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The TANAKH (/tɑːˈnɑːx/ ; Hebrew : תַּנַ"ךְ, pronounced or ; also _Tenakh_, _Tenak_, _Tanach_), also called the _ Mikra _ or Hebrew Bible , is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament . These texts are composed mainly in Biblical Hebrew , with some passages in Biblical Aramaic (in the books of Daniel , Ezra and a few others). The traditional Hebrew text is known as the Masoretic Text . The Tanakh consists of twenty-four books.
_Tanakh_ is an acronym of the first Hebrew letter of each of the Masoretic Text's three traditional subdivisions: Torah ("Teaching", also known as the Five Books of Moses), Nevi\'im ("Prophets") and Ketuvim ("Writings")—hence TaNaKh. The name _Mikra_ (מקרא), meaning "that which is read", is another Hebrew word for the _Tanakh_. The books of the Tanakh were passed on by each generation and, according to rabbinic tradition were accompanied by an oral tradition, called the Oral Torah .
* 1 Terminology * 2 Development and codification * 3 Language and pronunciation
* 4 Books of the Tanakh
* 4.1 Torah * 4.2 Nevi\'im
* 4.3 Ketuvim
* 4.3.1 Poetic books * 4.3.2 Five scrolls (_Hamesh Megillot_) * 4.3.3 Other books * 4.3.4 Order
* 5 Translations * 6 Jewish commentaries * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links
The three-part division reflected in the acronym "Tanakh" is well attested in literature of the Rabbinic period . During that period, however, "Tanakh" was not used. Instead, the proper title was _Mikra_ (or _Miqra_, מקרא, meaning "reading" or "that which is read") because the biblical texts were read publicly. _Mikra_ continues to be used in Hebrew to this day, alongside Tanakh, to refer to the Hebrew scriptures. In modern spoken Hebrew , they are interchangeable.
DEVELOPMENT AND CODIFICATION
Main article: Development of the Hebrew Bible canon
There is no scholarly consensus as to when the Hebrew Bible canon was fixed: some scholars argue that it was fixed by the Hasmonean dynasty , while others argue it was not fixed until the second century CE or even later.
The twenty-four book canon is mentioned in the Midrash Koheleth 12:12: _Whoever brings together in his house more than twenty four books brings confusion_.
LANGUAGE AND PRONUNCIATION
The original writing system of the Hebrew text was an abjad : consonants written with some applied vowel letters (_"matres lectionis "_). During the early Middle Ages scholars known as the Masoretes created a single formalized system of vocalization . This was chiefly done by Aaron ben Moses ben Asher , in the Tiberias school, based on the oral tradition for reading the Tanakh, hence the name Tiberian vocalization . It also included some innovations of Ben Naftali and the Babylonian exiles . Despite the comparatively late process of codification, some traditional sources and some Orthodox Jews hold the pronunciation and cantillation to derive from the revelation at Sinai , since it is impossible to read the original text without pronunciations and cantillation pauses. The combination of a text (מקרא _mikra_), pronunciation (ניקוד _niqqud_) and cantillation (טעמים _te`amim_) enable the reader to understand both the simple meaning and the nuances in sentence flow of the text.
BOOKS OF THE TANAKH
Complete set of scrolls, constituting the entire Tanakh.
The Tanakh consists of twenty-four books: it counts as one book each Samuel, Kings, Chronicles and Ezra–Nehemiah and counts the Twelve Minor Prophets (תרי עשר) as a single book. In Hebrew, the books are often referred to by their prominent first word(s) .
Main article: Torah
The Torah (תּוֹרָה, literally "teaching"), also known as the Pentateuch , or as the "Five Books of Moses". Printed versions (rather than scrolls) of the Torah are often called _Chamisha Chumshei Torah_ (חמישה חומשי תורה "five fifth-sections of the Torah") and informally a _Chumash _.
* Bereshit (בְּרֵאשִׁית, literally "In the beginning")—Genesis * Shemot (שִׁמוֹת, literally "Names")—Exodus * Vayikra (ויקרא, literally "And He called")— Leviticus * Bəmidbar (במדבר, literally "In the desert ")—Numbers * Devarim (דברים, literally "Things" or "Words")— Deuteronomy
BOOKS OF NEVI\\'IM
* Joshua * Judges * Samuel * Kings
LATTER PROPHETS (MAJOR)
* Isaiah * Jeremiah * Ezekiel
LATTER PROPHETS (TWELVE MINOR)
* Hosea * Joel * Amos * Obadiah * Jonah * Micah * Nahum * Habakkuk * Zephaniah * Haggai * Zechariah * Malachi
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Main article: Nevi\'im
_Nevi'im_ (Hebrew : נְבִיאִים _Nəḇî'îm_, "Prophets") is the second main division of the Tanakh, between the Torah and Ketuvim . It contains two sub-groups, the Former Prophets (_ Nevi'im Rishonim_ נביאים ראשונים, the narrative books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings) and the Latter Prophets (_Nevi'im Aharonim_ נביאים אחרונים, the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel and the Twelve Minor Prophets ). This division includes the books which cover the time from the entrance of the Israelites into the Land of Israel until the Babylonian captivity of Judah (the "period of prophecy"). Their distribution is not chronological, but substantive.
* (יְהוֹשֻעַ / Yĕhôshúa‘)— Joshua * (שופטים / Shophtim)—Judges * (שְׁמוּאֵל / Shmû’ēl)—Samuel * (מלכים / M'lakhim)—Kings * (יְשַׁעְיָהוּ / Yĕsha‘ăyāhû)—Isaiah * (יִרְמְיָהוּ / Yirmyāhû)—Jeremiah * (יְחֶזְקֵיאל / Yĕkhezqiēl)—Ezekiel
The Twelve Minor Prophets (תרי עשר, _Trei Asar_, "The Twelve") are considered one book.
* (הוֹשֵׁעַ / Hôshēa‘)—Hosea * (יוֹאֵל / Yô’ēl)—Joel * (עָמוֹס / ‘Āmôs)—Amos * (עֹבַדְיָה / ‘Ōvadhyāh)—Obadiah * (יוֹנָה / Yônāh)—Jonah * (מִיכָה / Mîkhāh)—Micah * (נַחוּם / Nakḥûm)—Nahum * (חֲבַקּוּק /Khăvhakûk)—Habakkuk * (צְפַנְיָה / Tsĕphanyāh)—Zephaniah * (חַגַּי / Khaggai)—Haggai * (זְכַרְיָה / Zkharyāh)—Zechariah * (מַלְאָכִי / Mal’ākhî)—Malachi
Main article: Ketuvim
BOOKS OF THE KETUVIM
THREE POETIC BOOKS
* Psalms * Proverbs * Job
FIVE _MEGILLOT_ (SCROLLS)
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_Ketuvim_ (כְּתוּבִים, "Writings") consists of eleven books, described below.
In masoretic manuscripts (and some printed editions), Psalms, Proverbs and Job are presented in a special two-column form emphasizing the parallel stichs in the verses, which are a function of their poetry . Collectively, these three books are known as _Sifrei Emet_ (an acronym of the titles in Hebrew, איוב, משלי, תהלים yields _Emet_ אמ"ת, which is also the Hebrew for "truth ").
These three books are also the only ones in Tanakh with a special system of cantillation notes that are designed to emphasize parallel stichs within verses. However, the beginning and end of the book of Job are in the normal prose system.
Five Scrolls (_Hamesh Megillot_)
The five relatively short books of the Song of Songs , the Book of Ruth , the Book of Lamentations , Ecclesiastes and the Book of Esther are collectively known as the _Hamesh Megillot_ ( Five Megillot ). These are the latest books collected and designated as "authoritative" in the Jewish canon, with the latest parts having dates ranging into the 2nd century BCE. These scrolls are traditionally read over the course of the year in many Jewish communities. The list below presents them in the order they are read in the synagogue on holidays, beginning with the Song of Solomon at Passover .
Besides the three poetic books and the five scrolls, the remaining books in Ketuvim are Daniel , Ezra–Nehemiah and Chronicles. Although there is no formal grouping for these books in the Jewish tradition, they nevertheless share a number of distinguishing characteristics.
* Their narratives all openly describe relatively late events (i.e. the Babylonian captivity and the subsequent restoration of Zion). * The Talmudic tradition ascribes late authorship to all of them. * Two of them (Daniel and Ezra) are the only books in Tanakh with significant portions in Aramaic .
The following list presents the books of Ketuvim in the order they appear in most printed editions. It also divides them into three subgroups based on the distinctiveness of _Sifrei Emet_ and _Hamesh Megillot_.
The three poetic books (_Sifrei Emet_)
The Five Megillot (_Hamesh Megillot_). These books are read aloud in the synagogue on particular occasions, the occasion listed below in parenthesis.
* Shīr Hashīrīm ( Song of Songs ) or (Song of Solomon) שִׁיר הַשִׁירִים ( Passover ) * Rūth ( Book of Ruth ) רוּת ( Shavuot ) * Eikhah (Lamentations ) איכה (Tisha B\'Av ) * Qōheleth ( Ecclesiastes ) קהלת ( Sukkot ) * Estēr ( Book of Esther ) אֶסְתֵר ( Purim )
The Jewish textual tradition never finalized the order of the books in Ketuvim. The Babylonian Talmud ( Bava Batra 14b — 15a) gives their order as Ruth, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Lamentations of Jeremiah, Daniel, Scroll of Esther, Ezra, Chronicles.
In Tiberian Masoretic codices , including the Aleppo Codex and the Leningrad Codex , and often in old Spanish manuscripts as well, the order is Chronicles, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ruth, Song of Solomon, Ecclesiastes, Lamentations of Jeremiah, Esther, Daniel, Ezra.
* _The Holy Scriptures According to the Masoretic Text: A New Translation with the aid of Previous Versions border:solid #aaa 1px">
* Judaism portal
* 613 mitzvot , formal list of Jewish 613 commandments * 929: Tanakh B\'yachad * Dead Sea Scrolls#Biblical books found * Jewish English Bible translations * JPS Tanakh * Mikraot Gedolot * Non-canonical books referenced in the Bible * Rashi
* ^ "Tanach". _Random House Webster\'s Unabridged Dictionary _. * ^ "Mikra\'ot Gedolot". * ^ BIBLICAL STUDIES Mikra: Text, Translation, Reading and Interpretation. Norton Irish Theological Quarterly.2007; 72: 305-306 * ^ Davies, Philip R. (2001). "The Jewish Scriptural Canon in Cultural Perspective". In McDonald, Lee Martin; Sanders, James A. _The Canon Debate_. Baker Academic. p. PT66. ISBN 978-1-4412-4163-4 . "With many other scholars, I conclude that the fixing of a canonical list was almost certainly the achievement of the Hasmonean dynasty." * ^ McDonald & Sanders, _The Canon Debate_, 2002, page 5, cited are Neusner's _ Judaism and Christianity in the Age of Constantine_, pages 128–145, and _ Midrash in Context: Exegesis in Formative Judaism_, pages 1–22. * ^ ( Bava Batra 14b-15a, Rashi to Megillah 3a, 14a) * ^ Midrash Qoheleth 12:12 * ^ Kelley, Page H., _The Masorah of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia_, Eerdmans, 1998, ISBN 0-8028-4363-8 , p. 20 * ^ John Gill (1767). _A Dissertation Concerning the Antiquity of the Hebrew Language: Letters, Vowel-points, and Accents_. G. Keith. pp. 136–137. also pages 250–255
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