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The Tamil calendar is a sidereal Hindu calendar
Hindu calendar
used in Tamil Nadu, India.[1][2] It is also used in Puducherry, and by the Tamil population in Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius
Mauritius
and Sri Lanka. Tamil Nadu farmers greatly refer to this. It is used today for cultural, religious and agricultural events,[3] with the Gregorian calendar largely used for official purposes both within and outside India. The Tamil calendar is based on the classical Hindu
Hindu
lunisolar calendar also used in Assam, West Bengal, Kerala, Manipur, Nepal, Odisha, Rajasthan and Punjab. There are several festivals based on the Tamil Hindu
Hindu
calendar. The Tamil New Year
Tamil New Year
follows the nirayanam vernal equinox[4] and generally falls on 14 April of the Gregorian year. 14 April marks the first day of the traditional Tamil calendar and this remains a public holiday in both Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and Sri Lanka. Tropical vernal equinox fall around 22 March, and adding 23 degrees of trepidation or oscillation to it, we get the Hindu
Hindu
sidereal or Nirayana Mesha Sankranti (Sun's transition into nirayana Aries). Hence, the Tamil calendar begins on the same date in April which is observed by most traditional calendars of the rest of India
India
- Assam, Bengal, Kerala, Odisha, Manipur, Karnataka, Punjab etc.[5] This also coincides with the traditional new year in Burma, Cambodia, Laos, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Nepal
Nepal
and Thailand. The 60-year cycle is also very ancient and is observed by most traditional calendars of India
India
and China, and is related to 5 revolutions of Jupiter
Jupiter
according to popular belief, or to 60-year orbit of Nakshatras (stars) as mentioned in Surya Siddhanta. The traditional Tamil year starts on 14 April 2018, Kaliyuga
Kaliyuga
5120. Vikrama and Shalivahana Saka eras are also used. There are several references in early Tamil literature to the April new year. Nakkirar, the author of the Nedunalvaadai writes in the 3rd century that the Sun travels from Mesha/Chitterai through 11 successive Raasis or signs of the zodiac.[6] Kūdalūr Kizhaar in the 3rd century refers to Mesha Raasi/Chitterai as the commencement of the year in the Puranaanooru.[7][8] The Tolkaapiyam is the oldest surviving Tamil grammar that divides the year into six seasons where Chitterai marks the start of the Ilavenil season or summer. The 8th century Silappadikaaram mentions the 12 Raasis or zodiac signs starting with Mesha/Chitterai.[9] The Manimekalai
Manimekalai
alludes to the Hindu
Hindu
solar calendar as we know it today. Adiyaarkunalaar, an early medieval commentator or Urai-asiriyar, mentions the 12 months of the Tamil Hindu calendar
Hindu calendar
with particular reference to Chitterai. There were subsequent inscriptional references in Pagan, Burma
Burma
dated to the 11th century CE and in Sukhothai, Thailand
Thailand
dated to the 14th century CE to South Indian, often Vaishnavite, courtiers who were tasked with defining the traditional calendar that began in mid-April.[10]

Contents

1 Week 2 Months 3 Seasons 4 Sixty-year cycle 5 Celebrations 6 Significance 7 Festivals 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Week[edit] The days of the Tamil Calendar
Calendar
relate to the celestial bodies in the solar system: Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn, in that order. The week starts with Sunday. This list compiles the days of the week in the Tamil calendar:

No. Kizhamai (Tamil) Weekday (Transliteration) Lord or Planet Gregorian Calendar
Calendar
equivalent

1. ஞாயிற்றுக்கிழமை Nyayar-kizhamai Sun
Sun
(ஞாயிறு) Sunday

2. திங்கட்கிழமை thingal-kizhamai Moon
Moon
(திங்கள்) Monday

3. செவ்வாய்க்கிழமை Sevvai-kizhamai Mars
Mars
(செவ்வாய், Red Planet) Tuesday

4. புதன்கிழமை bhudhan-kizhamai Mercury Wednesday

5. வியாழக்கிழமை vyalan-kizhamai Jupiter Thursday

6. வெள்ளிக்கிழமை Velli-kizhamai Venus Friday

7. சனிக்கிழமை sani-kizhamai Saturn Saturday

For Tamils, each day begins at the sun rise. Months[edit] The number of days in a month varies between 29 and 32. The following list compiles the months of the Tamil Calendar.

No. Month (Tamil) Month (Transliteration) Gregorian Calendar
Calendar
equivalent

01. சித்திரை Cittirai mid-April to mid-May

02. வைகாசி Vaikāsi mid-May to mid-June

03. ஆனி Āni mid-June to mid-July

04. ஆடி Ādi mid-July to mid-August

05. ஆவணி Āawaṇi mid-August to mid-September

06. புரட்டாசி Puraṭṭāsi mid-September to mid-October

07. ஐப்பசி Aippasi mid-October to mid-November

08. கார்த்திகை Kārttikai mid-November to mid-December

09. மார்கழி Mārkazhi mid-December to mid-January

10. தை Tai mid-January to mid-February

11. மாசி Māsi mid-February to mid-March

12. பங்குனி Paṅkuni mid-March to mid-April

Note: The Sanskrit month starts a few weeks ahead of the Tamil month since the Tamil calendar is a solar calendar while the Sanskrit calendar is a lunisolar calendar[11] BY:- Suganthi bevin nadar Seasons[edit] The Tamil year, in keeping with the old Indic calendar, is divided into six seasons, each of which lasts two months:

Season in Tamil English Transliteration English Translation Season in English Tamil Months Gregorian Months

இளவேனில் ila-venil Light warmth Spring chithirai, vaigāsi Mid Apr - Mid Jun

முதுவேனில் mudhu-venil Harsh warmth Summer āni, ādi Mid Jun - Mid Aug

கார் kaar Dark clouds, Rain Monsoon āvani, puratāci Mid Aug - Mid Oct

குளிர் kulir Chill / Cold Autumn aippasi, kārthigai Mid Oct - Mid Dec

முன்பனி mun-pani Early mist / dew Winter mārkazhi, tai Mid Dec - Mid Feb

பின்பனி pin-pani Late mist / dew Prevernal māsi, panguni Mid Feb - Mid Apr

Sixty-year cycle[edit] Further information: Samvatsara The 60-year cycle is common to both North and South Indian traditional calendars, with the same name and sequence of years. Its earliest reference is to be found in Surya Siddhanta, which Varahamihirar (550 CE) believed to be the most accurate of the then current theories of astronomy. However, in the Surya Siddhantic list, the first year was Vijaya and not Prabhava as currently used. There are some parallels in this sexagenary cycle with the Chinese calendar.[12][13][14] The Surya Siddhanta and other Indian classical texts on astronomy had some influence on the Chinese calendar[15] although it merits attention that the sexagenary cycle in China is itself very old. After the completion of sixty years, the calendar starts a new with the first year. This corresponds to the Hindu
Hindu
"century." The Vakya or Tirukannitha Panchangam (the traditional Tamil almanac) outlines this sequence. It is related to the position of the planets in the sky with respect to earth. It means that the two major planets Sani/Saturn (which takes 30 years to complete one cycle round the sun) and the Viyazhan/ Jupiter
Jupiter
(which takes 12 years to complete one cycle round the Sun) comes to the same position after 60 years. The following list presents the current 60-year cycle of the Tamil calendar:[16]

No. Name Name (English) Gregorian Year

No. Name Name (English) Gregorian Year

01. பிரபவ Prabhava 1987–1988

31. ஹேவிளம்பி Hevilambi 2017–2018

02. விபவ Vibhava 1988–1989

32. விளம்பி Vilambi 2018–2019

03. சுக்ல Sukla 1989–1990

33. விகாரி Vikari 2019–2020

04. பிரமோதூத Pramodoota 1990–1991

34. சார்வரி Sarvari 2020–2021

05. பிரசோற்பத்தி Prachorpaththi 1991–1992

35. பிலவ Plava 2021–2022

06. ஆங்கீரச Aangirasa 1992–1993

36. சுபகிருது Subakrith 2022–2023

07. ஸ்ரீமுக Srimukha 1993–1994

37. சோபகிருது Sobakrith 2023–2024

08. பவ Bhava 1994–1995

38. குரோதி Krodhi 2024–2025

09. யுவ Yuva 1995–1996

39. விசுவாசுவ Visuvaasuva 2025–2026

10. தாது Dhaatu 1996–1997

40. பரபாவ Parabhaava 2026–2027

11. ஈஸ்வர Eesvara 1997–1998

41. பிலவங்க Plavanga 2027–2028

12. வெகுதானிய Vehudhanya 1998–1999

42. கீலக Keelaka 2028–2029

13. பிரமாதி Pramathi 1999–2000

43. சௌமிய Saumya 2029–2030

14. விக்கிரம Vikrama 2000–2001

44. சாதாரண Sadharana 2030–2031

15. விஷு Vishu 2001–2002

45. விரோதகிருது Virodhikrithu 2031–2032

16. சித்திரபானு Chitrabaanu 2002–2003

46. பரிதாபி Paridhaabi 2032–2033

17. சுபானு Subhaanu 2003–2004

47. பிரமாதீச Pramaadhisa 2033–2034

18. தாரண Dhaarana 2004–2005

48. ஆனந்த Aanandha 2034–2035

19. பார்த்திப Paarthiba 2005–2006

49. ராட்சச Rakshasa 2035–2036

20. விய Viya 2006–2007

50. நள Nala 2036–2037

21. சர்வசித்து Sarvajith 2007–2008

51. பிங்கள Pingala 2037–2038

22. சர்வதாரி Sarvadhari 2008–2009

52. காளயுக்தி Kalayukthi 2038–2039

23. விரோதி Virodhi 2009–2010

53. சித்தார்த்தி Siddharthi 2039–2040

24. விக்ருதி Vikruthi 2010–2011

54. ரௌத்திரி Raudhri 2040–2041

25. கர Kara 2011–2012

55. துன்மதி Dunmathi 2041–2042

26. நந்தன Nandhana 2012–2013

56. துந்துபி Dhundubhi 2042–2043

27. விஜய Vijaya 2013–2014

57. ருத்ரோத்காரி Rudhrodhgaari 2043–2044

28. ஜய Jaya 2014–2015

58. ரக்தாட்சி Raktakshi 2044–2045

29. மன்மத Manmatha 2015–2016

59. குரோதன Krodhana 2045–2046

30. துன்முகி Dhunmuki 2016–2017

60. அட்சய Akshaya 2046–2047

Celebrations[edit] The months of the Tamil Calendar
Calendar
have great significance and are deeply rooted in the faith of the Tamil Hindus. Some months are considered very auspicious while a few are considered inauspicious as well. Tamil months start and end based on the Sun's shift from one Rasi to the other but the names of the months are based on the star on the start of Pournami in that month. The name of the month is some times the name of the star itself. (e.g. Chithrai is always the star on the Pournami of the Chithirai month). Some of the celebrations for each month are listed below. Dates in parentheses are not exact and usually vary by a day or two. Underneath (or beside) the months of the Hindu calendar
Hindu calendar
are their Gregorian counterparts.[17][18]

Month Approx Dates Notes

சித்திரை - Chithirai 14 April - 13 May Star on the Pournami: Chithirai. Chitra Pournami & Varusha pirappu are the most important festivals in this month. Famous Chithirai Thiruvizha is celebrated in Madurai Meenakshi
Meenakshi
Amman temple. 14 April is the Tamil New Year.

வைகாசி - Vaikaasi 14 May - 14 June Star on the Pournami: Visaagam. Vaikaasi Visaakam is the most important day in this month.This month is most favorable month of Lord Subramainya (Murga Kadavul). Thirumangalam[Madurai] Shri Pathrakali Mariamman Temple 13day Vaigasi Festival starts at Sunday followed by vaigasi ammavasai[no moon day].

ஆனி - Aani 15 June - 15 July Star on the Pournami: Anusham. Aani Thirumanjanam or Aani Uttaram for Lord Nataraja is the most famous day in this month.

ஆடி - Aadi 16 July - 16 August Star on the Pournami: Pooraadam (or) Uthiraadam. A most important month for women. The most auspicious days are Fridays and Tuesdays in this month, these are called Aadi Velli and Aadi Chevvai and the Aadi Amavasya. Aadi Pooram
Pooram
is also a special day.18th day of adi is the most important day for the farmers (delta region) they prepare paddy seedlings.during this month "kanchi varthal" is famous in amman temples

ஆவணி - Aavani 17 August - 16 September Star on the Pournami: Thiruvonam. An important month with many rituals. Brahmins change their sacred thread on Aavani Avittam. Each Sunday of the month is dedicated to prayers - Aavani Gnayiru.vinayaka chaturthi ,the festival of lord ganesha is held in this month

புரட்டாசி - Purattaasi 17 September - 16 October Star on the Pournami: Poorattathi (or) Uthirattathi. An important month for Vaishnavas. Purattaasi Sani(Saturday) is an auspicious day for Lord Vishnu. Navarathri & Vijayadhashami or Ayuda Pooja is celebrated to invoke Goddess Durga, Lakshmi and Saraswathi.

ஐப்பசி - Aippasi 17 October - 15 November Star on the Pournami: Ashwini. The monsoons typically start over Tamil Nadu in this month. Hence the saying, "Aippasi Mazhai, adai mazhai" - meaning "Aippasi rains are persistent rains". Also Annaabishekam for Lord Shiva
Shiva
is very famous in this month. The most famous Hindu
Hindu
festival "Deepavali" is celebrated in this month. The Fridays of this month - Aipassi velli - are dedicated to religious observance.

கார்த்திகை - Karthikai 16 November - 15 December Star on the Pournami: Karthikai. Another auspicious celebration for Shiva
Shiva
devotees is Thirukaarthigai. The Krithikaa Pournami is the special day of the full moon in the month of Kaarthikai, and the star is Krithikaa. Each Monday of this month is dedicated to the worship of Lord Shiva. Every Monday is called "Somavaaram" when 108 or 1008 sangabhishekam are offered to Lord Shiva
Shiva
and Lord Muruga.

மார்கழி - Maargazhi 16 December - 13 January Star on the Pournami: Mrigasheersham. This is another special month in the Tamil Calendar. Temples open earlier in the mornings and Devotees throng the temples early for puja and prasadam - the offering made to the deity which is later distributed to the devotees. Arudra Darisanam (Thiruvaadirai star in Tamil) is the most auspicious day in this month. The offering made to Lord Siva is the Thiruvaadirai Kali - a sweet boiled pudding. Mukkodi Ekathesi is called "Paramapadha vaasal Thirappu" for Lord Vishnu. The Tiruvembaavai and Thirupaavai fast takes place in this month.

தை - Thai 14 January - 12 February Star on the Pournami: Poosam. Pongal, which is the Tamil harvest festival, is celebrated on the first day of this month. Thaipusam
Thaipusam
is also a special day for Murugan devotees, who carry Kavadi to one of the Aarupadaiveedu (Literally meaning "six abodes").

மாசி - Maasi 13 February - 13 March Star on the Pournami: Magam. Maasi Magam is the special day of which comes in this Month. Shivaratri
Shivaratri
is an important festival widely celebrated by Hindus
Hindus
in this month.

பங்குனி - Panguni 14 March - 13 April Star on the Pournami: Uththiram. Panguni Uthiram, the last month of the year, is a famous festival and special to Murugan and Siva devotees.

Significance[edit]

The Hindus
Hindus
developed a system of calendrics that encapsulates vast periods of time.[19] For computing the age of the earth and various geological and other epochs, as well as the age of mankind, they still employ a Tamil calendar derived from ancient astronomical data, known as the Tirukkanida Panchanga[20] The 10th Tamil month, called Thai, falls in mid-January each year. It is celebrated with much enthusiasm within the Tamil Community all over the world. Thai is marked by gifts of new clothing for family members and prayers to God for prosperity in the coming year. Thai and the fifth month Aavani are considered very auspicious for marriage and most marriages occur during these months. The fourth month Aadi is considered inauspicious, so weddings do not often fall in this month. Aadi is also the month of preparation for the next crop cycle by farmers. Therefore, farming communities avoid major events like weddings in this month. Those members of the Tamil community who don't actively contribute/participate in farming take advantage by having important functions like wedding in this month. For example, the business community prefers this month for weddings. Aadi is usually the worst month for business, although when businesses recently initiated Aadi discounts, this situation has changed significantly. Each Friday of this month is set aside for prayer and worship. Aadi is an inauspicious month for newlyweds to sleep together because a woman who conceives in this month will have a difficult delivery in May, the hottest month in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
(Agni natchathiram - ['pinezhu'] the last 7 days of Chithirai and ['munezhu'] the first 7 days of Vaigasi). 'Aadi' is also the windiest month in Tamil Nadu, and hence the phrase 'Aadi kaatru ammiyai nagatrum' (literally, 'the strong winds in the month of Aadi can even move a stone grinder') Purattaasi is when most of the non-vegetarian Tamil people
Tamil people
fast from meat for a month. Each Saturday of this month is set apart to venerate the planet Saturn. Deepavali, is celebrated on the new moon day, in the seventh month Aipasi. The month of Aipasi is usually characterised by the North-East Monsoon
Monsoon
in Tamil Nadu, which has given birth to a phrase, Aipasi adai mazhai meaning the "Non-stop downpour". Maargazhi falls in winter in Tamil Nadu, and is an auspicious month. The month is considered sacred. During the holy month of Maargazhi, houses are decorated with colorful and elaborate kolams. These are drawn on the threshold to welcome guests and divine beings to bless their houses with prosperity and happiness. The Shaivite
Shaivite
fast of Thiru-vembaavai and the Vaishnava fast of Thiru-paavai are also observed in this month. The total number of days in a Tamil Calendar
Calendar
is an average 365 days and the days of the week are named similarly to those of the western calendar. The Vakiya Panchangam is employed for both sacred and civil calculations. The Trikanitha Panchangam is employed for astrological calculations.

Festivals[edit] The Tamil Calendar
Calendar
is important in the life of Tamil-speaking people and most Festivals of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
are based on it. Some Festivals include Tamil New Year
Tamil New Year
(also called Puthandu) in mid-April, Thai Pongal, Deepavali, Panguni Uthiram, Thirukaarthigai, Aadiperukku, Navaratri
Navaratri
etc. One day was even dedicated to a celebration of the Tamil alphabet and was called "ezhuthu naal'. See also[edit]

Candravakyas Pambu Panchangam Puthandu Samvatsara Sexagenary cycle Kollam era

References[edit]

^ S.K. Chatterjee, Indian Calendric System, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, 1998 ^ Sewell, Robert and Dikshit, Sankara B.: The Indian Calendar
Calendar
– with tables for the conversion of Hindu
Hindu
and Muhammadan into a.d. dates, and vice versa. Motilal Banarsidass Publ., Delhi, India
India
(1995). Originally published in 1896 ^ Indian Epigraphy, D.C. Sircar, TamilNet, Tamil New Year, 13.04.2008 ^ Dershowitz, Nachum and Reingold, Edward M.: Calendrical Calculations. Third edition, Cambridge University Press (2008). ^ Underhill, Muriel M.: The Hindu
Hindu
Religious Year. Association Press, Kolkata, India
India
(1921). ^ Lines 160 to 162 of the Nedunalvaadai ^ Poem 229 of Puranaanooru ^ Professor Vaiyapuri Pillai, 'History of Tamil Language and Literature' Chennai, 1956 page 35, 151 ^ Canto 26 of Silappadikaaram. Canto 5 also describes the foremost festival in the Chola country - the Indra Vizha celebrated in Chitterai ^ G.H. Luce, Old Burma
Burma
- Early Pagan, Locust Valley, New York, Page 68, and A.B. Griswold, 'Towards a History of Sukhodaya Art, Bangkok 1967, pages 12-32 ^ Kielhorn, Franz: Festal Days of the Hindu
Hindu
Lunar Calendar. The Indian Anti- quary XXVI, 177–187 (1897). ^ Samuel Wells Williams, The Middle Kingdom, V 2, Columbia University Press, New York, 2005 Pages 69-70 ^ Paul Kekai Manansala, Quests of the Dragon and Bird Clan, 2006, Page 236 ^ Terrien de Lacouperie, Western Origin of the Early Chinese Civilization: From 2,300 BC to 20 AD, Asher and Co, London 1894 Page 78 ^ George Gheverghese Joseph, Crest of the Peacock: Non-European Roots of Mathematics, Princeton University Press, 2011, Page 304-305 ^ Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami, Vedic calendar: Kadavul Hindu Panchangam, Himalayan Academy, Kapaa, Hawaii, 1997; Pages 5-6,Glossary p 10 ^ Kielhorn, Franz: Festal Days of the Hindu
Hindu
Lunar Calendar. The Indian Anti-quary XXVI, 177–187 (1897). ^ Underhill, Muriel M.: The Hindu
Hindu
Religious Year. Association Press, Kolkata, India
India
(1921). ^ Wijk, Walther E. van: On Hindu
Hindu
Chronology, parts I–V. Acta Orientalia (1922–1927). ^ H.P. Blavatsky, 'The Secret Doctrine: The Synthesis of Science, Religion and Philosophy' Book 2: Pages 49-51, Theosophical University Press, 1888

External links[edit]

Full Tamil Calendar
Calendar
with Panchangam Information Tamil Calendar
Calendar
with Panchangam Information [1] @ Tamil Calendar
Calendar
for all past and future years (தமிழ் நாள்காட்டி) Tamil Calendar
Calendar
with Daily Panchangam

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