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Tajik or Tajiki (Tajik: забо́ни тоҷикӣ́, زبان تاجیکی zaboni tojikī, [zaˈbɔni tɔd͡ʒiˈki]),[3] also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: форси́и тоҷикӣ́, forsii tojikī, [fɔrˈsiji tɔd͡ʒiˈki]), is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and Uzbekistan. It is closely related to Dari Persian. Since the beginning of the twentieth century and collapse of the Soviet
Soviet
Union, Tajik has been considered by a number of writers and researchers to be a variety of Persian[4] (Halimov 1974: 30–31, Oafforov 1979: 33).[clarification needed] The popularity of this conception of Tajik as a variety of Persian was such that, during the period in which Tajik intellectuals were trying to establish Tajik as a language separate from Persian, Sadriddin Ayni, who was a prominent intellectual and educator, had to make a statement that Tajik was not a bastardized dialect of Persian.[5] The issue of whether Tajik and Persian are to be considered two dialects of a single language or two discrete languages[6] has political sides to it (see Perry 1996).[5] Today Tajik is recognized as a dialect of the Persian language.[7] Tajik is the official language of Tajikistan. In Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(where Tajik people make up a large part of the population), this language is less influenced by Turkic languages, is called Dari, and has co-official language status. Tajik has diverged from Persian as spoken in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Iran
Iran
due to political borders, geographical isolation, the standardization process, and the influence of Russian and neighboring Turkic languages. The standard language is based on the northwestern dialects of Tajik (region of old major city of Samarqand), which have been somewhat influenced by the neighboring Uzbek language
Uzbek language
as a result of geographical proximity. Tajik also retains numerous archaic elements in its vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar that have been lost elsewhere in the Persophone world, in part due to its relative isolation in the mountains of Central Asia.

Contents

1 Geographical distribution

1.1 Dialects

2 Phonology

2.1 Vowels 2.2 Consonants 2.3 Word stress

3 Grammar

3.1 Nouns 3.2 Prepositions

4 Vocabulary 5 Writing system 6 History 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Geographical distribution[edit] The most important cities of Central Asia— Samarkand
Samarkand
and Bukhara—are in present-day Uzbekistan, where ethnic Tajiks
Tajiks
comprise a majority.[8][9] Today, virtually all Tajik speakers in Bukhara
Bukhara
are bilingual in Tajik and Uzbek.[citation needed] This Tajik–Uzbek bilingualism has had a strong influence on the phonology, morphology, and syntax of Bukharan Tajik.[10] Tajiks
Tajiks
are also found in large numbers in the Surxondaryo Region
Surxondaryo Region
in the south and along Uzbekistan's eastern border with Tajikistan. Tajik is still widely spoken in Samarqand
Samarqand
and Buxoro
Buxoro
today, as Tajiks
Tajiks
account for perhaps 70% of the total population of Samarqand
Samarqand
and have been estimated to make up as much as 90% of Buxoro.[11][12] Official statistics in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
state that the Tajik community comprises 5% of the nation's total population.[13] However, these numbers do not include ethnic Tajiks
Tajiks
who, for a variety of reasons, choose to identify themselves as Uzbeks
Uzbeks
in population census forms.[14] During the Soviet
Soviet
"Uzbekisation" supervised by Sharof Rashidov, the head of the Uzbek Communist
Communist
Party, Tajiks
Tajiks
had to choose either to stay in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and get registered as Uzbek in their passports or leave the republic for the less-developed agricultural and mountainous Tajikistan.[15] The "Uzbekization" movement ended in 1924.[16] Native Tajiks
Tajiks
living in the nation of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
have reportedly estimated that Tajiks
Tajiks
make up 25–30% of the nation's population.[11] Tajiks
Tajiks
constitute 80% of Tajikistan's population, and the language dominates in most parts of the country. Some Tajiks
Tajiks
in Badakhshan
Badakhshan
in southeastern Tajikistan, where the Pamir languages are the native languages of most residents, are bilingual. Tajiks
Tajiks
are the dominant ethnic group in Northern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
as well, and are also the majority group in scattered pockets elsewhere in the country, particularly urban areas such as Kabul, Mazar-i-Sharif, Kunduz, Ghazni and Herat. Tajiks
Tajiks
constitute between 25% and 30% of the total population of the country. In Afghanistan, the dialects spoken by ethnic Tajiks
Tajiks
are written using the Persian alphabet
Persian alphabet
and referred to as the Dari, along with the dialects of other groups in Afghanistan such as the Hazaragi and Aimaq dialects. Approximately 15-30% of Afghan citizens are native speakers of Dari.[17][18][19] A large Tajik-speaking diaspora exists due to the instability that has plagued Central Asia
Central Asia
in recent years, with significant numbers of Tajiks
Tajiks
found in Russia, Kazakhstan, and beyond. This Tajik diaspora is also the result of the poor state of the economy of Tajikistan, and each year approximately one million men leave Tajikistan
Tajikistan
in order to gain employment in Russia.[20] Dialects[edit] Tajik dialects can be approximately split into the following groups:

Northern dialects (Northern Tajikistan, Bukhara, Samarkand, Kyrgyzstan, and the Varzob
Varzob
valley region of Dushanbe).[21] Central dialects (dialects of the upper Zarafshan
Zarafshan
Valley)[21] Southern dialects (South and East of Dushanbe, Kulob, and the Rasht region of Tajikistan)[21] Southeastern dialects (dialects of the Darvoz region and the Amu Darya near Rushon)[21]

The dialect used by the Bukharan Jews
Bukharan Jews
of Central Asia
Central Asia
are known as the Bukhori dialect
Bukhori dialect
and belong to the northern dialect grouping. They are chiefly distinguished by the inclusion of Hebrew terms, principally religious vocabulary, and a historical use of the Hebrew alphabet. Despite these differences, Bukhori
Bukhori
is readily intelligible to other Tajik-speakers, particularly speakers of northern dialects. A very important moment in the development of the contemporary Tajik, especially of the spoken language, is the tendency in changing its dialectal orientation. The dialects of Northern Tajikistan
Tajikistan
were the foundation of the prevalent standard Tajik, while the Southern dialects did not enjoy either popularity or prestige. Now all politicians and public officials make their speeches in the Kulob dialect, which is also used in broadcasting.[22] Phonology[edit] Vowels[edit] The table below lists the six vowel phonemes in standard, literary Tajik. Letters from the Tajik Cyrillic alphabet are given first, followed by IPA transcription. Local dialects frequently have more than the six seen below.

Tajik vowels [23]

Front Central Back

Close и, ӣ /i/

у /u/

Mid е /e/ ӯ /ɵ/ о /ɔ/

Open а /æ/

In central and southern dialects, /ɵ/ merges with /u/.[24] The open back vowel has varyingly been described as mid-back,[25][26] [ɒ],[27] [ɔ],[5] and [ɔː].[28] It is analogous to standard Persian â (long a). Consonants[edit] The Tajik language
Tajik language
contains 24 consonants,16 of which form contrastive pairs by voicing: [б/п] [в/ф] [д/т] [з/с] [ж/ш] [ҷ/ч] [г/к] [ғ/х].[23] The table below lists the consonant phonemes in standard, literary Tajik. Letters from the Tajik Cyrillic alphabet are given first, followed by IPA transcription.

Labial Dental/ Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal

Nasal м /m/ н /n/

Stop п б /p/ /b/ т д /t/ /d/

к г /k/ /ɡ/ қ /q/ ъ /ʔ/

Affricate

ч ҷ /tʃ/ /dʒ/

Fricative ф в /f/ /v/ с з /s/ /z/ ш ж /ʃ/ /ʒ/

х ғ /χ/ /ʁ/ ҳ /h/

Trill

р /r/

Approximant

л /l/ й /j/

Word stress[edit] Word stress generally falls on the first syllable in finite verb forms and on the last syllable in nouns and noun-like words.[23] Examples of where stress does not fall on the last syllable are adverbs like: бале (bale, meaning "yes") and зеро (zero, meaning "because"). Stress also does not fall on enclitics, nor on the marker of the direct object. Grammar[edit] Main article: Tajik grammar The word order of Tajiki Persian is subject–object–verb. Tajik Persian grammar is almost identical to the classical Persian grammar (and the grammar of modern varieties such as Iranian Persian), although there are notable differences.[29] The most notable difference between classical Persian grammar and Tajik Persian grammar is the construction of the present progressive tense in each language. In Tajik, the present progressive form consists of a present progressive participle, from the verb истодан istodan 'to stand', and a cliticized form of the verb -acт -ast 'to be'.[5]

Ман мактуб навишта истода-ам

man maktub navišta istoda-am

I letter write PRS.PROG=be.1sg

'I am writing a letter.'

In Classical Persian, the present progressive form consists of the verb دار dār 'to have' followed by a conjugated verb in either the simple present tense, the habitual past tense, or the habitual past perfect tense.[30]

man dār-am kār kon-am

I do-1sg.PRS work have-1sg.PRS

'I am working.'

Nouns[edit] Nouns are not marked for grammatical gender, although they are marked for number. Two forms of number exist in Tajik, singular and plural. The plural is marked by either the suffix -ҳо -ho or -он -on (with contextual variants -ён -yon and -гон -gon), although Arabic
Arabic
loan words may use Arabic
Arabic
forms. There is no definite article, but the indefinite article exists in the form of the number "one" як yak, and -е -e, the first positioned before the noun and the second joining the noun as a suffix. When a noun is used as a direct object, it is marked by the suffix -ро -ro, e.g. Рустамро задам (Rustam-ro zadam), "I hit Rustam". This direct object suffix is added to the word after any plural suffixes. The form -ро can be literary or formal. In older forms of the Persian language, -ро could indicate both direct and indirect objects and some phrases used in modern Persian and Tajik have maintained this suffix on indirect objects, as seen in the following example: (Худоро шукр Xudo-ro šukr - "Thank God"). Modern Persian
Modern Persian
does not use the direct object marker as a suffix on the noun, but rather, as a stand-alone morpheme.[23] Prepositions[edit]

Simple prepositions

Tajik English

аз (az) from, through, across

ба (ba) to

бар (bar) on, upon, onto

бе (be) without

бо (bo) with

дар (dar) at, in

то (to) up to, as far as, until

чун (čun) like, as

Vocabulary[edit] Tajik is conservative in its vocabulary, retaining numerous terms that have long since fallen into disuse in Iran
Iran
and Afghanistan, such as арзиз (arziz), meaning "tin", and фарбеҳ (farbeh), meaning "fat". Most modern loan words in Tajik come from Russian as a result of the position of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
within the Soviet
Soviet
Union. The vast majority of these Russian loanwords which have entered the Tajik language through the fields of socioeconomics, technology, and government, where most of the concepts and vocabulary of these fields have been borrowed from the Russian language. The introduction of Russian loanwords into the Tajik language
Tajik language
was largely justified under the Soviet
Soviet
policy of modernization and the necessary subordination of all languages to Russian for the achievement of a Communist
Communist
state.[31] Vocabulary also comes from the geographically close Uzbek language and, as is usual in Islamic countries, from Arabic. Since the late 1980s, an effort has been made to replace loanwords with native equivalents, using either old terms that had fallen out of use, or coined terminology. Many of the coined terms for modern items such as гармкунак (garmkunak), meaning 'heater' and чангкашак (čangkašak), meaning 'vacuum cleaner' differ from their Afghan and Iranian equivalents, adding to the difficulty in intelligibility between Tajik and other forms of Persian. In the table below, Persian refers to the standard language of Iran, which differs somewhat from the Dari Persian of Afghanistan. Another Iranian language, Pashto, has also been included for comparative purposes.

Tajik моҳ (moh) нав (nav) модар (modar) хоҳар (xohar) шаб (šab) бинӣ (binī) се (se) сиёҳ (siyoh) сурх (surx) зард (zard) сабз (sabz) гург (gurg)

Other Iranian languages

Persian ماه māh نو nou مادر mādar خواهر xāhar شب šab بینی bīnī سه se سياه siyāh سرخ sorx زرد zard سبز sabz گرگ gorg

Pashto میاشت myâsht نوی nəwai مور mor خور xor ښپه shpa پزه peza دره dre تور tor سور sur زیړ zyaṛ شين، زرغون shin, zərghun لوه lewə

Other Indo-European languages

English month new mother sister night nose three black red yellow green wolf

Armenian ամիս amis նոր nor մայր mayr քույր k'uyr գիշեր gišer քիթ k'it' երեք yerek' սև sev կարմիր karmir դեղին deġin կանաչ kanač գայլ gayl

Urdu مہینا mahīnā نیا nayā ماں māṃ بہن bêhn رات rāt ناک nāk تین tīn کالا kālā لال lāl پیلا pīlā ہرا harā بھیڑیا bheṛiyā

Latin mēnsis novus māter soror nox nasus trēs āter, Niger ruber flāvus, gilvus viridis lupus

Spanish mes nuevo madre hermana noche nariz tres negro rojo amarillo verde lobo

Greek μήνας minas νέος neos μητέρα mitera αδελφή adhelfi νύχτα nihta μύτη miti τρία tria μαύρος mavros κόκκινος kokkinos κίτρινος kitrinos πράσινος prasinos λύκος likos

Ukrainian місяць misiats новий novyi мати maty сестра sestra ніч nich ніс nis три try чорний chornyi червоний, рудий chervonyi, rudyi жовтий zhovtyi зелений zelenyi вовк vovk

Russian месяц mesiats новый novyi мать mat' сестра siestra ночь noch' нос nos три tri чёрный chiornyi красный, рыжий krasnyi, ryzhyi жёлтый zholtyi зелёный zielionyi волк volk

Serbo-Croatian m(j)esec nov mater sestra noć nos tri crn crven žut zelen vuk

Lithuanian mėnuo naujas motina sesuo naktis nosis trys juoda raudona geltona žalia vilkas

Hindi महीना mahīnā नया nayā माँ māṃ बहन bahan रात rāt नाक nāk तीन tīn काला kālā लाल lāl पीला pīlā हरा harā भेड़िया bheṛiyā

Bengali মাস maash নতুন/নব notun/nobo মা Ma বোন bon রাত, রাত্রি raat, ratri নাক nak তিন tin কালো kalo লাল lal হলুদ holud সবুজ shobuj নেকড়ে nekre

Writing system[edit]

Tajik Republic's 1929 coat of arms with Tajik language
Tajik language
in Perso-Arabic script جمهوريه اجتماعی شوروى مختار تاجيكستان‎

Main article: Tajik alphabet In Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and other countries of the former Soviet
Soviet
Union, Tajik Persian is currently written in Cyrillic script, although it was written in the Latin script
Latin script
beginning in 1928, and the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet prior to 1928. In the Tajik Soviet
Soviet
Socialist Republic, the use of the Latin script
Latin script
was later replaced in 1939 by the Cyrillic script.[32] The Tajik alphabet
Tajik alphabet
added six additional letters to the Cyrillic script inventory and these additional letters are distinguished in the Tajik orthography by the use of diacritics.[33] In an interview to Iranian news media in 2008, Tajikistan's deputy culture minister said Tajikistan
Tajikistan
would study the issue of switching its Tajik alphabet
Tajik alphabet
from Cyrillic to Perso- Arabic
Arabic
script used in Iran
Iran
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
when the government feels that "the Tajik people become familiar with the Persian alphabet".[34] History[edit] According to many scholars, the New Persian language
Persian language
(which subsequently evolved into the Persian forms spoken in Iran, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Tajikistan) developed in Transoxiana
Transoxiana
and Khorasan, in what are today parts of Afghanistan, Iran, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and Tajikistan. While the New Persian language
Persian language
was descended primarily from Middle Persian, it also incorporated substantial elements of other Iranian languages of ancient Central Asia, such as Sogdian. Following the Arab
Arab
conquest of Iran
Iran
and most of Central Asia
Central Asia
in the 8th century AD, Arabic
Arabic
for a time became the court language, and Persian and other Iranian languages
Iranian languages
were relegated to the private sphere. In the 9th century AD, following the rise of the Samanids, whose state was centered around the cities of Bukhoro
Bukhoro
(Buxoro), Samarqand
Samarqand
and Herat, and covered much of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and northeastern Iran, New Persian emerged as the court language and swiftly displaced Arabic. Arabic
Arabic
influence continued to show itself in the form of the Perso- Arabic
Arabic
script used to write the language (replaced in Tajik by Latin and then Cyrillic in the 20th century) and a large number of Arabic
Arabic
loanwords. New Persian became the lingua franca of Central Asia
Central Asia
for centuries, although it eventually lost ground to the Chaghatai language
Chaghatai language
in much of its former domains as a growing number of Turkic tribes moved into the region from the east. Since the 16th century AD, Tajik has come under increasing pressure from neighboring Turkic languages. Once spoken in areas of Turkmenistan, such as Merv, Tajik is today virtually non-existent in that country. Uzbek has also largely replaced Tajik in most areas of modern Uzbekistan. Nevertheless, Tajik persisted in pockets, notably in Samarqand, Bukhoro
Bukhoro
and Surxondaryo Province, as well as in much of what is today Tajikistan. The Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in Russian Turkestan
Russian Turkestan
implemented Turkification
Turkification
upon the Ferghana and Sarmakand Tajiks
Tajiks
replacing the Tajik language
Tajik language
with Uzbek resulting in an Uzbek dominant speaking Samarkand
Samarkand
whereas decades before Tajik was the dominant language in Samarkand.[35] The creation of the Tajik Soviet
Soviet
Socialist Republic within the Soviet Union in 1929 helped to safeguard the future of Tajik, as it became an official language of the republic alongside Russian. Still, substantial numbers of Tajik-speakers remained outside the borders of the republic, mostly in the neighboring Uzbek Soviet
Soviet
Socialist Republic, which created a source of tension between Tajiks
Tajiks
and Uzbeks. Neither Samarqand
Samarqand
nor Bukhoro
Bukhoro
was included in the nascent Tajik S.S.R., despite their immense historical importance in Tajik history. After the creation of the Tajik S.S.R., a large number of ethnic Tajiks
Tajiks
from the Uzbek S.S.R. migrated there, particularly to the region of the capital, Dushanbe, exercising a substantial influence in the republic's political, cultural and economic life. The influence of this influx of ethnic Tajik immigrants from the Uzbek S.S.R. is most prominently manifested in the fact that literary Tajik is based on their northwestern dialects of the language, rather than the central dialects that are spoken by the natives in the Dushanbe
Dushanbe
region and adjacent areas. After the fall of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Tajikistan's independence in 1991, the government of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
has made substantial efforts to promote the use of Tajik in all spheres of public and private life. Tajik is gaining ground among the once- Russified
Russified
upper classes, and continues its role as the vernacular of the majority of the country's population. There has been a rise in the number of Tajik publications. Increasing contact with media from Iran
Iran
and Afghanistan, after decades of isolation under the Soviets, is also having an effect on the development of the language. See also[edit]

Tajikistan
Tajikistan
portal Languages portal

Academy of Persian Language and Literature Bukhori Dari (Persian) Iranian people Iranian Studies List of Persian poets and authors List of Tajik singers Persian language Tajik alphabet Tajik Tajiks

Notes[edit]

^ Tajik at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tajik". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tgk ^ Lazard, G. 1989 ^ a b c d Shinji ldo. Tajik. Published by UN COM GmbH 2005 (LINCOM EUROPA) ^ Studies pertaining to the association between Tajik and Persian include Amanova (1991), Kozlov (1949), Lazard (1970), Rozenfel'd (1961), and Wei-Mintz (1962). The following papers/presentations focus on specific aspects of Tajik and their historical modern Persian counterparts: Cejpek (1956), Jilraev (1962), Lorenz (1961, 1964), Murav'eva (1956), Murav'eva and Rubinl!ik (1959), Ostrovskij (1973), and Sadeghi ( 1991 ). ^ Review of Tajik. By Shinji Ido. (Language of the world/materials 442.) Munich: LINCOM Europa, 2005. Pp. 98. ISBN 3895863165. Reviewed by Andreea S. Calude, The University of Auckland
University of Auckland
// eLanguage October 29th, 2008 ^ B. Rezvani: "Ethno-territorial conflict and coexistence in the Caucasus, Central Asia
Central Asia
and Fereydan. Appendix 4: Tajik population in Uzbekistan" ([1]). Dissertation. Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, University of Amsterdam. 2013 ^ Paul Bergne: The Birth of Tajikistan. National Identity and the Origins of the Republic. International Library of Central Asia Studies. I.B. Tauris. 2007. Pg. 106 ^ Shinji Ido. Bukharan Tajik. Muenchen: LINCOM EUROPA 2007 ^ a b Richard Foltz, "The Tajiks
Tajiks
of Uzbekistan", Central Asian Survey, 15(2), 213-216 (1996). ^ https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/1999/369.htm ^ Uzbekistan. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (December 13, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-12-26. ^ See for example the Country report on Uzbekistan, released by the United States
United States
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor here. ^ Rahim Masov, The History of the Clumsy Delimitation, Irfon Publ. House, Dushanbe, 1991 (in Russian). English translation: The History of a National Catastrophe, transl. Iraj Bashiri, 1996. ^ http://www.angelfire.com/rnb/bashiri/Masov/MasovHistoryNationalCatastrophe.pdf ^ Cite error: The named reference CIA was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ " Afghanistan
Afghanistan
v. Languages". Ch. M. Kieffer. Encyclopædia Iranica, online ed. Retrieved 10 December 2010. Persian (2) is the language most spoken in Afghanistan. The native tongue of twenty five percent of the population ...  ^ Cite error: The named reference UCLA was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/101east/2013/07/201372393525174524.html ^ a b c d Windfuhr, Gernot. "Persian and Tajik." The Iranian Languages. New York, NY: Routledge, 2009. 421 ^ E.K. Sobirov (Institute of Linguistics, Russian Academy of Sciences). On learning the vocabulary of the Tajik language
Tajik language
in modern times, p. 115. ^ a b c d Khojayori, Nasrullo, and Mikael Thompson. Tajiki Reference Grammar for Beginners. Washington, DC: Georgetown UP, 2009. ^ A Beginners' Guide to Tajiki by Azim Baizoyev and John Hayward, Routledge, London and New York, 2003, p. 3 ^ Lazard, G. 1956 ^ Perry, J. R. (2005) ^ Nakanishi, Akira, Writing Systems of the World ^ Korotkow, M. (2004) ^ Perry, J. R. 2005 ^ Windfuhr, Gernot. Persian Grammar: History and State of Its Study. De Gruyter, 1979. Trends in Linguistics. State-Of-The-Art Reports. ^ Marashi, Mehdi, and Mohammad Ali Jazayery. Persian Studies in North America: Studies in Honor of Mohammad Ali Jazayery. Bethesda, MD: Iran, 1994. ^ Windfuhr, Gernot. "Persian and Tajik." The Iranian Languages. New York, NY: Routledge, 2009. 420. ^ Windfuhr, Gernot. "Persian and Tajik." The Iranian Languages. New York, NY: Routledge, 2009. 423. ^ " Tajikistan
Tajikistan
may consider using Persian script when the conditions are met", interview of Tajikistan's Deputy Culture Minister with Iranian News Agency, 2 May 2008. ^ Kirill Nourzhanov; Christian Bleuer (8 October 2013). Tajikistan: A Political and Social History. ANU E Press. pp. 22–. ISBN 978-1-925021-16-5. 

References[edit]

Azim Baizoyev, John Hayward: A beginner's guide to Tajiki. - 1. publ. - London [u. a.]: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004. (includes a Tajiki-English Dictionary) Ido, S. (2005) Tajik ISBN 3-89586-316-5 Korotow, M. (2004) Tadschikisch Wort für Wort. Kauderwelsch ISBN 3-89416-347-X Lazard, G. (1956) "Caractères distinctifs de la langue tadjik". Bulletin de la Société Linguistique de Paris. 52. pp. 117–186 Lazard, G. "Le Persan". Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. Wiesbaden. 1989. Windfuhr, G. (1987) in Comrie, B. (ed.) "Persian". The World's Major Languages. pp. 523–546 Perry, J. R. (2005) A Tajik Persian Reference Grammar (Boston : Brill) ISBN 90-04-14323-8 Rastorgueva, V. (1963) A Short Sketch of Tajik Grammar (Netherlands : Mouton) ISBN 0-933070-28-4 Назарзода, С. – Сангинов, А. – Каримов, С. – Султон, М. Ҳ. (2008) Фарҳанги тафсирии забони тоҷикӣ (иборат аз ду ҷилд). Ҷилди I. А – Н.[permanent dead link] Ҷилди II. О – Я.[permanent dead link] (Душанбе). Khojayori, Nasrullo, and Mikael Thompson. Tajiki Reference Grammar for Beginners. Washington, DC: Georgetown UP, 2009. ISBN 978-1-58901-269-1 Windfuhr, Gernot. "Persian and Tajik." The Iranian Languages. New York, NY: Routledge, 2009. ISBN 978-0-7007-1131-4 Windfuhr, Gernot. Persian Grammar: History and State of Its Study. De Gruyter, 1979. Trends in Linguistics. State-Of-The-Art Reports. ISBN 978-9027977748 Marashi, Mehdi, and Mohammad Ali Jazayery. Persian Studies in North America: Studies in Honor of Mohammad Ali Jazayery. Bethesda, MD: Iran, 1994. ISBN 978-0936347356

Further reading[edit]

Ido, Shinji (2014), "Bukharan Tajik", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 44 (1): 87–102, doi:10.1017/S002510031300011X  John Perry. TAJIK ii. TAJIK PERSIAN (Encyclopedia Iranica) Bahriddin Aliev and Aya Okawa. TAJIK iii. COLLOQUIAL TAJIKI IN COMPARISON WITH PERSIAN OF IRAN (Encyclopedia Iranica)

External links[edit]

Tajik edition of, the free encyclopedia

Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Tajik

Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Tajik.

Wiktionary
Wiktionary
has a category on Tajik language

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tajik language.

Tajiki Cyrillic to Persian alphabet
Persian alphabet
converter A Worldwide Community for Tajiks Tajik Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words (from Wiktionary's Swadesh-list appendix) BBC news in Tajik English-Tajik-Russian Dictionary Free Online Tajik Dictionary Welcome to Tajikistan Численность населения Республики Таджикистан на 1 января 2015 года. Сообщение Агентства по статистике при Президенте Республики Таджикистан

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Languages of Tajikistan

Official language

Tajik

Regional/Minority languages

Pamir

Bartangi Ishkashimi Khufi Oroshani Rushani Shughni Wakhi Yazgulyam

Other

Kyrgyz Parya Pashto Russian Uzbek Yaghnobi

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Persian language

History

Old Persian Middle Persian Modern Persian

Dialects

Western (Iranian) Dari (Afghanistan) Tajik Hazaragi Aimaq Kuwaiti Persian Tat Judeo-Persian (Dzhidi) Judeo-Tat
Judeo-Tat
(Juhuri) Judeo-Tajik (Bukhori) Sistani Barbari

Language features

Vocabulary

Nouns Verbs

Phonology

Grammar

Persian grammar Tajik grammar

Writing system

Old Persian
Old Persian
cuneiform Pahlavi scripts Persian alphabet

Persian calligraphy

Tajik alphabet Romanized Persian alphabet

Fingilish

Persian Braille

Literature

Persian literature Middle Persian
Middle Persian
literature Tajik literature

Other topics

List of English words of Persian origin Persian language
Persian language
in South Asia

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Iranian languages

Old

Western

Old Persian Median

Eastern

Avestan Old Scythian

Middle

Western

Middle Persian Parthian

Eastern

Bactrian Khwarezmian Ossetic

Jassic

Saka Scythian Sogdian

Modern

North

Old Azari Balochi Central Iran Zoroastrian Dari Fars Gilaki Gorani Kurdic

Sorani Kurmanji Southern group Laki

Mazandarani Semnani Taleshi Deilami Tati Zazaki

Eastern

Pamir

Ishkashimi Sanglechi Wakhi Munji Yidgha Vanji Yazghulami Shughni Roshani Khufi Bartangi Sarikoli

Others

Ossetian

Digor Iron

Pashto

Central Northern Southern Wanetsi

Yaghnobi Ormuri Parachi

Western

South

Persian

Caucasian Tat Dari Tajik

Luri

Feyli Bakhtiari Kumzari

Larestani Bashkardi

Italics indicate extinct languages.

Authority control

.