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The TALYSH KHANATE (Persian : خانات تالش‎‎ — _Khānāt-e Talesh_, Azerbaijani : _Talış xanlığı_, Talysh : _Tolshi hanəti_, also known as the _ Lenkaran Khanate_) was a khanate of Iranian origin that was established in Persia and existed from the middle of the 18th century till the beginning of the 19th century, located in the south-west coast of the Caspian Sea. It comprised the southeastern part of the modern day Republic of Azerbaijan and the eastern tip of north-western Iran
Iran
. The capital of the Khanate
Khanate
was its chief city, Lenkaran . Its population mainly consisted of Azerbaijanis and Talysh people .

As a result of the Persian defeat in the Russo-Persian War of 1826-28 , the khanate was dissolved and absorbed by the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Rulers * 3 See also * 4 Sources * 5 References

HISTORY

According to Mirza Ahmad Mirza oglu Khudaverdi, the founder of the Talysh Khanate, Seyyid Abbas, his ancestors were members of the Safavid dynasty , who had moved into the Talish region during the 1720s during a turbulent period in Iranian history. When Seyyid Abbas died in 1747 he was succeeded by his son Jamaladdin, often remembered as _Gara Khan_ (the 'Black King'), because of his dark skin. Because of his good service to Nader Shah , Nader officially awarded him the hereditary title of _khan_. Gara Khan was pro-Russian in his foreign policy which upset the rulers of neighboring khanates notably Hidayat Khan of Gilan . In 1768 Hidayat Khan attacked the Talysh khanate. Seeing aid against the superior enemy, Gara Khan send his brother Karbalayi Sultan to Fath Ali Khan, ruler of the Quba Khanate
Khanate
resulting in an alliance between Quba and Lenkaran. By 1785 the territory of the Talysh khanate had formally become a dependency of that much stronger Quba Khanate
Khanate
together with certain other Azerbaijani khanates. However, in 1789 following Fath Ali Khan's death, the Talysh Khanate regained its independence under Mir Mustafa, the son of Gara Khan who had himself died in 1786.

In 1794-5 the Persian Shah Agha Muhammad Khan Qajar called on the various khanates of the South Caucasus
Caucasus
to form an alliance against the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and mounted a military expedition against those who refused to join him. The Talysh khanate refused to do and was attacked in 1795. Mir Mustafa Khan’s disparate army was not strong enough to resist and he send his representatives to General Gudovich asking for Russian protection. However, the Russians took a long time to respond, only finally arriving in 1802 when the Talysh Khanate
Khanate
became a protectorate of the Russian Empire.

The khanate was to remain a pawn between the Persian and Russian empires over the subsequent two decades. In 1809 as a part of the Russo-Persian War (1804-1813) , Iranian troops took the city of Lenkaran and expelled the Russian-leaning khan. In 1812, with Napoleon was attacking Moscow, the Russians were also battling again in the Caucasus. After a brief siege led by Pyotr Kotlyarevsky on January 1 1813, 2,000 Russian troops managed to decisively take the citadel of Lenkaran from the Persian army. There were heavy losses on both sides, but this strategic capture of Lankaran
Lankaran
led inexorably to the September 12, 1813 Treaty of Gulistan . This forced defeated Persia to cede many of the formerly independent khanates to Russia. In 1814 Mir Mustafa khan died and his son Mir Hasan Khan succeeded him but only in name.

With Russia busy in European wars, Persia attempted to reassert its hegemony in the area and to revert the Treaty of Gulistan and thus invaded the south Caucasus
Caucasus
, starting the 1826-28 Russo-Persian war. In the campaign of 1826, Persia managed to regain all lost territories, but after the numerous defeats in the campaign of 1827, the war ended up with the even more humiliating Treaty of Turkmenchay which permanently ceded the Talysh Khanate
Khanate
to Russia. Mir Hasan khan had died in 1826 and the khanate was abolished.

The Talysh Khans proved a stimulating subject for famed Azeri poet-playwright Mirza Fatali Akhundov (Mirza Fatali Akhundzade) , nicknamed the _Muslim Molière _. A 1938 production of his _Sərgüzəşti Vəziri-Xani Lənkəran_ ('The Adventures of the Lankaran
Lankaran
Khan's Visier'), starred the future president Heydar Aliyev , then just a teenager

миниТалышское ханство (2-я половина 18-го века)

RULERS

1747 (founder) Sa`id `Abbas

1747-1786 (1785-6 under Quba Khanate) Jamaladdin (Gara Khan)

1786-1814 (1786-9 under Quba Khanate) Mir Mustafa Khan

1814-1826 (under Russia) Mir Hasan Khan

SEE ALSO

* Khanates of the Caucasus
Caucasus
* Russian conquest of the Caucasus
Caucasus

SOURCES

* Lankaran.aznet.org Archived December 17, 2007, at the Wayback Machine . * Archived February 23, 2012, at the Wayback Machine . *

REFERENCES

* ^ Swietochowski, Tadeusz (2004). _Russian Azerbaijan, 1905-1920: The Shaping of a National Identity in a Muslim Community_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0521522458 . (...) and Persian continued to be the official language of the judiciary and the local administration . * ^ Pavlovich, Petrushevsky Ilya (1949). _Essays on the history of feudal relations in Armenia and Azerbaijan in XVI - the beginning of XIX centuries_. LSU them. Zhdanov. p. 7. (...) The language of official acts not only in Iran
Iran
proper and its fully dependant Khanates, but also in those Caucasian khanates that were semi-independent until the time of their accession to the Russian Empire, and even for some time after, WAS NEW PERSIAN . It played the role of the literary language of class feudal lords as well. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ _A_ _B_ ru:Талышское ханство * ^ Nikolai F. Dubrovin (1871). _The history of war and Russian domination in Caucasus. Volume 1: Study on the Caucasus
Caucasus
and the peoples inhabiting it. Book 2: Transcaucasia_ (in Russian). Saint Petersburg. p. 328. * ^ Stuart Olsen _et al._ _An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of the Russian and Soviet Empires_ Greenwood Publishing Group, 1 jan. 1994 ISBN 978-0313274978 p 620 * ^ _A_ _B_ Azerbaijan * ^ 7.4 Azerbaijan\'s President, Heydar Aliyev Interview in Azerbaijan International

* v * t * e

Khanates of the Caucasus
Caucasus

* Ardabil Khanate
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* Avar Khanate
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* Baku Khanate
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* Derbent Khanate
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* Elisu Sultanate * Erivan Khanate
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* Ganja Khanate
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* Gazikumukh Shamkhalate * Gazikumukh Khanate
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* Karabakh Khanate
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* Karadagh khanate * Khalkhal Khanate
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* Khoy Khanate