Taiwan Strait
   HOME

TheInfoList



The Taiwan Strait is a -wide
strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrowing, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The surface water generally flows at the same elevation on both sides and through the strait in either direction. Most commonly it ...

strait
separating the
island of Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The m ...
and
continental Continental may refer to: Places * Continent * Continental, Arizona, a small community in Pima County, Arizona, US * Continental, Ohio, a small town in Putnam County, US Arts and entertainment * Continental (album), ''Continental'' (album), an alb ...
Asia Asia () is a landmass variously described as part of Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict crite ...

Asia
. The strait is part of the
South China Sea The South China Sea is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean, including marginal seas, areas of water, various gulfs, bights, bays, and straits. Terminology * Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) ...

South China Sea
and connects to the
East China Sea The East China Sea is an arm of the Western Pacific Ocean, located directly offshore from East China (hence the name), covering an area of roughly . Its northern extension between mainland China and the Korean Peninsula Korea is a regi ...

East China Sea
to the north. The narrowest part is wide.


Names

Former names of the Taiwan Strait include the or from a dated name for
Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The main islan ...

Taiwan
; the or Fujian, from
the Chinese province
the Chinese province
forming the strait's western shore; and the , a
calque In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...

calque
of the strait's name in
Hokkien Hokkien () is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucr ...
and
Hakka The Hakka (), sometimes also referred to as Hakka Han, or Hakka Chinese, are a Han Chinese Han Chinese subgroups, subgroup whose ancestral homes are chiefly in the Hakka Chinese, Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Gu ...
.


Geography

The Taiwan Strait is the body of water separating
Fujian Province Fujian (; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territori ...
from
Taiwan Island , t2 = , s2 = , l2 = beautiful island , bpmf2 = ㄈㄨˊ ㄦˇ ㄇㄛˊ ㄕㄚ , w2 = Fu²-êr³-mo²-sha¹ , p2 = Fúĕrmóshā , tp2 = Fúĕrmósha , mps2 = Fúĕrmóshā , gr2 = Fwu'eelmosha , poj = Tâi-oân , tl = Tâi-uân , h = Thòi-và ...
. International agreement does not define the Taiwan Strait but places its waters within the
South China Sea The South China Sea is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean, including marginal seas, areas of water, various gulfs, bights, bays, and straits. Terminology * Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) ...

South China Sea
, whose northern limit runs from
Cape Fugui Cape Fugui, Cape Fukwei, Fukwei Chiao, Fuguei Cape, or . is the northernmost point on Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China ...
(the northernmost point on
Taiwan Island , t2 = , s2 = , l2 = beautiful island , bpmf2 = ㄈㄨˊ ㄦˇ ㄇㄛˊ ㄕㄚ , w2 = Fu²-êr³-mo²-sha¹ , p2 = Fúĕrmóshā , tp2 = Fúĕrmósha , mps2 = Fúĕrmóshā , gr2 = Fwu'eelmosha , poj = Tâi-oân , tl = Tâi-uân , h = Thòi-và ...
; Fukikaku) to
Niushan Island Niushan Island, also known as Niushan Dao,, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Niushandao, Kiushan Tao or , is an islands of China, island in Nanlai Village (), Aoqian Town (), Pingtan Cou ...
to the southernmost point of
Pingtan Island Pingtan Island or Haitan Island is an islands of China, island of Fuzhou off the east coast of mainland Asia in Pingtan County, Fujian Province, China (PRC), south of the complex estuary of the Min River (Fujian), Min River. It is the largest isl ...
and thence westward along the parallel N. to the coast of
Fujian Province Fujian (; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territori ...
. The draft for a new edition of the IHO's ''Limits of Oceans and Seas'' does precisely define the Taiwan Strait, classifying it as part of the
North Pacific Ocean North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to east and west. ''North'' is a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating Direction (geometry), direction or geography. Etymology Th ...
. It makes the Taiwan Strait a body of water ''between'' the
East East or Orient is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north, east, south, and west, commonly denoted by their initials N, E, S, and W. East and west are perpendicular (at rig ...

East
and
South China Sea The South China Sea is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean, including marginal seas, areas of water, various gulfs, bights, bays, and straits. Terminology * Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) ...

South China Sea
s and delimits it: The entire strait is on Asia's
continental shelf A continental shelf is a portion of a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

continental shelf
. It is almost entirely less than deep, with a short
ravine A ravine is a landform that is narrower than a canyon and is often the product of streambank erosion.
of that depth off the south-west coast of Taiwan. As such, there are many islands in the strait. The largest and most important islands off the Fujianese coast are
Xiamen Xiamen ( , ; ), also known as Amoy (, from Hokkien Hokkien (; , Pe̍h-ōe-jī: ''Hok-kiàn-ōe'', ) or Minnan (閩南語/闽南语), known as Quanzhang or Tsuan-Tsiang (泉漳) in linguistics, is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minn ...
,
Gulangyu The Gulangyu, Gulang Island or Kulangsu is a pedestrian-only island off the coast of Xiamen, Fujian Province in southeastern China. A UNESCO World Cultural Heritage, UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Site, the island is about in area, and is reached ...

Gulangyu
, Pingtan Island, Pingtan (the "Haitan" of the IHO delineation), Kinmen, and Matsu Islands, Matsu. The first three are controlled by the PRC; the last two by the ROC. Within the strait lie the Penghu or the Pescadores, also controlled by the ROC. There is a major underwater bank north of the Penghu Islands. All of Fujian Province's rivers except the Ting River, Ting run into the Taiwan Strait. The largest two are the Min River (Fujian), Min and the Jiulong River, Jiulong.


Median line

Historically both the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan espoused a One-China Policy that considered the strait part of the exclusive economic zone of a single "China". In practice, a maritime border of control exists along the median line down the strait. The median line was defined in 1955 by US Air Force General Benjamin O. Davis Jr. who drew a line down the middle of the strait, the US then pressured both sides into entering into a tacit agreement not to cross the median line. The PRC did not cross the median line until 1999, however following the first encroachment in 1999 Chinese aircraft have encroached over the median line with increasing regularity. The median line is also known as the Davis line.


Geology


Sediment distribution

Each year, Taiwan's rivers carry up to 370 million tons of sediments into the sea, including 60 to 150 million tons deposited into the Taiwan Strait. During the past ten thousand years, 600 billion tons of riverine sediments have been deposited in the Taiwan Strait, locally forming a lobe up to 40 m thick in the southern part of the Taiwan Strait.


History

The Strait mostly separated the Han Chinese, Han Chinese culture, culture of the Chinese mainland from
Taiwan Island , t2 = , s2 = , l2 = beautiful island , bpmf2 = ㄈㄨˊ ㄦˇ ㄇㄛˊ ㄕㄚ , w2 = Fu²-êr³-mo²-sha¹ , p2 = Fúĕrmóshā , tp2 = Fúĕrmósha , mps2 = Fúĕrmóshā , gr2 = Fwu'eelmosha , poj = Tâi-oân , tl = Tâi-uân , h = Thòi-và ...
's Aborigines of Taiwan, aborigines for millennia, although the Hakka people, Hakka and Hoklo people, Hoklo traded and migrated across it. Age of Exploration, European explorers, principally the Spanish Formosa, Spanish and Dutch Formosa, Dutch, also took advantage of the strait to establish forward bases for trade with the mainland during the Ming Dynasty, Ming; the bases were also used for piracy, raiding both the Chinese coast and the trading ships of rival countries. Widespread Chinese migration across the strait began in the late Ming Dynasty, Ming. During the Qing Dynasty, Qing Qing conquest of China, conquest, Zheng Chenggong (Koxinga) expelled the Dutch and established the Kingdom of Tungning in 1661, planning to launch a reconquest of the mainland in the name of the Southern Ming branches of the old imperial dynasty. Dorgon and the Kangxi Emperor were able to consolidate their control over southern mainland China; Koxinga found himself limited to raiding across the strait. His grandson Zheng Keshuang surrendered to the Qing after his admiral lost the 1683 Battle of the Penghu Islands in the middle of the strait. Imperial Japan, Japan seized the Penghu Islands during the First Sino-Japanese War and gained control of Taiwan at its conclusion in 1895. Control of the eastern half of the strait was used to establish control of the southern Chinese coast during the Second World War. The strait protected Japanese bases and industry on Taiwan from Chinese attack and sabotage, but aerial warfare reached the island by 1943. The 1944 Formosa Air Battle gave the United States Pacific Fleet air supremacy from its carrier groups and Commonwealth of the Philippines, Philippine bases; subsequently, bombing was continuous until Surrender of Japan, Japan's surrender in 1945. The Yangtze River Crossing Campaign, rapid advance of the Communist Party of China, Communist People's Liberation Army, PLA in 1949 provoked the government's Republic of China retreat to Taiwan, retreat across the Taiwan Strait.


Economy

Fishermen have used the strait as a fishing resource since time immemorial. In the modern world, it is the gateway used by ships of almost every kind on passage to and from nearly all the important ports in Northeast Asia. In 2020 Chinese vessels had been illegally fishing and dredging sand on the Taiwanese half of the strait. Taiwan is building major wind farms in the strait.


Gallery


See also


References


Citations


Bibliography

* . * . * . {{Authority control Taiwan Strait, Straits of Asia Straits of the Pacific Ocean International straits Straits of Taiwan Straits of China East China Sea Straits of the South China Sea Bodies of water of Fujian