The TANGERINE (
Citrus tangerina) is an orange-colored citrus fruit
that is closely related to, or possibly a type of, mandarin orange
The name was first used for fruit coming from
described as a mandarin variety. Under the Tanaka classification
Citrus tangerina is considered a separate species. Under the
Swingle system , tangerines are considered to be a group of mandarin
(C. reticulata ) varieties. While tangerines genetically resemble
mandarins, the genetics are still not thoroughly studied. The term
is currently applied to any reddish-orange mandarin (and, in some
jurisdictions, mandarin-like hybrids, including some tangors ), but
the term "tangerine" may yet acquire a definite genetic meaning.
Tangerines are smaller and less rounded than common oranges . The
taste is considered less sour , as well as sweeter and stronger, than
that of an orange. A ripe tangerine is firm to slightly soft, heavy
for its size, and pebbly-skinned with no deep grooves, as well as
orange in color. The peel is very thin, with very little bitter white
mesocarp , which makes them usually easier to peel and to split into
segments. All of these traits are shared by mandarins generally.
Peak tangerine season lasts from autumn to spring . Tangerines are
most commonly peeled and eaten out of hand. The fresh fruit is also
used in salads, desserts and main dishes. The peel is used fresh or
dried as a spice or zest for baking and drinks, and eaten coated in
chocolate. Fresh tangerine juice and frozen juice concentrate are
commonly available in the United States. The number of seeds in each
segment (carpel) varies greatly.
* 1 Nomenclature and varieties
* 2 Nutrition
* 3 Etymology
* 4 References
* 5 External links
NOMENCLATURE AND VARIETIES
See also: Mandarin varieties
Moragne "tangierines were grown at Palatka by a Major Atway. Major
Atway was said to have imported them from
which was the origin of the name "tangerine". Major Atway sold his
groves to N. H. Moragne in 1843, giving the Moragne tangerine the
other part of its name.
The Moragne tangerine produced a seedling which became one of the
oldest and most popular American varieties, the Dancy tangerine
(zipper -skin tangerine, kid-glove orange). The Dancy is no longer
widely commercially grown; it is too delicate to handle and ship well,
it is susceptible to
Alternaria fungus, and it bears more heavily in
alternate years. Dancys are still grown for personal consumption,
and many hybrids of the Dancy are grown commercially.
Both these cultivars may be pure mandarins, unlike many cultivars,
which are hybrids.
Until the 1970s, the Dancy was the most widely grown tangerine in the
US; the popularity of the fruit led to the term "tangerine" being
broadly applied as a marketing name.
Florida classifies tangerine-like hybrid fruits as tangerines for the
purposes of sale and regulation; this classification is widely used
but regarded as technically inaccurate in the industry. Among the
most important tangerine hybrids of
Florida are murcotts , a
late-fruiting type of tangor marketed as "honey tangerine" and
Sunbursts (an early-fruiting complex tangerine-orange-grapefruit
hybrid). The fallglo, also a three-way hybrid (5/8 tangerine, 1/4
orange and 1/8 grapefruit) is also grown.
A botanical illustration of a Manurco tangerine, painted by Royal
Charles Steadman in January, 1926.
A Murcott , likely a tangerine hybrid
NUTRITIONAL VALUE PER 100 G (3.5 OZ)
223 kJ (53 kcal)
VITAMIN A EQUIV. BETA-CAROTENE
(4%) 34 μg (1%) 155 μg
(5%) 0.058 mg
(3%) 0.036 mg
(3%) 0.376 mg
PANTOTHENIC ACID (B5)
(4%) 0.216 mg
(6%) 0.078 mg
(4%) 16 μg
(2%) 10.2 mg
(32%) 26.7 mg
(1%) 0.2 mg
(4%) 37 mg
(1%) 0.15 mg
(3%) 12 mg
(2%) 0.039 mg
(3%) 20 mg
(4%) 166 mg
(0%) 2 mg
(1%) 0.07 mg
Link to USDA Database entry
* μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams
* IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Tangerines are a good source of vitamin C , folate , and
beta-carotene . They also contain some potassium ; magnesium ;
vitamins B1 , B2 , and B3 ; and the compounds lutein and zeaxanthin .
Tangerine oil, like all citrus oils, has limonene as its major
constituent, but also alpha-pinene , myrcene , gamma-terpinene ,
citronellal , linalool , neral , neryl acetate , geranyl acetate ,
geraniol , thymol , and carvone .
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "tangerine" was
originally an adjective meaning "Of or pertaining to, or native of
Tangier , a seaport in
Morocco , on the
Strait of Gibraltar " and "a
native of Tangier." The OED cites this usage from Addison 's The
Tatler in 1710 with similar uses from the 1800s. The adjective was
applied to the fruit, once known scientifically as "
var. tangeriana" which grew in the region of Tangiers. This usage
appears in the 1800s In
Australia the fruit is known as a Mandarin .
* ^ "
Citrus tangerina Yu.Tanaka — The Plant List".
* ^ "Home : Oxford English Dictionary". oed.com.
* ^ A B "New universal mitochondrial PCR markers reveal new
information on maternal citrus phylogeny". Tree Genetics. 7: 49–61.
doi :10.1007/s11295-010-0314-x .
* ^ "Synonyms of C. reticulata at The Plant List".
* ^ A.H. Krezdorn; Jules Janick. "Classification of Citrus" (PDF).
* ^ Tshering Penjor; Masashi Yamamoto; Miki Uehara; Manami Ide;
Natsumi Matsumoto; Ryoji Matsumoto; Yukio Nagano (2013-04-25).
"Phylogenetic Relationships of
Citrus and Its Relatives Based on matK
Gene Sequences". PLoS ONE. 8: e62574. PMC 3636227 . PMID 23638116 .
doi :10.1371/journal.pone.0062574 .
* ^ A B Commernet, 2011. "20-13.0061. Sunburst Tangerines;
Classification and Standards, 20-13. Market Classification, Maturity
Standards And Processing Or Packing Restrictions For Hybrids, D20.
Departmental, 20. Department of Citrus,
Florida Administrative Code".
State of Florida. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
* ^ A B Larry K. Jackson & Stephen H. Futch. "HS178/CH073: Robinson
Tangerine". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
* ^ Pittman & Davis (1999-02-22). "Pittman & Davis – Premium
Fruit Gifts – Why Are Tangerines So Tangy?".
Pittmandavis.com. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
* ^ David Karp (2011-01-28). "Market Watch: The wild and elusive
Dancy". LA Times. Retrieved 2015-07-19.
* ^ A B http://www.citrusvariety.ucr.edu/citrus/dancy.html
* ^ Larry K. Jackson & Stephen H. Futch. "HS169/CH074: Dancy
* ^ "Satsuma cultivars: The best and the worst". AL.com. Retrieved
14 May 2015.
* ^ Barkley, NA; Roose, ML; Krueger, RR; Federici, CT. "Assessing
genetic diversity and population structure in a citrus germplasm
collection utilizing simple sequence repeat markers (SSRs)".
Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 112: 1519–1531. PMID 16699791 .
doi :10.1007/s00122-006-0255-9 .
* ^ http://www.slowfoodusa.org/ark-item/dancy-tangerine
* ^ "HS174/CH078: Murcott (Honey Tangerine)". Edis.ifas.ufl.edu.
* ^ "HS168/CH079: Sunburst Tangerine". Edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Retrieved
* ^ Larry K. Jackson & Stephen H. Futch. "HS173/CH075: Fallglo
Tangerine". Retrieved 14 May 2015.
* ^ Susanna Lyle (20 March 2006).
Fruit & nuts: a comprehensive
guide to the cultivation, uses and health benefits of over 300
food-producing plants. Timber Press. p. 145. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
* ^ . See the Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition, 1989.