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State allies

  Qatar
Qatar
(alleged)[20]   Pakistan
Pakistan
(alleged)[8][21]   Russia
Russia
(alleged, since 2014)[22]

Non-state allies

Tehrik-i- Taliban
Taliban
Pakistan Haqqani network al-Qaeda Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi Caucasus Emirate Lashkar-e-Jhangvi[23] Hezb-e Islami
Hezb-e Islami
Gulbuddin[24] (until 2016)[25] Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan
(anti-ISIL faction)[26][27]

Opponents

State opponents Islamic Republic of Afghanistan[28] NATO[29] ISAF Non-state opponents Khorasan Province[30][31][32] Jamiat-e Islami[33] Junbish-i-Milli[33] Hezbe Wahdat[34]

Battles and wars Afghan Civil War (1992–96) Afghan Civil War (1996–2001) War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–present)

v t e

War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(1978–present)

Saur Revolution
Saur Revolution
(1978) Herat
Herat
uprising (1979) Chindawol uprising (1979) Bala Hissar uprising (1979) Soviet–Afghan War
Soviet–Afghan War
(1979–89) Afghan Civil War (1989–92) Afghan Civil War (1992–96) Afghan Civil War (1996–2001) War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–present)

Part of a series on

Deobandi
Deobandi
movement

Ideology and influences

Dars-i Nizami Maturidi
Maturidi
theology Hanafi
Hanafi
fiqh

Founders and key figures

Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi. Rashid Ahmad Gangohi Imdadullah Muhajir Makki Mahmud al-Hasan Husain Ahmad Madani Ashraf Ali Thanwi Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri Anwar Shah Kashmiri Muhammad Ilyas Kandhlawi Shabbir Ahmad Usmani Muhammad Idris Kandhlawi Muhammad Zakariya Kandhlawi

Notable institutions

Darul ulooms and madrasas

Deoband Mazahir Uloom Nadwatul Ulama Dabhel Hathazari Madrassah Ashrafia Befaqul Madarisil Arabia Bangladesh Karachi Jamia Uloom-ul-Islamia Bury In'aamiyyah List of Deobandi
Deobandi
universities

Centres (markaz) of Tabligh

Nizamuddin Raiwind Dhaka Dewsbury Taj-ul-Masajid Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta Jamek Mosque

Associated organizations

Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam Tablighi Jamaat Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan Taliban Tehrik-i- Taliban
Taliban
Pakistan Lashkar-e-Jhangvi All India Muslim Personal Law Board Islamic Fiqh Academy, India

v t e

The Taliban
Taliban
(Pashto: طالبان‬‎ ṭālibān "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(IEA),[35] is a Sunni
Sunni
Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.[36][37] Since 2016, the Taliban's leader is Mawlawi Hibatullah Akhundzada.[38] From 1996 to 2001, the Taliban
Taliban
held power over roughly three quarters of Afghanistan, and enforced there a strict interpretation of Sharia, or Islamic law. The Taliban
Taliban
emerged in 1994 as one of the prominent factions in the Afghan Civil War[39] and largely consisted of students (talib) from the Pashtun areas of eastern and southern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
who had been educated in traditional Islamic schools, and fought during the Soviet–Afghan War.[40][41][42][43] Under the leadership of Mohammed Omar, the movement spread throughout most of Afghanistan, sequestering power from the Mujahideen
Mujahideen
warlords. The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
was established in 1996 and the Afghan capital was transferred to Kandahar. It held control of most of the country until being overthrown after the American-led invasion of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in December 2001 following the September 11 attacks. At its peak, formal diplomatic recognition of the Taliban's government was acknowledged by only three nations: Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The group later regrouped as an insurgency movement to fight the American-backed Karzai administration and the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force
International Security Assistance Force
(ISAF) in the War in Afghanistan. The Taliban
Taliban
have been condemned internationally for the harsh enforcement of their interpretation of Islamic Sharia
Sharia
law, which has resulted in the brutal treatment of many Afghans, especially women.[44][45] During their rule from 1996 to 2001, the Taliban
Taliban
and their allies committed massacres against Afghan civilians, denied UN food supplies to 160,000 starving civilians and conducted a policy of scorched earth, burning vast areas of fertile land and destroying tens of thousands of homes.[46][47][48][49][50][51] According to the United Nations, the Taliban
Taliban
and their allies were responsible for 76% of Afghan civilian casualties in 2010, 80% in 2011, and 80% in 2012.[52][53][54][55][56][57] The Taliban's ideology has been described as combining an "innovative form" of sharia Islamic law based on Deobandi
Deobandi
fundamentalism[58] and the militant Islamism
Islamism
and Salafi jihadism
Salafi jihadism
of Osama bin Laden[58] with Pashtun social and cultural norms known as Pashtunwali,[9][10][59][page needed][60] as most Taliban
Taliban
are Pashtun tribesmen. The Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence
Inter-Services Intelligence
and military are widely alleged by the international community and the Afghan government to have provided support to the Taliban
Taliban
during their founding and time in power, and of continuing to support the Taliban
Taliban
during the insurgency. Pakistan
Pakistan
states that it dropped all support for the group after the September 11 attacks.[61][62][63][64][65][66] In 2001, reportedly 2,500 Arabs under command of Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
leader Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
fought for the Taliban.[67]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Background

2.1 Soviet intervention (1978–92) 2.2 Afghan Civil War (1992–96)

3 History

3.1 1994 3.2 1995 – September 1996 3.3 Taliban's Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
(1996–2001)

3.3.1 Afghanistan
Afghanistan
during Taliban
Taliban
rule 3.3.2 Role of the Pakistani military 3.3.3 Anti- Taliban
Taliban
resistance under Massoud

3.4 U.S.-led overthrow of Taliban
Taliban
and further battle against Taliban

3.4.1 Prelude 3.4.2 Coalition attack 3.4.3 Targeted killings

3.5 Taliban
Taliban
resurgence after 2001

4 Condemned Taliban
Taliban
practices

4.1 Massacre
Massacre
campaigns 4.2 Human trafficking 4.3 Oppression of women 4.4 Violence against Afghan civilians 4.5 Intimidating and murdering aid workers

5 Ideology

5.1 (Deobandi) Islamic rules 5.2 Pashtun cultural influences 5.3 Bamyan Buddhas 5.4 Consistency 5.5 Explanation of ideology 5.6 Criticisms

6 Governance

6.1 Leaders 6.2 Overview 6.3 Organization 6.4 Conscription

7 Economy 8 International relations

8.1 Saudi Arabia 8.2 Qatar 8.3 Canada 8.4 Pakistan 8.5 Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan
Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan
(Pakistani Taliban) 8.6 Malakand Taliban 8.7 al-Qaeda 8.8 Iran 8.9 United States 8.10 United Kingdom 8.11 India 8.12 Russia 8.13 United Nations
United Nations
and NGOs

9 See also 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 Further reading 13 External links

Etymology The word Taliban
Taliban
is Pashto, طالبان ṭālibān, meaning "students", the plural of ṭālib. This is a loanword from Arabic طالب ṭālib, using the Persian plural ending -ān ان. In Arabic
Arabic
طالبان ṭālibān means not "students" but "two students", as it is a "dual form", the Arabic
Arabic
plural being طلاب ṭullāb—occasionally causing some confusion to Arabic
Arabic
speakers. Since becoming a loanword in English, Taliban, besides a plural noun referring to the group, has also been used as a singular noun referring to an individual. For example, John Walker Lindh
John Walker Lindh
has been referred to as "an American Taliban", rather than "an American Talib". In the English language newspapers of Pakistan, the word Talibans is often used when referring to more than one Taliban. The spelling Taliban
Taliban
has come to be predominant over Taleban in English.[68][69] Background Soviet intervention (1978–92)

President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
meeting with Afghan Mujahideen
Mujahideen
leaders in the Oval Office in 1983

After the Soviet Union intervened and occupied Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 1979, Islamic mujahideen fighters engaged in war with those Soviet forces. Pakistan's President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq
feared that the Soviets were planning to invade also Balochistan, Pakistan, so he sent Akhtar Abdur Rahman to Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
to garner support for the Afghan resistance against Soviet occupation forces. A while later, the U.S. CIA and Saudi Arabic
Arabic
General Intelligence Directorate (GID) funneled funding and equipment through the PakistanI Inter-Service Intelligence Agency (ISI) to the Afghan mujahideen.[70] About 90,000 Afghans, including Mohammed Omar, were trained by Pakistan's ISI during the 1980s.[70] The renowned British Professor Carole Hillenbrand concluded that the Taliban
Taliban
have arisen from those US-Saudi-Pakistan-supported mujahideen: "The West helped the Taliban to fight the Soviet takeover of Afghanistan".[71] Afghan Civil War (1992–96) See also: Afghan Civil War (1992–96) After the fall of the Soviet-backed regime of Mohammad Najibullah
Mohammad Najibullah
in 1992, many Afghan political parties, but not Gulbuddin Hekmatyar's Hezb-e Islami, Hizb-e Wahdat, and Ittihad-i Islami, in April agreed on a peace and power-sharing agreement, the Peshawar
Peshawar
Accord, which created the Islamic State of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and appointed an interim government for a transitional period. Hekmatyar's Hezb-e Islami
Hezb-e Islami
party refused to recognize the interim government, and in April infiltrated Kabul
Kabul
to take power for itself, thus starting this civil war. In May, Hekmatyar started attacks against government forces and Kabul.[72] Hekmatyar received operational, financial and military support from Pakistan's ISI.[73] With that help, Hekmatyar's forces were able to destroy half of Kabul.[74] Iran
Iran
assisted the Hizb-e Wahdat
Hizb-e Wahdat
forces of Abdul Ali Mazari. Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
supported the Ittihad-i Islami faction.[72][74][75] The conflict between these militias also escalated into war.

The Taliban
Taliban
emerged in the southern Afghan city of Kandahar
Kandahar
around September 1994.

Due to this sudden initiation of civil war, working government departments, police units or a system of justice and accountability for the newly created Islamic State of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
did not have time to form. Horrific crimes were committed by individuals inside different factions. Ceasefires, negotiated by representatives of the Islamic State's newly appointed Defense Minister Ahmad Shah Massoud, President Sibghatullah Mojaddedi
Sibghatullah Mojaddedi
and later President Burhanuddin Rabbani (the interim government), or officials from the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), commonly collapsed within days.[72] The countryside in northern Afghanistan, parts of which was under the control of Defense Minister Massoud remained calm and some reconstruction took place. The city of Herat
Herat
under the rule of Islamic State ally Ismail Khan
Ismail Khan
also witnessed relative calm. Meanwhile, southern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
was neither under the control of foreign-backed militias nor the government in Kabul, but was ruled by local leaders such as Gul Agha Sherzai
Gul Agha Sherzai
and their militias. The Taliban only first emerged on the scene in August 1994, announcing to liberate Afghanistan
Afghanistan
from its present corrupt leadership of warlords, and establish a pure Islamic society. History See also: Taliban's rise to power 1994 Further information: Afghan Civil War (1992–96)
Afghan Civil War (1992–96)
§ 1994 The Taliban
Taliban
are a movement of religious students (talib) from the Pashtun areas of eastern and southern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
who had been educated in traditional Islamic schools in Pakistan.[40] Mullah
Mullah
Mohammad Omar in September 1994 in his hometown of Kandahar with 50 students founded the group.[76][77][78] Omar had since 1992 been studying in the Sang-i-Hisar madrassa in Maiwand
Maiwand
(northern Kandahar
Kandahar
Province), was disappointed that Islamic law had not been installed in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
after the ousting of communist rule, and now with his group pledged to rid Afghanistan
Afghanistan
of warlords and criminals.[76] Within months, 15,000 students, often Afghan refugees, from religious schools or madrasas – one source calls them Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam-run madrasas[77] – in Pakistan
Pakistan
joined the group. Those early Taliban were motivated by the suffering among the Afghan people, which they believed resulted from power struggles between Afghan groups not adhering to the moral code of Islam; in their religious schools they had been taught a belief in strict Islamic law.[76][41][42] But sources state that Pakistan
Pakistan
was heavily involved, already in October 1994, in the "creating" of the Taliban.[79][80] Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence
Inter-Services Intelligence
agency (ISI), strongly supporting the Taliban
Taliban
in 1994, hoped for a new ruling power in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
favorable to Pakistan.[76] On 3 November 1994, the Taliban
Taliban
in a surprise attack conquered Kandahar
Kandahar
City.[76] Before 4 January 1995, they controlled 12 Afghan provinces.[76] Militias controlling the different areas often surrendered without a fight. Omar's commanders were a mixture of former small-unit military commanders and madrassa teachers.[81][82][83][84][85] At these stages, the Taliban
Taliban
were popular, because they stamped out corruption, curbed lawlessness, and made the roads and area safe.[76] Late 1994, Islamic State of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
initiated measures to restore law and order to the capital Kabul, and initiated a nationwide political process for national democratic consolidation and democratic elections. Hoping for the Taliban
Taliban
to be allies in bringing stability to Afghanistan, the Islamic State's Defense Minister Ahmad Shah Massoud invited the Taliban
Taliban
to join the consolidation process and contribute to stability. Unarmed, Massoud went to talk to Taliban leaders in Maidan Shar
Maidan Shar
to convince them to join the initiated political process.[86][87][88][89][90][91] The Taliban
Taliban
declined to join such a political process.[citation needed] 1995 – September 1996 Further information: Afghan Civil War (1992–96)
Afghan Civil War (1992–96)
§ 1995 In a bid to establish their rule over all Afghanistan, the Taliban started shelling Kabul
Kabul
in early 1995.[88] The Taliban
Taliban
first suffered a devastating defeat against government forces of the Islamic State of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
under the command of Ahmad Shah Massoud. Pakistan, however, started to provide stronger military support to the Taliban. On September 26, 1996, as the Taliban
Taliban
with military support by Pakistan
Pakistan
and financial support by Saudi Arabia[citation needed] prepared for another major offensive, Massoud ordered a full retreat from Kabul
Kabul
to continue anti- Taliban
Taliban
resistance in the northeastern Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
mountains instead of engaging in street battles in Kabul. The Taliban
Taliban
entered Kabul
Kabul
on September 27, 1996, and established the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. Analysts described the Taliban
Taliban
then as developing into a proxy force for Pakistan's regional interests.[74][83][88][92][93][94]

Map showing political control in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the fall of 1996, following the capture of Kabul
Kabul
by the Taliban.

Taliban's Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
(1996–2001) Main articles: Afghan Civil War (1996–2001)
Afghan Civil War (1996–2001)
and Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan The military goal of the Taliban
Taliban
during the period 1995 to 2001 was to return the order of Abdur Rahman (the Iron Emir) by the re-establishment of a state with Pashtun dominance within the northern areas.[95] By 1998, the Taliban's Emirate controlled 90% of Afghanistan.[76] In December 2000, the UNSC in Resolution 1333, recognizing humanitarian needs of the Afghan people, condemning the use of Taliban territory for training of "terrorists" and Taliban
Taliban
providing safehaven to Osama bin Laden, issued severe sanctions against Afghanistan
Afghanistan
under Taliban
Taliban
control.[96] In October 2001, the United States, with allies including the Afghan Northern Alliance, invaded Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and routed the Taliban
Taliban
regime. The Taliban
Taliban
leadership fled into Pakistan.[76] Afghanistan
Afghanistan
during Taliban
Taliban
rule When the Taliban
Taliban
took power in 1996, twenty years of continuous warfare had devastated Afghanistan's infrastructure and economy. There was no running water, little electricity, few telephones, functioning roads or regular energy supplies. Basic necessities like water, food, housing and others were in desperately short supply. In addition, the clan and family structure that provided Afghans with a social/economic safety net was also badly damaged. Afghanistan's infant mortality was the highest in the world. A full quarter of all children died before they reached their fifth birthday, a rate several times higher than most other developing countries.[97][98][99] International charitable and/or development organisations (non-governmental organizations or NGOs) were extremely important to the supply of food, employment, reconstruction, and other services, but the Taliban
Taliban
proved highly suspicious towards the 'help' those organizations offered (see § United Nations
United Nations
and NGOs). With one million plus deaths during the years of war, the number of families headed by widows had reached 98,000 by 1998. In Kabul, where vast portions of the city had been devastated from rocket attacks, more than half of its 1.2 million people benefited in some way from NGO activities, even for water to drink. The civil war and its never-ending refugee stream continued throughout the Taliban's reign. The Mazar, Herat, and Shomali valley offensives displaced more than three-quarters of a million civilians, using "scorched earth" tactics to prevent them from supplying the enemy with aid.[100][101][102] Taliban
Taliban
decision-makers, particularly Mullah
Mullah
Omar, seldom if ever talked directly to non-Muslim foreigners, so aid providers had to deal with intermediaries whose approvals and agreements were often reversed.[103] Around September 1997 the heads of three UN agencies in Kandahar
Kandahar
were expelled from the country after protesting when a female attorney for the UN High Commissioner for Refugees was forced to talk from behind a curtain so her face would not be visible.[104] When the UN increased the number of Muslim women staff to satisfy Taliban
Taliban
demands, the Taliban
Taliban
then required all female Muslim UN staff traveling to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to be chaperoned by a mahram or a blood relative.[105] In July 1998, the Taliban
Taliban
closed "all NGO offices" by force after those organizations refused to move to a bombed-out former Polytechnic College as ordered.[106] One month later the UN offices were also shut down.[107] As food prices rose and conditions deteriorated, Planning Minister Qari Din Mohammed explained the Taliban's indifference to the loss of humanitarian aid:

We Muslims believe God the Almighty will feed everybody one way or another. If the foreign NGOs leave then it is their decision. We have not expelled them.[108]

Role of the Pakistani military Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence
Inter-Services Intelligence
(ISI) greatly supported and funded the Taliban
Taliban
during 1994, some sources even say ISI "created" the Taliban. The I.S.I. used the Taliban
Taliban
to establish a regime in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
which would be favorable to Pakistan, as they were trying to gain strategic depth. Since the creation of the Taliban, the ISI and the Pakistani military have given financial, logistical and military support.[61][109][110][111][112][113][114][115][116][117][118][119][120][121][122][123] According to Pakistani Afghanistan
Afghanistan
expert Ahmed Rashid, "between 1994 and 1999, an estimated 80,000 to 100,000 Pakistanis trained and fought in Afghanistan" on the side of the Taliban. Peter Tomsen stated that up until 9/11 Pakistani military and ISI officers along with thousands of regular Pakistani armed forces personnel had been involved in the fighting in Afghanistan.[124][125] During 2001, according to several international sources, 28,000–30,000 Pakistani nationals, 14,000–15,000 Afghan Taliban and 2,000–3,000 Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
militants were fighting against anti- Taliban
Taliban
forces in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
as a roughly 45,000 strong military force. Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf
Pervez Musharraf
– then as Chief of Army Staff – was responsible for sending thousands of Pakistanis to fight alongside the Taliban
Taliban
and Bin Laden against the forces of Ahmad Shah Massoud. Of the estimated 28,000 Pakistani nationals fighting in Afghanistan, 8,000 were militants recruited in madrassas filling regular Taliban
Taliban
ranks. The document further states that the parents of those Pakistani nationals "know nothing regarding their child's military involvement with the Taliban
Taliban
until their bodies are brought back to Pakistan." A 1998 document by the U.S. State Department confirms that "20–40 percent of [regular] Taliban
Taliban
soldiers are Pakistani." According to the U.S. State Department
U.S. State Department
report and reports by Human Rights Watch, the other Pakistani nationals fighting in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
were regular Pakistani soldiers, especially from the Frontier Corps
Frontier Corps
but also from the army providing direct combat support.[67][86][92][126][127][128][129] Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
wrote in 2000:

Of all the foreign powers involved in efforts to sustain and manipulate the ongoing fighting [in Afghanistan], Pakistan
Pakistan
is distinguished both by the sweep of its objectives and the scale of its efforts, which include soliciting funding for the Taliban, bankrolling Taliban
Taliban
operations, providing diplomatic support as the Taliban's virtual emissaries abroad, arranging training for Taliban
Taliban
fighters, recruiting skilled and unskilled manpower to serve in Taliban
Taliban
armies, planning and directing offensives, providing and facilitating shipments of ammunition and fuel, and ... directly providing combat support.[62]

On August 1, 1997 the Taliban
Taliban
launched an attack on Sheberghan, the main military base of Abdul Rashid Dostum. Dostum has said the reason the attack was successful was due to 1500 Pakistani commandos taking part and that the Pakistani air force also gave support.[130] In 1998, Iran
Iran
accused Pakistan
Pakistan
of sending its air force to bomb Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
in support of Taliban
Taliban
forces and directly accused Pakistani troops for "war crimes at Bamiyan". The same year, Russia said Pakistan
Pakistan
was responsible for the "military expansion" of the Taliban
Taliban
in northern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
by sending large numbers of Pakistani troops, some of whom had subsequently been taken as prisoners by the anti- Taliban
Taliban
United Front.[131][132] During 2000, the UN Security Council
Security Council
imposed an arms embargo against military support to the Taliban, with UN officials explicitly singling out Pakistan. The UN secretary-general implicitly criticized Pakistan for its military support and the Security Council
Security Council
stated it was "deeply distress[ed] over reports of involvement in the fighting, on the Taliban
Taliban
side, of thousands of non-Afghan nationals." In July 2001, several countries, including the United States, accused Pakistan
Pakistan
of being "in violation of U.N. sanctions because of its military aid to the Taliban." The Taliban
Taliban
also obtained financial resources from Pakistan. In 1997 alone, after the capture of Kabul
Kabul
by the Taliban, Pakistan
Pakistan
gave $30 million in aid and a further $10 million for government wages.[133][134][135] During 2000, British Intelligence reported that the ISI was taking an active role in several Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
training camps. The ISI helped with the construction of training camps for both the Taliban
Taliban
and Al-Qaeda. From 1996 to 2001 the Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
of Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
and Ayman al-Zawahiri became a state within the Taliban
Taliban
state. Bin Laden sent Arab
Arab
and Central Asian Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
militants to join the fight against the United Front, among them his Brigade 055.[136][137][138][139][140] The role of the Pakistani military has been described by international observers as well as by the anti- Taliban
Taliban
leader Ahmad Shah Massoud
Ahmad Shah Massoud
as a "creeping invasion".[124] Anti- Taliban
Taliban
resistance under Massoud

The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
and the Northern Alliance
Northern Alliance
in the spring of 2000, when the Taliban
Taliban
was at the height of its power.

Ahmad Shah Massoud
Ahmad Shah Massoud
and Abdul Rashid Dostum, former enemies, created the United Front (Northern Alliance) against the Taliban
Taliban
that were preparing offensives against the remaining areas under the control of Massoud and those under the control of Dostum. The United Front included beside the dominantly Tajik forces of Massoud and the Uzbek forces of Dostum, Hazara troops led by Haji Mohammad Mohaqiq
Haji Mohammad Mohaqiq
and Pashtun forces under the leadership of commanders such as Abdul Haq and Haji Abdul Qadir. Notable politicians and diplomats of the United Front included Abdul Rahim Ghafoorzai, Abdullah Abdullah
Abdullah Abdullah
and Massoud Khalili. From the Taliban
Taliban
conquest of Kabul
Kabul
in September 1996 until November 2001 the United Front controlled roughly 30% of Afghanistan's population in provinces such as Badakhshan, Kapisa, Takhar and parts of Parwan, Kunar, Nuristan, Laghman, Samangan, Kunduz, Ghōr and Bamyan. After longstanding battles, especially for the northern city of Mazar-i-Sharif, Abdul Rashid Dostum
Abdul Rashid Dostum
and his Junbish forces were defeated by the Taliban
Taliban
and their allies in 1998. Dostum subsequently went into exile. Ahmad Shah Massoud
Ahmad Shah Massoud
remained the only major anti- Taliban
Taliban
leader inside Afghanistan
Afghanistan
who was able to defend vast parts of his territory against the Taliban. In the areas under his control Massoud set up democratic institutions and signed the Women's Rights
Women's Rights
Declaration. In the area of Massoud, women and girls did not have to wear the Afghan burqa. They were allowed to work and to go to school. In at least two known instances, Massoud personally intervened against cases of forced marriage.

It is our conviction and we believe that both men and women are created by the Almighty. Both have equal rights. Women can pursue an education, women can pursue a career, and women can play a role in society – just like men.[86][141] — Ahmad Shah Massoud, 2001

Massoud is adamant that in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
women have suffered oppression for generations. He says that 'the cultural environment of the country suffocates women. But the Taliban
Taliban
exacerbate this with oppression.' His most ambitious project is to shatter this cultural prejudice and so give more space, freedom and equality to women – they would have the same rights as men.[86] — Pepe Escobar, Massoud: From Warrior to Statesman

Afghan traditions would need a generation or more to overcome and could only be challenged by education, he said. Humayun Tandar, who took part as an Afghan diplomat in the 2001 International Conference on Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in Bonn, said that "strictures of language, ethnicity, region were [also] stifling for Massoud. That is why ... he wanted to create a unity which could surpass the situation in which we found ourselves and still find ourselves to this day." This applied also to strictures of religion. Jean-José Puig describes how Massoud often led prayers before a meal or at times asked his fellow Muslims to lead the prayer but also did not hesitate to ask a Christian friend Jean-José Puig or the Jewish Princeton University
Princeton University
Professor Michael Barry: "Jean-José, we believe in the same God. Please, tell us the prayer before lunch or dinner in your own language."[86] Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
cites no human rights crimes for the forces under direct control of Massoud for the period from October 1996 until the assassination of Massoud in September 2001. 400,000 to one million Afghans fled from the Taliban
Taliban
to the area of Massoud.[129][142][143] National Geographic concluded in its documentary "Inside the Taliban":

The only thing standing in the way of future Taliban
Taliban
massacres is Ahmad Shah Massoud.[129] — National Geographic, Inside the Taliban

The Taliban
Taliban
repeatedly offered Massoud a position of power to make him stop his resistance. Massoud declined. He explained in one interview:

The Taliban
Taliban
say: 'Come and accept the post of prime minister and be with us', and they would keep the highest office in the country, the presidentship. But at what cost?! The difference between us concerns mainly our way of thinking about the very principles of the society and the state. We can not accept their conditions of compromise, or else we would have to give up the principles of modern democracy. We are fundamentally against the system called 'the Emirate of Afghanistan".[144] — Ahmad Shah Massoud, 2001

The United Front in its Proposals for Peace demanded the Taliban
Taliban
to join a political process leading towards nationwide democratic elections. In early 2001, Massoud employed a new strategy of local military pressure and global political appeals. Resentment was increasingly gathering against Taliban
Taliban
rule from the bottom of Afghan society, including the Pashtun areas. Massoud publicized their cause of "popular consensus, general elections and democracy" worldwide. At the same time he was very wary not to revive the failed Kabul government of the early 1990s. Already in 1999, he started the training of police forces which he trained specifically in order to keep order and protect the civilian population in case the United Front would be successful.[86][144][145] Massoud stated:

The Taliban
Taliban
are not a force to be considered invincible. They are distanced from the people now. They are weaker than in the past. There is only the assistance given by Pakistan, Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
and other extremist groups that keep the Taliban
Taliban
on their feet. With a halt to that assistance, it is extremely difficult to survive.[146] — Ahmad Shah Massoud, 2001

From 1999 onwards, a renewed process was set into motion by the Tajik Ahmad Shah Massoud
Ahmad Shah Massoud
and the Pashtun Abdul Haq to unite all the ethnicities of Afghanistan. While Massoud united the Tajiks, Hazara and Uzbeks
Uzbeks
as well as some Pashtun commanders under his United Front command, the famed Pashtun commander Abdul Haq received increasing numbers of defecting Pashtun Taliban
Taliban
as " Taliban
Taliban
popularity trended downward". Both agreed to work together with the exiled Afghan king Zahir Shah. International officials who met with representatives of the new alliance, which Pulitzer Prize winner Steve Coll
Steve Coll
referred to as the "grand Pashtun-Tajik alliance", said, "It's crazy that you have this today ... Pashtuns, Tajiks, Uzbeks, Hazara ... They were all ready to buy in to the process ... to work under the king's banner for an ethnically balanced Afghanistan." Senior diplomat and Afghanistan expert Peter Tomsen wrote: "The ‘Lion of Kabul’ [Abdul Haq] and the ‘Lion of Panjshir’ [Ahmad Shah Massoud] ... Haq, Massoud, and Karzai, Afghanistan’s three leading moderates, could transcend the Pashtun—non-Pashtun, north-south divide." The most senior Hazara and Uzbek leader were also part of the process. In late 2000, Massoud officially brought together this new alliance in a meeting in Northern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to discuss, among other things, "a Loya Jirga, or a traditional council of elders, to settle political turmoil in Afghanistan". That part of the Pashtun-Tajik-Hazara-Uzbek peace plan did eventually materialize. An account of the meeting by author and journalist Sebastian Junger
Sebastian Junger
says: "In 2000, when I was there ... I happened to be there in a very interesting time. ... Massoud brought together Afghan leaders from all ethnic groups. They flew from London, Paris, the USA, all parts of Afghanistan, Pakistan, India. He brought them all into the northern area where he was. He held a council of ... prominent Afghans from all over the world, brought there to discuss the Afghan government after the Taliban. ... we met all these men and interviewed them briefly. One was Hamid Karzai; I did not have any idea who he would end up being ..."[145][147][148][149][150] In early 2001, Ahmad Shah Massoud
Ahmad Shah Massoud
with ethnic leaders from all of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
addressed the European Parliament
European Parliament
in Brussels
Brussels
asking the international community to provide humanitarian help to the people of Afghanistan. He stated that the Taliban
Taliban
and Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
had introduced "a very wrong perception of Islam" and that without the support of Pakistan
Pakistan
and Bin Laden the Taliban
Taliban
would not be able to sustain their military campaign for up to a year. On this visit to Europe he also warned that his intelligence had gathered information about a large-scale attack on U.S. soil being imminent. The president of the European Parliament, Nicole Fontaine, called him the "pole of liberty in Afghanistan".[151][152][153][154] On September 9, 2001, Massoud, then aged 48, was the target of a suicide attack by two Arabs posing as journalists at Khwaja Bahauddin, in the Takhar Province
Takhar Province
of Afghanistan. Massoud, who had survived countless assassination attempts over a period of 26 years, died in a helicopter taking him to a hospital. The first attempt on Massoud's life had been carried out by Hekmatyar and two Pakistani ISI agents in 1975, when Massoud was only 22 years old. In early 2001, Al-Qaeda would-be assassins were captured by Massoud's forces while trying to enter his territory.[75][145][155][156] The funeral, though in a rather rural area, was attended by hundreds of thousands of mourning people. The assassination of Massoud is believed to have a connection to the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
on U.S. soil, which killed nearly 3000 people, and which appeared to be the terrorist attack that Massoud had warned against in his speech to the European Parliament
European Parliament
several months earlier. John P. O'Neill
John P. O'Neill
was a counter-terrorism expert and the Assistant Director of the FBI
FBI
until late 2001. He retired from the FBI and was offered the position of director of security at the World Trade Center (WTC). He took the job at the WTC two weeks before 9/11. On September 10, 2001, O'Neill told two of his friends, "We're due. And we're due for something big.... Some things have happened in Afghanistan. [referring to the assassination of Massoud] I don't like the way things are lining up in Afghanistan.... I sense a shift, and I think things are going to happen ... soon." O'Neill died on September 11, 2001, when the South Tower collapsed.[157][158] After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Massoud's United Front troops and United Front troops of Abdul Rashid Dostum
Abdul Rashid Dostum
(who returned from exile) ousted the Taliban
Taliban
from power in Kabul
Kabul
with American air support in Operation Enduring Freedom. From October to December 2001, the United Front gained control of much of the country and played a crucial role in establishing the post- Taliban
Taliban
interim government under Hamid Karzai. U.S.-led overthrow of Taliban
Taliban
and further battle against Taliban Main article: War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–present)

Taliban
Taliban
border guard in 2001

Prelude On 20 September 2001, the U.S. president, speaking to a joint session of Congress, tentatively blamed Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
for the September 11 attacks; the president stated that the "leadership of Al Qaeda ha[d] great influence in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and support[ed] the Taliban
Taliban
regime in controlling most of that country". George Bush then said: "We condemn the Taliban
Taliban
regime", and went on to state, "Tonight the United States of America makes the following demands on the Taliban", which he said were "not open to negotiation or discussion":[159][160]

Deliver to the U.S. all of the leaders of Al-Qaeda Release all foreign nationals that have been unjustly imprisoned Protect foreign journalists, diplomats, and aid workers Close immediately every terrorist training camp Hand over every terrorist and their supporters to appropriate authorities Give the United States
United States
full access to terrorist training camps for inspection

The U.S. petitioned the international community to back a military campaign to overthrow the Taliban. The U.N. issued two resolutions on terrorism after the September 11 attacks. The resolutions called on all states to "[increase] cooperation and full implementation of the relevant international conventions relating to terrorism" and specified consensus recommendations for all countries.[161][better source needed][162][better source needed] According to a research briefing by the House of Commons Library, although the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council
Security Council
(UNSC) did not authorize the U.S.-led military campaign, it was "widely (although not universally) perceived to be a legitimate form of self-defense under the UN Charter" and the council "moved quickly to authorize a military operation to stabilize the country" in the wake of the invasion.[163] Moreover, on 12 September 2001, NATO
NATO
approved a campaign against Afghanistan
Afghanistan
as self-defense against armed attack.[164] The Taliban
Taliban
ambassador to Pakistan, Abdul Salem Zaeef, responded to the ultimatum by demanding "convincing evidence" that Bin Laden was involved in the attacks, stating "our position is that if America has evidence and proof, they should produce it." Additionally, the Taliban insisted that any trial of Bin Laden be held in an Afghan court. Zaeef also claimed that "4,000 Jews working in the Trade Center had prior knowledge of the suicide missions, and 'were absent on that day.'" This response was generally dismissed as a delaying tactic, rather than a sincere attempt to cooperate with the ultimatum.[165][166][167][168][169][170] On September 22, the United Arab
Arab
Emirates, and later Saudi Arabia, withdrew recognition of the Taliban
Taliban
as Afghanistan's legal government, leaving neighbouring Pakistan
Pakistan
as the only remaining country with diplomatic ties. On October 4, the Taliban
Taliban
agreed to turn bin Laden over to Pakistan
Pakistan
for trial in an international tribunal that operated according to Islamic Sharia
Sharia
law, but Pakistan
Pakistan
blocked the offer as it was not possible to guarantee his safety. On October 7, the Taliban ambassador to Pakistan
Pakistan
offered to detain bin Laden and try him under Islamic law if the U.S. made a formal request and presented the Taliban
Taliban
with evidence. A Bush administration official, speaking on condition of anonymity, rejected the Taliban
Taliban
offer, and stated that the U.S. would not negotiate their demands.[171][172][173] Coalition attack

The Taliban
Taliban
were removed from power in October 2001 by a unified effort of United Islamic Front
United Islamic Front
(Northern Alliance) ground forces, small U.S. Special
Special
Operations teams and U.S. air support.

On October 7, less than one month after the September 11 attacks, the U.S., aided by the United Kingdom, Canada, and other countries including several from the NATO
NATO
alliance, initiated military action, bombing Taliban
Taliban
and Al-Qaeda-related camps.[174][175] The stated intent of military operations was to remove the Taliban
Taliban
from power, and prevent the use of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
as a terrorist base of operations.[176] The CIA's elite Special Activities Division
Special Activities Division
(SAD) units were the first U.S. forces to enter Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(noting that many different countries' intelligence agencies were on the ground or operating within theatre before SAD, and that SAD are not technically military forces, but civilian paramilitaries). They joined with the Afghan United Front (Northern Alliance) to prepare for the subsequent arrival of U.S. Special
Special
Operations forces. The United Front (Northern Alliance) and SAD and Special Forces
Special Forces
combined to overthrow the Taliban with minimal coalition casualties, and without the use of international conventional ground forces. The Washington Post
The Washington Post
stated in an editorial by John Lehman in 2006:

What made the Afghan campaign a landmark in the U.S. Military's history is that it was prosecuted by Special
Special
Operations forces from all the services, along with Navy and Air Force tactical power, operations by the Afghan Northern Alliance
Northern Alliance
and the CIA were equally important and fully integrated. No large Army or Marine force was employed.[177]

On October 14, the Taliban
Taliban
offered to discuss handing over Osama bin Laden to a neutral country in return for a bombing halt, but only if the Taliban
Taliban
were given evidence of bin Laden's involvement.[178] The U.S. rejected this offer, and continued military operations. Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
fell to United Front troops of Ustad Atta Mohammad Noor and Abdul Rashid Dostum
Abdul Rashid Dostum
on November 9, triggering a cascade of provinces falling with minimal resistance. In November 2001, before the capture of Kunduz
Kunduz
by United Front troops under the command of Mohammad Daud Daud, thousands of top commanders and regular fighters of the Taliban
Taliban
and Al-Qaeda, Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence
Inter-Services Intelligence
agents and military personnel, and other volunteers and sympathizers in the Kunduz
Kunduz
airlift, dubbed the Airlift of Evil by US military forces around Kunduz
Kunduz
and subsequently used as a term in media reports, were evacuated and airlifted out of Kunduz
Kunduz
by Pakistan
Pakistan
Army cargo aircraft to Pakistan
Pakistan
Air Force air bases in Chitral
Chitral
and Gilgit
Gilgit
in Pakistan's Northern Areas.[179][180][181][182][183][184] On the night of November 12, the Taliban
Taliban
retreated south from Kabul. On November 15, they released eight Western aid workers after three months in captivity. By November 13, the Taliban
Taliban
had withdrawn from both Kabul
Kabul
and Jalalabad. Finally, in early December, the Taliban
Taliban
gave up Kandahar, their last stronghold, dispersing without surrendering. Targeted killings Main article: Targeted killing The United States
United States
has conducted targeted killings against Taliban leaders, mainly using Special
Special
Forces, and sometimes unmanned aerial vehicles. British forces also used similar tactics, mostly in Helmand Province, Afghanistan. During Operation Herrick, British special forces assassinated at least fifty high and local Taliban
Taliban
commanders in targeted killings in Helmand
Helmand
Province, which received both positive and negative coverage in the British media.[185] The Taliban
Taliban
also used targeted killings. In 2011 alone, they killed notable anti- Taliban
Taliban
leaders, such as former Afghan President Burhanuddin Rabbani, the police chief in northern Afghanistan, the commander of the elite anti- Taliban
Taliban
303 Pamir Corps, Mohammad Daud Daud, and the police chief of Kunduz, Abdul Rahman Saidkhaili. All of them belonged to the Massoud faction of the United Front. According to Guantanamo Bay charge sheets, the United States
United States
Department of Defense believes the Taliban
Taliban
may maintain a 40-man undercover unit called " Jihad
Jihad
Kandahar", which is used for undercover operations, including targeted killings.[186] Taliban
Taliban
resurgence after 2001 Main article: Taliban
Taliban
insurgency Further information: War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–present) After the attacks of 11 September 2001 on the United States, Pakistan has been accused of continuing to support the Taliban, an allegation Pakistan
Pakistan
denies.[64][187] However, with the fall of Kabul
Kabul
to anti- Taliban
Taliban
forces in November 2001, ISI forces worked with and helped Taliban
Taliban
militias who were in full retreat. In November 2001, Taliban, Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
combatants and ISI operatives were safely evacuated from Kunduz
Kunduz
on Pakistan
Pakistan
Army cargo aircraft to Pakistan
Pakistan
Air Force bases in Chitral
Chitral
and Gilgit
Gilgit
in Pakistan's Northern Areas
Northern Areas
(see Kunduz
Kunduz
airlift). Former Pakistani president Pervez Musharraf
Pervez Musharraf
wrote in his memoirs that Richard Armitage, the former US deputy secretary of state, said Pakistan
Pakistan
would be "bombed back to the stone-age" if it continued to support the Taliban, although Armitage has since denied using the "stone age" phrase.[188][189][190][179][191][192][193][194][195]

Development of a then-small Taliban insurgency
Taliban insurgency
in 2002 until 2006, the year which saw an escalation in Taliban
Taliban
attacks

In May and June 2003, high Taliban
Taliban
officials proclaimed the Taliban regrouped and ready for guerrilla war to expel US forces from Afghanistan.[196][197] In late 2004, the then hidden Taliban
Taliban
leader Mohammed Omar
Mohammed Omar
announced an insurgency against "America and its puppets" (= transitional Afghan government forces) to "regain the sovereignty of our country".[198] On 29 May 2006, while according to American website The Spokesman-Review Afghanistan
Afghanistan
faced "a mounting threat from armed Taliban
Taliban
fighters in the countryside", a US military truck of a convoy in Kabul
Kabul
lost control and plowed into twelve civilian vehicles, killing one and injuring six people. The surrounding crowd got angry and a riot arose, lasting all day ending with 20 dead and 160 injured. When stone-throwing and gunfire had come from a crowd of some 400 men, the US troops had used their weapons "to defend themselves" while leaving the scene, a US military spokesman said. A correspondent for the Financial Times
Financial Times
in Kabul
Kabul
suggested that this was the outbreak of "a ground swell of resentment" and "growing hostility to foreigners" that had been growing and building since 2004, and may also have been triggered by a US air strike a week earlier in southern Afghanistan killing 30 civilians, where she assumed that "the Taliban
Taliban
had been sheltering in civilian houses".[199][200] The continued support from tribal and other groups in Pakistan, the drug trade, and the small number of NATO
NATO
forces, combined with the long history of resistance and isolation, indicated that Taliban forces and leaders were surviving. Suicide attacks and other terrorist methods not used in 2001 became more common. Observers suggested that poppy eradication, which destroys the livelihoods of rural Afghans, and civilian deaths caused by airstrikes encouraged the resurgence. These observers maintained that policy should focus on "hearts and minds" and on economic reconstruction, which could profit from switching from interdicting to diverting poppy production—to make medicine.[201][202] In September 2006, Pakistan
Pakistan
recognized the Islamic Emirate of Waziristan, an association of Waziristani chieftains with close ties to the Taliban, as the de facto security force for Waziristan. This recognition was part of the agreement to end the Waziristan
Waziristan
War, which had exacted a heavy toll on the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army since early 2004. Some commentators viewed Islamabad's shift from war to diplomacy as implicit recognition of the growing power of the resurgent Taliban relative to American influence, with the U.S. distracted by the threat of looming crises in Iraq, Lebanon, and Iran.[citation needed] Other commentators viewed Islamabad's shift from war to diplomacy as an effort to appease growing discontent.[203] Because of the Taliban's leadership structure, Mullah
Mullah
Dadullah's assassination in May 2007 did not have a significant effect, other than to damage incipient relations with Pakistan.[204] On February 8, 2009, U.S. commander of operations in Afghanistan General Stanley McChrystal
Stanley McChrystal
and other officials said that the Taliban leadership was in Quetta, Pakistan.[205] By 2009, a strong resistance was created, known as Operation Al Faath, the Arabic
Arabic
word for "victory" taken from the Koran,[206][207][208] in the form of a guerrilla war. The Pashtun tribal group, with over 40 million members (including Afghans and Pakistanis) had a long history of resistance to occupation forces, so the Taliban
Taliban
may have comprised only a part of the insurgency. Most post-invasion Taliban
Taliban
fighters were new recruits, mostly drawn from local madrasas. In December 2009, Asia Times Online reported that the Taliban
Taliban
had offered to give the US "legal guarantees" that it would not allow Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to be used for attacks on other countries, and that the US had given no response.[209] As of July 2016, the US Time magazine estimated 20% of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to be under Taliban
Taliban
control with southernmost Helmand Province
Helmand Province
as their stronghold,[210] while US and international Resolute Support coalition commanding General Nicholson in December 2016 likewise stated that 10% was in Taliban
Taliban
hands while another 26% of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
was contested between the Afghan government and various insurgency groups.[211] In August 2017, reacting on a hostile speech of US President Trump, a Taliban
Taliban
spokesman retorted that the Taliban
Taliban
would keep fighting to free Afghanistan
Afghanistan
of "American invaders".[212] Condemned Taliban
Taliban
practices Massacre
Massacre
campaigns According to a 55-page report by the United Nations, the Taliban, while trying to consolidate control over northern and western Afghanistan, committed systematic massacres against civilians. UN officials stated that there had been "15 massacres" between 1996 and 2001. They also said, that "[t]hese have been highly systematic and they all lead back to the [Taliban] Ministry of Defense or to Mullah Omar himself." "These are the same type of war crimes as were committed in Bosnia and should be prosecuted in international courts", one UN official was quoted as saying. The documents also reveal the role of Arab
Arab
and Pakistani support troops in these killings. Bin Laden's so-called 055 Brigade was responsible for mass-killings of Afghan civilians. The report by the United Nations
United Nations
quotes "eyewitnesses in many villages describing Arab
Arab
fighters carrying long knives used for slitting throats and skinning people". The Taliban's former ambassador to Pakistan, Mullah
Mullah
Abdul Salam Zaeef, in late 2011 stated that cruel behaviour under and by the Taliban
Taliban
had been "necessary".[47][48][67][213] In 1998, the United Nations
United Nations
accused the Taliban
Taliban
of denying emergency food by the UN's World Food Programme to 160,000 hungry and starving people "for political and military reasons".[214] The UN said the Taliban
Taliban
were starving people for their military agenda and using humanitarian assistance as a weapon of war. On August 8, 1998 the Taliban
Taliban
launched an attack on Mazar-i Sharif. Of 1500 defenders only 100 survived the engagement. Once in control the Taliban
Taliban
began to kill people indiscriminately. At first shooting people in the street, they soon began to target Hazaras. Women were raped, and thousands of people were locked in containers and left to suffocate. This ethnic cleansing left an estimated 5,000 to 6,000 dead. At this time ten Iranian diplomats and a journalist were killed. Iran
Iran
assumed the Taliban
Taliban
had murdered them, and mobilized its army, deploying men along the border with Afghanistan. By the middle of September there were 250,000 Iranian personnel stationed on the border. Pakistan
Pakistan
mediated and the bodies were returned to Tehran towards the end of the month. The killings of the Diplomats had been carried out by Sipah-e-Sahaba a Pakistani Sunni
Sunni
group with close ties to the ISI. They burned orchards, crops and destroyed irrigation systems, and forced more than 100,000 people from their homes with hundreds of men, women and children still unaccounted for.[215][216][217][218][219] In a major effort to retake the Shomali plains from the United Front, the Taliban
Taliban
indiscriminately killed civilians, while uprooting and expelling the population. Among others, Kamal Hossein, a special reporter for the UN, reported on these and other war crimes. In Istalif, which was home to more than 45,000 people, the Taliban
Taliban
gave 24 hours' notice to the population to leave, then completely razed the town leaving the people destitute.[51][220] In 1999 the town of Bamian
Bamian
was taken, hundreds of men, women and children were executed. Houses were razed and some were used for forced labor. There was a further massacre at the town of Yakaolang
Yakaolang
in January 2001. An estimated 300 people were murdered, along with two delegations of Hazara elders who had tried to intercede.[221][222] By 1999, the Taliban
Taliban
had forced hundreds of thousands of people from the Shomali Plains and other regions conducting a policy of scorched earth burning homes, farm land and gardens.[51] Human trafficking Several Taliban
Taliban
and al-Qaeda commanders ran a network of human trafficking, abducting women and selling them into sex slavery in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan.[223] Time magazine writes: "The Taliban often argued that the restrictions they placed on women were actually a way of revering and protecting the opposite sex. The behavior of the Taliban
Taliban
during the six years they expanded their rule in Afghanistan made a mockery of that claim."[223] The targets for human trafficking were especially women from the Tajik, Uzbek, Hazara and other ethnic groups in Afghanistan. Some women preferred to commit suicide over slavery, killing themselves. During one Taliban
Taliban
and al-Qaeda offensive in 1999 in the Shomali Plains alone, more than 600 women were kidnapped.[223] Arab
Arab
and Pakistani al-Qaeda militants with local Taliban
Taliban
forces, forced them into trucks and buses.[223] Time magazine writes: "The trail of the missing Shomali women leads to Jalalabad, not far from the Pakistan border. There, according to eyewitnesses, the women were penned up inside Sar Shahi camp in the desert. The more desirable among them were selected and taken away. Some were trucked to Peshawar
Peshawar
with the apparent complicity of Pakistani border guards. Others were taken to Khost, where bin Laden had several training camps." Officials from relief agencies say, the trail of many of the vanished women leads to Pakistan
Pakistan
where they were sold to brothels or into private households to be kept as slaves.[223] However, not all Taliban
Taliban
commanders engaged in human trafficking. Many Taliban
Taliban
were opposed to the human trafficking operations conducted by al-Qaeda and other Taliban
Taliban
commanders. Nuruludah, a Taliban
Taliban
commander, is quoted as saying that in the Shomali Plains, he and 10 of his men freed some women who were being abducted by Pakistani members of al-Qaeda. In Jalalabad, local Taliban
Taliban
commanders freed women that were being held by Arab
Arab
members of al-Qaeda in a camp.[223] Oppression of women

Taliban
Taliban
religious police beating a woman in Kabul
Kabul
on August 26, 2001.[224]

To PHR's knowledge, no other regime in the world has methodically and violently forced half of its population into virtual house arrest, prohibiting them on pain of physical punishment.[225] — Physicians for Human Rights, 1998

The Taliban
Taliban
were condemned internationally for their brutal repression of women. In 2001 Laura Bush
Laura Bush
in a radio address condemned the Taliban's brutality to women. In areas they controlled the Taliban issued edicts which forbade women from being educated, girls were forced to leave schools and colleges. Those who wished to leave their home to go shopping had to be accompanied by a male relative, and were required to wear the burqa, a traditional dress covering the entire body except for a small screen to see out of. Those who appeared to disobey were publicly beaten. Sohaila, a young woman who was convicted of walking with a man who was not a relative, was charged with adultery. She was publicly flogged in Ghazi Stadium
Ghazi Stadium
and received 100 lashes. The religious police routinely carried out inhumane abuse on women. Employment for women was restricted to the medical sector, because male medical personnel were not allowed to treat women and girls. One result of the banning of employment of women by the Taliban was the closing down in places like Kabul
Kabul
of primary schools not only for girls but for boys, because almost all the teachers there were women. Taliban
Taliban
restrictions became more severe after they took control of the capital. In February 1998, religious police forced all women off the streets of Kabul, and issued new regulations ordering people to blacken their windows, so that women would not be visible from the outside.[110][226][227][228][229][230][231][232][233] Violence against Afghan civilians According to the United Nations, the Taliban
Taliban
and its allies were responsible for 76% of civilian casualties in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 2009, 75% in 2010 and 80% in 2011.[55][234] According to Human Rights Watch, the Taliban's bombings and other attacks which have led to civilian casualties "sharply escalated in 2006" when "at least 669 Afghan civilians were killed in at least 350 armed attacks, most of which appear to have been intentionally launched at non-combatants."[235][236] The United Nations
United Nations
reported that the number of civilians killed by both the Taliban
Taliban
and pro-government forces in the war rose nearly 50% between 2007 and 2009. The high number of civilians killed by the Taliban
Taliban
is blamed in part on their increasing use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), "for instance, 16 IEDs have been planted in girls' schools" by the Taliban.[237] In 2009, Colonel Richard Kemp, formerly Commander of British forces in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the intelligence coordinator for the British government, drew parallels between the tactics and strategy of Hamas in Gaza to those of the Taliban. Kemp wrote:

Like Hamas
Hamas
in Gaza, the Taliban
Taliban
in southern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
are masters at shielding themselves behind the civilian population and then melting in among them for protection. Women and children are trained and equipped to fight, collect intelligence, and ferry arms and ammunition between battles. Female suicide bombers are increasingly common. The use of women to shield gunmen as they engage NATO
NATO
forces is now so normal it is deemed barely worthy of comment. Schools and houses are routinely booby-trapped. Snipers shelter in houses deliberately filled with women and children.[238][239] — Richard Kemp, Commander of British forces in Afghanistan

Intimidating and murdering aid workers Taliban
Taliban
between 2008 and 2012 several times claimed to have assassinated Western and Afghani medical or aid workers in Afghanistan, either for fear of the vaccination of children against polio, or for suspicion that the ‘medical workers’ were in truth spies, or for suspecting them to be proselytizing Christianity. In August 2008, three Western women (British, Canadian, US) working for aid group 'International Rescue Committee' were murdered in Kabul. Taliban
Taliban
claimed to have killed them because they were foreign spies.[240] In October 2008, the British woman Gayle Williams working for Christian UK charity 'Serve Afghanistan' – focusing on training and education for disabled persons – was murdered near Kabul. Taliban
Taliban
claimed they killed her because her organisation "was preaching Christianity in Afghanistan".[240] In all 2008 until October, 29 aid workers, 5 of whom non-Afghanis, were killed in Afghanistan.[240] In August 2010, the Taliban
Taliban
claimed to have murdered 10 medical aid workers passing through Badakhshan Province
Badakhshan Province
on the way from Kabul
Kabul
to Nuristan Province
Nuristan Province
— but also Afghan Islamic party/militia Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin has claimed those killings. The victims were six Americans, one Briton, one German and two Afghanis, working for self-proclaimed “non-profit, Christian organization” called 'International Assistance Mission'. Taliban
Taliban
said they murdered them because of proselytizing Christianity, having Bibles translated in Dari language
Dari language
in their possession when they were encountered. IAM however contended afterwards that they “were not missionaries”.[241] In December 2012, unidentified gunmen killed four female UN polio-workers in Karachi
Karachi
in Pakistan; Western news media suggested a connection with the outspoken Taliban
Taliban
objections against and suspicions about such 'polio vaccinations'.[242] Eventually in 2012, a Pakistani Taliban
Taliban
commander in North Waziristan in Pakistan
Pakistan
banned polio vaccinations,[243] and in March 2013, the Afghan government was forced to suspend vaccination efforts from the Nuristan Province
Nuristan Province
because of a large Taliban
Taliban
influence in the province.[244] But in May 2013, Taliban
Taliban
leaders changed their stance on polio vaccination, saying the vaccine is the only way to prevent polio and that they would work with immunisation volunteers so long as polio workers are "unbiased" and "harmonised with the regional conditions, Islamic values and local cultural traditions."[245][246] Ideology

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based in

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Key texts

Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (Iqbal 1930s)

Principles of State and Government (Asad 1961)

Ma'alim fi al-Tariq
Ma'alim fi al-Tariq
("Milestones") (Qutb 1965)

Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist ("Velayat-e faqih") (Khomeini 1970)

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Ali Khamenei Omar al-Bashir Muammar Gaddafi Ruhollah Khomeini Mohamed Morsi Mohammad Omar House of Saud House of Thani Zia-ul-Haq

Key ideologues

Muhammad Abduh Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī Qazi Hussain Ahmad Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani Muhammad Asad Hassan al-Banna Necmettin Erbakan Rached Ghannouchi Safwat Hegazi Muhammad Iqbal Ali Khamenei Ruhollah Khomeini Abul A'la Maududi Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani Yusuf al-Qaradawi Sayyid Qutb Tariq Ramadan Ata Abu Rashta Rashid Rida Navvab Safavi Ali Shariati Haji Shariatullah Hassan Al-Turabi Ahmed Yassin

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v t e

Wikiquote has quotations related to: religious police

The Taliban's ideology has been described as an "innovative form of sharia combining Pashtun tribal codes,"[247] or Pashtunwali, with radical Deobandi
Deobandi
interpretations of Islam
Islam
favored by JUI and its splinter groups. Also contributing to the mix was the militant Islamism
Islamism
and extremist jihadism of Osama bin Laden.[248] Their ideology was a departure from the Islamism
Islamism
of the anti-Soviet mujahideen rulers[clarification needed] they replaced who tended to be mystical Sufis, traditionalists,[clarification needed] or radical Islamism[clarification needed] inspired by the Muslim Brotherhood (Ikhwan).[249] According to journalist Ahmed Rashid, at least in the first years of their rule, the Taliban
Taliban
adopted Deobandi
Deobandi
and Islamist
Islamist
anti-nationalist beliefs, and opposed "tribal and feudal structures," eliminating traditional tribal or feudal leaders from leadership roles.[250] The Taliban
Taliban
strictly enforced their ideology in major cities like Herat, Kabul, and Kandahar. But in rural areas the Taliban
Taliban
had little direct control, and promoted village jirgas, so it did not enforce its ideology as stringently in rural areas.[251] (Deobandi) Islamic rules The Taliban
Taliban
regime interpreted the sharia law as to forbid pork, alcohol, music, many types of consumer technology such as television, filming and the Internet as well as most forms of art such as paintings or photography, and female participation in sport.[252] Men were forbidden to shave their beards, and required to wear a head covering.[253] The Taliban
Taliban
emphasized dreams as a means of revelation.[254] Like Wahhabi and other Deobandis, the Taliban
Taliban
do not consider Shiʻi to be Muslims. The Shia in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
consist mostly of the Hazara ethnic group which totaled almost 10% of Afghanistan's population.[255] The Taliban
Taliban
were averse to debating doctrine with other Muslims. "The Taliban
Taliban
did not allow even Muslim reporters to question [their] edicts or to discuss interpretations of the Qur'an."[97] Pashtun cultural influences The Taliban
Taliban
frequently used the pre-Islamic Pashtun tribal code, Pashtunwali, in deciding certain social matters. Such is the case with the Pashtun practice of dividing inheritances equally among sons, even though the Qur'an
Qur'an
clearly states that women are to receive one-half a man's share.[256][257] According to Ali A. Jalali and Lester Grau, the Taliban
Taliban
"received extensive support from Pashtuns
Pashtuns
across the country who thought that the movement might restore their national dominance. Even Pashtun intellectuals in the West, who differed with the Taliban
Taliban
on many issues, expressed support for the movement on purely ethnic grounds."[258] Bamyan Buddhas

Taller Buddha
Buddha
in 1963 and in 2008 after destruction

In 1999, Mullah
Mullah
Omar issued a decree protecting the Buddha
Buddha
statues at Bamyan, two 6th-century monumental statues of standing buddhas carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyan valley in the Hazarajat
Hazarajat
region of central Afghanistan. But in March 2001, the statues were destroyed by the Taliban
Taliban
of Mullah
Mullah
Omar, following a decree stating: "all the statues around Afghanistan
Afghanistan
must be destroyed."[259] Yahya Massoud, brother of the anti- Taliban
Taliban
and resistance leader Ahmad Shah Massoud, recalls the following incident after the destruction of the Buddha
Buddha
statues at Bamyan:

It was the spring of 2001. I was in Afghanistan's Panjshir Valley, together with my brother Ahmad Shah Massoud, the leader of the Afghan resistance against the Taliban, and Bismillah Khan, who currently serves as Afghanistan's interior minister. One of our commanders, Commandant Momin, wanted us to see 30 Taliban
Taliban
fighters who had been taken hostage after a gun battle. My brother agreed to meet them. I remember that his first question concerned the centuries-old Buddha statues that were dynamited by the Taliban
Taliban
in March of that year, shortly before our encounter. Two Taliban
Taliban
combatants from Kandahar confidently responded that worshiping anything outside of Islam
Islam
was unacceptable and that therefore these statues had to be destroyed. My brother looked at them and said, this time in Pashto, 'There are still many sun- worshippers in this country. Will you also try to get rid of the sun and drop darkness over the Earth?'"'[260]

Consistency The Taliban
Taliban
ideology was not static. Before its capture of Kabul, members of the Taliban
Taliban
talked about stepping aside once a government of "good Muslims" took power and law and order were restored. The decision making process of the Taliban
Taliban
in Kandahar
Kandahar
was modeled on the Pashtun tribal council (jirga), together with what was believed to be the early Islamic model. Discussion was followed by a building of a consensus by the believers.[261] However, as the Taliban's power grew, decisions were made by Mullah Omar without consulting the jirga and without Omar's visits to other parts of the country. He visited the capital, Kabul, only twice while in power. Taliban
Taliban
spokesman Mullah
Mullah
Wakil explained:

Decisions are based on the advice of the Amir-ul Momineen. For us consultation is not necessary. We believe that this is in line with the Sharia. We abide by the Amir's view even if he alone takes this view. There will not be a head of state. Instead there will be an Amir al-Mu'minin. Mullah
Mullah
Omar will be the highest authority and the government will not be able to implement any decision to which he does not agree. General elections are incompatible with Sharia
Sharia
and therefore we reject them.[262]

Another evolution of Taliban
Taliban
ideology was Mullah
Mullah
Omar 1999 decree calling for the protection of the Buddha
Buddha
statues at Bamyan and the March 2001 destruction of them.[263] Explanation of ideology The author Ahmed Rashid
Ahmed Rashid
suggests that the devastation and hardship of the Soviet invasion and the following period influenced Taliban ideology.[264] It is said that the Taliban
Taliban
did not include scholars learned in Islamic law and history. The refugee students, brought up in a totally male society, not only had no education in mathematics, science, history or geography, but also had no traditional skills of farming, herding, or handicraft-making, nor even knowledge of their tribal and clan lineages.[264] In such an environment, war meant employment, peace meant unemployment. Dominating women simply affirmed manhood. For their leadership, rigid fundamentalism was a matter not only of principle, but also of political survival. Taliban
Taliban
leaders "repeatedly told" Rashid that "if they gave women greater freedom or a chance to go to school, they would lose the support of their rank and file."[265]

November 1999 public execution in Kabul
Kabul
of a mother of five who was found guilty of killing her husband with an axe while he slept.[266][267][268]

Criticisms The Taliban
Taliban
have been criticized for their strictness toward those who disobeyed their imposed rules, and Mullah
Mullah
Omar's taking of the title of Amir al-Mu'minin. Many Muslims complained that most Taliban
Taliban
rules had no basis in the Qur'an
Qur'an
or sharia. Mullah
Mullah
Omar was criticised for calling himself Amir al-Mu'minin on the grounds that he lacked scholarly learning, tribal pedigree, or connections to the Prophet's family. Sanction for the title traditionally required the support of all of the country's ulema, whereas only some 1,200 Pashtun Taliban-supporting Mullahs had declared Omar the Amir. According to Ahmed Rashid, "no Afghan had adopted the title since 1834, when King Dost Mohammed Khan
Dost Mohammed Khan
assumed the title before he declared jihad against the Sikh
Sikh
kingdom in Peshawar. But Dost Mohammed was fighting foreigners, while Omar had declared jihad against other Afghans."[269] Another criticism was that the Taliban
Taliban
called their 20% tax on truckloads of opium "zakat", which is traditionally limited to 2.5% of the zakat-payers' disposable income (or wealth).[269] Taliban
Taliban
have been compared to the 7th-century Kharijites
Kharijites
for developing extreme doctrines that set them apart from both mainstream Sunni
Sunni
and Shiʿa Muslims. The Kharijites
Kharijites
were particularly noted for adopting a radical approach to takfir, whereby they declared other Muslims to be unbelievers and therefore deemed them worthy of death.[270][271][272] In particular the Taliban
Taliban
have been accused of takfir towards Shia. After the August 1998 slaughter of 8000 mostly Shia Hazaras non-combatants at Mazar-i-Sharif, Mullah
Mullah
Niazi, the Taliban
Taliban
commander of the attack and the new governor of Mazar, declared from Mazar's central mosque:

"Last year you rebelled against us and killed us. From all your homes you shot at us. Now we are here to deal with you. The Hazaras
Hazaras
are not Muslims and now have to kill Hazaras. You either accept to be Muslims or leave Afghanistan. Wherever you go we will catch you. If you go up we will pull you down by your feet; if you hide below, we will pull you up by your hair."[273]

Governance Leaders See also: List of Taliban
Taliban
leaders Until his death in 2013, Mullah
Mullah
Mohammed Omar
Mohammed Omar
was the supreme commander of the Taliban. Mullah Akhtar Mansour
Mullah Akhtar Mansour
was elected as his replacement in 2015,[274] and following Mansour's killing in a May 2016 U.S. drone strike, Mawlawi Hibatullah Akhundzada
Hibatullah Akhundzada
became the group's leader.[38] Overview The Taliban
Taliban
initially enjoyed goodwill from Afghans weary of the warlords' corruption, brutality, and incessant fighting.[275] However, this popularity was not universal, particularly among non-Pashtuns. In 2001, the Taliban, de jure, controlled 85% of Afghanistan. De facto the areas under its direct control were mainly Afghanistan's major cities and highways. Tribal khans and warlords had de facto direct control over various small towns, villages, and rural areas.[276]

Taliban
Taliban
police patrolling the streets of Herat
Herat
in a pickup truck

Rashid described the Taliban
Taliban
government as "a secret society run by Kandaharis ... mysterious, secretive, and dictatorial."[277] They did not hold elections, as their spokesman explained:

The Sharia
Sharia
does not allow politics or political parties. That is why we give no salaries to officials or soldiers, just food, clothes, shoes, and weapons. We want to live a life like the Prophet lived 1400 years ago, and jihad is our right. We want to recreate the time of the Prophet, and we are only carrying out what the Afghan people have wanted for the past 14 years.[278]

They modeled their decision-making process on the Pashtun tribal council (jirga), together with what they believed to be the early Islamic model. Discussion was followed by a building of a consensus by the "believers".[261] Before capturing Kabul, there was talk of stepping aside once a government of "good Muslims" took power, and law and order were restored. As the Taliban's power grew, decisions were made by Mullah
Mullah
Omar without consulting the jirga and without consulting other parts of the country. He visited the capital, Kabul, only twice while in power. Instead of an election, their leader's legitimacy came from an oath of allegiance ("Bay'ah"), in imitation of the Prophet and the first four Caliphs. On April 4, 1996, Mullah
Mullah
Omar had "the Cloak of the Prophet Mohammed" taken from its shrine for the first time in 60 years. Wrapping himself in the relic, he appeared on the roof of a building in the center of Kandahar
Kandahar
while hundreds of Pashtun mullahs below shouted "Amir al-Mu'minin!" (Commander of the Faithful), in a pledge of support. Taliban
Taliban
spokesman Mullah
Mullah
Wakil explained:

Decisions are based on the advice of the Amir-ul Momineen. For us consultation is not necessary. We believe that this is in line with the Sharia. We abide by the Amir's view even if he alone takes this view. There will not be a head of state. Instead there will be an Amir al-Mu'minin. Mullah
Mullah
Omar will be the highest authority, and the government will not be able to implement any decision to which he does not agree. General elections are incompatible with Sharia
Sharia
and therefore we reject them.[279]

The Taliban
Taliban
were very reluctant to share power, and since their ranks were overwhelmingly Pashtun they ruled as overlords over the 60% of Afghans from other ethnic groups. In local government, such as Kabul city council[277] or Herat,[280] Taliban
Taliban
loyalists, not locals, dominated, even when the Pashto-speaking Taliban
Taliban
could not communicate with the roughly half of the population who spoke Dari or other non-Pashtun tongues.[280] Critics complained that this "lack of local representation in urban administration made the Taliban
Taliban
appear as an occupying force."[103] Organization Consistent with the governance of early Muslims was the absence of state institutions or "a methodology for command and control" that is standard today even among non-Westernized states. The Taliban
Taliban
did not issue press releases, policy statements, or hold regular press conferences. The outside world and most Afghans did not even know what their leaders looked like, since photography was banned.[281] The "regular army" resembled a lashkar or traditional tribal militia force with only 25,000 men (of whom 11,000 were non-Afghans). Cabinet ministers and deputies were mullahs with a "madrasah education." Several of them, such as the Minister of Health and Governor of the State bank, were primarily military commanders who left their administrative posts to fight when needed. Military reverses that trapped them behind lines or led to their deaths increased the chaos in the national administration.[282] At the national level, "all senior Tajik, Uzbek and Hazara bureaucrats" were replaced "with Pashtuns, whether qualified or not." Consequently, the ministries "by and large ceased to function."[103] The Ministry of Finance had neither a budget nor "qualified economist or banker." Mullah
Mullah
Omar collected and dispersed cash without bookkeeping. Conscription Main article: Taliban
Taliban
conscription According to the testimony of Guantanamo captives before their Combatant Status Review Tribunals, the Taliban, in addition to conscripting men to serve as soldiers, also conscripted men to staff its civil service.[283] Economy See also: Economy of Afghanistan The Kabul
Kabul
money markets responded positively during the first weeks of the Taliban
Taliban
occupation (1996). But the Afghani soon fell in value. They imposed a 50% tax on any company operating in the country, and those who failed to pay were attacked. They also imposed a 6% import tax on anything brought into the country, and by 1998 had control of the major airports and border crossings which allowed them to establish a monopoly on all trade. By 2001 the per capita income of the 25 million population was under $200, and the country was close to total economic collapse. As of 2007 the economy had begun to recover, with estimated foreign reserves of three billion dollars and a 13% increase in economic growth.[231][284][285][286][287][288]

Opium in Taliban
Taliban
safehouse in Helmand

Under the Transit treaty between Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan
Pakistan
a massive network for smuggling developed. It had an estimated turnover of 2.5 billion dollars with the Taliban
Taliban
receiving between $100 and $130 million per year. These operations along with the trade from the Golden Crescent
Golden Crescent
financed the war in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and also had the side effect of destroying start up industries in Pakistan. Ahmed Rashid also explained that the Afghan Transit Trade agreed on by Pakistan
Pakistan
was "the largest official source of revenue for the Taliban."[289][290][291] Between 1996 and 1999 Mullah
Mullah
Omar reversed his opinions on the drug trade, apparently as it only harmed kafirs. The Taliban
Taliban
controlled 96% of Afghanistan's poppy fields and made opium its largest source of taxation. Taxes on opium exports became one of the mainstays of Taliban
Taliban
income and their war economy. According to Rashid, "drug money funded the weapons, ammunition and fuel for the war." In The New York Times, the Finance Minister of the United Front, Wahidullah Sabawoon, declared the Taliban
Taliban
had no annual budget but that they "appeared to spend US$300 million a year, nearly all of it on war." He added that the Taliban
Taliban
had come to increasingly rely on three sources of money: "poppy, the Pakistanis and bin Laden."[291] In an economic sense it seems however he had little choice, as the war of attrition continued with the Northern Alliance
Northern Alliance
the income from continued opium production was all that prevented the country from starvation. By 2000 Afghanistan
Afghanistan
accounted for an estimated 75% of the world's supply and in 2000 grew an estimated 3276 tonnes of opium from poppy cultivation on 82,171 hectares. At this juncture Omar passed a decree banning the cultivation of opium, and production dropped to an estimated 74 metric tonnes from poppy cultivation on 1,685 hectares. Many observers say the ban – which came in a bid for international recognition at the United Nations
United Nations
– was only issued in order to raise opium prices and increase profit from the sale of large existing stockpiles. The year 1999 had yielded a record crop and had been followed by a lower but still large 2000 harvest. The trafficking of accumulated stocks by the Taliban
Taliban
continued in 2000 and 2001. In 2002, the UN mentioned the "existence of significant stocks of opiates accumulated during previous years of bumper harvests." In September 2001 – before the 11 September attacks against the United States
United States
– the Taliban
Taliban
allegedly authorized Afghan peasants to sow opium again.[291][292][293][294] There was also an environmental toll to the country, heavy deforestation from the illegal trade in timber with hundreds of acres of pine and cedar forests in Kunar Province
Kunar Province
and Paktya being cleared. Throughout the country millions of acres were denuded to supply timber to the Pakistani markets, with no attempt made at reforestation, which has led to significant environmental damage. By 2001, when the Afghan Interim Administration took power the country's infrastructure was in ruins, Telecommunications had failed, the road network was destroyed and Ministry of Finance buildings were in such a state of disrepair some were on the verge of collapse. On July 6, 1999 then president Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
signed into effect executive order 13129. This order implemented a complete ban on any trade between America and the Taliban
Taliban
regime and on August 10 they froze £5000,000 in Ariana assets. On December 19, 2000 UN resolution 1333 was passed. It called for all assets to be frozen and for all states to close any offices belonging to the Taliban. This included the offices of Ariana Afghan Airlines. In 1999 the UN had passed resolution 1267 which had banned all international flights by Ariana apart from preapproved humanitarian missions.[295][296][297][298][299][300][301][302] International relations During its time in power (1996–2001), at its height ruling 90% of Afghanistan, the Taliban
Taliban
regime, or "Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan", gained diplomatic recognition from only three states: the United Arab Emirates, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia, all of which provided substantial aid. The other nations including the United Nations recognized the government of the Islamic State of Afghanistan (1992–2002) (parts of whom were part of the United Front, also called Northern Alliance) as the legitimate government of Afghanistan. Saudi Arabia With financial support of Saudi Arabia, the Taliban
Taliban
in 1996 conquered Kabul
Kabul
and then established their Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.[citation needed] Qatar Qatar
Qatar
in 2013, with the approval of the U.S. and the Afghan government, allowed the Afghan Taliban
Taliban
to set up a diplomatic, political office inside the country.[303][304] This was done in order to facilitate peace negotiations and with the support of other countries.[305][303] Ahmed Rashid, writing in the Financial Times, stated that through the office Qatar
Qatar
has facilitated meetings between the Taliban
Taliban
and many countries and organisations, including the US state department, the UN, Japan, several European governments and non-governmental organisations, all of whom have been trying to push forward the idea of peace talks.[305] In July 2017, Saudi Arabia, at the time in severe conflict with Qatar, without corroboration alleged Qatar
Qatar
to support terrorism including Taliban
Taliban
"armed terrorists".[303] Suggestions in September 2017 by the presidents of both the United States and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
have reportedly lead to protests from senior officials of the American State Department.[clarification needed][305] Canada Canada
Canada
has designated the Taliban
Taliban
as a terrorist group.[306] Pakistan See also: Quetta
Quetta
Shura Maulana Fazal-ur-Rehman, leader of the Pakistani Islamic (Deobandi) political party Jamiat Ulema-e Islam
Islam
(F) (JUI), was an ally of Benazir Bhutto, Pakistani prime minister in 1993–1996, and then had access to the Pakistani government, army and the ISI, whom he influenced to help the Taliban.[307] The Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence
Inter-Services Intelligence
(ISI) has since 1994 heavily supported the Taliban, while the group conquered most of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 1994–98.[76][308][309][310] Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
writes, "Pakistani aircraft assisted with troop rotations of Taliban
Taliban
forces during combat operations in late 2000 and ... senior members of Pakistan's intelligence agency and army were involved in planning military operations."[311] Pakistan
Pakistan
provided military equipment, recruiting assistance, training, and tactical advice.[312] Officially Pakistan
Pakistan
denied supporting the Taliban militarily. Author Ahmed Rashid
Ahmed Rashid
claims that the Taliban
Taliban
had "unprecedented access" among Pakistan's lobbies and interest groups. He also writes that they at times were able to "play off one lobby against another and extend their influence in Pakistan
Pakistan
even further".[313] By 1998–99, Taliban-style groups in Pakistan's Pashtun belt, and to an extent in Pakistan-administered Kashmir, "were banning TV and videos ... and forcing people, particularly women, to adapt to the Taliban
Taliban
dress code and way of life."[314] After the attacks of September 11, 2001, and the U.S. operation in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
the Afghan Taliban
Taliban
leadership is claimed to have fled to Pakistan
Pakistan
where they regrouped and created several shuras to coordinate their insurgency in Afghanistan.[205] Afghan officials implied the Pakistani ISI's involvement in a July 2008 Taliban
Taliban
attack on the Indian embassy. Numerous U.S. officials have accused the ISI of supporting terrorist groups including the Afghan Taliban. U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates
Robert Gates
and others suggest the ISI maintains links with groups like the Afghan Taliban
Taliban
as a "strategic hedge" to help Islamabad
Islamabad
gain influence in Kabul
Kabul
once U.S. troops exit the region. U.S. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Admiral Mike Mullen in 2011 called the Haqqani network
Haqqani network
(the Afghan Taliban's most destructive element) a "veritable arm of Pakistan's ISI".[315][316] From 2010, a report by a leading British institution also claimed that Pakistan's intelligence service still today has a strong link with the Taliban
Taliban
in Afghanistan. Published by the London School of Economics, the report said that Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence
Inter-Services Intelligence
agency (ISI) has an "official policy" of support for the Taliban. It said the ISI provides funding and training for the Taliban, and that the agency has representatives on the so-called Quetta
Quetta
Shura, the Taliban's leadership council. It is alleged that the Quetta
Quetta
Shura
Shura
is exiled in Quetta. The report, based on interviews with Taliban
Taliban
commanders in Afghanistan, was written by Matt Waldman, a fellow at Harvard University.[205][317][318] " Pakistan
Pakistan
appears to be playing a double-game of astonishing magnitude," the report said. The report also linked high-level members of the Pakistani government with the Taliban. It said Asif Ali Zardari, the Pakistani president, met with senior Taliban
Taliban
prisoners in 2010 and promised to release them. Zardari reportedly told the detainees they were only arrested because of American pressure. "The Pakistan
Pakistan
government's apparent duplicity – and awareness of it among the American public and political establishment – could have enormous geopolitical implications," Waldman said. "Without a change in Pakistani behaviour it will be difficult if not impossible for international forces and the Afghan government to make progress against the insurgency." Afghan officials have long been suspicious of the ISI's role. Amrullah Saleh, the former director of Afghanistan's intelligence service, told Reuters that the ISI was "part of a landscape of destruction in this country".[319] Pakistan, at least up to 2011, has always strongly denied all links with Taliban.[320][321][322][323][324][325] On June 15, 2014 Pakistan
Pakistan
army launches operation ‘Zarb-e-Azb’ in North Waziristan
Waziristan
to remove and root-out Taliban
Taliban
from Pakistan. In this operation 327 hardcore terrorists had been killed while 45 hideouts and 2 bomb making factories of terrorists were destroyed in North Waziristan
Waziristan
Agency as the operation continues.[326][327][328] Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan
Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan
(Pakistani Taliban) Main articles: Islamic Emirate of Waziristan, War in North-West Pakistan, Battle of Wana, and Tehrik-i- Taliban
Taliban
Pakistan Before the creation of the Tehrik-i- Taliban
Taliban
(Pakistan), some of their leaders and fighters were part of the 8,000 Pakistani militants fighting in the War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(1996–2001) and the War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001-present) against the United Islamic Front
United Islamic Front
and NATO forces.[67] Most of them hail from the Pakistani side of the Af-Pak border regions. After the fall of the Afghan Taliban
Taliban
in late 2001 most Pakistani militants including members of today's TTP fled home to Pakistan. After the creation of the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan
Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan
in 2007, headed by Baitullah Mehsud, its members have officially defined goals to establish their rule over Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas. They engage the Pakistani army in heavy combat operations. Some intelligence analysts believe that the TTP's attacks on the Pakistani government, police and army strained the TTP's relations with the Afghan Taliban.[329][330][331] The Afghan Taliban
Taliban
and the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan
Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan
differ greatly in their history, leadership and goals although they share a common interpretation of Islam
Islam
and are both predominantly Pashtun.[330] The Afghan Taliban
Taliban
have no affiliation with the Tehrik-i- Taliban
Taliban
Pakistan and routinely deny any connection to the TTP. The New York Times quoted a spokesman for the Afghan Taliban
Taliban
stating that:

We don't like to be involved with them, as we have rejected all affiliation with Pakistani Taliban
Taliban
fighters ... We have sympathy for them as Muslims, but beside that, there is nothing else between us.[332]

It is alleged that Afghan Taliban
Taliban
relied on support by the Pakistani army in the past and are still supported by them today in their campaign to control Afghanistan. Regular Pakistani army troops fought alongside the Afghan Taliban
Taliban
in the War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(1996–2001). Major leaders of the Afghan Taliban
Taliban
including Mullah
Mullah
Omar, Jalaluddin Haqqani and Siraj Haqqani
Siraj Haqqani
are believed to enjoy or have enjoyed safe haven in Pakistan. In 2006 Jalaluddin Haqqani was allegedly called a 'Pakistani asset' by a senior official of Inter-Services Intelligence. Pakistan
Pakistan
denies any links with Haqqani or other terrorist groups. Haqqani himself has denied any links with Pakistan
Pakistan
as well.[86][65][92][333][334][335][336][337] Afghan Taliban
Taliban
leader Mullah
Mullah
Omar asked the Tehrik-i- Taliban
Taliban
Pakistan in late 2008 and early 2009 to stop attacks inside Pakistan, to change their focus as an organization and to fight the Afghan National Army and ISAF
ISAF
forces in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
instead. In late December 2008 and early January 2009 he sent a delegation, led by former Guantanamo Bay detainee Mullah
Mullah
Abdullah Zakir, to persuade leading members of the TTP to put aside differences with Pakistan.[332] Some regional experts state the common name "Taliban" may be more misleading than illuminating.[330] Gilles Dorronsoro, a scholar of South Asia
South Asia
currently at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in Washington says:

The fact that they have the same name causes all kinds of confusion.[330]

As the Pakistani Army began offensives against the Pakistani Taliban, many unfamiliar with the region thought incorrectly that the assault was against the Afghan Taliban
Taliban
of Mullah
Mullah
Omar which was not the case.[330] The Pakistani Taliban
Taliban
were put under sanctions by U.N. Security Council for terrorists attacks in Pakistan
Pakistan
and the 2010 Times Square car bombing attempt.[331] Malakand Taliban Malakand Taliban
Taliban
is a militant outfit led by Sufi Muhammad and his son in law Molvi Fazalullah. Sufi Muhammad is in Pakistani government custody, however, Molvi Fazalullah is believed to be in Afghanistan. In the last week of May 2011, eight security personnel and civilians fell victim to four hundred armed Taliban
Taliban
who attacked Shaltalo check post in Dir, a frontier District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, located few kilometers away from Afghan border. Although, they have been linked with Waziristan-based Tehreek-e- Taliban
Taliban
Pakistan
Pakistan
(TTP), the connection between these two groups was of symbolic nature.[338] al-Qaeda

Pakistani journalist Hamid Mir
Hamid Mir
interviewing al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan, November 2001.

In 1996, bin Laden moved to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
from Sudan. He came without invitation, and sometimes irritated Mullah
Mullah
Omar with his declaration of war and fatwas against citizens of third-party countries, but relations between the two groups improved over time, to the point that Mullah
Mullah
Omar rebuffed his group's patron Saudi Arabia, insulting Saudi minister Prince Turki while reneging on an earlier promise to turn bin Laden over to the Saudis.[339][340] Bin Laden was able to forge an alliance between the Taliban
Taliban
and al-Qaeda. The al-Qaeda-trained 055 Brigade integrated with the Taliban army between 1997 and 2001. Several hundred Arab
Arab
and Afghan fighters sent by bin Laden assisted the Taliban
Taliban
in the Mazar-e-Sharif slaughter in 1998.[341] From 1996 to 2001, the organization of Osama Bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri
Ayman al-Zawahiri
had become a virtual state within the Taliban state. The British newspaper The Telegraph stated in September 2001 that 2,500 Arabs under command of Bin Laden fighted for the Taliban.[67] Taliban-al-Qaeda connections were also strengthened by the reported marriage of one of bin Laden's sons to Omar's daughter. While in Afghanistan, bin Laden may have helped finance the Taliban.[342][343] After the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings in Africa, bin Laden and several al-Qaeda members were indicted in U.S. criminal court. The Taliban rejected extradition requests by the U.S., variously claiming that bin Laden had "gone missing", or that Washington "cannot provide any evidence or any proof" that bin Laden is involved in terrorist activities and that "without any evidence, bin Laden is a man without sin... he is a free man."[344][345][346][347]

Current military situation, as of 27 February 2016.   Under control of the Afghan Government, NATO, and Allies   Under control of the Taliban, Al-Qaeda, and Allies

Evidence against bin Laden included courtroom testimony and satellite phone records. Bin Laden in turn, praised the Taliban
Taliban
as the "only Islamic government" in existence, and lauded Mullah
Mullah
Omar for his destruction of idols such as the Buddhas of Bamyan.[348][349][350] At the end of 2008, the Taliban
Taliban
was in talks to sever all ties with al-Qaeda.[351] In 2011, Alex Strick van Linschoten and Felix Kuehn at New York University's Center on International Cooperation claimed that the two groups did not get along at times before the September 11 attacks, and they have continued to fight since on account of their differences.[352] In July 2012, an anonymous senior-ranking Taliban
Taliban
commander stated that "Our people consider al-Qaeda to be a plague that was sent down to us by the heavens. Some even concluded that al-Qaeda are actually the spies of America. Originally, the Taliban
Taliban
were naive and ignorant of politics and welcomed al-Qaeda into their homes. But al-Qaeda abused our hospitality." He went on to further claim that about 70% of the Taliban
Taliban
are angry with al-Qaeda, revealing the icy relationship between the two groups.[353][354] Iran Iran
Iran
has historically been an enemy of the Taliban. In early August 1998, after attacking the city of Mazar-i-Sharif, Taliban
Taliban
forces killed several thousand civilians and 10 Iranian diplomats and intelligence officers in the Iranian consulate. Alleged radio intercepts indicate Mullah
Mullah
Omar personally approved the killings.[355] In the following crisis between Iran
Iran
and the Taliban, the Iranian government amassed up to 200,000 regular troops on the Afghan-Iranian border.[356] War was eventually averted. Many U.S. senior military officials such as Robert Gates,[357] Stanley McChrystal,[358] David Petraeus[359] and others believe that Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps nowadays is involved in helping the Taliban
Taliban
to a certain extent. Reports in which NATO
NATO
states accused Iran of supplying and training some Taliban
Taliban
insurgents started coming forward since 2004/2005.

"We did interdict a shipment, without question the Revolutionary Guard's core Quds Force, through a known Taliban
Taliban
facilitator. Three of the individuals were killed... 48 122 millimetre rockets were intercepted with their various components... Iranians certainly view as making life more difficult for us if Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is unstable. We don't have that kind of relationship with the Iranians. That's why I am particularly troubled by the interception of weapons coming from Iran. But we know that it's more than weapons; it's money; it's also according to some reports, training at Iranian camps as well."[360] — General David Petraeus, Commander of US- NATO
NATO
forces in Afghanistan, March 16, 2011

There are several sources as well stating the relationship between the Taliban
Taliban
and Iran
Iran
in recent years. This said to occur from leadership change in the Taliban
Taliban
itself.[361] Pro- Iran
Iran
media outlets have also reported that the Taliban
Taliban
has included Shia Hazara fighters into its ranks.[362] The Taliban
Taliban
have also condemned ISIS
ISIS
linked attacks on the Hazara Shia minority.[363] United States The United States
United States
never recognized the Taliban
Taliban
government in Afghanistan. However, Ahmed Rashid
Ahmed Rashid
states that the U.S. indirectly supported the Taliban
Taliban
through its ally in Pakistan
Pakistan
between 1994 and 1996 because Washington viewed the Taliban
Taliban
as anti-Iranian, anti-Shia and pro-Western. Washington furthermore hoped that the Taliban
Taliban
would support development planned by the U.S.-based oil company Unocal. For example, it made no comment when the Taliban
Taliban
captured Herat
Herat
in 1995, and expelled thousands of girls from schools. In late 1997, American Secretary of State Madeleine Albright
Madeleine Albright
began to distance the U.S. from the Taliban, and the American-based oil company Unocal
Unocal
withdrew from negotiations on pipeline construction from Central Asia.[364][365][366][367] One day before the August 1998 capture of Mazar, bin Laden affiliates bombed two U.S. embassies in Africa, killing 224 and wounding 4,500, mostly Africans. The U.S. responded by launching cruise missiles on suspected terrorist camps in Afghanistan, killing over 20 though failing to kill bin Laden or even many Al-Qaeda. Mullah
Mullah
Omar condemned the missile attack and American President Bill Clinton. Saudi Arabia expelled the Taliban
Taliban
envoy in protest over the refusal to turn over bin Laden, and after Mullah
Mullah
Omar allegedly insulted the Saudi royal family. In mid-October the U.N. Security Council
Security Council
voted unanimously to ban commercial aircraft flights to and from Afghanistan, and freeze its bank accounts worldwide.[368][369][370]

US soldiers burn a suspected Taliban
Taliban
safehouse.

Adjusting its counterinsurgency strategy, in October 2009, the U.S. announced plans to pay Taliban
Taliban
fighters to switch sides.[371] On November 26, 2009, in an interview with CNN's Christiane Amanpour, President Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai
said there is an "urgent need" for negotiations with the Taliban, and made it clear that the Obama administration had opposed such talks. There was no formal American response.[372][373] In December 2009, Asian Times Online reported that the Taliban
Taliban
had offered to give the U.S. "legal guarantees" that they would not allow Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to be used for attacks on other countries, and that there had been no formal American response.[209] On December 6, U.S. officials indicated that they have not ruled out talks with the Taliban. Several days later it was reported that Gates saw potential for reconciliation with the Taliban, but not with Al-Qaeda. Furthermore, he said that reconciliation would politically end the insurgency and the war. But he said reconciliation must be on the Afghan government's terms, and that the Taliban
Taliban
must be subject to the sovereignty of the government.[374][375] In 2010, General McChrystal said his troop surge could lead to a negotiated peace with the Taliban.[376] United Kingdom After the 9/11 attacks, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
froze the Taliban's assets in the U.K., nearly $200 million by early October 2001. The U.K. also supported the U.S. decision to remove the Taliban, both politically and militarily.[377][378] The UN agreed that NATO
NATO
would act on its behalf, focusing on counter-terrorist operations in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
after the Taliban
Taliban
had been "defeated". The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
took operational responsibility for Helmand
Helmand
Province, a major poppy-growing province in southern Afghanistan, deploying troops there in the summer of 2006, and encountered resistance by re-formed Taliban
Taliban
forces allegedly entering Afghanistan
Afghanistan
from Pakistan. The Taliban
Taliban
turned towards the use of improvised explosive devices.[379] During 2008 the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
announced plans to pay Taliban
Taliban
fighters to switch sides or lay down arms; the proceeding year the U.K. government supported negotiations with the Taliban.[380][381] India India is one of the Taliban's most outspoken critics. India did not recognize the Taliban
Taliban
regime in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and instead maintained close strategic and military ties with the Northern Alliance
Northern Alliance
so as to contain the rise of Taliban
Taliban
during the 1990s. India was one of the closest allies of former Afghan president Mohammad Najibullah
Mohammad Najibullah
and strongly condemned his public execution by the Taliban. Pakistan
Pakistan
and Kashmir-based militant groups thought to have ties with the Taliban have historically been involved in the Kashmir insurgency
Kashmir insurgency
targeted against Indian security forces.[382][383][384][385] In December 1999, Indian Airlines Flight 814
Indian Airlines Flight 814
en route from Kathmandu to Delhi
Delhi
was hijacked and taken to Kandahar. The Taliban
Taliban
moved its militias near the hijacked aircraft, supposedly to prevent Indian special forces from storming the aircraft, and stalled the negotiations between India and the hijackers for days. The New York Times later reported that there were credible links between the hijackers and the Taliban. As a part of the deal to free the plane, India released three militants. The Taliban
Taliban
gave a safe passage to the hijackers and the released militants.[386][387] Following the hijacking, India drastically increased its efforts to help Massoud, providing an arms depot in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. India also provided a wide range of high-altitude warfare equipment, helicopter technicians, medical services, and tactical advice. According to one report, Indian military support to anti-Taliban forces totaled US$70 million, including five Mil Mi-17
Mil Mi-17
helicopters, and US$8 million worth of high-altitude equipment in 2001. India extensively supported the new administration in Afghanistan, leading several reconstruction projects and by 2001 had emerged as the country's largest regional donor.[388][389][390][391][392][393] In the wake of recent terrorist attacks in India, there have been growing concerns about fundamentalist organisations such as the Taliban
Taliban
seeking to expand their activities into India. During the 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup which was co-hosted in India, Pakistani Interior Minister Rehman Malik
Rehman Malik
and Interpol chief Ronald Noble
Ronald Noble
revealed that a terrorist bid to disrupt the tournament had been foiled; following a conference with Noble, Malik said that the Taliban
Taliban
had begun to base their activities in India with reports from neighboring countries exposing their activities in the country and a Sri Lankan terrorist planning to target cricketers was arrested in Colombo. In 2009, the Times of India
Times of India
called for India to reassess its Taliban threat.[394][395][396][397] Russia Russia
Russia
has been accused of arming the Taliban
Taliban
by multiple politicians including Rex Tillerson
Rex Tillerson
and the Afghan government.[398][22] United Nations
United Nations
and NGOs Despite the aid of United Nations
United Nations
(UN) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) given (see § Afghanistan
Afghanistan
during Taliban
Taliban
rule), the Taliban's attitude in 1996–2001 toward the UN and NGOs was often one of suspicion. The UN did not recognize the Taliban
Taliban
as the legitimate government of Afghanistan, most foreign donors and aid workers were non-Muslims, and the Taliban
Taliban
vented fundamental objections to the sort of 'help' the UN offered. As the Taliban's Attorney General Maulvi Jalil-ullah Maulvizada put it in 1997:

Let us state what sort of education the UN wants. This is a big infidel policy which gives such obscene freedom to women which would lead to adultery and herald the destruction of Islam. In any Islamic country where adultery becomes common, that country is destroyed and enters the domination of the infidels because their men become like women and women cannot defend themselves. Anyone who talks to us should do so within Islam's framework. The Holy Koran cannot adjust itself to other people's requirements, people should adjust themselves to the requirements of the Holy Koran.[399]

In July 1998, the Taliban
Taliban
closed "all NGO offices" by force after those organizations refused to move to a bombed-out former Polytechnic College as ordered.[106] One month later the UN offices were also shut down.[107] Around 2000, the UN drew up sanctions against officials and leaders of Taliban, because of their harbouring Osama bin Laden. Several of them Taliban
Taliban
leaders have subsequently been killed.[400] In 2009, British foreign secretary Miliband and US Secretary Hillary Clinton had called for talks with 'regular Taliban
Taliban
fighters' while bypassing their top leaders who supposedly were 'committed to global jihad'. Kai Eide, the top UN official in Afghanistan, however called for talks with Taliban
Taliban
at the highest level, suggesting Mullah Omar—even though Omar had recently dismissed such overtures as long as foreign troops were in Afghanistan.[401] In 2010, the U.N lifted sanctions on the Taliban, and requested that Taliban
Taliban
leaders and others be removed from terrorism watch lists. In 2010 the U.S. and Europe announced support for President Karzai's latest attempt to negotiate peace with the Taliban.[400][402][403] See also

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
portal Islam
Islam
portal

Colonel Imam History of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(1992–present) List of Taliban
Taliban
leaders Opium production in Afghanistan Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs Taliban
Taliban
propaganda Talibanization United Nations
United Nations
Office on Drugs and Crime Violent extremism

References

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Afghanistan
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Taliban
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^ Rashid, Ahmed (2002). Taliban: Islam, Oil and the New Great Game in Central Asia. I.B.Tauris. p. 253. ISBN 978-1-86064-830-4.  ^ a b Gargan, Edward A (October 2001). " Taliban
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in the Post-Taliban Era: How Lives Have Changed and Where They Stand Today. McFarland. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7864-3792-4.  ^ Shanty, Frank (2011). The Nexus: International Terrorism and Drug Trafficking from Afghanistan. Praeger. pp. 86–88. ISBN 978-0-313-38521-6.  ^ a b "Citing rising death toll, UN urges better protection of Afghan civilians". United Nations
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Assistance Mission in Afghanistan. 9 March 2011. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011.  ^ Haddon, Katherine (6 October 2011). " Afghanistan
Afghanistan
marks 10 years since war started". Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 10 October 2011.  ^ "UN: Taliban
Taliban
Responsible for 76% of Deaths in Afghanistan". The Weekly Standard. 2010-08-10.  ^ a b Rashid 2000, pp. 132, 139 ^ Maley, William (2002). The Afghanistan
Afghanistan
wars. Palgrave Macmillan. p. ?. ISBN 978-0-333-80290-8.  ^ Shaffer, Brenda (2006). The limits of culture: Islam
Islam
and foreign policy (illustrated ed.). MIT Press. p. 277. ISBN 978-0-262-69321-9. The Taliban's mindset is, however, equally if not more deaned by Pashtunwali  ^ a b Giraldo, Jeanne K. (2007). Terrorism Financing and State Responses: A Comparative Perspective. Stanford University Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-8047-5566-5. Pakistan
Pakistan
provided military support, including arms, ammunition, fuel, and military advisers, to the Taliban
Taliban
through its Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI)  ^ a b "Pakistan's support of the Taliban". Human Rights Watch. 2000. Of all the foreign powers involved in efforts to sustain and manipulate the ongoing fighting [in Afghanistan], Pakistan
Pakistan
is distinguished both by the sweep of its objectives and the scale of its efforts, which include soliciting funding for the Taliban, bankrolling Taliban
Taliban
operations, providing diplomatic support as the Taliban's virtual emissaries abroad, arranging training for Taliban
Taliban
fighters, recruiting skilled and unskilled manpower to serve in Taliban
Taliban
armies, planning and directing offensives, providing and facilitating shipments of ammunition and fuel, and ... directly providing combat support.  ^ Joscelyn, Thomas (2011-09-22). "Admiral Mullen: Pakistani ISI sponsoring Haqqani attacks". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 2011-12-01. During a Senate Armed Services Committee hearing today, Admiral Michael Mullen, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, highlighted the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence
Inter-Services Intelligence
Agency's role in sponsoring the Haqqani Network – including attacks on American forces in Afghanistan. "The fact remains that the Quetta
Quetta
Shura [Taliban] and the Haqqani Network operate from Pakistan
Pakistan
with impunity," Mullen said in his written testimony. "Extremist organizations serving as proxies of the government of Pakistan
Pakistan
are attacking Afghan troops and civilians as well as US soldiers." Mullen continued: "For example, we believe the Haqqani Network—which has long enjoyed the support and protection of the Pakistani government and is, in many ways, a strategic arm of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence Agency—is responsible for the September 13th attacks against the U.S. Embassy in Kabul."  ^ a b Barnes, Julian E.; Matthew Rosenberg; Habib Khan Totakhil (2010-10-05). " Pakistan
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Urges On Taliban". The Wall Street Journal. the ISI wants us to kill everyone—policemen, soldiers, engineers, teachers, civilians—just to intimidate people,  ^ a b US attack on Taliban
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kills 23 in Pakistan, The New York Times, 2008-09-09 ^ Partlow, Joshua (3 October 2011). "Karzai accuses Pakistan
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of supporting terrorists". Retrieved 21 January 2018 – via www.WashingtonPost.com.  ^ a b c d e " Afghanistan
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Ahmed Rashid
in the Telegraph. 2001-09-11.  ^ "English <-> Arabic
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Online Dictionary". Online.ectaco.co.uk. 2006-12-28. Retrieved 2012-09-02.  ^ Adam Curtis. "From 'Taleban' to 'Taliban'". BBC. Retrieved 2012-09-02.  ^ a b "Pakistan: A Plethora of Problems" (PDF). Global Security Studies, Winter 2012, Volume 3, Issue 1, by Colin Price, School of Graduate and Continuing Studies in Diplomacy. Norwich University, Northfield, VT. Retrieved 2012-12-22.  ^ Hillenbrand 2015, p. 284 ^ a b c "Blood-Stained Hands, Past Atrocities in Kabul
Kabul
and Afghanistan's Legacy of Impunity". Human Rights Watch.  ^ Neamatollah Nojumi. The Rise of the Taliban
Taliban
in Afghanistan: Mass Mobilization, Civil War, and the Future of the Region (2002 1st ed.). Palgrave, New York.  ^ a b c Amin Saikal (2006). Modern Afghanistan: A History of Struggle and Survival (1st ed.). London New York: I.B. Tauris & Co. p. 352. ISBN 1-85043-437-9.  ^ a b Gutman, Roy (2008): How We Missed the Story: Osama Bin Laden, the Taliban
Taliban
and the Hijacking of Afghanistan, Endowment of the United States Institute of Peace, 1st ed., Washington DC. ^ a b c d e f g h i j 'The Taliban'. Mapping Militant Organizations. Stanford University. Updated15 July 2016. Retrieved 24 September 2017. ^ a b Matinuddin, Kamal, The Taliban
Taliban
Phenomenon, Afghanistan 1994–1997, Oxford University Press, (1999), pp. 25–6 ^ Rashid 2000, p. 25 ^ Shaffer, Brenda (2006). The Limits of Culture: Islam
Islam
and Foreign Policy. MIT Press. p. 267. ISBN 978-0-262-19529-4. Pakistani involvement in creating the movement is seen as central  ^ See further references in § Role of the Pakistani military, § Relations with Pakistan, and article Afghan Civil War (1992–96)#1994 ^ Felbab-Brow, Vanda (2010). Shooting up: counterinsurgency and the war on drugs. Brookings Institution Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-8157-0328-0.  ^ Rashid 2000, pp. 27–29. ^ a b "II. Background". Reports 1998, Afghan. Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on November 2, 2008.  ^ Rashid 2000, p. 29 ^ Goodson 2001, p. 114 ^ a b c d e f g Marcela Grad. Massoud: An Intimate Portrait of the Legendary Afghan Leader (March 1, 2009 ed.). Webster University Press. p. 310.  ^ "Casting Shadows: War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity: 1978–2001" (PDF). Afghanistan
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Justice Project. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 4, 2013.  ^ a b c Amnesty International. "Document – Afghanistan: further information on fear for safety and new concern: deliberate and arbitrary killings: civilians in Kabul." 16 November 1995 Accessed at Amnesty.org Archived July 7, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Afghanistan: escalation of indiscriminate shelling in Kabul". International Committee of the Red Cross. 1995.  ^ "A conversation about recent events in Afghanistan". Charlie Rose. March 26, 2001. Archived from the original on October 23, 2012.  ^ "He would have found Bin Laden". CNN. 2009-05-27.  ^ a b c "Documents Detail Years of Pakistani Support for Taliban, Extremists". George Washington University. 2007.  ^ Coll, Ghost Wars (New York: Penguin, 2005), 14. ^ Marcin, Gary (1998). "The Taliban". King's College. Retrieved 2011-09-26.  ^ B.G. Williams 12 May 2013. work (PDF). published by Routledge
Routledge
– Taylor & Francis group. Retrieved 2015-11-12.  ^ UNSC Resolution 1333, 19 December 2000 (sanctions against Taliban territory). Retrieved 26 September 2017. ^ a b Rashid 2000, p. 107. ^ Rashid 2000, p. 126. ^ UNCP Country Development Indicators, 1995. ^ Nichols, Robert (2005). "Quoting the ICRC". History Compass. Blackwell-synergy.com. 3. doi:10.1111/j.1478-0542.2005.00141.x.  ^ Rashid 2000, p. 72. ^ Rashid 2000, pp. 64, 78. ^ a b c Rashid 2000, pp. 101–102. ^ Rashid 2000, p. 65. ^ Rashid 2000, p. 71. ^ a b Aid agencies pull out of Kabul
Kabul
The building had neither electricity or running water. ^ a b Rashid 2000, pp. 71–72. ^ Agence France-Presse, " Taliban
Taliban
reject warnings of aid pull-out", 1998-07-16. ^ Shaffer, Brenda (2006). The Limits of Culture: Islam
Islam
and Foreign Policy. MIT Press. p. 267. ISBN 978-0-262-69321-9. Pakistani involvement in creating the movement is seen as central  ^ a b Forsythe, David P. (2009). Encyclopedia of human rights (Volume 1 ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-19-533402-9. In 1994 the Taliban
Taliban
was created, funded and inspired by Pakistan  ^ Gardner, Hall (2007). American global strategy and the 'war on terrorism'. Ashgate. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-7546-7094-0.  ^ Jones, Owen Bennett (2003). Pakistan: eye of the storm. Yale University Press. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-300-10147-8. The ISI's undemocratic tendencies are not restricted to its interference in the electoral process. The organisation also played a major role in creating the Taliban
Taliban
movement.  ^ Randal, Jonathan (2005). Osama: The Making of a Terrorist. I.B.Tauris. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-84511-117-5. Pakistan
Pakistan
had all but invented the Taliban, the so-called Koranic students  ^ Peiman, Hooman (2003). Falling Terrorism and Rising Conflicts. Greenwood. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-275-97857-0. Pakistan
Pakistan
was the main supporter of the Taliban
Taliban
since its military intelligence, the Inter-Services Intelligence
Inter-Services Intelligence
(ISI) formed the group in 1994  ^ Hilali, A. Z. (2005). US- Pakistan
Pakistan
relationship: Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Ashgate. p. 248. ISBN 978-0-7546-4220-6.  ^ Rumer, Boris Z. (2002). Central Asia: a gathering storm?. M.E. Sharpe. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-7656-0866-6.  ^ Pape, Robert A (2010). Cutting the Fuse: The Explosion of Global Suicide Terrorism and How to Stop It. University of Chicago Press. pp. 140–141. ISBN 978-0-226-64560-5.  ^ Harf, James E.; Mark Owen Lombard (2004). The Unfolding Legacy of 9/11. University Press of America. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-7618-3009-2.  ^ Hinnells, John R. (2006). Religion and violence in South Asia: theory and practice. Routledge. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-415-37290-9.  ^ Boase, Roger (2010). Islam
Islam
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to Show Leader Mehsud Still Alive". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 2012-07-20. Retrieved 2009-08-09.  ^ a b c d e Shane, Scott (2009-10-22). "Insurgents Share a Name, but Pursue Different Goals". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2011-01-26.  ^ a b UNSC slaps sanctions on Pakistani Taliban, July 30, 2011, rediff.com ^ a b Carlotta Gall, Ismail Khan, Pir Zubair Shah and Taimoor Shah (2009-03-26). "Pakistani and Afghan Taliban
Taliban
Unify in Face of US Influx". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-27. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ U.S. attack on Taliban
Taliban
kills 23 in Pakistan, The New York Times, 2008-09-09 ^ Spak, Kevin (2011-10-03). "Haqqani Denies Link With Pakistan
Pakistan
– And insists it didn't assassinate peace envoy Burhanuddin Rabbani". Newser.com. Retrieved 2011-12-01.  ^ "Haqqani denies links to Pakistani government". Army Times. Archived from the original on 2013-01-17. Retrieved 2011-12-01.  ^ Mullen, Mike (30 September 2011). " Pakistan
Pakistan
denies links to Haqqani network". Windsorstar.com. Reuters. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2013.  ^ " Haqqani network
Haqqani network
denies links to ISI: BBC". The Express Tribune. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 2011-12-01.  ^ Mayo, Akbar (2011-06-08). "Rise of Malakand Taliban". The Daily Outlook Afghanistan. Retrieved 2011-12-01.  ^ Wright 2006, pp. 246–247, 287–288. ^ Wright 2006, pp. 288–289. ^ Rashid 2000, p. 139. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 11, 2007. Retrieved March 11, 2007. , archived from the original Archived August 18, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. on 11 March 2011. ^ However, Lawrence Wright
Lawrence Wright
claims bin Laden was almost completely broke at this time, cut off from his family income, and fleeced by the Sudanese.Wright 2006, pp. 222–223. ^ "Indictments" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-09-02.  ^ " Taliban
Taliban
confirms bin Laden is missing". CNN. February 14, 1999. Archived from the original on October 23, 2008.  ^ " Taliban
Taliban
Won't Turn Over Bin Laden". CBS News. 2001-09-21. Retrieved 2007-07-07.  ^ " Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
'innocent'". BBC News. 1998-11-21. Retrieved 2011-11-17.  ^ "Embassy bombing defendant linked to bin Laden". CNN. February 14, 2001. Archived from the original on 2006-02-26.  ^ "Cooperative Research records of evidence against bin Laden". Cooperativeresearch.org. Archived from the original on August 19, 2013. Retrieved 2012-09-02.  ^ Bin Laden, Messages to the World, (2006), p.143, from Interview published in Al-Quds Al-Arabi in London, Nov. 12, 2001 (originally published in Pakistani daily, Ausaf, Nov. 7), shortly before the Northern Alliance
Northern Alliance
entry into Kabul. ^ "Sources: Taliban
Taliban
split with al Qaeda, seek peace". CNN. Archived from the original on August 5, 2004.  ^ Brinkerhoff, Noel (2011-02-09). "Surprise! Taliban
Taliban
and Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
are Worlds Apart". Allgov.com. Retrieved 2011-12-01.  ^ " Taliban
Taliban
Commander Says Taliban
Taliban
Cannot Win Afghan War: Report – ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. 2012-05-02. Retrieved 2014-08-18.  ^ "Preview: Michael Semple interviews a senior member of the Taliban". New Statesman. 2012-07-11. Retrieved 2014-08-18.  ^ Rashid 2000, pp. 74–75. ^ Pike, John (1998-09-15). "Iranian-Afghan tensions". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2011-12-01.  ^ "Gates Warns Iran
Iran
Over Afghan 'Double Game'". CBS News. 2010-03-08. Retrieved 2011-12-01.  ^ "US General Accuses Iran
Iran
Of Helping Taliban". Eagleworldnews.com. 2010-05-31. Retrieved 2011-12-01.  ^ Meyer, Henry (2009-02-14). " Iran
Iran
Is Helping Taliban
Taliban
in Afghanistan, Petraeus Says (Update1)". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on August 14, 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-01.  ^ Jha, Lalit K (2011-03-16). "Concern in US over increasing Iranian activity in Afghanistan". Pajhwok Afghan News (PAN). Retrieved 2011-01-13.  ^ "What Was Mullah
Mullah
Mansour Doing in Iran?".  ^ "Shi'ite Hazara gunmen join the Taliban". 4 October 2016.  ^ AFP (7 September 2015). "Afghan Taliban
Taliban
take apparent dig at IS over Hazara killings".  ^ Rashid 2000, p. 176. ^ Rashid 2000, pp. 175–8. ^ Rashid 2000, p. 177. ^ "US pledges support for Afghan oil pipeline if Taliban
Taliban
makes peace". BBC News. 1997-12-10. Retrieved 2010-04-09.  ^ Reuters, " Taliban
Taliban
blame Clinton scam for attacks", 1998-08-21. ^ Rashid 2000, pp. 138, 231. ^ Rashid 2000, p. 78. ^ "U.S. set to pay Taliban
Taliban
members to switch sides". CNN. 2009-10-29. Retrieved 2010-04-09.  ^ "IPS Inter Press Service". Ipsnews.net. Archived from the original on June 11, 2011. Retrieved 2010-08-27.  ^ "Right after interviewing Karzai". CNN. 2009-12-06. Retrieved 2010-04-09.  ^ Homan, Timothy R. (2009-12-06). "Talks With Taliban
Taliban
Not Ruled Out, U.S. Officials Say (Update1)". bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on June 13, 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-27.  ^ "Pentagon sees reconciliation with Taliban". stuff.co.nz. Reuters. 2001-09-11. Retrieved 2010-08-27.  ^ "McChrystal focuses on peace with Taliban: report". Google. AFP. 2010-01-24. Archived from the original on January 28, 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-27.  ^ "AM Archive – UK freezes $200 million worth of Taliban
Taliban
assets". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2010-11-04.  ^ Frank Clements (2003). Conflict in Afghanistan: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 154. ISBN 978-1-85109-402-8.  ^ "General Sir Michael Jackson: We must maintain our will in Afghanistan". The Daily Telegraph. London. 2008-06-21. Retrieved 2010-11-04.  ^ Meo, Nick (2008-08-09). "British cash to buy off Taliban
Taliban
'goes to farmers'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2010-04-09.  ^ "UK news". The Guardian. London. 2008-01-23. Retrieved 2010-04-09.  ^ "Massoud joins hands with India". Rawa.org. 1999-07-01. Retrieved 2012-09-02.  ^ Stephen P. Cohen (2004). India: Emerging Power. Brookings Institution Press. p. 248. ISBN 978-0-8157-9839-2.  ^ Pigott, Peter. Canada
Canada
in Afghanistan: The War So Far. Toronto: Dundurn Press Ltd, 2007. ISBN 1-55002-674-7, ISBN 978-1-55002-674-0. P. 54. ^ Gall, Carlotta (2007-01-21). "At Border, Signs of Pakistani Role in Taliban
Taliban
Surge – New York Times". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-12-01.  ^ "Bombay terrorist reveals links with IC 814 hijackers". Rediff.com. Retrieved 2012-09-02.  ^ "India reaches out to Afghanistan". Asia Times. 2005-08-30. Retrieved 2012-09-02.  ^ Sreedhar, T., "India's Afghan policy" (7 March 2003), The Hindu, Government of India, Ministry of External Affairs. Retrieved 10 September 2013. ^ Bedi, Rahul,"Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 16, 2006. Retrieved June 3, 2008. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) , (15 March 2001), Jane's Intelligence Review, archived from the original Archived February 26, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. on 16 February 2006. ^ McLeod, Duncan (2008). India and Pakistan: Friends, Rivals Or Enemies?. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-7546-7437-5.  ^ Tharoor, Ishaan (2009-12-05). "India, Pakistan
Pakistan
and the Battle for Afghanistan". Time. Retrieved 2010-08-27.  ^ "India: Afghanistan's influential ally". BBC News. 2009-10-08. Retrieved 2010-08-27.  ^ Bajoria, Jayshree (2009-07-22). "India- Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Relations". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 2008-11-29. Retrieved 2010-08-27.  ^ Gishkori, Zahid. "Terrorism threat in India during World Cup". Tribune.com.pk. Retrieved 2011-12-01.  ^ " Taliban
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trying to enter India: Malik". The News. 2011-03-24. Archived from the original on December 24, 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-01.  ^ " Terrorist
Terrorist
plotting World Cup attack nabbed: Rehman Malik". The Times of India. 2011-03-24. Archived from the original on 2012-07-14. Retrieved 2011-12-01.  ^ "India forced to reassess Taliban
Taliban
threat". The Times of India. 2009-03-31. Archived from the original on 2012-07-07. Retrieved 2011-12-01.  ^ httpsRasmussen, Sune Engel (22 October 2017). " Russia
Russia
accused of supplying Taliban
Taliban
as power shifts create strange bedfellows". the Guardian.  ^ Maulvi Jalil-ullah Maulvizada, June 1997 interview with Ahmed Rashid; Rashid 2000, pp. 111–112. ^ a b Farmer, Ben (2010-01-25). "UN: lift sanctions on Taliban
Taliban
to build peace in Afghanistan". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2010-04-09.  ^ "UN official calls for talks with taliban leaders". sify.com. 2 August 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2017.  ^ "UN Reduce Taliban
Taliban
names on terror list". United Press International. 2010-01-25. Retrieved 2010-08-27.  ^ "Asia News". english.aljazeera.net. 2010-01-26. Retrieved 2010-08-27. 

Bibliography

Griffiths, John C. (2001), Afghanistan: A History of Conflict, London: Carlton Books, ISBN 1-84222-597-9  Hillenbrand, Carole (2015), Islam: A New Historical Introduction, London: Thames & Hudson Ltd, ISBN 978-0-500-11027-0  Rashid, Ahmed (2000), Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia, New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-08340-8 

Further reading

Moj, Muhammad (2015), The Deoband Madrassah Movement: Countercultural Trends and Tendencies, Anthem Press, ISBN 978-1-78308-389-3  "Afghan Women and the Taliban: An Exploratory Assessment" (International Centre for Counter-Terrorism – The Hague 2014)

External links

Look up taliban in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Taliban.

Wikinews has news related to: Taliban

Taliban
Taliban
in Oxford Islamic Studies Online Taliban's website (English) How Do I Get in Touch With a Terrorist
Terrorist
Slate. October 2009 The Taliban's Secret Photos Future Opioids: Afghanistan, Opium and the Taliban The National Security Archive – The September 11th Sourcebooks Volume VII: The Taliban
Taliban
File
File
September 2003 The Taliban
Taliban
Diaries by Shaukat Qadir, Daily Times, 2009-06-20 Taliban
Taliban
collected news and commentary at Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
English Taliban
Taliban
Conflict collected news and commentary at BBC News " Taliban
Taliban
collected news and commentary". The Guardian.  " Taliban
Taliban
collected news and commentary". The New York Times.  Works by or about Taliban
Taliban
in libraries ( WorldCat
WorldCat
catalog)

Insurgency

Return Of The Taliban
Taliban
from PBS
PBS
Frontline, October 2006 Held by The Taliban: A Reporting Trip Becomes a Kidnapping from The New York Times, 2008–2009 Military Raids, Backing of Corrupt Government Undermining Stated US Goals in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
– video report by Democracy Now!

v t e

Taliban

Leadership

Amir al-Mu'minin

Mohammed Omar Akhtar Mansour Hibatullah Akhundzada

Heads of the Supreme Council

Mohammad Rabbani Abdul Kabir

Abdul Ghani Baradar Wakil Ahmed Muttawakil Obaidullah Akhund Qari Ahmadullah Sirajuddin Haqqani

Government

Rise to Power Destruction of the Buddhas of Bamyan Treatment of Women Religious Police Propaganda Jirga Flag Emblem Motto

Commanders

Mullah
Mullah
Shahzada Mullah
Mullah
Dadullah Akhund Mullah
Mullah
Zakir

Military

Insurgency 55th Arab
Arab
Brigade Conscription

Conflicts

Civil War (1996–2001) Fall of Kabul
Kabul
(2001) War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–present) War in North-West Pakistan
Pakistan
(2004–present)

Related topics

Guest house Quetta
Quetta
Shura Haqqani network Tehrik-i- Taliban
Taliban
Pakistan Guantanamo detainees Islamic state Islamism Islamic law Taliban
Taliban
in Qatar Talibanization Theocracy Waziristan

v t e

Islamism

Outline

Islamism Qutbism Salafism

Salafi jihadism

Shia Islamism

Concepts

Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists Islamic democracy Islamic socialism Islamic state

Islamic monarchy Islamic republic

Islamistan Islamization

of knowledge

Pan-Islamism Post-Islamism Sharia Shura Turkish model Two-nation theory Ummah

Movements

Socio- political

Deobandi Hizb ut-Tahrir

in Britain in Central Asia

Islamic Defenders Front Jamaat-e-Islami Millî Görüş Muslim Brotherhood

in Egypt in Syria

Political Party

Freedom and Justice Party Green Algeria Alliance Hadas Hezbollah Islamic Salvation Front Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
Pakistan Jamiat-e Islami Justice and Construction Party Justice and Development Party (Morocco) National Congress National Iraqi Alliance Malaysian Islamic Party Prosperous Justice Party Al Wefaq Welfare Party

Related

Ennahda Movement Gülen movement Islamic Modernism Justice and Development Party (Turkey)

Theorists and political leaders

Muhammad Abduh Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī Qazi Hussain Ahmad Muhammad Asad Hasan al-Banna Necmettin Erbakan Muammar Gaddafi Rached Ghannouchi Safwat Hegazi Muhammad Iqbal Alija Izetbegović Ali Khamenei Ruhollah Khomeini Abul Ala Maududi Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani Yusuf al-Qaradawi Sayyid Qutb Tariq Ramadan Ata Abu Rashta Rashid Rida Navvab Safavi Ali Shariati Haji Shariatullah Hassan al-Turabi Ahmad Yassin Zia-ul-Haq

Salafi movement

Movements

Scholastic

Ahl-i Hadith Madkhalism Sahwa movement Wahhabism

Political

Al Asalah Authenticity Party Al-Islah Al-Nour Party

Islamist
Islamist
Bloc

People Party Young Kashgar Party

Major figures

Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab Nasiruddin Albani Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz Muqbil bin Hadi al-Wadi'i Safar al-Hawali Rabee al-Madkhali Muhammad Al-Munajjid Zakir Naik Salman al-Ouda Ali al-Tamimi Ibn al Uthaymeen

Related

International propagation of Salafism
Salafism
and Wahhabism Islamic religious police Petro-Islam Sufi-Salafi relations

Militant Islamism/Jihadism

Ideology

Qutbism Salafi jihadism

Movements

Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan Militant Islamism
Militant Islamism
based in

MENA region

Egyptian Islamic Jihad Fatah al-Islam Hamas Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant

South Asia

Lashkar-e-Taiba Taliban

Southeast Asia

Abu Sayyaf

Sub-Saharan Africa

Boko Haram al-Shabaab

al-Qaeda

in the Arabian Peninsula in Iraq in North Africa

Major figures

Anwar al-Awlaki Abdullah Yusuf Azzam Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi Osama bin Laden Mohammed Omar Juhayman al-Otaybi Omar Abdel-Rahman Ayman al-Zawahiri

Related

Islamic extremism Islamic terrorism Jihad Slavery Talibanization Worldwide Caliphate

Texts

Reconstruction (Iqbal, 1930s) Forty Hadith (Khomeini, 1940) Principles (Asad, 1961) Milestones (Qutb, 1964) Islamic Government (Khomeini, 1970) Islamic Declaration (Izetbegović, 1969-1970) The Green Book (Gaddafi, 1975)

Historical events

Zia-ul-Haq's Islamization Iranian Revolution Grand Mosque seizure Soviet invasion of Afghanistan Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam Popular Arab
Arab
and Islamic Congress Algerian Civil War September 11 attacks War on Terror Arab
Arab
Spring Arab
Arab
Winter

Influences

Anti-imperialism Anti-Zionism Islamic response to modernity Islamic revival Modern Islamic philosophy

by region

Balkans Gaza Strip United Kingdom

Related topics

Criticism

Ed Husain

Political aspects of Islam Political Islam

Islamism
Islamism
in

South Asia North Africa

v t e

Pashtun-related topics

Dynasties

Lodi dynasty Suri dynasty Hotak dynasty Durrani dynasty Barakzai dynasty more

Key figures

Bahlul Lodi Sher Shah Suri Mirwais Hotak Ahmad Shah Khan Ahmad Shah Durrani Dost Mohammad Khan Malalai of Maiwand Saidu Baba Abdur Rahman Khan Mahmud Tarzi Soraya Tarzi Amanullah Khan Mohammed Nadir Shah Mullah
Mullah
Powindah Sartor Faqir Umra Khan Mirzali Khan Bacha Khan Abdul Samad Khan Achakzai Wali Khan Zahir Shah Daoud Khan Abdul Ahad Mohmand Mohammad Najibullah Ghulam Ishaq Khan Mohammed Omar Hamid Karzai Asfandyar Wali Khan Zalmay Khalilzad Mohammad Ashraf Ghani Abdur Rab Nishtar Abdul Waheed Kakar Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan) Karnal Sher Khan Malala Yousafzai

Culture

Pashtun culture Pashtun cuisine Pashtunwali Pashto Pashtunization Pashtun dress Pashto
Pashto
media Pashto
Pashto
singers Pashtun tribes Loya jirga Adam Khan and Durkhanai Yusuf Khan and Sherbano Jirga

Poets

Amir Kror Suri Pir Roshan Rahman Baba Khushal Khattak Nazo Tokhi Abdul Hamid Baba Hussain Hotak Ahmad Shah Durrani Hamza Baba Ajmal Khattak Kabir Stori Ghani Khan

Topics and controversies

Pashtun nationalism Pashtunistan Afghan (ethnonym) Durand Line Bannu Resolution Khudai Khidmatgar Kalabagh Dam Taliban Names of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Anti-Pashtun sentiment

Battles and conflicts

First Battle of Panipat Battle of Gulnabad Third Battle of Panipat Battle of Attock Battle of Multan Battle of Shopian Battle of Nowshera Battle of Jamrud Siege of Malakand Anglo-Afghan Wars Battle of Maiwand Tirah Campaign Battle of Saragarhi Soviet–Afghan War War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–2014) War in North-West Pakistan War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2015–present)

v t e

Political parties in Afghanistan
Afghanistan

Present major parties

National Front of Afghanistan National Coalition of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(Coalition for Change and Hope) Basej-e Milli ( Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Green Trend) Truth and Justice Party Afghan Mellat Jamiat-e Islami Hezb-e Islami Junbish-e Milli Hezb-e Wahdat
Hezb-e Wahdat
(People's Islamic Unity Party of Afghanistan, National Islamic Unity Party of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
) Ittehad-i Islami Peace Movement of Afghanistan

Present minor parties

New Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Party Democratic Party of Afghanistan National Congress Party of Afghanistan National Islamic Front of Afghanistan National Movement of Afghanistan National Solidarity Movement of Afghanistan National United Party of Afghanistan Liberal Democratic Party of Afghanistan Pashtoons Social Democratic Party Progressive Democratic Party of Afghanistan Solidarity Party of Afghanistan

Banned/Former parties

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Liberation Organization Communist (Maoist) Party of Afghanistan Khuddamul Furqan Liberation Organization of the People of Afghanistan National Revolutionary Party of Afghanistan People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan Progressive Youth Organization Shalleh-ye Javiyd Taliban Watan Party of Afghanistan

Portal:Politics List of political parties Politics of Afghanistan

v t e

War on Terror

War in Afghanistan Iraq
Iraq
War War in North-West Pakistan Symbolism of terrorism

Participants

Operational

ISAF Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
participants Afghanistan Northern Alliance Iraq
Iraq
(Iraqi Armed Forces) NATO Pakistan United Kingdom United States European Union Philippines Ethiopia

Targets

al-Qaeda Osama bin Laden al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula Abu Sayyaf Anwar al-Awlaki Al-Shabaab Boko Haram Harkat-ul- Jihad
Jihad
al-Islami Hizbul Mujahideen Islamic Courts Union Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant Jaish-e-Mohammed Jemaah Islamiyah Lashkar-e-Taiba Taliban Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan

Conflicts

Operation Enduring Freedom

War in Afghanistan OEF – Philippines Georgia Train and Equip Program Georgia Sustainment and Stability OEF – Horn of Africa OEF – Trans Sahara Drone strikes in Pakistan

Other

Operation Active Endeavour Insurgency
Insurgency
in the Maghreb (2002–present) Insurgency
Insurgency
in the North Caucasus Moro conflict
Moro conflict
in the Philippines Iraq
Iraq
War Iraqi insurgency Operation Linda Nchi Terrorism in Saudi Arabia War in North-West Pakistan War in Somalia (2006–09) 2007 Lebanon
Lebanon
conflict al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen Korean conflict

See also

Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse Axis of evil Black sites Bush Doctrine Clash of Civilizations Cold War Combatant Status Review Tribunal Criticism of the War on Terror Death of Osama bin Laden Enhanced interrogation techniques Torture Memos Extrajudicial prisoners Extraordinary rendition Guantanamo Bay detention camp Iranian Revolution Islamic terrorism Islamism Military Commissions Act of 2006 North Korea and weapons of mass destruction Terrorist
Terrorist
Surveillance Program Operation Noble Eagle Operation Eagle Assist Pakistan's role Patriot Act President's Surveillance Program Protect America Act of 2007 September 11 attacks State Sponsors of Terrorism Targeted killing Targeted Killing in International Law Targeted Killings: Law and Morality in an Asymmetrical World Unitary executive theory Unlawful combatant Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan CAGE

Terrorism portal War portal

Authority control

WorldCat
WorldCat
Identities VIAF: 121766659 LCCN: no98126907 ISNI: 0000 0001 0679 2

.