Talk radio is a radio format containing discussion about topical
issues and consisting entirely or almost entirely of original spoken
word content rather than outside music. Most shows are regularly
hosted by a single individual, and often feature interviews with a
number of different guests.
Talk radio typically includes an element
of listener participation, usually by broadcasting live conversations
between the host and listeners who "call in" (usually via telephone)
to the show. Listener contributions are usually screened by a show's
producers in order to maximize audience interest and, in the case of
commercial talk radio, to attract advertisers. Generally, the shows
are organized into segments, each separated by a pause for
advertisements; however, in public or non-commercial radio, music is
sometimes played in place of commercials to separate the program
segments. Variations of talk radio include conservative talk, hot
talk, liberal talk (increasingly known as progressive talk) and sports
While talk radio has historically been associated with broadcast
radio, starting around 2005 the technology for Internet-based
talk-radio shows became cost effective in the form of live Internet
website streaming and podcasts. Now, it is possible for an individual
to use a variety of services to host an Internet-based talk-radio show
without carriage by a traditional radio station. In addition, TV
programming from talk and news outlets such as BBC, CNN, Bloomberg and
Fox is now often available expanding the world of talk radio further.
Talk radio listening is enjoyed not only on radios, but a wide variety
of other devices and services including PCs using iTunes, station
directories such as TuneIn, show directory smartphones with apps such
as Stitcher and time-shifting services like DAR.fm.
1 In the United States
1.2 Hot talk
1.3 Politically oriented talk radio
1.4 Other hosts, other styles
Liberal talk radio
1.6 Sports talk
2 In Africa
3 In Australia
4 In Brazil
5 In Canada
6 In Finland
7 In France
8 In Italy
9 In New Zealand
10 In the Philippines
11 In Poland
12 In Spain
13 In the United Kingdom
14 See also
16 Further reading
17 External links
In the United States
Talk radio is not limited to the AM band. "Non-commercial", usually
referred to as "public radio", which is mainly located in a reserved
spectrum of the FM band, also broadcasts talk programs. Commercial
all-talk stations can also be found on the
FM band in many cities
across the US. These shows often rely less on political discussion and
analysis than their AM counterparts, and often employ the use of
pranks and "bits" for entertainment purposes. In the
United States and
Canada, satellite radio services offer uncensored "free-wheeling"
original programming. ABC News &
Talk is an example of
"repackaging" for the digital airwaves shows featured on their
terrestrial radio stations.
Expressing and debating political opinions has been a staple of radio
since the medium's infancy.
Aimee Semple McPherson
Aimee Semple McPherson began her radio
broadcasts in the early 1920s and even purchased her own station, KFSG
which went on the air in February 1924; by the mid-1930s,
controversial radio priest Father Charles Coughlin's radio broadcasts
were reaching millions per week. There was also a national current
events forum called
America's Town Meeting of the Air
America's Town Meeting of the Air which broadcast
once a week starting in 1935. It featured panel discussions from some
of the biggest newsmakers and was among the first shows to allow
audience participation: members of the studio audience could question
the guests or even heckle them.
Talk radio as a listener-participation format has existed since the
1930s. John J. Anthony (1902-70) was an announcer and DJ on New York's
WMRJ. It was located in the Merrick
Radio Store at 12 New York
Boulevard in Jamaica, Long Island. After some marital troubles,
refusing to pay alimony and child support, he sought professional help
and began his own radio series where listeners would call in with
their problems in 1930.
Radio historians consider this the first
instance of talk radio.
While working for New York's WMCA in 1945, Barry Gray was bored with
playing music and put a telephone receiver up to his microphone to
talk with bandleader Woody Herman. This was soon followed by listener
call-ins and Gray is often billed as "the hot mama of talk radio".
Herb Jepko was another pioneer.
Author Bill Cherry proposed George Roy Clough as the first to invite
listeners to argue politics on a call-in radio show at KLUF, his
station in Galveston, Texas, as a way to bring his own political views
into listeners' homes. (He later became Mayor of Galveston.) Cherry
gives no specific date, but the context of events and history of the
station would seem to place it also in the 1940s, perhaps earlier. The
format was the classic mode in which the announcer gave the topic for
that day, and listeners called in to debate the issue.
In 1948 Alan Courtney — New York disk jockey and co-composer of the
popular song "Joltin' Joe Dimaggio" — began a call-in program for
the Storer station in Miami, Florida (WGBS) and then on Miami's WQAM,
WINZ and WCKR the "Alan Courtney Open Phone Forum" flourished as an
avowedly conservative and anti-communist political forum with a
coverage area over the Southeastern U.S. and Cuba.
Joe Pyne, John Nebel, Jean Shepherd, and Jerry Williams (WMEX-Boston)
were among the first to explore the medium in the 1950s.
A major breakthrough in talk radio occurred in 1960 at KLAC in Los
Angeles. Alan Henry, a broadcaster in his early thirties, had been
hired by John Kluge, president of Metromedia in 1963. Henry had
previously worked in such diverse markets as Miami, Florida; Waterloo,
Iowa; Hartford, Connecticut; and St. Louis, Missouri. KLAC was dead
last in the ratings but Kluge wanted a big Metromedia presence in Los
Angeles. He sent Henry from New York to
Los Angeles to turn KLAC into
a success. The first thing that Henry did was hire the legendary
morning team of Lohman and Barkley. Henry had built a strong
relationship with programmer Jim Lightfoot, who had joined Henry in
Miami. A unique opportunity presented itself when Joe Pyne, who had
begun his career as a radio talk personality in Pennsylvania, was
fired by KABC in Los Angeles. Speculation was that Pyne was too
controversial and confrontational for the ABC corporate culture. Henry
hired Pyne on the spot and paid him $25,000 a year, which was then a
huge salary for a radio personality. Pyne was given the night show on
KLAC. Part of the agreement with Pyne was that Henry and Lightfoot
would give him broad control of his program content.
The show was an immediate success. Henry encouraged the confrontation
with listeners and guests for which Pyne became famous. Pyne coined
the line "Go gargle with razor blades," for guests with whom he
disagreed. The Pyne show was the beginning of the confrontational talk
format that later spread across the radio spectrum. At one point in
the 1960s the
Joe Pyne show was syndicated on over 250 radio stations
in the United States.
In an odd turn of events, Pyne's radio show led him to television.
Henry suggested to John Kluge that
Joe Pyne should be put on
Metromedia's newly acquired TV station in Los Angeles, KTTV-TV. Kluge
told Henry to speak to KTTV-TV general manager Al Kriven, but Henry
had already done that, and Kriven had adamantly refused. Kluge
telephoned Kriven, and Pyne soon became the nation's first
controversial late-night talk television host. The
Joe Pyne Show on
KTTV-TV quickly shot to the top of the ratings. The format later
proliferated on cable television with a variety of new hosts, many of
them taking on a similar persona to Joe Pyne.
Joe Pyne and Alan Henry
were major factors in establishing a new trend in radio and television
programming. Alan Henry elaborates on the launching of
Joe Pyne on
KLAC radio and KTTV-TV in his memoir A Man and His Medium.
Two radio stations—KMOX, 1120 AM in St. Louis, Missouri, and KABC,
790 AM in Los Angeles—adopted an all-talk show format in 1960, and
both claim to be the first to have done so. KABC station manager Ben
KMOX station manager
Robert Hyland independently
developed the all-talk format. KTKK, 630 AM in Salt Lake City, then
known as KSXX, adopted a full-time talk schedule in 1965 and is the
third station in the country to have done so. KSXX started with all
local talent, and KTKK, which now airs on 1640 AM, has a larger
portion of its schedule featuring local talent than most other
stations that run a full schedule of talk.
In the 1970s and early 1980s, as many listeners abandoned AM music
formats for the high fidelity sound of FM radio, the talk radio format
began to catch on in more large cities. Former music stations such as
KLIF (Dallas, Texas),
WLW (Cincinnati, Ohio), WHAS (Louisville,
Kentucky), WHAM (Rochester, New York), WLS (Chicago, Illinois), KFI
(Los Angeles, California),
WRKO (Boston, Massachusetts), WKBW
(Buffalo, New York), and WABC (New York, New York) made the switch to
all-talk as their ratings slumped due to listener migration to the FM
band. Since the turn of the 21st century, with many music listeners
now migrating to digital platforms such as Pandora Radio, Sirius XM
Radio, and the numerous variations of the iPod, talk radio has been
expanding on the FM side of the dial as well.
"Hot talk", also called "FM talk" or "shock talk", is a talk radio
format geared predominantly to a male demographic between the ages of
18–49. The subject matter generally consists of subjects pertaining
to pop culture rather than the political talk found on AM radio. Hosts
of hot talk shows are usually known as shock jocks.
Clear Channel Communications
Clear Channel Communications (now iHeartMedia - 2015) has a select few
hot talk stations under the moniker Real Radio, while
CBS Radio once
had a larger chain of hot talkers known as Free FM, though the brand
was abandoned after a post-Howard Stern attempt to network the format
failed within a year. It is usually found on
FM radio active rock,
classic rock, and country stations in morning drive, as the actual hot
talk formatted stations have only achieved mediocre success as a whole
compared to AM or conservative talk radio, or even FM music radio.
More recently the genre has been showing up on satellite radio and
podcasting, media that are beyond the reach of the FCC's obscenity
rules, allowing the hosts of such shows to be as vulgar and outrageous
as they desire. Advertising tends to be more limited on these media,
because of reliance on subscription revenues (in the case of
satellite) and smaller audience and fewer connections to advertisers
(in the case of Internet-only shows, which usually lack the full sales
departments of terrestrial and satellite broadcasters).
Other U.S. hosts specialize in talk radio comedy, such as Phil
Hendrie, who voices his own fictional guests and occasionally does
parodies of other programs.
Politically oriented talk radio
Conservative talk radio
Conservative talk radio and Progressive talk radio
United States saw dramatic growth in the popularity of talk radio
during the 1990s due to the repeal of the Federal Communications
Fairness Doctrine of 1949, in 1987. The mandate
Fairness Doctrine was to require that audiences were exposed to
a diversity of viewpoints.
It had required the holders of broadcast licenses to "present
controversial issues of public importance" and to do so in a manner
that was, in the commission's view, "honest, equitable and balanced".
Its repeal provided an opportunity for a kind of partisan political
programming with commercial appeal that had not previously existed.
The most successful pioneer in the early 1990s' talk radio movement in
the US was the politically conservative commentator Rush Limbaugh.
Limbaugh's success demonstrated that there was a nationwide market for
passionately delivered conservative polemic on contemporary news,
events, and social trends, and changed the face of how the talk radio
business was conducted. Unrestrained (by the Fairness Doctrine),
cheering for one's political party, and especially against the other,
had become popular entertainment which rapidly changed the way
politics nationally was discussed, perceived, and conducted.
Other radio talk show hosts (who describe themselves as either
conservative or libertarian) have also had success as nationally
syndicated hosts, including Hugh Hewitt, Sean Hannity, Jon Arthur,
Glenn Beck, Michael Medved, Laura Ingraham, Neal Boortz, Michael
Savage, Bill O'Reilly, Larry Gaiters and Mark Levin.
Salem Radio Network
Salem Radio Network syndicates a group of religiously oriented
Republican activists, including evangelical Christian
Hugh Hewitt and
Dennis Prager and Michael Medved; these are
mostly distributed in a 24-hour network format among Salem's own
stations, and they generally earn ratings much less than their
In the summer of 2007, conservative talk show hosts mobilized public
opposition to the McCain-Kennedy immigration reform bill, which
eventually failed. Conservative hosts Limbaugh, Ingraham, Bennett,
Prager, Hannity, Beck, Levin and Hewitt coalesced around endorsing
Mitt Romney for president at the end of
January 2008 (after Fred Thompson, the described favorite of some of
the hosts, dropped out), in an effort to oppose the nomination of
Senator John McCain; however, Romney suspended his campaign in
February of the same year, and endorsed McCain. During the primaries,
Limbaugh in particular had endorsed a plan to do whatever it took to
prolong the Democrats' nomination by encouraging political
conservatives to cross over to the Democrats and voting for the
trailing candidate, a plan he called "Operation Chaos".
Conservative talk show hosts also lent their unified support for
congressional candidate Doug Hoffman, a conservative third-party
candidate who was running in New York's 23rd congressional district
special election, 2009, against a liberal Republican (Dierdre
Scozzafava) and a mainstream Democrat (Bill Owens). The unified
support from the conservative base helped propel Hoffman to
frontrunner status and effectively killed Scozzafava's campaign,
forcing her to drop out of the race several days before the election.
This effort backfired on the conservative hosts, as the Democratic
candidate Owens won in part thanks to Scozzafava's endorsement of
Owens. Local hosts, such as Los Angeles's John and Ken, have also
proven effective in influencing the political landscape.
Other hosts, other styles
Libertarians such as
Dennis Miller (based in Los Angeles), Jon Arthur,
Jon Arthur Live! (based in Florida), Patti Brooks
in the Pacific Northwest),
Free Talk Live
Free Talk Live (based in New Hampshire),
Penn Jillette (based in Las Vegas),
Jay Severin (based in Boston,
Massachusetts), and Mark Davis (based in
Ft. Worth and Dallas, Texas)
have also achieved some success. Many of these hosts also publish
books, write newspaper columns, appear on television, and give public
lectures (Limbaugh, again, was a pioneer of this model of multi-media
There had been some precursors for talk radio show stars, such as the
Los Angeles-area controversialist Joe Pyne, who would attack callers
on his program in the early 1960s – one of his famous insults was
"gargle with razor blades"; the similar Bob Grant in New York City;
Wally George in Southern California.
Talk radio also included personal relationship consultants such as
Laura Schlessinger and
Barbara De Angelis both heard on
KFI AM in Los
Larry Elder on
KABC (AM) who was a lawyer prior to
entering the talk radio market. (See also lawyer, Norman Goldman,
under the progressive talk section.) Not political but certainly
prevalent in talk radio is
Leo Laporte who offers consumer advice
particularly related to technical computer topics. With many talk
shows across the opinion spectrum losing ratings and revenues,
business/real estate advice shows, paid-for health supplement
presentations and religious programming has emerged in addition to
sports and news talk.
While politically-oriented talk is still heard on the AM dial (mostly
the conservative format), it has seen some expanding onto the FM dial.
One notable example was
WPGB in Pittsburgh, which switched to a talk
format in 2004 after years of having several different music formats,
going so far as to brand itself as "FM News
Talk 104.7" due to the
relative uncommonness of politically-oriented talk on the FM side of
the dial even in 2013 while FM talk in general has expanded.
(Additionally, at the time
WPGB was the only
FM radio station in
Pittsburgh, the nation's 22nd largest market, to have a talk format.)
Owned by Clear Channel and stylized as one of Clear Channel's typical
conservative-leaning AM talk stations, WPGB's ratings were steadily
high since during its time as a talk station, whereas the station's
numerous music formats were among the lowest in the
before switching. Clear Channel, which owns WPGB, has been moving
away from putting talk radio on the FM dial;
WPGB fired its morning
show in December 2013 and switched back to music in August 2014,
selling the format rights to AM station WJAS.
Liberal talk radio
Politically liberal talk radio aimed at a national audience also
emerged in the mid-2000s. Air America, a network featuring The Al
Franken Show, was founded in 2004. It billed itself as a "progressive
alternative" to the conservative talk radio shows.
Some prominent examples of liberal talk radio shows either previously
or currently in national syndication include:
Dial Global talk show
Ed Schultz (left his radio show and is currently on MSNBC TV),
Stephanie Miller, Thom Hartmann, and Bill Press; Norman
Goldman (not with
Dial Global and is a self-described independent)
is still included on syndication stations - see WCPT (AM). Goldman
began as the high-rating fill-in host and "Senior Legal Analyst" for
Ed Schultz prior to launching his own show; The Young Turks; Fox
former co-host of Hannity and Colmes, Alan Colmes, First Amendment
Radio Network libertarian host Jon Arthur, and Mike Malloy,
WFTE FM's Dorothy And Dick, and Premiere's Randi
Rhodes (not on radio 2015).
In some markets, local liberal hosts have existed for years, such as
the British talk host Michael Jackson (who was on the air at KABC in
Los Angeles beginning in 1968 and is currently at KSUR); Bernie Ward
in San Francisco; Jack Ellery in New Jersey and Tampa;
Dave Ross in
Marc Germain in Los Angeles. A few earlier syndicated
programs were hosted by prominent Democrats who were not experienced
broadcasters, such as Jim Hightower, Jerry Brown,
Mario Cuomo and Alan
Dershowitz; these met with limited success, and Air America has been
faced with various legal and financial problems.
Air America was sold to a new owner in March 2007, hired well-known
programmer David Bernstein, and began its "re-birth." Bernstein
subsequently left in early 2008, but the struggling network remained
on the air with a revamped line-up.
On January 21, 2010, Air America radio ceased live programming citing
a difficulty with the current economic environment, and announced that
it would file for Chapter 7 bankruptcy production and liquidate
itself. The network ended operations on January 25, 2010.[citation
Clear Channel/iHeartMedia, with nearly 1,300 radio stations under its
ownership – along with other owners – has in recent years added
more liberal talk stations to their portfolio. These have primarily
come from the conversion of AM facilities, most of which formerly had
adult standards formats. Many complaints (all radio stations are
required by the FCC to maintain, in their public files, copies of all
correspondence from the public relating to station operations – for
a period of three years from receipt) have been received from fans of
this musical genre (Tony Bennett, Frank Sinatra, big band music,"
etc.) – but the left-leaning talk programming leans toward a much
younger demographic, a group that advertisers covet. More recently,
however, Clear Channel has been dropping liberal formats in favor of
Fox Sports Radio
Fox Sports Radio network. By 2014, most liberal talk
stations had abandoned the format, forcing hosts to find other ways to
distribute their programming.
Liberal opinion radio has long existed on the Pacifica network, though
only available in a small number of major cities, and in formats that
more often act as a volunteer-run community forum than as a platform
for charismatic hosts who would be likely to attract a large audience.
The one major host to become popular on the network is Amy Goodman,
Democracy Now! interview and journalism program is broadcast
Conservative critics have long complained that the long-format news
National Public Radio
National Public Radio (NPR) shows a liberal bias,
although this is disputed by Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting
(FAIR), a progressive media criticism organization, which found that,
for example, "representatives of think tanks to the right of center
outnumbered those to the left of center by more than four to one: 62
appearances to 15."
National Public Radio
National Public Radio itself denies any
partisan agenda. Politically oriented talk programs on the network
are in the mold of
Talk of the Nation, which was designed to be a
soundboard for the varied opinions of listeners.
Sports talk radio can be found locally and nationally in the US; as of
2013, five national full-time sports talk networks exist. The oldest
existing network, dating to 1991, is
SB Nation Radio
SB Nation Radio (although it has
only been branded as such since 2016). Market leader ESPN Radio
followed shortly thereafter in 1992, followed by
Fox Sports Radio
Fox Sports Radio ca.
2000 and the near-concurrent entries of
CBS Sports Radio
CBS Sports Radio and NBC
Radio in late 2012 and early 2013. Most of these, however, air
on weak, low-budget AM stations; the most successful sports talk
stations operate primarily with local programs and supplement their
programming with broadcasting of sports events, usually involving the
local teams in the major professional sports leagues. This adds
significant expenses to the station's operations. Local stations may
also hire personalities with polarizing opinions about sports topics
and athletes to make some kind of national impact that might turn off
listeners, and in large markets, sports talk stations may be made up
of personalities who pay stations for their show time and their own
advertising, disallowing any natural flow between each program, along
with in-station competitions about whose show has the most impact.
Pew researchers found in 2004 that 17% of the public regularly listens
to talk radio. This audience is mostly male, middle-aged and
conservative. Among those who regularly listen to talk radio, 41% are
Republican and 28% are Democrats. Furthermore, 45% describe themselves
as conservatives, compared with 18% who say they are
progressive/liberals. In 2011, the
Arbitron portable people meter
ratings system, compiled data suggesting that out of 11 nationally
rated radio formats, talk radio had lost nearly the most market
share and ratings continue to slide. In 2013, Arbitron's
executive summary noted that " 92% of consumers aged 12 years and
older listen to the radio each week" and "news-talk-information and
talk-personality remained number one in PPM markets and number two in
the rest of the U.S."
Three of the five most-listened-to radio programs in the United States
are talk radio shows: The
Rush Limbaugh Show (#2), The Sean Hannity
Show (#3 or #4) and
All Things Considered
All Things Considered (#5).
SW Radio Africa
SW Radio Africa was a pro-democracy station that broadcast out of
London, England, from 2001 to 2014.
In Australia, talk radio is known as "talkback radio".
The most popular talkback radio station historically was Sydney's 2UE,
whose populist programs like The
John Laws Morning Show, were widely
syndicated across the continent. In recent years though,
2UE has been
eclipsed by its Sydney rival
2GB after the defection of
popular talkback host, Alan Jones.
As a result,
2UE (now known as
Talking Lifestyle 954 and owned by the
same company as 2GB) abandoned most of its rigid political and hot
topic-driven talkback programming in 2016, moving to a less-serious
lifestyle and branded content format, although still maintaining a
3AW is the highest rating talkback radio station, and has
also been the highest rating
Melbourne radio station for several
decades in a row.
6PR personality Garry Meadows was the first announcer to use talkback
radio in early 1967. 'Talkback' radio, using a seven-second time lapse
mechanism, began in
Australia in April 1967, simultaneously on 2SM,
Sydney (with Mike Walsh) and 3DB,
Melbourne (with Barry Jones).
In the 1990s and 2000s, "talkback" on FM was attempted. The Spoonman
was a program hosted by
Brian Carlton on the triple m network in the
late 1990s and returned in 2005 for three and a half years, the show
wrapping up in 2008. It was a show that covered many topics, but the
"hot talk" format in the U.S. would probably be the best way to
describe the program.
Talkback radio has historically been an important political forum in
Australia and functions much like the cable news televisions in the
United States, with live and "saturated" coverage of political issues.
The most important talk radios in Brazil are CBN, Jovem Pan and Rádio
Globo, which has also sports and news broadcasts.
Broadcasting in Canada
In contrast to talk radio stations in the United States, where
syndicated programs tend to make up a significant part of most
schedules, privately owned Canadian talk radio stations tend to be
predominantly local in programming and focus. There is no Canadian
content requirement for talk radio, or "spoken word", programming,
unless the individual station's license expressly stipulates such a
requirement; most do not. (In Canada, prospective radio stations may
propose certain restrictions on their license in order to gain favor
with the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission
and have an easier time obtaining a license.)
The only nationally syndicated, politically oriented weekday talk
radio show in
Canada is Adler On Line, hosted by Charles Adler and
heard on eleven stations across the country. Until 2006, Peter
Warren on the Weekend was heard Saturdays and Sundays. Both
programs are or were distributed by the Corus
Radio Network and,
coincidentally, both hosts had hosted different morning call-in
programs in the same time slot on Winnipeg, Manitoba's
CJOB 680 before
they became nationally syndicated (Adler's show still originates from
CJOB and retained its original title, while Warren was based in
Victoria, British Columbia.) Prior to Adler On Line, Corus had
syndicated Rutherford, hosted by conservative
Dave Rutherford and
originating from its
Calgary station, QR77. Rutherford is no longer
syndicated nationally but continues to air in Calgary, Edmonton, and
Other Canadian talk radio programs which have been syndicated to
different markets include:
George Stroumboulopoulos Show airs on Sunday nights on stations in
Toronto and Montreal.
The Home Discovery Show, a call-in home renovation program hosted by
Love and Romance, a relationship advice program hosted by Sue
Prime Time Sports, a sports talk program hosted by Bob McCown. A
three-hour program originating from The Fan 590, usually only the
third hour is broadcast nationally.
Renovations Cross Canada, a weekend program about home renovations
hosted by Ren Molnar. It is the most widely distributed talk radio
program in Canada.
The Roy Green Show, a political and entertainment based show hosted by
Roy Green that airs on Saturday and Sunday afternoons, primarily on
The 'X' Zone, a nightly show about paranormal topics hosted by Rob
McConnell. It is also syndicated throughout the United States.
The two largest talk radio networks in
Canada are the publicly owned
CBC Radio One
CBC Radio One and
French language Ici Radio-
Canada Première. These stations typically
produce their own local morning and afternoon programs and regional
noon hour programs to go along with the network programming that is
aired during the rest of the day. Both networks are commercial-free.
Radio One's flagship national talk program is the weekend Cross
Country Checkup, which has been broadcast since 1965.
CFRA (580 AM) in Ottawa (formerly part of the CHUM network, which is
now part of CTV) has a large and dedicated listening audience. The
station is heard throughout the Ottawa valley and on the Internet.
Several key programs focus on local political and world issues.
Christina Sgro offers a bit of both worlds on her show, Christina's
Corner, which has been gaining popularity since its inception in 2010.
Privately owned talk radio syndication networks in
generally formed for the purposes of sharing programs across a group
of stations with common ownership, although some are formed to
distribute their one or two talk radio programs to a number of
stations regardless of ownership. The largest of these is the Corus
Radio Network. TSN Radio, the successor to the long-defunct the Team,
is one of the newest national networks in Canada, with operations in
three of its major markets, and has room for expansion.
Syndicated programs from the
United States which air on Canadian radio
Coast to Coast AM
Coast to Coast AM with George Noory, one of the most widely
distributed U.S.-based program in Canada
Joy Browne Show
GameTime React with J. T. the Brick
The Jim Rome Show
Traditionally, politically driven talk radio from the United States
does not air on Canadian stations, with a few scattered exceptions
(e.g. the now-defunct CFBN, which carried political programming such
Glenn Beck Program and Dennis Miller, and the also-discontinued
talk format of CHAM, which carried Miller). Top political programs
such as The
Rush Limbaugh Show are never broadcast in
due to high rights fees.
A state owned public channel called
YLE Puhe. is broadcast
throughout the whole country in Finnish language. The programs include
sports and news broadcasts. Its weekly listenership is about
550,000. Finland's first commercial talk station,
started operations on March 1, 2014.
Talk radio is a popular form of radio entertainment in France,
Europe 1, RTL and RMC, plus state-owned France Inter. A
English language talk radio in France is the Gascony Show.
Launched in early 2011, this show is broadcast weekly to the Gascony
region of the south west of France, as well as to the rest of France
via Internet streaming.
Talk radio in Italy is popular.
Radio 24, part of the group Il Sole 24
Ore privately owned by Confindustria, is the most important commercial
"news/talk" talk radio station in the country. Its focus is mainly on
independent news about Italian and European economy, finance, culture
and politics, but it also hosts programs focusing on sports, personal
finance, music, health, science, technology and crowdsourced
Rai Radio 3
Rai Radio 3 is mainly dedicated to
literature, the arts, classical music and general cultural issues.
Several regional stations use a format combining that of all-news and
In New Zealand
New Zealand the talk radio format is popularly known as talkback
radio. The major radio networks broadcasting in the talk radio format
Newstalk ZB and
Radio Live. Their sports sister networks, Radio
LiveSport also largely broadcast in talk format. Other
stations such as
New Zealand National have a large component of
talk-based content, but do not have talk-back (i.e. listener
Newstalk ZB is the
New Zealand market leader, but
Radio Live is
continuing to try to establish itself with a greater presence in the
talk radio market since its inception in 2005.
In the Philippines
AM radio stations are talk stations. A few stations from
Radio Mindanao Network
Radio Mindanao Network and
Bombo Radyo are on FM. Radyo 5 News FM is
the first talk radio station in the Philippines.
There is only one talk radio station in Poland, called TOK FM, which
is owned by Agora SA, a Polish media company. Its programmes are
broadcast in 10 large cities including Warsaw, Kraków, Gdańsk,
Poznań and Katowice. The programme is also available via Internet and
transmitted by the
Hot Bird constellation. It was founded in 1998 as
Talk radio in Spain is very popular, where the most important radio
stations are exclusively dedicated to talk shows, such as Cadena Ser,
Cadena Cope, Onda Cero,
Radio Nacional or Punto Radio. There is a very
wide variety of topics, such as politics, sport, comedy and culture.
Sport talk shows are particularly relevant, since football attracts a
massive interest in Spain, with a special focus on FC Barcelona and
Real Madrid CF, and the men's national football team. Typically the
programming of main talk radio stations is modified whenever there is
a major football event, such as a La Liga or a national team match.
Daily late night sport (football) talk shows are also very relevant,
with a very intense competition of the radio stations in this time
slot, which typically starts around midnight.
Comedy morning talk shows are also very popular in music radio
stations (40 principales, M80 radio, Europa FM, and others), where
there is strong competition since it is also a very important time
slot, when typically people going to the workplace listen to the radio
in their cars early in the morning (around 7 am to 8 am).
As Spain has large English speaking communities from many different
countries, it is a natural place for
English language talk radio
Talk radio station in English was Coastline Radio
broadcasting from Nerja, Costa del Sol. It is now a music station. A
group of English expats set up OCI International in the early 1990s.
Marbella on the Costa del Sol, it was owned by the ONCE
National Spanish Network. It provided a link for the English speaking
expats living on the coast, as well as some content for Scandinavian
expats. OCI was closed down in 2007 to make way for
music. In 2004 REM FM began broadcasting, with shows mostly fronted by
former OCI presenters. The station closed in 2008.
Europe began broadcasting. It offers a 24-hour
schedule of news, interviews, discussion and debate and is a World
Media Partner with
BBC World Service and is affiliated to IRN/SKY
Europe broadcasts in FM on the Costa del Sol, Costa
Costa Blanca and across the island of
Mallorca in English. It
is available on the Internet and on all smartphone platforms.
In the United Kingdom
Talk radio in the
United Kingdom is popular, though not as much as
music radio. Nationwide talk stations include
Radio 4 Extra and talkSPORT. Regional stations include BBC
Radio Scotland and
Radio Wales. Many
Radio stations and
some commercial stations offer a talk format, for example,
London, the BBC's flagship local station. Other notable commercial
talk stations include London's
LBC which pioneered the newstalk format
LBC currently operates two services in
a newstalk station on FM; and
London News, a rolling news station
on AM. There are many specialised talk services such as Bloomberg, a
financial news station and Asian
Talk radio expanded dramatically when the BBC's monopoly on radio
broadcasting was ended in the 1970s with the launch of Independent
Some notable British talk radio presenters include Jenni Murray, John
Humphrys, Martha Kearney, Jonathan Dimbleby, Libby Purves, Laurie
Taylor, Pam Ayres, Melvyn Bragg, Tommy Boyd, James Whale, Steve Allen,
Nick Abbot, Iain Lee, James Stannage, George Galloway, Julia
Hartley-Brewer, Ian Collins, John Nicoll, Brian Hayes, Scottie McClue,
Nicky Campbell and Simon Mayo.
Pete Price on CityTalk
is also known as the DJ who rushed to the aid of a regular caller who
died live on air during a call. Previously, he had kept a teenager
talking for 45 minutes before meeting him to convince him not to
Mass media and American politics
^ Valerie Geller, Beyond Powerful Radio: A Communicator's Guide to the
Internet Age—News, Talk, Information & Personality (CRC Press,
^ Tona J. Hangen, Redeeming the dial: radio, religion, & popular
culture in America (2002).
^ Loyaltubist (1 September 2008). "Know Old Time Radio: John J.
Anthony (1902-70)". Retrieved 13 February 2017.
^ Miles Romney, "The Voice in the Night Unheard by Scholars: Herb
Jepko and the Genesis of National
Talk Radio." Journal of
Audio Media 21.2 (2014): 272-289.
^ Cherry, Bill. "George Roy Clough Invents Call-in Radio".
TexasEscapes.com. Retrieved 2008-11-24.
^ Bachman, Katy (1999-04-05). "Ed Tyll Fires Up Growing 'Hot Talk'
Category". Mediaweek. 9 (14): 16. Archived from the original on May
^ Currie, Duncan (2008-01-22). "Beyond the Border".
Weeklystandard.com. Retrieved 2008-11-24.
^ "Limbaugh, Ingraham, Bennett, Prager, Beck, Hannity, Levin, and
Hewitt plan concerted attack on Sen. McCain over the airwaves to
promote Romney's candidacy". 3 February 2008. Retrieved 13 February
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 17, 2008.
Retrieved November 24, 2008. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
WPGB tops morning drive ratings - Pittsburgh
Stephanie Miller Show http://www.stephaniemiller.com/
Thom Hartmann Show http://www.thomhartmann.com/
Bill Press Show http://www.billpressshow.com/
Norman Goldman Show http://normangoldman.com
^ "How Public Is Public Radio?". FAIR.org. May–June 2004. Retrieved
^ "NPR News Code of Ethics". National Public Radio. n.d. Archived from
the original on September 17, 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-30.
Section III of the code states that NPR "...separate[s] our personal
opinions – such as an individual's religious beliefs or political
ideology – from the subjects we are covering. We do not approach any
coverage with overt or hidden agendas."
^ "News Audiences Increasingly Politicized". People-press.org. June 8,
2004. Archived from the original on April 23, 2008. Retrieved
^ Harker; Bos (2011). "How's News-
^ Harker. "Is News/
Radio in Trouble?".
^ Rogers, Douglas. The Last Resort: A Memoir of Zimbabwe. New York:
Harmony Books. p. 28.
^ Canning, Simon
2UE officially launches native-driven Talking
Lifestyle format with Koch, Rowntree and Obermeder, Mumbrella, 18
September 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
^ Saxon, Peter Will lifestyle breathe new life into
(comment), radioinfo, 19 September 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
^ Andreas Krebs, "Reproducing colonialism: Subject formation and talk
radio in English Canada." Canadian Journal of
Political Science 44.02
^ Paul Saurette and Shane Gunster. "Ears wide shut: Epistemological
populism, argutainment and Canadian conservative talk radio." Canadian
Political Science 44#1 (2011): 195-218.
YLE Puhe(in Finnish)
^ Results From The National
Radio Survey (in Finnish)
^ Tero Toivonen (2014-01-16). "Puheradio Rapu kajahtaa myös ulalle"
Radio Live - Home of Desi Beats". Retrieved 13 February
Radio talkshow caller dies on air".
BBC News. 2006-01-06. Retrieved
Radio DJ 'saves boy's life'".
BBC News. February 6, 2004. Retrieved
History of talk radio
Halper, Donna L. (2008). Icons of Talk: The Media Mouths That Changed
America. Greenwood Press.
Fisher, Marc (2007). Something in the Air: Radio, Rock, and the
Revolution That Shaped a Generation. Random House.
Jurkowitz, Mark; Globe Staff (2000-02-13). "
Talk Radio's Blue Streak
Political Issues Lose Their Pull, Programmers Are Wooing Younger
Audiences with a Mix of Shock Talk, Jock Talk, and R-Rated Banter".
"War of the Words More FM stations switching from hard rock to all
talk". Fort Worth Star-Telegram. 1998-11-01.
Goldstein, Patrick (1995-07-16). "Yakity Yak, Please
Talk Back: Inside
the Intense and Screwy World of
Radio and the Search for the Next
LarrykingrushlimbaughhowardsterngordonliddyWhomever". Los Angeles
Politically oriented talk radio:
David C. Barker; Rushed to Judgment:
Talk Radio, Persuasion, and
Political Behavior Columbia University Press, 2002
Stephen Earl Bennett; "Americans' Exposure to
Their Knowledge of Public Affairs" in Journal of
Electronic Media, Vol. 46, 2002
Jeffrey M. Berry, and Sarah Sobieraj. The Outrage Industry: Political
Opinion Media and the New Incivility (2014)
Randy Bobbitt. Us Against Them: The
Political Culture of
(Lexington Books; 2010) 275 pages. Traces the history of the medium
since its beginnings in the 1950s and examines its varied impact on
elections through 2008.
Christopher L. Gianos and C. Richard Hofstetter; "
Radio: Actions Speak Louder Than Words," Journal of
Electronic Media. Volume: 41. Issue: 4. : 1997. pp 501+.
Ian Hutchby; Confrontation Talk: Arguments, Asymmetries, and Power on
Radio Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996
Radio at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Radio Audiences". Talker's Magazine. Spring 2010.
Radio News app and directory of global talk and news radio stations
Internet television and radio (Webcast
BitTorrent television and movies)
Pirate radio / Pirate television
Adult television channels
Children's interest channel / Children's television series
Men's interest channel
Movie television channels
Music radio / Music television
Sports television channels
Women's interest channel
Broadcast television systems
Digital on-screen graphic
Television news screen layout
Current events portal