Taiwan Prefecture
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Taiwan Prefecture or Taiwanfu was a
prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...
of
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...
during the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty in the History of China#Imperial China, imperial history of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912, w ...
. The prefecture was established by the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty in the History of China#Imperial China, imperial history of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912, w ...
government in 1684, after the island "became an integral part of the Chinese Empire" in 1683. The Taiwan Prefecture Gazetteer () documented it as part of
Fujian Province Fujian (; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territori ...

Fujian Province
. The Taiwan Prefecture Gazetteer was completed by Gao Gonggan in 1695, the 34th year of the reign of the
Kangxi Emperor The Kangxi Emperor (Xuanye; 4 May 1654– 20 December 1722) was the third Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western ...

Kangxi Emperor
.


1684–1723

When the Qing wrested the island from the control of the
Kingdom of Tungning The Kingdom of Tungning () or Kingdom of Formosa was a government that ruled part of southwestern Formosa (Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, Peopl ...

Kingdom of Tungning
in 1683, Taiwan was made a prefecture under the administration of
Fujian Province Fujian (; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territori ...
. The new prefecture consisted of three
counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
: *
Zhuluo County Zhuluo County () was a political division in Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northea ...
, the central western plains and the north *, around the prefectural seat at Taiwan (now
Tainan Tainan, officially Tainan City, is a special municipality in southern Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the ...

Tainan
) *, which took up much of present-day
Kaohsiung Kaohsiung City (; Mandarin Chinese Mandarin (; ) is a group of Sinitic languages, Sinitic (Chinese) languages natively spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the Beijing dialect, the basis of the ph ...

Kaohsiung
and
Pingtung County Pingtung County is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William ...
The aboriginal lands on the east coastknown to the Qing as the "Land Behind the Mountains" ()were not controlled at all. The seat of government, also known as "Taiwan" or "Taiwanfu" (a contraction of , "prefectural city of Taiwan"), was located in modern-day
Tainan Tainan, officially Tainan City, is a special municipality in southern Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the ...

Tainan
, "which city had been in turn the capital of the
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
,
Koxinga Zheng Chenggong, Prince of Yanping (27 August 1624 – 23 June 1662), better known internationally by his Dutch-Romanised Hokkien Hokkien (; , Pe̍h-ōe-jī: ''Hok-kiàn-ōe'', ) or Minnan (閩南語/闽南语), known as Quanzhang or Tsuan-T ...

Koxinga
, and the Chinese".


1723–1875

During this period, Taiwan was administered as three counties and two subprefectures. The
counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
(, ''xiàn'') were, from south to north: *Fongshan County: one town, 8 Chinese villages, 73 uncivilized native villages, 8 civilized native villages *Kagi County: one town, 4 Chinese villages, 22 uncivilized native villages, 8 civilized native villages *: one town, 16 villages The subprefectures (, ''tīng'') were: *Pescadores Subprefecture *Tamsui Subprefecture: one town, 132 farms, 70 native villages


1875–1887

An administrative change occurred in 1875, when Imperial Commissioner Shen Pao-chen demanded that another prefecture be added in Taiwan to revamp the administrative organization of the northern area of the island. As a result,
Taipeh PrefectureTaipeh Prefecture () was a Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last History of China#Imperial China, imperial Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper f ...
was created from part of Taiwan Prefecture.


1887–1895

Fokien-Taiwan Province was established in 1887, consisting of four prefectures: Taipeh, Taiwan,
Tainan Tainan, officially Tainan City, is a special municipality in southern Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the ...
, and Taitung Prefecture, Taitung. Tainan Prefecture was created from part of Taiwan Prefecture. Thus Taiwan Prefecture was reduced to the area of central Taiwan only, composed of the modern-day Miaoli County, Taichung City, Nantou County, Changhua County, and Yunlin County. The new prefecture was divided into four counties and one subprefecture: , Changhua County, Yunlin County, Miaoli County, and . The new prefecture seat was located at the central city of ''Toatun'' (), which was also designated as the site of the new provincial capital, taking its name as Taiwanfu or Taiwan (now Taichung). However, during construction of the new capital, the provincial capital was temporarily relocated to the city of Taipeh (Taipei). One of the administrators of Taiwan Prefecture was Raymund Tu, a native priest of Taiwan. Four years after development of ''Toatun'' began, the seat of Taipeh (Taipei) was officially declared the provincial capital. In 1895, with the Treaty of Shimonoseki and the successful Japanese invasion of Taiwan (1895), Japanese invasion of Taiwan, Taiwan Prefecture was abolished. Taiwan under Japanese rule, Under Japanese rule, the province was abolished in favor of Political divisions of Taiwan (1895-1945), Japanese-style divisions.


See also

* Zhou (country subdivision) * Taiwan under Qing rule *
Tainan Tainan, officially Tainan City, is a special municipality in southern Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the ...

Tainan
and Taichung * Taichū Prefecture


References


Citations


Bibliography

* {{coord missing, Taiwan Taiwan under Qing rule, *01 Prefectures of the Qing dynasty Former prefectures in Fujian 1680s in Taiwan, * 1690s in Taiwan, * 18th century in Taiwan, * 19th century in Taiwan, * 1684 establishments in Taiwan 1895 disestablishments in China 1895 disestablishments in Taiwan States and territories established in 1684 States and territories disestablished in 1895