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Taleh ( so, Taleex, ar, تالح) is a historical Somali town in the eastern Sool region of
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Somaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلاند ''Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd''), is a self-declared sovereign st ...
.Regions of Somalia
/ref> It served as the headquarters of the pre-independence Dervish movement.Laurence, p.47. The town is sometimes referred to as the "Capital of the Sayyid" or referring to the founder of the Dervish state,
Mohammed Abdullah Hassan Sayid Mohamed Abdullah Hassan ( so, Sayid Maxamed Cabdulle Xasan; (1856 – 1920) was a Somali religious and military leader in the 'Iid and Nugaal regions. He established the Dervish movement that fought a 20-year war against the British, Italian ...
. The Dalyare fort and the Taleh complex built between 1909 and 1910 are among the least disfigured Darawiish era structures that remain in Sool province, whom altogether comprise 27 Darawiish era structures. The oldest or first of these forts was the Ugaadhyahan Dhulbahante-inhabited fort at Halin and destroyed by Eric Swayne in 1902; the second-oldest was the Ali Gheri Dhulbahante-inhabited fort at
Eyl Eyl ( it, Eil) is an ancient port town in the northeastern Nugal region of Somalia in the autonomous Puntland region, it is the capital of the Eyl District. Eyl, also called Illig, was the capital of the Dervishes during its Dhulbahante-inhabitancy ...
built in 1903. Taleh succeeded the city of
Eyl Eyl ( it, Eil) is an ancient port town in the northeastern Nugal region of Somalia in the autonomous Puntland region, it is the capital of the Eyl District. Eyl, also called Illig, was the capital of the Dervishes during its Dhulbahante-inhabitancy ...
(Illig) as Darawiish capital, which had been the capital for four years from 1905 onwards when it was inhabited by the Dervish.


History


Sayid's description

In the Sayid's description of the fall of Taleh in February 1920, in an April 1920 letter transcribed from the original Arabic script into Italian by the incumbent ''Governatori della Somalia'', the various Darawiish-built installations are defined as ''Dhulbahante forts'': Although the endonymic term for Darawiish built installations are ''Dhulbahante forts'', colonial sources refer to Dhulbahante forts as ''Dervish forts''.


Choice as capital

According to Darawiish veteran Ciise Faarax Fikad, Taleh was chosen as the Darawiish capital because the Nugaal Valley lies at the heartland of Dhulbahante territory, its distance from colonial administrative centers and to generate geographical distance from the hostile nocity of n-Dhulbahante clans such as
RayidCiid or 'Iid ( so, Arlo Ciideed) is an archaic native geographic name for the land between the region of Mudug and the Nugaal Valley, roughly congruous with the northern Bookh district in Ethiopia. As such, Ciid constitutes the tripoint of the former ...
signatories to British treaties, the Majeerteen, those under
Mohamoud Ali Shire Sultan Mohamoud Ali Shire, MBE ( so, Maxamuud Cali Shire, ar, محمود علي شري) was a Somali elder of the Warsangali clan. He bore the title Sultan * (also referred to as Senior Akil) of the Warsangali. He was centered at Las Khorey. Reign ...
and the Ogaden who were in general opposed to the Darawiish:Ciise, Jama. Taariikhdii Daraawiishta iyo Sayid Maxamed Cabdulle Xasan. 2005, p 251 Colonial sources concur with Somali sources that non-Dhulbahante clans were hostile towards the Darawiish:


Taleh forts

Although the term ''Taleh'' or ''Taleex'' is often used to describe the entire Dervish fort complex in the town, it more strictly applies to only one of the structures in a four-part compound. The latter complex includes Falat, Silsilad, Dar Ilaalo and Taleh. According to Jardine, prior to Taleh becoming Darawiish capital, the Darawiish capital had for four years from 1905 onwards been at
Eyl Eyl ( it, Eil) is an ancient port town in the northeastern Nugal region of Somalia in the autonomous Puntland region, it is the capital of the Eyl District. Eyl, also called Illig, was the capital of the Dervishes during its Dhulbahante-inhabitancy ...
, also known as Illig:


Conception

The notion of the building of fortresses for Darawiish inhabitation pre-existed 1902 as Eric Swayne encountered a fort at Halin during the second expedition in 1902, as such, arguably timeframing the building of the Halin fort at 1901. The British War Office stated that Eric Swayne destroyed the fort in 1902, and that it was inhabited by the Ugaadhyahan Dhulbahante subclans of Naleye Ahmed and Nur Ahmed:Official History of the Operations in Somaliland, 1901-04 Great Britain. War Office. General Staff · 1907 , PAGE 100 The second-oldest Dhulbahante fort of the Darawiish era is the Dhowre Sheneeleh fort which was constructed at
Eyl Eyl ( it, Eil) is an ancient port town in the northeastern Nugal region of Somalia in the autonomous Puntland region, it is the capital of the Eyl District. Eyl, also called Illig, was the capital of the Dervishes during its Dhulbahante-inhabitancy ...
(Illig) in 1903. According to the British War Office, the castle at Illig was exclusively inhabited by the Dhulbahante clan, and in particular by the Ali Gheri subclan of the Dhulbahante:Official History of the Operations in Somaliland, 1901-04 Great Britain. War Office. General Staff · 1907 , PAGE 264 Historian Douglas Jardine concurs with the British War Office that the Darawiish capital at Illig (Eyl) was exclusively inhabited by the Dhulbahante:Mad Mullah of Somaliland, Douglas Jardine, p 148


Dhulbahante forts

Taleh is home to several historic structures dating to the Darawiish era which were dubbed as ''Dhulbahante forts'' by the Sayid. Of these, there are five forts erected by
Mohammed Abdullah Hassan Sayid Mohamed Abdullah Hassan ( so, Sayid Maxamed Cabdulle Xasan; (1856 – 1920) was a Somali religious and military leader in the 'Iid and Nugaal regions. He established the Dervish movement that fought a 20-year war against the British, Italian ...
's former Dervish State in present-day Sool and Sanaag. Constructed between 1901 and 1915, most of the edifices are concentrated in the Sanaag & Sool region, including Dalyare fort, Jidali fort, Midhisho, Shimbir Bariis and Badhan. Taleh/Taleex is the largest of the structures. According to Cabdi-Yaar Cali Guuleed, a Darawiish veteran, the largest Dhulbahante fort from the Darawiish era is the Dhulbahante fort of Taleh which according to him was built between 1909 to 1910 and he said the following: It was built around a collection of Dervish tombs, the earliest of which belongs to Sultan Nur Ahmed Aman and Carro Seed Magan, the Dervish leader Hassan's mother. From 1909 to 1910, the Dervish constructed the main fort around the older tombs. They spent the next two years in the mountainous regions of Sanaag building three more smaller forts.The Geographical Journal, Vol. 78, No. 2 (Aug., 1931), pp. 125-128 Maxamuud Xoosh Cigaal was the last Darawiish man to be resident at the Taleh fort, whilst the six-year old Jaamac Biixi Kidin was the last Darawiish person in the fort overall. A 1931 diary-book by former Italian Somalia governor Francesco Caroselli notes an April 1920 letter by the Sayid to the then Italian-Somalia governor which states the Taleh fort was one of 27 forts built by Darawiish and that they're designated as Dhulbahante forts.Ferro e Fuoco in Somalia, da Francesco Saverio Caroselli, Rome, 1931; p. 272.


Fall of Taleh

In 1919–1920, the British bombarded the Sanaag forts, where most of the Dervish had operated since 1913. Having destroyed the structures and driven out Hassan's men to Taleh in 1920, they finally attacked the town, assisted by horsemen and Somali personalities. The settlement was bombarded by the Royal Air Force on 4 February and taken days later, with the British having defeated the last pockets of Dervish resistance. Among the casualties at Taleh were Ibrahim Buqul and Haji Sudi. The former was the commander of the Dervish at Taleh, and the latter was a long-standing member of the movement according to Douglas Jardin (1923) and Henry Rayne (1921). Another Dervish leader, Yusuf Xayle, was captured alive and later executed by former Dervish Abdi Dhere, who had defected to the opposition in 1919. Hassan himself managed to escape to the Ogaden, where his Dervishes were later routed in a 1921 raid led by the clan leader Haji Warabe.Douglas Jardine, 'The Mad Mullah of Somaliland.' 8vo. London 1923.


Demographics

The broader Taleh District has a total population of 45,354 residents, with the Dhulbahante as the native people of the land


Climate


Education

Taleh has a number of academic institutions. According to the Somaliland Ministry of Education and Science (Somaliland), Ministry of Education, there are eight primary schools in the Taleh District. Among these are Kalad, Labas, Aroley and Halin.


Notable residents

*Abdisamad Ali Shire – former Vice President of Puntland *Abdihakim Abdullahi Haji Omar – current Vice President of Puntland *Saado Ali Warsame – a Somali singer-songwriter and former politician


Notes


References

*
Taleex
{{coord, 9, 8, 51, N, 48, 25, 15, E, display=title Populated places in Sool, Somalia