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TAMAULIPAS (Spanish pronunciation: (_ listen )), officially the FREE AND SOVEREIGN STATE OF TAMAULIPAS (Spanish : Estado Libre y Soberano de Tamaulipas_), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City , comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico
Mexico
. It is divided into 43 municipalities and its capital city is Ciudad Victoria
Ciudad Victoria
. The capital city was named after Guadalupe Victoria
Guadalupe Victoria
, the first President of Mexico
Mexico
.

It is located in Northeastern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Veracruz
Veracruz
to the southeast, San Luis Potosí
San Luis Potosí
to the southwest and Nuevo León to the west. To the north, it has a 370 km (230 mi) stretch of the U.S.– Mexico
Mexico
border along the state of Texas
Texas
. This state is known to be both a territorial struggle for the Gulf Cartel
Gulf Cartel
and the Los Zetas
Los Zetas
.

The name Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
is derived from _Tamaholipa_, a Huastec term in which the _tam-_ prefix signifies "place (where)". There is no scholarly agreement on the meaning of _holipa_, but "high hills" is a common interpretation. Another explanation of the state name is that it is derived from _Ta ma ho'lipam_ ("place where the Lipan prey").

In addition to the capital city, Ciudad Victoria
Ciudad Victoria
, the state's largest cities include Reynosa
Reynosa
, Matamoros , Nuevo Laredo
Nuevo Laredo
, and Tampico .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Independent Mexico
Mexico

* 2 Geography * 3 Government and infrastructure * 4 Economy and culture * 5 Demographics * 6 Education

* 7 Transportation

* 7.1 Airports

* 8 Notable natives and residents * 9 State anthem * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links

HISTORY

The area known as Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
has been inhabited for at least 8,000 years. Several different cultures (north coastal, south coastal, lowlands, and mountains) have come and gone during that period.

Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
was originally populated by the Olmec
Olmec
people and later by Chichimec and Huastec tribes. Between 1445 and 1466, Mexica (or Aztec) armies commanded by Moctezuma I Ilhuicamina conquered much of the territory and transformed it into a tributary region for the Mexica empire. However, the Aztecs never fully conquered certain mostly nomadic indigenous groups in the area.

Although Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés
conquered the Aztecs rather quickly, it took a gradual process for Spain
Spain
to subjugate the inhabitants of Tamaulipas in the 16th and 17th centuries. The first permanent Spanish settlement in the area was Tampico in 1554. Further settlement was done by Franciscan
Franciscan
missionaries, widespread cattle and sheep ranching by the Spanish bolstered the area’s economy while forcing native populations from their original lands. Repeated indigenous rebellions kept the area unstable and weakened colonial interest in the region. What is now Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
was first incorporated as a separate province of New Spain
Spain
in 1746 with the name Nuevo Santander
Nuevo Santander
. The local government capital during this time moved from Santander to San Carlos, and finally to Aguayo. The territory of this time spanned from the San Antonio river to the north east to the Gulf of Mexico, then south to the Panuco River near Tampico and west to the Sierra Madre Mountains. The area became a haven for rebellious Indians who fled there after increased Spanish settlements in Nuevo León
Nuevo León
and Coahuila.

In the middle 17th century various Apache bands from the southern Plains, after acquiring horses from Europeans in New Mexico, moved southeastward into the Edwards Plateau
Edwards Plateau
, displacing the native hunting and gathering groups. One of these groups was known as Lipan (see Hodge 1907 Vol. I:769 for a confusing list of synonyms). After 1750, when most Apache groups of the central Texas
Texas
highlands were displaced by Comanche
Comanche
and moved into the coastal plain of southern Texas, the Europeans of the San Antonio area began referring to all Apache groups in southern Texas
Texas
as Lipan or Lipan Apache (Campbell and Campbell 1981:62–64).

Many Indian groups of missions in southern Texas
Texas
and northeastern Mexico
Mexico
had recently been displaced from their territory through the southward push by the Lipan Apaches and were still hostile toward Apaches, linking arms with the local Spanish authorities against their common foe.

By 1790 Europeans turned their attention from the aboriginal groups and focused on containing the Apache invaders. In northeastern Coahuila
Coahuila
and adjacent Texas, Spanish and Apache displacements created an unusual ethnic mix. Here the local Indians mixed with displaced groups from Coahuila
Coahuila
and Chihuahua and Texas. Some groups, to escape the pressure, combined and migrated north into the Central Texas highlands.

INDEPENDENT MEXICO

In 1824, after the Mexican War of Independence
Mexican War of Independence
from Spain
Spain
, and the fall of the Mexican Empire , Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
was one of the 19 founder states of the new United Mexican States
United Mexican States
. During the fights between centralists and federalists that soon followed, the successful Texas Revolution led to the creation of the Republic of Texas
Texas
in 1836. The new Republic claimed as part of its territory northern Tamaulipas. Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
in Mexico, 1824.

In 1840, it became a part of the short-lived Republic of the Rio Grande . In 1848, after the Mexican-American war
Mexican-American war
, Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
lost more than a quarter of its territory via the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo . Its capital was kept at Aguayo, which would later be renamed Ciudad Victoria
Ciudad Victoria
in honor of Guadalupe Victoria
Guadalupe Victoria
, first President of Mexico
Mexico
.

The French occupation and reign of Emperor Maximilian during the 1860s was difficult for Tamaulipas, at least on the borders and in the city of Tampico. Portions of Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
supported the republican forces led by president Benito Juarez
Benito Juarez
in resisting the French, especially in the north. It was not until two years after French occupation began that Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
as a state finally acceded to Maximilian's rule, and it was not until 1866 that the last French soldiers left the state, leading up to Maximilian's execution and fall of the Second Mexican Empire
Second Mexican Empire
in 1867.

However, the years after Maximilian's defeat were ones of rebuilding and great growth in Tamaulipas. International trade
International trade
began to blossom, especially with the coming of the railroad to Tampico, which was developing as not only a port city, but an industrial and commercial center as well. The railroad allowed goods to flow quickly from the mines and cities of the interior and the Texas
Texas
border to Tampico for processing and shipment. This in turn caused significant growth in towns such as Matamoros and Nuevo Laredo
Nuevo Laredo
.

Since the revolution of 1910 , successive governments have dedicated themselves to building industry and infrastructure in Tamaulipas, including communications and educational systems. Norberto Treviño Zapata founded the state university system as well as reformed the state oil industry. Marte Gómez provided increased farm sizes for private family farmers. And more recently, Emilio Martínez Manautou led industrial growth. Lately a push has been to strengthen fishing , including efforts to increase the price of fish and shellfish on the international market.

GEOGRAPHY

Sierra Madre Oriental
Sierra Madre Oriental

The Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Cancer
crosses the southern part of the municipality of Victoria.

The coastal plains along the Gulf have a large presence in the state, whereas inland the landscape is adorned by cactus species and pasture . Predominant fauna in the region include the cougar (_Puma concolor_), long-tailed weasel (_Mustela frenata_), ocelot (_Leopardus pardalis_), American badger
American badger
(_Taxidea taxus_), North American beaver (_Castor canadensis_), plain chachalaca (_Ortalis vetula_) and quail .

In the western part of the state, the Sierra Madre Oriental
Sierra Madre Oriental
displays warm valleys and high sierras with peaks reaching 3,280 m (10,760 ft) in the Pedragoso Sierra; 3,240 m (10,630 ft) in the Borregos Sierra; 3,220 m (10,560 ft) in La Gloria Sierra; 3,180 m (10,430 ft) in Cerro el Nacimiento; and 3,000 m (9,800 ft) above sea level in the Sierra el Pinal. The Sierra de Tamaulipasand the Sierra de San Carlosare isolated mountain ranges in eastern Tamaulipas.

In terms of hydrology, the Bravo, Purificacion and Guayalejo rivers flow into the Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
after crossing the state from the western inland. On their way, their basins and zones of influence naturally correspond to the areas destined for agricultural use. The Rio Grande, known to Mexicans as the Río Bravo, represents the northern frontier shared with the United States. One of the tributaries of this natural border, the San Juan River , feeds the Falcon International
International
Reservoir and the Marte Gomez Dam , which, in conjunction with the "Friendship Dam", reach a capacity of 12,940 million cubic meters of stored water. Agricultural and cattle raising activities are served by 14 other dams across the state, with a total capacity of 7,500 million cubic meters of water.

As much as 90% of the state reports a dry or semi-dry climate, while the Huasteca mountain range presents hot and semi-humid conditions, along with humid winds coming from the Gulf, which means it is located in a zone highly influenced by cyclones, with predominant winds coming from the east and southeast.

GOVERNMENT AND INFRASTRUCTURE

_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (December 2010)_

State agencies include:

* Secretaría de Seguridad Pública (Tamaulipas)

ECONOMY AND CULTURE

Port
Port
of Tampico

NORTHERN TAMAULIPAS shares its economic culture with that of Texas
Texas
, and is primarily characterized by agriculture and strong growth in all industrial sectors. This region is home to many of the maquiladoras , factories owned by foreign companies but worked by Mexicans, primarily by women.

SOUTHERN TAMAULIPAS\' economy is based primarily on the petrochemical industries. There are petrochemical production plants around Altamira as well as a principal Gulf coast container port, refinery facilities in Ciudad Maderoand many oil-industry support service companies in Tampico , as well as a major general and bulk cargo port. Also of importance are the tourism and fishing industries, as well as much commercial shipping, based in Tampico and Altamira. The little village of La Pesca , in the municipality of Soto La Marina , about midway between Brownsville, Texas
Texas
and Tampico, is a rapidly growing tourist area with lovely beaches and excellent fishing both in the Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
and the Rio Soto La Marina. The central zone contains the capital, Ciudad Victoria
Ciudad Victoria
, and is home to much forestry and farming, as well as some industrial development. About 30% of the population lives here, both in the capital and in Ciudad Mante. Ciudad Victoria is a significant educational center, home to the Autonomous University of Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
(which also has campuses in other cities in the state), the Regional Technical Institute of Ciudad Victoria, the University of Valle de Bravo, and other institutions of learning.

As of the 1990 Mexican census, 13 percent of the homes had only dirt floors, nearly 19 percent had no running water, and over 15 percent of the homes had no electricity. This was better than the national average, but was skewed because of the high rate of development in the urban centers. In rural communities in Tamaulipas, access to running water was available in less than 40 percent of homes.

As of 2005, Tamaulipas’s economy represents 3.3% of Mexico’s total gross domestic product or 21,664 million USD. Tamaulipas's economy has a strong focus on export oriented manufacturing (i.e. maquiladora / INMEX ). As of 2005, 258,762 people are employed in the manufacturing sector. Foreign direct investment in Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
was 386.2 million USD for 2005. The average wage for an employee in Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
is approximately 240 pesos per day, $2.00 to $3.00 an hour.

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1895 209,106 —

1900 218,948 +4.7%

1910 249,641 +14.0%

1921 286,904 +14.9%

1930 344,039 +19.9%

1940 458,832 +33.4%

1950 718,167 +56.5%

1960 1,024,182 +42.6%

1970 1,456,858 +42.2%

1980 1,924,484 +32.1%

1990 2,249,581 +16.9%

1995 2,527,328 +12.3%

2000 2,753,222 +8.9%

2005 3,024,238 +9.8%

2010 3,268,554 +8.1%

2015 3,441,698 +5.3%

CITY City Population Municipality Population Metropolitan Population Metropolitan area type

Reynosa
Reynosa
589,466 608,891 1,501,919 International
International
R /RB /H

Matamoros 449,815 489,193 1,136,995 International
International
M /C

Nuevo Laredo
Nuevo Laredo
373,725 384,033 636,516 International
International
NL /W /H /C

Ciudad Victoria
Ciudad Victoria
305,155 321,953 321,953 Municipality
Municipality

Tampico 297,284 309,003 859,419 In and Out-of-state

Ciudad Madero 197,216 197,216 – Part of Tampico Metro

Miramar 118,614 – – Part of Tampico Metro

Rio Bravo 95,647 118,259 – Part of Reynosa
Reynosa
Metro

Ciudad Mante 84,787 115,792 115,792 Municipality

Altamira 59,536 212,001 – Part of Tampico Metro

Valle Hermoso 48,918 63,170 63,170 Municipality

Bustamante 100 101 101 Municipality

EDUCATION

Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
enjoys standards slightly higher than the national averages, since illiteracy has been reduced to 5% for those over 15 years of age, average schooling reaches 7.8 years, and as many as 11% have earned a professional degree.

Institutions of higher education include:

* Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Tamaulipas(IEST) * Instituto Tecnológico de Ciudad Madero(ITCM) * Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas

TRANSPORTATION

AIRPORTS

Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
is served by 5 international airports and one national airport.

* Ciudad Victoria
Ciudad Victoria
is served by: General Pedro J. Méndez International
International
Airport * Matamoros is served by: General Servando Canales International Airport * Nuevo Laredo
Nuevo Laredo
is served by: Quetzalcóatl International
International
Airport * Reynosa
Reynosa
is served by: General Lucio Blanco International
International
Airport * Tampico is served by: General Francisco Javier Mina International Airport * Ciudad Manteis served by: Ciudad ManteNational Airport

NOTABLE NATIVES AND RESIDENTS

* Intocable
Intocable
, Regional Mexican musical group * Fito Olivares, Cumbia singer/musician * Juan Garcia Abrego, drug criminal * Rosemary Barkett, US judge * James Carlos Blake, award-winning novelist * José María Jesús Carbajal
José María Jesús Carbajal
, Mexican freedom fighter, military governor of Tamaulipas * Ana Brenda Contreras, actress, singer * Alicja Bachleda-Curus, actress, singer * Amalia González Caballero de Castillo Ledón, diplomat, cabinet minister, minister plenipotentiary, writer, * Laura Elizondo, beauty queen/model * Juan García Esquivel, composer/band leader/pianist * Laura Flores, actress * Rafael Aguilar Guajardo, drug criminal * Manuel González Flores, general and politician who served as president of Mexico
Mexico
from 1880 to 1884. * Max AppedoleFilm Producer, Author, Business man Politician, Activist. * Víctor García , singer * Rodrigo González , musician and songwriter * Emilio Portes Gil, president of Mexico
Mexico
after the death of Alvaro Obregon in 1928. * Alejandro Gomez Monteverde, director/producer * Manuel Raga, basketball player * Aurora Robles, model * James de La Rosa, welterweight boxer * Juan de la Rosa, boxer on the NBC
NBC
's show The Contender * Arleth Terán, actress * Rigo Tovar
Rigo Tovar
, singer/songwriter/composer/actor * Ismael Valdez, former starting pitcher in Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
* Eduardo Verástegui, actor/model * B. Traven
B. Traven
, German author and activist * Juan Nepomuceno Guerra, smuggler/founder of C.D.G. * Mauricio Garces, actor * Ivan Contreras, volleyball olympics

STATE ANTHEM

The current anthem of the state of Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
is _Himno a Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
(es)_, composed in 1926 by Rafael Antonio Pérez Pérez , set to music by Alfredo Tamayo Marín . Normally, only the chorus, first verse and chorus are sung in public.

CORO: Viva Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
altiva y heroica, la región que dormita en la margen del río. La sangre palpita en el pecho mío, al recuerdo glorioso de sus héroes y su honor. Viva Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
la tierra querida que en las horas aciagas dio su sangre y su vida. Cantemos un himno de amor y lealtad y todo Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
vibre a la voz de libertad.

CHORUS: _Live proud and heroic Tamaulipas,_ _The region that slumbers on the banks of the river._ _The blood pounding in my chest,_ _The glorious memory of their heroes and honor._ _Long live the beloved land Tamaulipas_ _That in dire times gave their blood and lives._ _Sing a song of love and loyalty_ _And all Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
vibrates to the voice of freedom._

ESTROFA I: Fuiste cuna de nobles varones que con la luz de su saber iluminaron, y al pasar por la tierra dejaron con sus obras su nombre inmortal. Hoy la historia, canta la gloria de tus heroes en marcha triunfal.

VERSE I: _You were born of noble sons_ _Who were lit by the light of knowledge_. _And whose passing on earth leaves_ _With their labors and immortal name._ _Today the story, sings the glory_ _Of your heroes' triumphal march._

ESTROFA II: En los tiempos de duelo y de guerra con tu valor fuiste el honor de nuestro suelo. Defendiste heroica la tierra y tu espada fue siempre inmortal. Hoy la historia, canta la gloria de tus heroes en marcha triunfal.

VERSE II: _In times of grief and war_, _With your courage you were the honor of our soil_. _You heroically defended the land_ _And your sword was always immortal_. _Today the story, sings the glory_ _Of your heroes' triumphal march_.

ESTROFA III: En tu seno de mirtos y rosas fuente de amor en el hogar tamaulipeco. ¡Son tus hijas mujeres virtuosas que engalanan el patio vergel! Hoy la historia, canta la gloria con el mirto, la oliva y laurel.

VERSE III: _In your heart of myrtle and roses_, _Source of love in the Tamaulipecan home_. _Your daughters are virtuous women_ _That adorn the courtyard garden!_ _Today the story, sings the glory_ _With the myrtle, olive and laurel._

ESTROFA IV: Los que duermen eterno descanso, los que por ti con fe y valor su vida dieron, por hacerte feliz sucumbieron bajo el fuego que te hizo inmortal. Hoy la historia, canta la gloria de tus heroes en marcha triunfal.

VERSE IV: _Those who sleep in eternal rest_, _That for you with faith and courage gave his life_, _Succumbed to make you happy_ _Under the fire that made you immortal_. _Today the story, sings the glory_ _Of your heroes' triumphal march_.

ESTROFA V: Ya la aurora de tiempos mejores iluminó con su fulgor nuestros albores; y en los surcos que abre el arado va sembrando la fraternidad. Y su anhelo, protege el cielo floreciendo en la santa hermandad.

VERSE V: _Since the dawn of better times_ _Illuminated by his splendor our dawn_; _And in the plow furrows opened_ _Is sowing the fraternity_. _And his desire, protects the heavens_ _Flourishing in the holy brotherhood_.

ESTROFA VI: Nuestros hombres hoy luchan ufanos por mejorar su condición de ciudadanos. Igualdad es la flor del ensueño que el obrero pretende alcanzar. Y si alcanza, una esperanza es que sabe morir o triunfar.

VERSE VI: _Our self-satisfied men today struggle_ _To improve their status as citizens_. _Equality is the flower of dreams_ _That the worker strives to achieve._ _And if he reaches it, a hope_ _Is to know death or victory._.

SEE ALSO

* Mexico
Mexico
portal * Geography portal * North America portal * Latin America portal

* Sierra de Tamaulipas

REFERENCES

* ^ "Las Diputaciones Provinciales" (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 15. * ^ "Senadores por Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
LXI Legislatura". Senado de la Republica. Retrieved April 7, 2011. * ^ "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de Tamaulipas". Camara de Diputados. Retrieved April 7, 2011. * ^ "Resumen". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved February 12, 2013. * ^ "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved April 7, 2011. * ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). Retrieved December 9, 2015. * ^ "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso mexicano". www.pesomexicano.com.mx. Retrieved August 10, 2010. * ^ "Tamaulipas" (PDF). SRE. Retrieved April 7, 2011. * ^ "Historia". Gobierno del Estado de Tamaulipas. Retrieved April 7, 2011. * ^ "Puerto de Tampico". _Ports in Mexico_. World Port
Port
Source. Retrieved 2009-12-17. * ^ _A_ _B_ _Industrial Costs in Mexico
Mexico
– A Guide for Foreign Investors 2007_. Mexico
Mexico
City: Bancomext. 2007. p. 102. * ^ "Mexico: extended population list". GeoHive. Retrieved 2011-07-29. * ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). INEGI. Retrieved 2015-12-09.

* ^ "Link to tables of population data from Census of 2010". Inegi.org.mx. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ 2010 U.S. Census Data and Link to tables of population data from Census of 2010 * ^ "McAllen Overview". McAllen Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved 26 August 2011. * ^ "Estadísticas INEGI Población en Matamoros". Copyright © 2011 matamoros.com. * ^ "Matamoros-Brownsville". World Gazetteer. Retrieved 22 August 2011. * ^ "Gloria (2014) Full Cast & Crew". _IMDb_. Retrieved May 30, 2016. Max Appedole... Executive Producer * ^ Tapio, Helen. "B. Traven\'s Identity Revisited". _Helsinki Historia_. Historical Association. Retrieved 17 June 2016. * ^ "HIMNO A TAMAULIPAS".

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