zest

Diseases

Black spot CTV/Tristeza Exocortis Greening Mal secco Phytophthora

citricola

Related topics

The Citrus
Citrus
Industry Citrus
Citrus
production Citrus
Citrus
rootstock Citrus
Citrus
taxonomy Cold-hardy citrus Hesperidium Japanese citrus List of citrus fruits Mother Orange Tree Orangery University of California Citrus
Citrus
Experiment Station University of California, Riverside Citrus
Citrus
Variety Collection

Book Category Production Commons

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q516494 EPPO: CIDTG GBIF: 3837628 GRIN: 314342 IPNI: 772075-1 NCBI: 237575 Plant List: kew-2724391

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