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The Tamang ཏ་མང (Devnagari: तामाङ; tāmāng), are believed to be migrants from Tibet
Tibet
and the Himalayan regions of tibet and china, their ancestral land is called lhasa.[1][better source needed] They are the aborigines of Tibet. Traditionally Buddhist
Buddhist
by religion, Tamangs are the largest Tibeto-Burman
Tibeto-Burman
ethnic group within Nepal, constituting 5.6% of the national population of over 1.3 million in 2001, increasing to 1,539,830 as of 2011 census,[2] yet contested.[3] Tamangs are also a significant majority in Sikkim
Sikkim
and Darjeeling District
Darjeeling District
of West Bengal, India
India
as permanent settlers;[4][5] their languages are the fifth most spoken in Nepal
Nepal
(note all Tamang languages are not mutually intelligible). They are one of the aborigines who were least affected by Nepalisation.[6] Peculiar to Tamang people
Tamang people
are complex marriage restrictions within the community.

Contents

1 Status 2 Political participation 3 Religion 4 Etymology 5 Culture

5.1 Festivals 5.2 Livelihood 5.3 Music 5.4 Kinship clans

6 Origins and history 7 Trekking and tourism 8 References 9 External links

Status[edit]

1/3 of all deaths were among Tamang people, and roughly 2/3 of the 600,000 structures completely destroyed were in Tamang dominant areas.[7] It is the poverty, neglect and outright discrimination against Tamangs that makes them even more vulnerable to disasters like earthquakes, landslides and floods—Anthropologist Mukta Singh Lama.[7]

In Nepal, until 1950, Tamangs were neither accepted into government posts, whether administrative, judicial or political, nor allowed to accept foreign employment, serving as a labour pool for the ruling class.[4] But nowadays, Tamangs are highly respected as Buddhist
Buddhist
Monks (priest) as rinpoche, khempo. In many Tamang Villages, there is still a tradition of sending the second son to study Buddhism
Buddhism
and preferably to remain in the Monastery, and serve as a Buddhist
Buddhist
Monk throughout his life. Tamangs have also served as Gurkha soldiers (brigadier, colonel, IGP, inspector ) in the British Gurkha army, Singapore police, Indian army and police and Nepalese army and police. The Nepal
Nepal
Government has considered that the empowerment of Tamang community is essential to in order to increase the living standard of the people. On August 3 the Nepalese parliament adopted a bill amending the Civil Service Act 1993. The amendments provide reservations for disadvantaged groups by allocating 45 percent of the jobs in the bureaucracy to these groups. Today they inhabit the borders of Nepal
Nepal
and Tibet, due to marginalization from Kathmandu, and are among the groups hardest hit by the April 2015 Nepal
Nepal
earthquake. Political participation[edit] Tamangs are represented by Tamsaling Rastriya Mukti Morcha and Tamsaling Nepal
Nepal
Rastriya Dal, neither of which holds any seats in Parliament. The umbrella group Mongol National Organisation supports self-determination and works against said discrimination not just for Tamangs but for all Mongoloid groups in Nepal. Mongol National is against conversion to Hinduism
Hinduism
of non-Hindus, but it holds no official parliamentary vote. Federal Limbuwan State Council
Federal Limbuwan State Council
(FLSC) also works towards similar goals for self-determination for the Kirati peoples, who co-mingle with Tamangs, citing a reneged treaty with Kathmandu for autonomy.[8] The associated Sanghiya Limbuwan
Limbuwan
Party has participated in calling banda during the 2015 Nepal
Nepal
blockade,[9] nevertheless international press had not only failed to take note of their bandh, but even pretended not to notice their very existence and instead focused intently on 4 party India-backed Madhesi Morcha actions, geopolitical concerns with China, as Limbuwan
Limbuwan
also opposes both the Madhesi goals as well as Kathmandu's domination.[10] However, there is rationale to India
India
and Western nation's denial of information about Limbuwan
Limbuwan
actions during the fuel blockade, in the 1980s, a violent Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
movement within India
India
was led by the prominent Tamang Subhas Ghising to which India
India
had viewed as a security threat due to the proximity of India's chicken neck.[5] Madan Tamang, a Tamang-Indian politician, and proponent for Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
statehood, was assassinated in 2010, with West Bengal
West Bengal
government placing blame on another Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
political party, in effect weakening the movement. Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
Territorial Administration was then created in place of statehood in India, nevertheless across the border, ethnic discrimination issues regarding the numerous Mongoloid groups (who have taken part in each other's politics) are left unresolved within Nepal. In 2017 Binay Tamang was appointed as the Chairperson of GTA.[11] Religion[edit]

Tamang Gompa, Jorpati (02)

The religion is considered by Tamangs as Nyingma
Nyingma
tradition of Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhism, the earliest form of Buddhism
Buddhism
to come to Nepal/ Tibet
Tibet
with Padmasambhava, and due to geopolitical focus on Tibet, Tamangs hold their beliefs are also largely ignored by Western scholars.[4] Tamang have gompas (monasteries) in every sizeable village. Every family has their special Buddhist
Buddhist
Yidam and book to practice every morning. The Tamangs retain jhankris (shamans) in addition to their Lama clan (Tamang)
Lama clan (Tamang)
(priests), the latter whose surnames are also Lama. Additionally there exists the honorific term Lama
Lama
(honorific), assigned to all Tamang regardless of kinship clan (swagen bhai). This is not to be confused with Lama
Lama
of Tibet
Tibet
or the Sherpa Lama
Lama
surname and clan. These jhankris perform certain rites such as trances and sacrifices to alleviate problems or assure good fortune.[4] According to the 2001 census[citation needed], 90.3% of the Tamang people
Tamang people
follow Buddhism
Buddhism
that makes up 47.3% of the total in the country. Hence, Tamang are the largest population who follow Buddhism
Buddhism
in Nepal. Etymology[edit] Tamang was derived from the word Tamag, where Ta means “horse”, and Mag means “rider”. [12] Culture[edit] Festivals[edit] Sonam Lhochhar is the main festival of the Tamangs and is celebrated in the month on Magh (February - March).[13] It is a celebrated to welcome the Tamang new year. Colorful flags, printed Buddhist
Buddhist
mantra and cloths are put up in various places in the village.[2] Tamang have a song called " Tamang Selo" that is performed with the Damplu instrument, also known as Damphoo Dance, having a brisk movement and rhythmic beat specific to the Tamangs.[5] The second most important festival is Saga Dawa (Buddha Jayanti) and is celebrated as a religious festival.[14] Dashain
Dashain
and Tihar (festival)
Tihar (festival)
is also celebrated with much enthusiasm by Tamangs.[2] Livelihood[edit] Most Tamangs are farmers, engaged in agriculture. Due to the lack of irrigation at higher altitudes, their crops are often limited to corn, millet, wheat, barley, and potatoes. They often supplement their farming income with manual labour. Due to the discrimination experienced by the Tamang people
Tamang people
in the past, they have remained on the whole poorly educated, and the majority have been limited to working in farming, mountain trekking, portering, and in driving in Kathmandu. They also work in construction of Tibetan rugs, Thankas (Tibetan painting), driving, labour and trekking.[4] As far as farming is concerned, Tamang are dependent on rainfall and do not employ modern machinery.[2] Music[edit]

Navneet Aditya Waiba

Hira Devi Waiba
Hira Devi Waiba
- A Tamang and Pioneer of Nepali Folk Songs.

Tamangs are known in Nepali Art/Music of Nepal. Some prominent names are: singer- Hira Devi Waiba,[15]singer- Kunti Moktan,[16] Navneet Aditya Waiba, Phiroj Shyangden, Prashant Tamang,[17]Zenisha Moktan,[18]Nima Rumba,[19]Aruna Lama,[20]Karma Yonzon, Gopal Yonjan [21], Prem Lopchan. Kinship clans[edit] Thars (Tamang language:Swagen Bhai) are exogamous clans with complex intermarriage restrictions. There are over 39 listed swagen bhai in one study.[2] Origins and history[edit] Tamangs have long inhabited Kathmandu Valley and the hills of Nepal
Nepal
in general, yet the origins of Tamang are exactly from mongolia( around govi desert ) according to archiological study done by Dr. anatoly yakoblave shetenko, yet they believe they are indigenous to the area had once ruled lhasa. They have beliefs that they have been descended from bhote which is called as mugu district in modern district.[4] Trekking and tourism[edit] Tamang villages are often visited on Nepal's numerous trekking routes, one being labelled Tamang Heritage Trail.[22] They also work as porters and the chances are that the porters and guides on a Trek are more likely to be a Tamang than an actual Sherpa.[4] References[edit]

^ "About TAMANG Nepal
Nepal
Tamang Society, Japan नेपाल तामाङ समाज जापान". Tamangsamaj.wordpress.com. Archived from the original on 2015-12-08. Retrieved 2015-12-23.  ^ a b c d e "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-12-22.  ^ note from: http://thebluespace.com/the-tamang-people/[permanent dead link], "these figures are contested by the Tamang themselves as some had written Lama
Lama
or their family name on the census form were not counted as Tamang and many others have in the past changed their caste in order to escape the caste limitations placed upon them." ^ a b c d e f g "The Tamang People - The Blue Space Guides Nepal". Thebluespace.com. 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2015-12-23. [permanent dead link] ^ a b c "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-04-27. Retrieved 2015-12-23.  Emergent North-East : A Way Forward By H. C. Sadangi ^ "Report on Socio-Economic Status of Tamang–Kavre". Nefin.org.np. Retrieved 2015-12-23.  ^ a b "The Brief » Blog Archive » The Tamang epicentre". Nepali Times. 2015-07-05. Archived from the original on 2015-11-28. Retrieved 2015-12-23.  ^ Chemjong, Iman Singh (2003). History and Culture of Kirat People (4th ed.). Kathmandu: Kirat Yakthung Chumlung. ISBN 99933-809-1-1. ^ "Sanghiya Limbuwan
Limbuwan
Party calls indefinite Eastern Region bandh". The Himalayan Times. 2015-09-04. Archived from the original on 2015-12-23. Retrieved 2015-12-23.  ^ Om Astha Rai. "Look south As It Happens". Nepali Times. Archived from the original on 2015-12-23. Retrieved 2015-12-23.  ^ "GTA reconstituted, rebel GJM leader Tamang is chairperson". The Hindu. Special
Special
Correspondent, Special
Special
Correspondent. 2017-09-21. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 2018-02-28. Retrieved 2018-02-28.  ^ "Who actually are the Tamang People? An Insight into Indigenous Tribe of Nepal". Chronicles of ADVENTURE TRAVEL. 2015-01-05. Retrieved 2018-02-28.  ^ "Sonam Lhochhar celebrated Street Nepal". streetnepal.com. Archived from the original on 2016-08-16. Retrieved 2018-02-28.  ^ "Who actually are the Tamang People? An Insight into Indigenous Tribe of Nepal". Chronicles of ADVENTURE TRAVEL. 2015-01-05. Retrieved 2018-02-28.  ^ "The Telegraph - Calcutta (Kolkata) North Bengal & Sikkim
Sikkim
Hira Devi dies of burn injuries". www.telegraphindia.com. Retrieved 2018-03-11.  ^ "Kunti Moktan". Retrieved 2018-03-11.  ^ "Indian Idol Winner Prashant Tamang
Prashant Tamang
Is The Rallying Voice Of The Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
Protests". Huffington Post India. 2017-06-21. Retrieved 2018-03-11.  ^ " Zenisha Moktan Nepali Actress". nepaliactress.com. Retrieved 2018-03-11.  ^ " Nima Rumba
Nima Rumba
& Style". My Republica. Retrieved 2018-03-11.  ^ "Melody queen Aruna Lama". Boss Nepal. Retrieved 2018-03-11.  ^ Kalakar, Hamro. "Gopal Yonzon Biography Hamro Kalakar". www.hamrokalakar.com. Retrieved 2018-03-11.  ^ Post Report. "The Kathmandu Post :: Tamang Heritage Trail reopens after quake". Kathmandupost.ekantipur.com. Archived from the original on 2015-12-08. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 

External links[edit]

Gurkha, tamang Gurkha "Introduction to Ethnic Groups – The Tamangs: The Unknown Mount Everest Climbers". EverestNews.com. Retrieved 4 January 2013. 

v t e

Ethnic groups in Nepal
Nepal
by by language family

Sino-Tibetan (Trans-Himalayan)

High altitudes

Darchula Bhotiya Lo (Mustang) Bhotiya Sherpa (Bhotia) Hyolmo Jirel Nepalese Central Tibetic

Lhomi (Sing Saapa) Siyar (Chumba) Larke Dolpa, etc.

Central Tibetans Kachee

Burig

Sunuwar and Rai Yakthung

South East

Sunuwar Bahing

Central Rai

Khambu Rai

Kulung

Bantawa

Eastern Rai

Lohorung Yakha

Limbu (Yakthung)

Tamangic

Chhantyal Gurung (Tamu)

Manang bas

Tamang

Ghale Lama
Lama
clan (Tamang)

Thakali Kaike Magar

Magar

Dhut Kham/Pang

Chepang Bhujel Raji–Raute

Raji Raute Rawat

Dura Lepcha (Rong) Dhimal Koch Meche

Indo-Aryan

Eastern Pahari

Khas

Palpa-speakers Jumli-speakers

Miyan

Nepalese Madhesi

Maithil Bhojpuri Rajbansi

Newars

Newar
Newar
community

Over 25 distinct castes, major being Shresthas, Chathariya, Jyapu, Vajracharya, Rajopadhyaya Brahmins, Chitrakar, Khadgi, Manandhar, Dhobi, Pode, Ranjitkar, Mali, etc.

Newar
Newar
Muslim

Indian Madhesi

Indian Maithil Bihari

Bhojpuri Bajjika etc.

Awadhi other Madhesi

H U

Kumauni Kashmiris Kumhali Kushbadiya (Guhari)

Indo-Aryan of a distinct origin

Danuar Rai Bote Kuswaric Majhi Darai Tharu Hill Khadiya/Bankariya Rajbansi Kisan of Oraon Sadri Kushbadiya (Guhari)

Other peoples (M, D, i) of Indus-Ganga

Kusunda Munda Satar Dudh and Dhelki Khadiya/Bankariya Jangad/Dhangad/Uraun

Kisan

Immigrants

Korean Filipino Russian

Other basis

By Caste

Kshetri Rajopadhyaya Bahun Shresthas Jyapu Vajracharya Pulami Kami Damai/Dholi Thakuri Sarki Unspecified Dalit Kalwar Dhobi Mali Gaine/Gandarbha

By geography

Mountain people (Buddhist/Animism) Hill people (Eastern Paharis and Newars, Hindu/Buddhist) Kirati (East, mostly Mundhum/Buddhist) Terai
Terai
(Madhesi, Tharu, Danuwar and Dhimal) (Lowland) Western Nepal
Nepal
( Hindu
Hindu
dominant) Nepali Muslim (South)

By law

Janajati

Madheshi Janajati

Misc

Adivasi Simantakrit

About one third of Madhesi people
Madhesi people
are of Indian ancestry while the other two thirds are indigenous.

Authority control

LCCN: sh85132158 BNF: cb11945924c (d

.