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A system of plant taxonomy, the Takhtajan
Takhtajan
system of plant classification was published by Armen Takhtajan, in several versions from the 1950s onwards. It is usually compared to the Cronquist system. It admits paraphyletic groups.

Contents

1 1966 system 2 2009 system 3 References 4 Bibliography 5 External links

1966 system[edit]

Magnoliophyta
Magnoliophyta
(Angiospermae) [1] p. 51

Class: Magnoliatae (Dicotyledones) p. 51 Class: Liliatae (Monocotyledones) p. 461

Subclass A: Alismidae p. 461 Subclass B: Liliidae p. 473 (was nom. nov.)

Superorder Lilianae
Lilianae
p. 473 (was nom. nov.)

Order Liliales
Liliales
p. 473

Family Liliaceae
Liliaceae
p. 474 Family Xanthorrhoeaceaep. 476 Family Aphyllanthaceaep. 476 Family Alliaceae
Alliaceae
p. 477 Family Agavaceae
Agavaceae
p. 478 Family Amaryllidaceae
Amaryllidaceae
p. 480 Family Alstroemeriaceae
Alstroemeriaceae
p. 481 Family Haemodoraceae
Haemodoraceae
p. 482 Family Hypoxidaceae
Hypoxidaceae
p. 483 Family Velloziaceae
Velloziaceae
p. 483 Family Philesiaceae
Philesiaceae
p. 484 Family Tecophilaeaceae
Tecophilaeaceae
p. 484 Family Cyanastraceae
Cyanastraceae
p. 485 Family Asparagaceae
Asparagaceae
p. 486 Family Smilacaceae
Smilacaceae
p. 487 Family Stemonaceae
Stemonaceae
p. 487 Family Dioscoreaceae
Dioscoreaceae
p. 488 Family Taccaceae
Taccaceae
p. 489 Family Phylydraceae p. 491 Family Pontederiaceae
Pontederiaceae
p. 490

Order Bromeliales
Bromeliales
p. 492 Order Iridales
Iridales
p. 494 Order Zingiberales
Zingiberales
p. 498 Order Orchidales
Orchidales
p. 505

Superorder Juncanae
Juncanae
p. 510

Subclass C: Commelinidae p. 461 Subclass D: Arecidae p. 525

2009 system[edit] As published in Flowering Plants[2]

Phylum
Phylum
Magnoliophyta
Magnoliophyta
(Flowering Plants) Cronquist, Takht. & Zimmerm. ex Reveal (1996)[3]

Class Magnoliopsida
Magnoliopsida
Brongn. (1843) (Dicotyledons) p. 7 Class Liliopsida Scop. (1760) (Monocotyledons) p. 595

Subclass I: Alismatidae p. 589 Subclass II: Liliidae Takht. (1966) p. 625

Superorder Lilianae
Lilianae
Takht. (1966)

Order Melanthiales R. Dahlgren ex Reveal (1992) Order Trilliales Takht. (1996) Order Liliales
Liliales
Perleb (1826)

1. Family Campynemataceae 2. Family Colchicaceae 3. Family Tricyrtidaceae 4. Family Scoliopaceae p. 634 5. Family Calochortaceae
Calochortaceae
p. 634 6. Family Liliaceae
Liliaceae
Juss., nom. cons. (1789) p. 634 7. Family Medeolaceae
Medeolaceae
(S. Wats.) Takht. (1987) p. 634

Order Burmanniales Order Alstroemeriales Hutch. (1934) Order Smilacales Order Orchidales Order Iridales Order Amaryllidales Order Asparagales

Superorder Pandananae Superorder Dioscoreanae Takht., nom. inval. (1997) Superorder Arecanae

Subclass III: Arecidae p. 693 Subclass IV: Commelinidae p. 699

References[edit]

^ Takhtajan
Takhtajan
1966, p. 51. ^ Takhtajan
Takhtajan
2009, Synopsis of families pp. xxxvii–xlv. ^ Takhtajan
Takhtajan
2009, p. 1.

Bibliography[edit]

Takhtajan, Armen Leonovich (1966). "Lilianae". Система и филогения цветкорых растений (Sistema i filogeniia tsvetkovykh rastenii) [Systema et Phylogemia Magnoliophytorum] (in Russian). trans. C Jeffrey, as Flowering plants: Origin and dispersal, Edinburgh : Oliver and Boyd, 1969. Moscow: Наука. p. 473. ISBN 0-05-001715-2. Retrieved 14 August 2015.  Cronquist, Arthur; Takhtajan, Armen; Zimmermann, Walter (April 1966). "On the Higher Taxa of Embryobionta". Taxon. 15 (4): 129–134. doi:10.2307/1217531. JSTOR 1217531.  Takhtajan, A. (1980). "Outline of the classification of flowering plants (Magnoliophya)". Botanical Review. 46 (3): 225–359. doi:10.1007/BF02861558.  Takhtajan, Armen (1991). Evolutionary trends in flowering plants. New York: Columbia Univ. Press. ISBN 9780231073288.  Takhtajan, Armen Leonovich (2009). Flowering Plants. Springer. ISBN 1-4020-9609-7. Retrieved 7 January 2014.  Singh, Gurcharan (2004). "Armen Takhtajan". Plant Systematics: An Integrated Approach. Science Publishers. pp. 269–277. ISBN 1-57808-351-6. Retrieved 23 January 2014.  Reveal, James (22 November 1998). "Lists of the Flowering Plant Taxa Accepted by Cronquist, Dahlgren, Reveal, Takhtajan
Takhtajan
& Thorne". Vascular Plant Family Nomenclature. University of Maryland: Norton-Brown Herbarium. Retrieved 3 January 2016.  Reveal, James L (5 Nov 1997). " Takhtajan
Takhtajan
System of Classification" (pbio 250 Lecture Notes). Plant Systematics. University of Maryland: Norton-Brown Herbarium. Retrieved 10 January 2016. 

External links[edit]

Takhtajan
Takhtajan
system at CSDL, Texas. Also, at the Norton Brown Herbarium, Maryland (with an extensive listing of synonyms, both nomenclatural and taxonomic, for each name in the system): 1, 2, 3 Angiosperm Classification according to Armen Takhtajan, 1966

v t e

List of systems of plant taxonomy

Pre-Linnaean

John Ray
John Ray
system (1686–1704)

A discourse on the seeds of plants Methodus plantarum nova De Variis Plantarum Methodis Dissertatio Brevis Methodus plantarum emendata et aucta

Pre-Darwinian

Linnaean system (1735–51)

Systema Naturae Species Plantarum Genera Plantarum Philosophia Botanica

Adanson system (1763)

Familles naturelles des plantes

De Jussieu system (1789)

Genera Plantarum, secundum ordines naturales disposita juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratam

De Candolle system (1819–24)

Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, ou exposition des principes de la classification naturelle et de l'art de décrire et d'etudier les végétaux Prodromus systemati naturalis regni vegetabilis sive enumeratio contracta ordinum, generum specierumque plantarum huc usque cognitarum, juxta methodi naturalis normas digesta

Berchtold and Presl system (1820–1823)

O Prirozenosti Rostlin

Agardh system (1825)

Classes Plantarum

Gray system (1821)

The Natural Arrangement of British Plants

Dumortier
Dumortier
system (1829)

Analyse des familles des plantes

Lindley system (1830–45)

An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany The Vegetable Kingdom

Don system (1834)

General History of Dichlamydious Plants.

Bentham & Hooker system (1862–83)

Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita.

Baillon system (1867–94)

Histoire des plantes

Post- Darwinian
Darwinian
(Phyletic)

Nineteenth century

Eichler system (1875–1886)

Blüthendiagramme: construirt und erläutert Syllabus der Vorlesungen über Phanerogamenkunde

Engler system
Engler system
(1886–1924)

Führer durch den Königlich botanischen Garten der Universität zu Breslau Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien Das Pflanzenreich

van Tieghem system (1891)

Traité de botanique

Twentieth century

Dalla Torre & Harms system (1900–07)

Genera Siphonogamarum, ad systema Englerianum conscripta

Warming system (1912)

Haandbog i den systematiske botanik

Hallier system (1912)

L'origine et le système phylétique des angiospermes

Bessey system (1915)

The phylogenetic taxonomy of flowering plants

Wettstein system (1901–35)

Handbuch der systematischen Botanik

Lotsy system (1907–11)

Vorträge über botanische Stammesgeschichte, gehalten an der Reichsuniversität zu Leiden. Ein Lehrbuch der Pflanzensystematik.

Hutchinson system (1926–73)

The families of flowering plants, arranged according to a new system based on their probable phylogeny

Calestani system (1933)

Le origini e la classificazione delle Angiosperme

Kimura system (1956)

Système et phylogénie des monocotyledones

Emberger system (1960)

Traité de Botanique systématique

Melchior system (1964)

Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien

Takhtajan
Takhtajan
system (1966–97)

A system and phylogeny of the flowering plants Flowering plants: origin and dispersal Diversity and classification of flowering plants

Cronquist system
Cronquist system
(1968–81)

The evolution and classification of flowering plants An integrated system of classification of flowering plants

Goldberg system (1986–89

Classification, Evolution and Phylogeny of the Families of Dicotyledons

Dahlgren system (1975–85)

The families of the monocotyledons: structure, evolution, and taxonomy

Thorne system (1968–2000)

An updated phylogenetic classification of the flowering plants

Kubitzki system (1990–)

The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants

Reveal system (1999)

Reveal System of Angiosperm Classification

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group System (1998–2009)

An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants (APG I) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV Angiosperm Phylogeny Website

See also

Plantae at Wikispecies

Note: This is a selected list of the more influential systems. There are many other systems, for instance a review of earlier systems, published by Lindley in his 1853 edition, and Dahlgren (1982). Examples include the works of Scopoli, Bat

.