The Info List - Tamilakam

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TAMILAKAM refers to the geographical region inhabited by the ancient Tamil people . Tamilakam
covered today Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
, Kerala
, Puducherry
, Lakshadweep
and southern parts of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Karnataka
. Traditional accounts and Tholkāppiyam referred these territories as a single cultural area, where Tamil was the natural language and culture of all people. The ancient Tamil country was divided into kingdoms. The best known among them were the Cheras , Cholas , Pandyans and Pallavas . Archaeological data from protohistoric Kerala
and Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
"appears to challenge the notion of a separate culture region". During the Sangam period
Sangam period
, Tamil culture began to spread outside Tamilakam. Ancient Tamil settlements were also found in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
( Sri Lankan Tamils ) and the Maldives (Giravarus ).

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Tamil history

* History of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
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Sri Lanka
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in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
* Hinduism
in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
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amongst Tamils * Tamil Jain * Tamil Muslim * Christianity in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu


* Politics of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
* Dravidian Nationalism * Tamil Nationalism * Sri Lankan Tamil nationalism

* v * t * e

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* Indus Valley Civilisation
Indus Valley Civilisation
* Dravidian homeland * Dravida Kingdom * Kumari Kandam * Maldivian folklore


* History of South India * Ancient history of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka

------------------------- Dravidian dynasties

* Chola dynasty * Chera dynasty * Pandyan dynasty * Satavahana dynasty * Rashtrakuta dynasty * Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
* Pallava
dynasty * Kakatiya dynasty * Hoysala dynasty * Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
* Nayak dynasty


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* Dravidian folk religion * Hinduism
* Jainism
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* South India
South India
(Dravida) * South Asia
South Asia


* Dravidian peoples * Brahui people * Gondi people * Kannadigas * Kodavas * Malayalis * Telugus * Tamils * Tuluvas * Irulas * Nagas (Extinct) * Giraavarus (Extinct) * Cholanaikkans * Khonds * Kodavas * Kurukhs * Paniyas * Malar * Soligas * Koragas


* Kannada language rights * Telugu Desam Party * Tamil nationalism * Dravidian parties
Dravidian parties
* Dravida Nadu
Dravida Nadu

Portal:Dravidian civilizations

* v * t * e

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* Tamiḻakam * Chronology of Tamil history * List of Tamil monarchs

Sangam period
Sangam period

* Sources * Three Crowned Kings * Education * Legal system * Naming conventions * Government * Economy * Society * Religion * Music * Early Pandyas * Early Cheras * Early Cholas
Early Cholas
* Velirs

Medieval history

* Pallava
Empire * Pandya Empire * Chola Empire * Chera Kingdom * Madurai Sultanate * Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
* Madurai Nayaks * Tanjore Nayaks * Kalahasti Nayaks * Gingee Nayaks * Thondaiman Kingdom

* v * t * e

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Main Megalithic culture

Maritime contacts Sangam period
Sangam period
Tamilakam Cheras Ays Ezhil Malai Confluence of religions Venad - Kingdom of Quilon Calicut Kolattunadu Cochin Minor principalities Portuguese period Dutch period Rise of Travancore

Mysorean interlude British Period Battle of Quilon Communism in Kerala
Unification of Kerala

Other topics Geography

Economy Architecture Forts

* v * t * e

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Ancient era

* Ravana
* Ancient clans of Lanka * Nakar * Nainativu * Tissamaharama inscription * Pancha Ishwarams * Early Jaffna

Middle Ages

* Chola Era * Jaffna Kingdom * Aryacakravarti * Vannimai * Vanniar * Portuguese conquest


* Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
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Dutch Ceylon
* Yalpana Vaipava Malai * British Ceylon * Colebrooke-Cameron * American Ceylon Mission * Wesleyan Methodist Mission * Jaffna Youth Congress * Donoughmore Commission

Post independence

* Soulbury Commission * Nationalism * Colonisation * Sinhala Only Act
Sinhala Only Act
* Riots * 1954 pact * 1957 Pact * 1964 pact * 1974 pact * Standardization * Vaddukoddai Resolution * Burning of Jaffna library * Black July

Civil war

* Origins * Militancy * Tamil Eelam * LTTE * Diaspora * Thimpu principles * Indo- Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Accord * ISGA * War crimes * IDP camps * UN Panel * LLRC

* History of Eastern Tamils

* Tamil Eelam portal * Tamil people portal * Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka

* v * t * e


* 1 Etymology

* 1.1 Modern use

* 2 Sources

* 3 Territory and geographical boundaries

* 3.1 Classical era territory * 3.2 Tamiḻakam kingdoms * 3.3 Nadus of Tamiḻakam * 3.4 Nadus outside Tamiḻakam

* 4 Culture

* 4.1 Cultural unity * 4.2 Cultural influence

* 5 Religion

* 6 The Nagas of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka

* 6.1 Naga Nadu

* 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References

* 10 Sources

* 10.1 Printed sources * 10.2 Web-sources


"Tamiḻakam" is a portmanteau of a word and suffix from the Tamil language , namely Tamiḻ and -akam . It can be roughly translated as the "homeland of the Tamils ". According to Kamil Zvelebil , the term seems to be the most ancient term used to designate Tamil territory in the Indian subcontinent. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea referred it as Damirica.


The word Tamilakam
is today used as synonym for Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu


Until recently, the interpretation and understanding of India's past has largely been based on textual sources. According to Abraham,

"In the southern portion of the peninsula – the region that corresponds roughly to the present-day states of Kerala
and Tamil Nadu – the existence of a large documentary corpus, both indigenous and foreign, and the occurrence of inscribed coins and cave inscriptions, have given rise to the idea of a separate ethnic and linguistic region known as "Tamiḻakam"."

The role of archaeology has often been secondary, as "a source of correlates for information gleaned from the texts", but challenges existing notions of Tamiḻakam which are primarily based on textual sources.



See also: Sangam literature and Tolkāppiyam

The second or first century BCE Tamil chronicle, the Tholkāppiyam , a work on the grammar of the Tamil language
Tamil language
and the earliest known extant work of Tamil literature , contains several references to Centamil nilam, which is translated as the "land of refined Tamils". According to the Tholkāppiyam, the limits of Tamiḻakam were between the hills of Venkatam in the north and Kanyakumari
in the south. Tholkappiar, the writer of the Tholkāppiyam, doesn't mention a Tamil part of Sri Lanka.

In the Tholkāppiyam, during this period of ancient Tamil country, there isn't any distinction between Malayalam
and Tamil, conclusively said, Malayalam
hasn't been in existence as a separate language and although it's said that the Tamil, was naturally spoken from the Eastern sea to the Western sea.


Main article: History of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu

Approximately during the period between 350 BCE to 200 CE, Tamiḻakam was ruled by the three Tamil dynasties: the Chola dynasty , the Pandyan dynasty and the Chera dynasty . There were also a few independent chieftains, the Velirs . During the time of the Maurya Empire in North India (c. 4th century BCE – 3rd century BCE) the Cheras, the Pandyas and the Cholas were in a late megalithic phase on the western coast of Tamiḻakam. The earliest datable references to the Tamil kingdoms are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE during the time of the Maurya Empire.

The Pandyan dynasty ruled parts of South India
South India
until the early 17th century. The heartland of the Pandyas was the fertile valley of the Vaigai River . They initially ruled their country from Korkai , a seaport on the southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula, and in later times moved to Madurai
. The Chola dynasty ruled from before the Sangam period
Sangam period
(3rd century BCE) until the 13th century in central Tamil Nadu. The heartland of the Cholas was the fertile valley of the Kaveri
. The Chera dynasty ruled from before the Sangam period
Sangam period
(3rd century) until the 12th century over an area corresponding to modern-day western Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and Kerala

The Vealirs (Tamil : வேளிர் Vēḷir) were minor dynastic kings and aristocratic chieftains in Tamiḻakam in the early historic period of South India
South India


Tamiḻakam was divided into political regions called Perunadu or "Great country", "nadu" means country.

There were three important political regions which were Chera Nadu , Chola Nadu and Pandya Nadu. Along these three there were two more political regions of Athiyaman Nadu (Sathyaputha) and Thamirabharani Nadu (Then Paandi) which were later on absorbed into Chera resp. Pandya Nadu by 3rd century BCE. Thondai Nadu which was under Chola Nadu, later emerged as independent Pallava
Nadu by 6th century ADE.

Again Tamilakam
resp. Perunadus was resp. were divided into 12 socio-geographical regions called Nadu or "country". Each of this Nadu had their own dialect of Tamil.

* Thenpandi Nadu * Panri Nadu * Kuda nadu * Punal nadu * Puzhinadu * Venad * Aruva nadu * Kakkanad * Kuttanadu * Aruva Vadathalai nadu * Sida nadu * Malai Nadu


Some other Nadus were also mentioned in Tamil literatures which weren't part of Tamilakam, but the countries traded with Tamils in ancient times. Tamil speaking lands:

* Eela Nadu (Eelam) * Naga Nadu or Yazh Kuthanadu (Jaffna Peninsula) * Vanni Nadu (Vanni region)


* Vengi Nadu * Chavaka Nadu (Java) * Kadara Nadu (Kedah) * Kalinga Nadu * Singhala Nadu * Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
(Land of the Tulu people ) * Vadugu Nadu * Kannada Nadu (Land of Kannada people ) * Erumai Nadu * Telunka Nadu (Land of Telugu people ) * Kolla Nadu * Vanka Nadu * Magadha
Nadu * Kucala Nadu * Konkana Nadu * Kampocha Nadu (Cambodia) * Palantivu Nadu (Maldives) * Kupaka Nadu * Marattha Nadu * Vatuka Nadu * Tinmaitivu (Andaman and Nicobar Islands)



Thapar mentions the existence of a common language of the Dravidian group:

Ashoka in his inscription refers to the peoples of South India
South India
as the Cholas, Cheras, Pandyas and Satiyaputras - the crucible of the culture of Tamiḻakam - called thus from the predominant language of the Dravidian group at the time, Tamil.

Yet, also according to Abraham,

... the archaeological data from protohistoric Kerala
and Tamil Nadu is not so clear-cut and, in fact, appears to challenge the very notion of a separate culture region.


See also: Sri Lankan Tamils and Sri Lankan Civil War

With the advent of the early historical period in South India
South India
and the ascent of the three Tamil kingdoms in South India
South India
in the 3rd century BCE, Tamil culture began to spread outside Tamiḻakam. In the 3rd century BCE, the first Tamil settlers arrived in Sri Lanka. The Annaicoddai seal , dated to the 3rd century BCE, contains a bilingual inscription in Tamil-Brahmi . Excavations in the area of Tissamaharama in southern Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
have unearthed locally issued coins produced between the second century BCE and the second century CE, some of which carry local Tamil personal names written in early Tamil letters, which suggest that local Tamil merchants were present and actively involved in trade along the southern coast of Sri Lanka by the late classical period. Around 237 BCE, "two adventurers from southern India" established the first Tamil rule at Sri Lanka. In 145 BCE Elara, a Chola general or prince known as Ellāḷaṉ took over the throne at Anuradhapura
and ruled for forty-four years. Dutugamunu
, a Sinhalese , started a war against him, defeated him, and took over the throne.


Jains , Buddhists and Hindus have coexisted in Tamil country for at least as early as the second century BCE.


... some scholars suggest that the Yakshas and Nagas in the prehistorical period dating back to 1000 BCE".

The Yakshas and the Nagas are depicted in the Pali
epic Mahavamsa as the early inhabitants of the island when Vijaya arrived in the island in 500 B.C. According to Manogaran, some scholars also "have postulated that the Yakshas and Nagas are the aboriginal tribes of Sri Lanka". Holt concludes that they were not Tamils, but a distinct group. Other scholars consider the Nagas as a Tamil group due to their snake worshipping which is a dravidian custom. The Naga custom is still visible in Sri Lankan Tamil Hindu


Main article: Naga people (Lanka)

The 2nd century AD Tamil epic Manimekalai speaks of the prosperous Naga Nadu or "land of Nagas ", and of "the great Naga king Valai Vanan and his wife, the queen Vacchamayilai , who ruled the prosperous Naga Nadu with great splendor." According to the Manimekalai, this region had a rich dravidian Buddhist tradition.


* History of Kerala
* History of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu


* ^ Thapar mentions the existence of a common language of the Dravidian group: "Ashoka in his inscription refers to the peoples of South India
South India
as the Cholas, Cheras, Pandyas and Satiyaputras - the crucible of the CULTURE OF TAMILAKAM - called thus from the predominant language of the Dravidian group at the time, Tamil". * ^ See, for example, Kanakasabhai. * ^ Various contemporary sources also refer to the Tolkāppiyam, and mention the hills of Venkatam and Cape Comorin
Cape Comorin
in the south as the historical limits of Tamiḻakam. Other sources mention somewhat different limits, or use a different wording. * ^ According to A. Rajayyan, it is possible that the Tolkappiar and Sikiandiyar were "not aware of the Tamil part of the island of Lanka." * ^ An archaeological team led by K.Indrapala of the University of Jaffna excavated a megalithic burial complex at Anaikoddai in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka. In one of the burials, a metal seal was found assigned by the excavators to c. the 3rd century BCE. * ^ Manogaran notes: "... there is general consensus among historians that Sinhalese settlements preceded Tamil settlements on the island by a few centuries." Manogaran also notes: "... we can only speculate that the ancestors of the present-day Tamils were already in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
when the Sinhalese began colonizing the island." * ^ John Holt writes that "in the early Sri Lankan chronicles as well as in the early Tamil literary works the Nagas appear as a distinct group". Holt also writes that "the adoption of the Tamil language was helping the Nagas in the Tamil chiefdoms to be assimilated into the major ethnic group there". * ^ According to the Manimekalai, their daughter, the princess Pilli Valai, had a liaison at Nainativu islet with the early Chola king Killivalavan. The Manimekalai is the only source for this information; no other sources mention Killivalavan. Out of this union was born Prince Tondai Eelam Thiraiyar, a supposedly early progenitor of the Pallava
Dynasty who were the rulers of Tondai Nadu until the 9th century CE.


* ^ Kanakasabhai, V (1997). The Tamils Eighteen Hundred Years Ago. Asian Educational Services. p. 10. ISBN 8120601505 . * ^ A B Thapar 2004 , p. 229. * ^ A B Kanakasabhai 1997 , p. 10. * ^ A B C D E F G H Abraham 2003 . * ^ A B C Singh 2009 , p. 384. * ^ A B Zvelebil 1992 , p. xi. * ^ The Ganges in Myth and History, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 01.01.2001, p.93 * ^ Zvelebil 1973 . * ^ A B Aiyaṅgār 1994 , p. 6. * ^ A B Smith 1999 , p. 438. * ^ A B Rajayyan 2005 , p. 9. * ^ A B Hanumanthan 1979 . * ^ A B Aiyangar 1986 , p. 9. * ^ Ramaswamy 1997 , p. 89. * ^ Ramaswamy 2007 , p. xxxix. * ^ Hikosaka, Shu (1989). Buddhism
in Tamilnadu: a new perspective - Shu Hikosaka, Institute of Asian Studies (Madras, India) - Google Books. page 3 * ^ Sesha Iyengar, T. R (1982). Dravidian India - T.R. Sesha Iyengar - Google Books. ISBN 9788120601352 . page 55 * ^ Madhava Menon, T (2000). A handbook of Kerala. p. 87. ISBN 9788185692272 . * ^ Journal of Tamil Studies - International Association of Tamil Research, International Institute of Tamil Studies - Google Books. 1996. page 191 * ^ Pillay, Kolappa Pillay Kanakasabhapathi (1963). South India
South India
and Ceylon - Kolappa Pillay Kanakasabhapathi Pillay - Google Books. page 40 * ^ Raghava Aiyangar, M (1948). Some aspects of Kerala
and Tamil literature - M. Raghava Aiyangar - Google Books. page 13 * ^ Rao, Saligrama Krishna Ramachandra (1993). The hill-shrine of Veṅgaḍam: art, architecture, and āgama of Tirumala temple - Saligrama Krishna Ramachandra Rao, Kalpatharu Research Academy - Google Books. pg14 * ^ Dave, Jayantakr̥ṣṇa Harikr̥ṣṇa (1959). Immortal India - Jayantakr̥ṣṇa Harikr̥ṣṇa Dave - Google Books. page 173 * ^ Indo-Iranian journal - Google Books. 1973. page 111 * ^ Mahalingam, T. V (1967). Early South Indian paleography - T. V. Mahalingam - Google Books. page 114 * ^ Chitty, Simon Casie (1988-01-01). The Castes, Customs, Manners and Literature of the Tamils - Simon Casie Chitty - Google Books. ISBN 9788120604094 . page 3 * ^ Singh. The Pearson Indian History Manual for the UPSC Civil Services Preliminary ... - Singh - Google Books. ISBN 9788131717530 . page 147 * ^ Sastri, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta (1972). Sangam literature: its cults and cultures. page 13 * ^ Ramaswami Sastri, K. S (1967). The Tamils and their culture - K. S. Ramaswami Sastri - Google Books. page3 * ^ Shashi, S. S (1996). Encyclopaedia Indica: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh
- S. S. Shashi - Google Books. ISBN 9788170418597 . page 6 * ^ Subramanian, K. R (1929). Origin of Saivism and Its History in the Tamil Land. ISBN 9788120601444 . page 16 * ^ Manickavasagom Pillai, M. E (1970). Culture of the ancient Cheras: a study in cultural reconstruction - M. E. Manickavasagom Pillai - Google Books. page 16 * ^ The surnames of the Caṅkam age: literary & tribal - M. A. Dorai Rangaswamy, Mor̲appākkam Appācāmi Turai Araṅkacāmi - Google Books. page 95 * ^ Buddhism
in Kerala
- P. C. Alexander - Google Books. page 2 * ^ Meenakshi, Kuppuswamy (1997). Tolkāppiyam and Astadhyayi - K. Meenakshi, International Institute of Tamil Studies - Google Books. page 7 * ^ Machenry, Robert (1992). The new encyclopaedia Britannica: in 32 vol. Macropaedia, India - Ireland - Robert MacHenry - Google Books. ISBN 9780852295533 . page 45 * ^ Purnalingam Pillai, M. S (1904). A Primer of Tamil Literature - M. S. Purnalingam Pillai - Google Books. page 6 * ^ Ahmad, Aijazuddin (2009). Geography of the South Asian Subcontinent: A Critical Approach - Aijazuddin Ahmad - Google Books. ISBN 9788180695681 . page 88 * ^ A B Indrapala 1969 . * ^ Rajayyan 2005 . * ^ Mahadevan, Iravatham (2009). "Meluhha and Agastya : Alpha and Omega of the Indus Script" (PDF). Chennai, India. p. 16. The Ventar - Velir - Vellalar groups constituted the ruling and land-owning classes in the Tamil country since the beginning of recorded history * ^ Fairservis, Walter Ashlin (1992) . The Harappan civilization and its writing. A model for the decipherment of the Indus Script. Oxford & IBH. pp. 52–53. ISBN 978-81-204-0491-5 . * ^ A B Iyengar, P. T. Srinivasa (1929-01-01). History of the Tamils from the Earliest Times to 600 A.D. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 9788120601451 . * ^ Ponnumuthan, Sylvister (1996). The Spirituality of Basic Ecclesial Communities in the Socio-Religious Context of Trivandrum/Kerala, India. Gregorian&Biblical BookShop. * ^ S. Soundararajan (1991). Ancient Tamil country: its social and economic structure. Navrang. p. 30. * ^ K. Lakshminarasimhan; Muthuswamy Hariharan; Sharada Gopalam (1991). Madhura kala: silver jubilee commemoration volume. CBH Publications. p. 141. * ^ Kanakasabhai, V. (1904-01-01). The Tamils Eighteen Hundred Years Ago. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 9788120601505 . * ^ History of the Tamils from the Earliest Times to 600 A.D., P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar, Asian Educational Services 1929, p.151 * ^ Sri Varadarajaswami Temple, Kanchi: A Study of Its History, Art and Architecture, K.V. Raman Abhinav Publications, 01.06.2003, p.17 * ^ Census of India, 1961: India, India. Office of the Registrar General Manager of Publications. * ^ A B The Sri Lanka
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Reader: History, Culture, Politics, By John Holt, Duke University Press, 13 April 2011 see (Tamil Nadus in Rajarata p.85.) * ^ Ancient India: Collected Essays on the Literary and Political History of Southern India, By Sakkottai Krishnaswami Aiyangar, Asian Educational Services 1911, p.121. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics: IJDL. Department of Linguistics, University of Kerala. 2001-01-01. * ^ Seminar on Social and Cultural History of Salem District, Institute of Kongu Studies, 1982, p.7 * ^ Government of India (1908). "The Andaman and Nicobar Islands: Local Gazetteer". Superintendent of Government Printing, Calcutta. ... In the great Tanjore inscription of 1050 AD, the Andamans are mentioned under a translated name along with the Nicobars, as NAKKAVARAM or land of the naked people. * ^ Wenzlhuemer 2008 , p. 19-20. * ^ A B Mahadevan 2002 . * ^ Mahadevan, I. "Ancient Tamil coins from Sri Lanka", pp. 152–154 * ^ Bopearachchi, O. "Ancient Sri Lanka
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and Tamil Nadu", pp. 546–549 * ^ A B C D Reddy 2003 , p. 45. * ^ "The Five Kings - MAHASIVA, SURATISSA, ELARA, ASELA, SENA and GUTTIKA". mahavamsa.org. Retrieved 23 September 2014. * ^ Deegalle 2006 , p. 30. * ^ John E. Cort 1998 , p. 187. * ^ A B Manogaran 1987 , p. 21. * ^ The Story of Vijaya and Kuveni * ^ Manogaran 1987 , p. 21-22. * ^ Manogaran 1987 , p. 22. * ^ A B Holt 2011 , p. 73. * ^ Holt 2011 , p. 74. * ^ "Early Tamils of Ilangai". Scribd. Retrieved 2016-05-09. * ^ "Online edition of Sunday Observer - Business". www.sundayobserver.lk. Retrieved 2016-05-09. * ^ "The Untold Story of Ancient Tamils in Sri Lanka" (PDF). C. Manokaran. Retrieved 21 July 2013.



* Abraham, Shinu (2003). "Chera, Chola, Pandya: using archaeological evidence to identify the Tamil kingdoms of early historic South India". Asian Perspectives. 42 (2): 207. doi :10.1353/asi.2003.0031 * John E. Cort , ed. (1998), Open Boundaries: Jain
Communities and Cultures in Indian History, SUNY Press
SUNY Press
, ISBN 0-7914-3785-X * Aiyangar, Muttusvami Srinivasa (1986). "Tamil studies: essays on the history of the Tamil people, language, religion, and literature". Asian Educational Services. Retrieved 24 April 2012 * Aiyaṅgār, Sākkoṭṭai Krishṇaswāmi (1994). Evolution of Hindu
Administrative Institutions in South India. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 978-81-206-0966-2 * Deegalle, Mahinda (2006). "Buddhism, Conflict and Violence in Modern Sri Lanka". Routledge * Hanumanthan, Krishnaswamy Ranaganathan (1979). "Untouchability: a historical study upto 1500 A.D. : with special reference to Tamil Nadu". Koodal Publishers * Holt, John (2011). "The Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Reader: History, Culture, Politics". Duke University Press * Indrapala, K. (1969). "Early Tamil settlements in Ceylon". Journal of the Ceylon branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1969, XIII:54 * Kanakasabhai, V (1997). The Tamils Eighteen Hundred Years Ago. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 8120601505 * Krishnan, Shankara (1999). Postcolonial Insecurities: India, Sri Lanka, and the Question of Nationhood. Univ Of Minnesota Press. p. 172. ISBN 0-8166-3330-4 * Mahadevan, Iravatham (2002). "Aryan or Dravidian or Neither? – A Study of Recent Attempts to Decipher the Indus Script (1995–2000)". Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies. 8 (1) * Manogaran, Chelvadurai (1987). "Ethnic Conflict and Reconciliation