Qing EmpireIn 1683, Zheng Keshuang (third ruler of the Kingdom of Tungning and a grandson of Koxinga), surrendered to the Qing Empire following a naval engagement with Admiral Shi Lang. The Qing then ruled the Taiwanese archipelago (including Penghu) as Taiwan Prefecture of Fujian Province. In 1875, Taipeh Prefecture was separated from Taiwan Prefecture. In 1885, work commenced under the auspices of Liu Mingchuan, Liu Ming-chuan to develop Taiwan into a province. In 1887, the island was designated as a province (officially ), with Liu as the first governor. The province was also reorganized into four prefectures, eleven districts, and three sub-prefectures. The provincial capital, or "Taiwan-fu", was intended to be moved from the south (modern-day Tainan) to the more central area of ''Toatun'' (modern-day Taichung) in the revamped Taiwan Prefecture. As the new central Taiwan-fu was still under construction, the capital was temporarily moved north to Taipeh (modern-day Taipei), which eventually was designated the provincial capital.
Empire of JapanIn 1895, the entire Taiwan Province, including Penghu, was cession, ceded to Japan following the First Sino-Japanese War through the Treaty of Shimonoseki. Taiwan under Japanese rule, Under Japanese rule, the province was abolished in favour of Political divisions of Taiwan (1895-1945), Japanese-style divisions. After the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Taiwan was Retrocession Day, handed over to the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (ROC).
Republic of ChinaImage:Taiwan Province License Plate (0146).JPG, Prior to 1 January 2007 all vehicles registered in Taiwan Province carried the label "Taiwan Province" () on their Vehicle registration plates of Taiwan, license plates. The ROC government immediately established the Taiwan Provincial Government under first Chief Executive and government-general Chen Yi (Kuomintang), Chen Yi in September 1945. Chen was extremely unpopular and his rule led to an uprising – the February 28 Incident of 1947. Chen was recalled in May 1947 and the government-general position was abolished. When the Republic of China government was relocated to Taipei in 1949 as a result of the Kuomintang's (KMT) defeat by the Communist Party of China forces in the Chinese Civil War, the provincial administration remained in place under the claim that the ROC was still the government of all of China even though the opposition argued that it overlapped inefficiently with the national government. The seat of the provincial government was moved from Taipei to Zhongxing New Village in 1956. Historically, Taiwan Province covers the entire island of Taiwan and all its associated islands. The city of Taipei was split off to become a province-level Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality in 1967, and the city of Kaohsiung was split off in 1979 to become another special municipality. In December 2010, Kaohsiung County left the province and merged with the original Kaohsiung City to become an expanded Kaohsiung City, Taipei County became the special municipality named New Taipei City. The cities and counties of Taichung and Tainan were also merged, respectively, and elevated to special municipality. On 25 December 2014, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Taoyuan County was upgraded into a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality and split off from Taiwan Province. Until 1992, the governor of Taiwan province was appointed by the ROC central government. The office was often a stepping stone to higher office. In 1992, the post of the governor of the province was opened to election. The then-opposition Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) agreed to retain the province with an elected governor in the hopes of creating a "Boris Yeltsin, Yeltsin effect" in which a popular local leader could overwhelm the national government. These hopes proved unfulfilled as then-Kuomintang member James Soong was elected governor of Taiwan province, defeating the DPP candidate Chen Ding-nan. In 1997, as the result of an agreement between the KMT and the DPP, the powers of the provincial government were curtailed by constitutional amendments. The post of provincial governor was abolished. In addition, the provincial council was also replaced by the Taiwan Provincial Consultative Council. Although the stated purpose was administrative efficiency, Soong and his supporters claim that it was actually intended to impede James Soong's political life, though it did not have this effect. The provincial administration was downscaled in 1998, most of its power handed to the central government. The County (Taiwan), counties and Provincial city (Taiwan), provincial cities under the province became the primary administrative divisions of the country.
GovernmentThe position of the Chairperson of the Provincial Government, appointed by the Government of the Republic of China, central government, is retained to comply with the Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China, Constitution. The major operations of the provincial government, such as managing highways in Taiwan, provincial highways and the Bank of Taiwan, have been transferred to the Executive Yuan since 1998. In July 2018, all remaining duties were transferred to the National Development Council (Taiwan), National Development Council and other ministries of the Executive Yuan. The Taiwan Provincial Government was located in Zhongxing New Village, Nantou City, Nantou County between 1957 and 2018.
History of divisionsIn October 1945, The government of the Republic of China reformed the eight(8) prefectures of Japan, Japanese prefectures under the Government-General of Taiwan into 8 County (Taiwan), counties and 9 Provincial city (Taiwan), cities.
Current divisionsTaiwan Province is nominally divided into 11 County (Taiwan), counties and 3 Provincial city (Taiwan), cities . All divisions are directly administered by the Government of the Republic of China, central government in practice. Note that the Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipalities of Kaohsiung, New Taipei, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei and Taoyuan, Taiwan, Taoyuan are both nominally under and directly administered by the Government of the Republic of China, central government. They are not part of any province.
Sister states/provincesTaiwan Province is Sister city, twinned with 42 U.S. states:
Territorial disputesThe People's Republic of China (PRC) regards itself as the "successor state" of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (ROC), which the PRC claims no longer legitimately exists, following Proclamation of the People's Republic of China, establishment of the PRC in mainland China. The PRC asserts itself to be the One China policy, sole legitimate government of China, and claims Taiwan Province, People's Republic of China, Taiwan as its 23rd province, even though the PRC itself has never had control of Taiwan or other ROC-held territories. The ROC Political status of Taiwan, disputes this position, maintaining that it still legitimately exists and that the PRC has not succeeded it to sovereignty. The PRC claims the entirety of the island of Taiwan and its surrounding islets, including the Penghu, as parts of its Taiwan Province, corresponding to the ROC's Taiwan Province before the special municipalities were split off. The PRC claims that Taiwan is part of China, that the PRC Succession of states, succeeded the ROC as the sole legitimate authority in all of Greater China, China upon its founding in 1949, and that therefore Taiwan is part of the PRC. The Senkaku Islands, which are currently administered by Japan, are disputed by both the ROC and PRC, which claim them as the Tiaoyutai/Diaoyu Islands. The ROC government claims them as part of Toucheng, Toucheng Township, Yilan County, Taiwan, Yilan County.
See also* Fujian Province, Republic of China * History of the Republic of China * Politics of the Republic of China * Political status of Taiwan * Chinese Taipei * "Taiwan, China" – A political term used by the China, People's Republic of China * Taiwan Province, People's Republic of China
Further reading* Bush, R. & O'Hanlon, M. (2007). ''A War Like No Other: The Truth About China's Challenge to America''. Wiley. * Bush, R. (2006). ''Untying the Knot: Making Peace in the Taiwan Strait''. Brookings Institution Press. * Carpenter, T. (2006). ''America's Coming War with China: A Collision Course over Taiwan''. Palgrave Macmillan. * Cole, B. (2006). ''Taiwan's Security: History and Prospects''. Routledge. * Copper, J. (2006). ''Playing with Fire: The Looming War with China over Taiwan''. Praeger Security International General Interest. * Federation of American Scientists et al. (2006)