The Taiwan Railways Administration (Chinese: 臺灣鐵路管理局; pinyin: Táiwān Tiělù Guǎnlǐjú; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-oân Thih-lō͘ Koán-lí-kio̍k) is an agency of the Ministry of Transportation and Communications of Taiwan responsible for managing, maintaining, and running passenger and freight services on 1097 km of conventional railroad lines in Taiwan.[1] Hence conventional rail services in Taiwan are known as TRA (Chinese: 臺鐵; pinyin: Táitiě; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-thih).

Since Taiwan is heavily urbanized with a high population density, railways have played an important part in domestic transportation since the late 19th century. Most of the main lines are fully electrified and service is generally efficient and reliable. In 2011, the system carried 205.8 million passengers, or 563,915 passengers per day.[2]

The agency's headquarters are in Zhongzheng District, Taipei.[3] The agency is headed by Chieh-shen Lu, Director-General of Taiwan Railway Administration.


Taiwan Governor-General Railways building in January 2016.
The TRA purchased six initial sets of Hitachi 8-car 130 km/h tilting trains, based on JR Kyushu's 885- series design, for US$85 million, to provide accelerated East Coast services. They are locally called Taroko Express after the mountain gorge.
A typical branch line service using a non-air conditioned DR2100 series DMU, at Shifen Station on the Pingxi Line in the 1990s.

Railway services between Keelung and Hsinchu began in 1891 under China’s Qing Dynasty.[4] Completely rebuilt and substantially expanded under the Taiwan Governor-General Railways (zh) operated by Formosa’s Japanese colonial government (1895-1945), the network’s Japanese influence and heritage persists.[5] Similarities between the TRA and the Japan Railways (JR) companies can be noted in signal aspects, signage, track layout, fare controls, station architecture, and operating procedures. As Japan’s southern base during WWII, Taiwan’s railways suffered significant damage by Allied air raids. The Taiwan Railways Administration was established on March 5, 1948 to reconstruct and operate railway infrastructure, with Lang Chung-hsiung (zh) as its first Director-General.[6]

With ~13,500 employees (4,700 in transportation and 7,700 in maintenance titles), TRA is a government organization under Taiwan’s Ministry of Transportation and Communication (MOTC) that directly operates 682 route miles of 3’6” (1,067 mm) gauge railways.[7] Three mainlines form a complete circle around the island.[8] TRA’s West Coast Mainline (WCML) and East Coast Mainline (ECML) Badu-Hualien section features mostly double-track, electrification, modern colour light and cab signalling, overrun protection, and centralized traffic control (CTC).[9] Southern Link Mainline, ECML Hualien-Taitung (converted from 762 mm gauge), and three “tourist” branches are non-electrified single-track with passing sidings.

Since the early 1980s, conventional railway capital improvements are nationally funded and managed by the MOTC’s Railway Reconstruction Bureau, then turned over to TRA for operations.[10] Taiwan’s challenging terrain meant all lines feature extensive tunneling and long bridges. Double-tracking frequently requires construction of parallel single-track railroads or bypass tunnels on new alignments. The US$14.5 billion standard gauge high-speed rail (HSR) line was built and operated by a separate public-private partnership under a 35-year concession,[11] but TRA provides feeder services to HSR terminals. Although TRA operates all commuter rail, other quasi-private organizations operate subways in Taipei and Kaohsiung.

Local and intercity passenger services (5am – 1am, very few overnight trains) operate at 95.3% on-time performance. 2008 annual passenger ridership was 179 million (incurring 5.45 billion passenger-miles), generating US$434 million in revenue.[12] Commuter trains carry 76% of riders (43% of passenger miles). WCML carries >90% of ridership. TRA’s loose-car and unit-train bulk freight services haul mainly aggregates (58% of tonnage), cement (26%), and coal (9%). In 2008, 9.5 million tons of freight (481 million ton-miles) generated US$28.6 million in revenue. Limited container services operate between Port of Hualien and suburban Taipei, but loading gauge restrictions preclude piggyback operations. During typhoon season, small trucks are carried on flatcars when highways are closed by flooding or mudslides.[13]

In years past, an extensive shipper-owned light railway network (762 mm gauge, never operated by TRA) handled freight services throughout Taiwan and once boasted 1,800 route miles. Largely abandoned today, it served important industries including sugar, logging, coal, salt, and minerals.[14] Unlike JR East and Hong Kong’s Mass Transit Railway, revenues from ancillary businesses accounts for only 17.8% of TRA’s revenues.[15] TRA’s estimated farebox recovery ratio (including freight operations) is ~40%.

Staffing costs, pension benefits, capital debt, changing demographics, highway competition, and low fare policies resulted in accumulated deficits nearing US$3.3 billion.[16] Locally considered large and problematic, TRA’s deficits pale in comparison to those incurred by European and U.S. transit agencies, and Japan National Railways (JNR) prior to its 1987 privatization. Like JNR and U.S. transit authorities,[17] interest payments on long-term debt represents a significant burden for TRA. Planning for TRA’s restructuring had been underway since 2000.

Recent growth in the highway system and increased competition from bus companies and airlines has led to a decline in long-distance rail travel (except during major holidays such as Chinese New Year), though short and intermediate distance travel is still heavily utilized by commuters and students. The high-speed rail line is not run by TRA, and is also a major source of competition. To offset this TRA has begun placing an emphasis on tourism and short-distance commuter service. This has led to several special tourist trains running to scenic areas and hot springs, the addition of dining cars (originally deemed unnecessary due to Taiwan's relatively small size), and converting several smaller branch lines to attract tourists. Additionally, several new stations have been added in major metropolitan areas, and local commuter service increased. Its boxed lunches remain the company's most popular product with sales totaling NT$320 million (US$10.8 million) in 2010 (around 5% of its annual revenue).[18]

On December 31, 2010, the TRA signed a NT$10.6 billion contract with Sumitomo Group and Nippon Sharyo to supply 17 tilting train sets capable of traveling 150 km/h (93 mph).[19] These eight-car electric multiple units (EMUs) were delivered from 2012 to 2014 for Taroko Express services running between Taipei and Hualien on the Eastern Line. The system achieved a single day record on February 5, 2011 during Chinese New Year celebrations, transporting 724,000 passengers a day.[20]


The Teng-yun (Chinese: 騰雲), built by Hohenzollern Locomotive Works, was first steam locomotive operated in Taiwan.
Taiwan Railways' Electro-Motive Division G12-class diesel locomotive R51 in charge of an ordinary local passenger train.

The first Taiwanese railway was completed during the Qing era in 1893.[21] In 1895, the Qing Empire ceded Formosa (Taiwan) to the Empire of Japan after the First Sino-Japanese War. The line was about 62 miles (100 km) in length but in a poor condition when the Japanese arrived:

Accordingly work was commenced on the line at once. The Kelung-Taihoku branch was completely reconstructed as so to avoid the numerous short curves and the steep grades. The line leading from Taihoku to the south received also some attention, the total cost of these improvements reaching nearly two million yen.

— J. Davidson, The Island of Formosa, [22]

We thus have practically a new line to Kelung and another to Sinchiku (formerly Teckcham). In addition to these, new lines were constructed from Taihoku to Tamsui, and from Takow [Kaohsiung] to Shinyeisho via Tainanfu, which gives us a total of ninety-three miles of rail. The trunk line connecting the north and south is now in course of construction.

— J. Davidson, Formosa under Japanese rule, [23]

The Official Japanese Annual Report of 1935 states (under title Colonial Railways Section II Taiwan):

It was not until the cession of the Island of Taiwan (Formosa) from the Chinese Government to Japan that the island began to enjoy railway facilities, for prior that time the only railroad existing was a small light railway between Keelung and Hsinchu built at the time of the Qing Dynasty of China. Soon after the cession the Governor-General of Taiwan established a plan, with approbation of the Diet, to build a standard Japanese gauge railway connecting Takao (Kaohsiung) with Keelung at the expense of 28.800.000 yen. The work of construction was started from both termini and finished in April 1908. This 429.3 mile (690.7 km) line now forms the trunk line in the island communication system. The Imperial Taiwan Government Railway manages three workshops in the Island viz. one each at Taihoku (Taipei), Takao and Kwarenko (花蓮港). The last mentioned is for East Coast Line rolling stock.

— Taiwan Railways Administration, History, [24]


  • 1887: Construction begins on first railway in Taiwan between Keelung and Taipei in early March.[25] (Imperial approbation obtained by Qing Dynasty governor Liu Ming-chuan, as part of development of new Taiwan Province.)
  • 1891: First rail line completed; 20 miles (32 km) branch from Twatutia to Keelung, driven by English engineers[26]
  • 1893: First Formosa railway completed.[22]
  • 1895: Taiwan ceded to Japan by China following the end of the First Sino-Japanese War. Ministry of Taiwan Railway established by the Japanese Government. Reconstruction begins of Keelung-Taihoku (Taipei) branch to avoid numerous short curves and steep grades. Work is also performed on the line leading from Taihoku to the south. Total cost of these improvements reaching nearly two million yen. Railway under direct control of the Military Department.
  • 1897: The railway comes under control of Civil Department.
  • 1898: Local island government announces its intention of carrying on the work itself. Plans formulated by Chief Engineer Hasegawa.
  • 1899: Work started on the southern line from Takow (Kaohsiung) north to Tainan, a distance of 28 miles (45 km); completed in November 1900. Japanese Diet granted 30,000,000 yen for ten years to cover cost of mainline from Taihoku to Takow.[27]
  • 1900: The Keelung and Hsinchu lines were repaired. Rolling stock was added. Work commenced on the short branch line from Taihoku (Taipei) to Tamsui (Hobe); completed in June 1901. Over 7 million yen spent by Japanese government on Formosan railways by 1903.[28]
  • 1908: Mainline from Taihoku to Takow is completed.
  • 1922: The Coast Line (Zhunan - Changhua) is completed.
  • 1924: The Yilan Line (Badu - Su-ao) is completed.
  • 1926: The Hua-Tung Line (Hualien - Taitung) is completed.
  • 1941: The Pingtung Line (Kaohsiung - Fangliao) is completed.
  • 1940-1945: The railways are repeatedly bombed by the Allies during World War II.
  • 1945: Taiwan is handed over to the ROC.
  • 1948: Taiwan Railways Administration established.
  • 1979: Western Line fully electrified. The North-Link Line is completed.
  • 1989: Rail lines running through downtown Taipei moved underground. The new Taipei Main Station is completed. The Shen-ao Line ceases passenger operations.
  • 1991: The South-Link Line completed, completing the rail loop around Taiwan.
  • 1997: Online reservations become available.
  • 1998: The Old Mountain Line ceases operations.
  • 2000: The Yilan Line is electrified.
  • 2001: Various special trains targeting tourists are offered.
  • 2003: The North-Link Line is electrified.
  • 2007: The Taroko Express begins operations. The launch of Local Express trains with the delivery of Taiwan Railway EMU700 series.[29] The Neiwan Line is temporarily closed in order to allow the construction of the Liujia Line.
  • 2010: The Old Mountain Line is reopened to steam trains on special occasions.[30] The Fu-Hsing Semi-Express (復興) of the Taiwan Railways Administration was phased out of regular service completely after December 21, 2010.
  • 2011: The Shalun Line is opened. The Liujia Line is opened.[31]
  • 2012: The Linkou Line ceases all operations. The creation of Miss Taiwan Railway (臺灣鐵道少女).
  • 2013: The Puyuma Express begins operations.[32] The Pingtung Line is scheduled to be electrified, completing the electrification of the entire rail loop around Taiwan by 2020.[33]
  • 2014: The new local train EMU800 begins operation. The maximum speed of local train is risen to 130 kph.[34]

Network design

Taipei Main Station's less-crowded underground platform with a British Rail Engineering Limited (BREL) EMU100, delivered in 1978 for the original Taiwan West Coast Mainline Electrification program

TRA's network and services reflect strong centralized planning. Although TRA is one of many passenger transport operators, its infrastructure allows multiple and convenient connections between modes. Joint transportation and land-use planning make railway projects effective land-development tools.

Mainline tunneling

The Japanese planned Taipei’s railway tunnel prior to WWII. Their main impetus was the major Chung-Hwa Road (Route 1) trunk highway crossing. Taipei’s Railway “Undergroundization” Project (Phase I) was approved in 1979, including Taipei Main Station (TMS), 2.8-miles of two-track underground railway, and Banqiao and Nankang yards. Completed in 1989 and costing US$600 million,[35] it replaced the historic Japanese-era Taihoku-eki (臺北駅) and Hwashan yard, eliminated grade crossings in Taipei’s congested Wanhua District, providing operating efficiencies. Like New York’s Penn Station project,[36] which buried 5.5 route-miles between North Bergen, N.J. and Hunterspoint, Queens by 1908, Taipei Main Station catalyzed urban redevelopment. Development was extensive but not without cultural costs.[37] Modern office towers and underground malls replaced Japanese-era wooden shanties and wholesale outlets,[38] but historic temples were preserved. Later phases completed the four track mainline tunnels, relocated yards to permit transit-oriented development (TOD), and provided a corridor for a much-needed crosstown expressway (Civic Boulevard). By 2008, US$5.8 billion were invested: Banqiao-Xike (16.0 miles) was tunneled, including all trackage within Taipei City, and Xike-Wudu (3.1 miles) was elevated under the TRA elevatization program.[39] Nankang’s Software Park, Exhibition Centre, and Xike’s Science Park were developed around this time.

Run-through services

Underground urban trackage and run-through services in Taiwan make efficient use of assets and available track capacity. An Italian Società Costruzioni Industriali Milano (SOCIMI) EMU300 trainset is being prepared at the Qidu carbarn

Taipei is Taiwan's capital and ultimate destination for TRA's mainlines. Explosive growth since 1980 made Taipei a 10-million population metropolis sprawled over four counties. To accommodate suburban commuters, and to serve passengers traveling to/from suburban business districts, Taipei was envisioned as a through station, allowing West coast trains to operate to Taipei's eastern suburbs, and vice versa.

Like Philadelphia's Center City Tunnel,[40] through-running reduces platform occupancy times, maximizes one-seat rides, and distributes passengers over multiple stations,[41] reducing crowding. Trains can be moved through Taipei's terminal district in arrival sequence, providing some delay absorption capability. Only ~20% of passenger trips originated/terminated at Taipei Main Station (compared to ~50% at New York's Grand Central); 98% of scheduled trains run through (~4% at Penn Station). Trains are turned at outlying yards (where turnback tracks are expressly provided), minimizing conflicting movements.[42] Observation at Banqiao revealed substantial transfer activity between TRA and metro.

In the 1990s, ECML trains terminated at Banqiao; WCML trains terminated at Nankang/Keelung. All trains thus operate over the busy Banqiao-Nankang (Bannan) section, effectively providing urban transportation by utilizing surplus capacity on longer-distance through trains. Commuter trains made all suburban stops, while Amtrak-like expresses stopped only at major hubs.

Railway facility relocation

Taoyuan commuters wait for the South African Union Carriage & Wagon-built EMU400 to Qidu. To support metropolitan growth, Banqiao yard moved west to Shulin, and Nankang yard east to Qidu, extending through-running operations

To support metropolitan growth, Banqiao yard moved west to Shulin, and Nankang yard east to Qidu during the mid-2000s, extending through operations to approximately 10 miles either side. Banqiao, Taipei, and Nankang became major interchanges. Like Boston’s NorthPoint project [43] planned for a Boston & Maine yard, the former Banqiao yard is now Banqiao station and a successful TOD site. Like the CREATE (Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency) plan,[44] through-running allows yards and freight facilities to move from center city (Hwashan, Songshan) to suburbs (Shulin, Qidu), with cheaper land and better highway access.

Rapid transit as TRA’s feeder

Taipei’s metro shows substantial integration with TRA’s network, reflecting Taipei’s close municipal central government relationship. Taipei Rapid Transit Corporation’s (TRTC) Red Line was converted from TRA’s Damshui branch, while Blue (Bannan) and Green Lines roughly follows TRA’s mainline[45] and the former Hsindian branch. TRA accepts metro farecards within metropolitan Taipei. Four metro lines converge at Taipei Main Station, making subways TRA’s local distribution system. New intercity bus terminals were constructed near Taipei Main Station in 2009.[46] Like NJ Transit’s Newark and LIRR’s Jamaica stations, Banqiao and Nankang interchanges afford TRA penetration into western and eastern neighbourhoods without long hackney rides or backtracking.

Commuter rail and HSR

TRA’s maximum commercial speed is 130 km/h (81 mph) whereas HSR operates up to 300 km/h (187 mph). Although TRA’s long-distance services potentially competes with HSR, Taiwan’s HSR is focused on origin-destination markets over 100 miles[47] like Taipei-Taichung (HSR – 50 minutes; TRA – 110 minutes), whereas TRA serves shorter-haul trips like Taipei-Hsinchu (35 versus 60 minutes). HSR serves Taipei and Banqiao TRA interchanges via shared corridors; a Nankang extension is under construction. Except for Taipei, HSR stations are located out-of-town, minimizing environmental impacts and property acquisition, maximizing economic development potential, and allowing low curvature alignments.[48] Commuter rail connects HSR with established provincial downtowns, solving “last mile” problems.

In Hsinchu, HSR and TRA stations are three miles apart. Parts of TRA’s Neiwan branch were electrified and rebuilt as a modern commuter railroad, costing US$280 million to connect Hsinchu’s historic downtown with the HSR. Connections generate benefits for both modes and catalyze development near HSR stations, much as Interstate interchanges attracted economic activity. This is a transit-oriented version of Beltway success stories played out across 1980s America.

Infrastructure and scheduling

Train terminations and transfers occur at interchanges where double island platforms and full crossovers are provided. The Japanese Tokyu DR3000 DMU is departing from Shulin station, using crossovers for yard access.
TRA's infrastructure designs are targeted towards scheduled movements. The South Korean Daewoo EMU500 commuter unit is being prepared on Hsinchu's middle track while an intercity train departs.

TRA's infrastructure might be described as making up for lower track miles with sidings. TRA operated single-track sections on busy mainlines until 1998. Double-track sections can accommodate trains at different speeds; passing movements don’t interference with opposing traffic, allowing scheduled throughputs of ~15 trains per hour per direction. Scheduling practices assume staff can respond to unforeseen delays and out-of-sequence trains by dynamically utilizing available infrastructure.

TRA has recently installed advanced signalling on the northernmost portion of the West Coast Main Line around Taipei, and has performed extensive capacity analysis to maximize train throughputs.[49]

Passing tracks at local stations

Double-ended sidings (loops) good for typical passenger trains (10~12 cars) are provided at 3~8 mile intervals, at local stations. Some stations have an island platform serving middle siding tracks, and straight-through outside bypass tracks. Schedules provide extra dwell time for trains to hold until an express passes, also serving as en-route recovery time, improving reliability. Some stations in single-track territory feature three passing tracks, allowing freight or other equipment to be stowed while opposing passenger trains pass one another. Close proximity of sidings allow TRA to squeeze 5~6 tph (both directions, mixed traffic) out of single-tracks.[50]

Double island platforms at transfer stations

Train terminations and transfers (express/local, branch/mainline) occur at strategic interchanges where double island platforms and full crossovers are provided. Platforms between siding and mainline provide cross-platform transfers, and allow staff to clear terminating trains without obstructing mainline. Where many trains originate/terminate, additional platforms are provided. Crossovers allow convenient layover access and easy multiple-unit (MU) reversals.

Side platforms and through tracks

Island platforms are not ideal for vertical passenger flow. Side platforms allow direct access from stationhouse through fare control. Through track serves the stationhouse at major stations, where most expresses stop. Middle bypass tracks are available for switching, temporary equipment storage, train preparation, and allows passenger trains to pass freights. Stationhouses are usually on the northbound side (up direction, to Taipei), where originating passengers are voluminous. At minor stations, mainline serves the island platform; locals serve the stationhouse while waiting for overtaking expresses.

Explicit scheduling and dispatching priorities

Like classic American railroads, TRA’s published timetable specifies train class (thus dispatching priority). Premium-fare expresses, like Tze-Chiang, have highest priority and almost never take sidings.[42] Customers understand the system, and aren't surprised when lower priority trains are held, allowing others to pass. Dispatching decisions are fairly straightforward; even when trains are out of sequence, stationmasters wouldn't hesitate to hold trains if releasing them could delay a subsequent Tze-Chiang. Close proximity of sidings mean unscheduled holds are likely short, usually less than 5 minutes.

Schedule, ridership pattern, and demographics

TRA’s schedules are not tightly constrained by clock face patterns or policy headways. Extra trains and cars are added on peak travel days to accommodate holiday traffic. 6~8% more departures are scheduled on Fridays, Saturdays, and Sundays. TRA riders span the full gamut including lower-income (students, military) and minorities (Hakka, Taiwanese aborigines) but also choice riders (vacationing families, foreign tourists, monthly commuters). Elderly passengers are common, but wheelchair passengers are rare; not all stations are handicap accessible and not all rolling stock are level-boarding. Fare differentials between expresses and locals provide market differentiation. HSR ridership is observably more affluent, capturing many former airline passengers.[51]

Operating practices

With the train safely immobilized, Taiwan Railways Administration's commuter EMU operator and relief operator exchange pleasantries on Yilan's departure track prior to changing ends and returning to Hsinchu via Taipei.
Taiwan Railway's ordinary local passenger train on the scenic South-Link Line.

Operations on different railroads are variations of same general principles. TRA’s practices are like JR's – somewhat labour-intensive, but immediate on-site accountability and close supervision contribute to high service quality, good delay-recovery capabilities, skills to execute complex maneuvers, and throughputs closer to theoretical line capacity than otherwise achievable.

Stationmasters, train regulation, and dwell process

Many TRA stations have "stationmaster duty offices." Stationmasters (their deputies, or platform staff) perform train regulation and signalling functions right from the platform, and provide train crew oversight. Two station crewmembers work busy locations, one per direction. They sound a whistle to warn waiting passengers of imminent arrivals. Passengers standing in yellow danger zones are asked to step back. As trains approach, they hand-signal drivers. Unreserved trains (without assigned cars) berth close to fare control, while expresses berth according to platform car markers, minimizing onboard baggage-carrying by passengers looking for assigned seats. Stationmasters may indirectly reduce overruns by providing immediate accountability.

TRA's stationmasters and conductors jointly manage dwell time, like their counterparts at LIRR's Jamaica. Stationmasters regulate trains by enforcing correct train sequences and departure times; holding to time is actually a legal requirement.[52] At transfer locations, they manage connections. About ½-minute prior to departure, stationmasters sound platform bells to signal impending departure. When trains are late, bell is given sooner, shortening dwell times. Once conductors close train doors, stationmasters give the "right away" using platform-mounted equipment. After departure, stationmasters remain on platforms, visually inspecting departing trains.

Conductors as captains

On board, conductors' primary responsibilities are not ticket examinations – station fare controls provide coverage. Instead, conductors operate doors and announcement systems, ensure onboard safety, sellonboard tickets, provide customer information and assistance, supervise onboard crews,perform emergency procedures, and troubleshoot equipment where possible. The position’s multidisciplinary nature is reflected in Asian terms for "conductor" – Chinese: 列車長 (Mandarin lieh che jhang), 車長 (Cantonese che jeung), or (in Japanese) (Japanese sha-shou, still informally used on TRA) – which translates to "consist manager" or "train handler." They have overall responsibility for smooth onboard operations and customer experience, actively directing cleaners, attendants, even bento vendors.

Onboard services

Fulong Station ekiben by Taiwan Railways Administration.

On TRA expresses, cleaners periodically move through the train to remove trash, even proactively asking passengers if visible food items are finished. Train attendants offer bento boxes, drinks, souvenirs, and Sun Cakes (traditional gifts for visiting friends) from small carts.

Fare collection and fare control

Taiwan Railways Administration faregates and Automated Fare Collection (AFC) hardware at Badu Station.
Larger format Taiwan Railways Administration ticket used by Tzu-Chiang express train with seat reservations (Car 6 Seat 15), issued by the AFC system.
Taiwan Railway's second generation ticket vending machine, capable of credit-card processing and reserved-seating ticket issuance seen at Taipei Main Station.
Taiwan Railway's smart card ticket readers in Songshan Station for Taipei City's EasyCard (left) and Taiwan Province's Easy Go (right). The ticket readers were an interim solution before full implementation of integrated ticket gates.

TRA's tickets were printed on traditional Edmondson presses until Japan's NEC supplied a computerized ticketing and reservation system in the late 1980s. Almost all stations are divided into paid (platform) and unpaid (waiting room) areas. Normally, ticket examiners govern platform access, checking and punching tickets as passengers enter. Conductors perform onboard ticket checks near peak load points or every ~100 miles, verifying that passengers hold train-class appropriate tickets, and dispense step-up and zone extension fares from portable ticket printers. Examiners also control access to unpaid areas at destinations, ensuring all passengers paid full distance-based fares. Used tickets are collected and not returned to passengers unless cancelled by stamps (similar to postmarks). Those arriving without appropriate tickets (i.e. requiring "fare adjustments") are assessed 50% penalties, giving passengers incentives to find conductors on board to purchase step-up fares. Tickets are validated at origin, destination, and sometimes en-route; evasion thus would require elaborate two-ticket schemes or exiting from paid area without going through fare control. Fare evasion rates are thought to be low. Proof-of-payment methods are not used.

Fare structure

TRA's passenger fares are highly regulated and strictly distance/train-class based (short trips <6.3 miles require 34~73 cents minimum fare.) Express fares are 11.7 cents (per passenger-mile); locals are 5.5 cents.[53] Within Taipei municipal zone, single trips are 58 cents regardless of distance/class. Unlike HSR, no time- or demand-based off-peak discounts are offered. Periodic (limited-ride) commutation tickets and multi-ride carnets are available. Fares are generally competitive with private commuter and intercity buses. Express trains operate with higher load factors and are more profitable.

Magnetic ticket stock and mechanical faregates

Fare validation requires substantial infrastructure (paid/unpaid areas), labour-intensive manual ticket examinations, and consequent speed-accuracy trade-offs. During the 2000s, TRA incrementally replaced older thermal ticket printers with automated fare collection (AFC) devices using magnetic-backed stock. Busy stations have faregates to speed up validation. Tickets can be inserted in any orientation. Gates align, check, and mechanically punch tickets prior to opening. Validations are fast and can be "pipelined" or "stacked" (i.e. following passenger can insert ticket while previous passenger is proceeding through the gate). Passenger counting sensors quickly close gates when as many passengers entered as valid tickets processed. When exiting, faregates collect and cancel single trip tickets.

AFC-induced ticket examiner changes

Many locations still use heat-sensitive tickets (and TRA's tourist branches still use Edmondsons), requiring one ticket examiner per fare control. Examiners punch and collect non-magnetic tickets, provide customer information and assistance, troubleshoot AFC malfunctions (e.g. mutilated tickets), and return cancelled (stamped) tickets to passengers requiring proof-of-travel for expense claims. TRA volunteers (with yellow vest) staff some gates. Volunteers, like America's auxiliary police and volunteer firefighters, include carefully selected and specifically trained members of the public, and retired industry personnel.[54] They assist passengers, sometimes exercising Japanese or English language skills,[55] and report turnstile jumpers and AFC malfunctions to employees. Station management has considerable latitude in determining work scope of volunteers.[56]

Ticketing processes

Most TRA stations feature staffed ticket offices, supplemented by ticket vending machines (TVMs) at busy locations. Unreserved single or day-return tickets must be purchased on the day of travel (to prevent ticket reuse), leading to ticket queues at peak commuter periods. Passengers purchasing advance tickets can delay entire queues, causing imminent train departures to be missed. To maximize passenger throughput, separate ticket windows provide train information, today's tickets, and advance or commutation tickets. Some daily ticket windows only accept cash, further decreasing transaction times. Ticket windows at busy stations can be dynamically switched between different functions, minimizing daily ticket queues.

Fare vending machines

Early machines designed primarily for commuters are essentially receipt printers, accepting only coins (no bills) and prepaid magnetic TransitChek-like cards – not credit cards. Passengers must first insert coins (amount deposited is displayed), then press numerous lighted buttons sequentially to specify traveller count, train class, single/return/concessionary, and destination. Buttons light up only when adequate coins are inserted. TVMs sell only unreserved single/round-trips to local destinations (<50 miles) from the current station. Earlier button presses constrain subsequent choices: destinations for which insufficient fares were paid (in selected train class) do not activate and have no effect.

This machine's target audience is regular travellers who already know required fares. Passenger experiences for first-time customers can be confusing, but once customers learn this TVM, unreserved day ticket transactions are processed much faster than on typical full-feature machines. Machines need only electricity (not network connections) and staff to replace ticket stock, remove coins, and clear jams. Like soda machines, they are robust, self-contained, and have been deployed to remote locations.

Long distance TVMs selling advance-purchase, reserved-seating, and prepaid internet/phone tickets were developed later. These more complex machines, functionally similar to Amtrak's Quik-Trak, are available at principal West coast stations.

Contactless Smartcard fare payment

TRTC pioneered transitcards in 2000 via affiliate Taipei Smart Card Corporation, which performs backoffice functions for TRTC, Taipei's Taipei Joint Bus System (market-sharing conference) group of bus companies, and other EasyCard merchants. In 2008, TRTC assisted TRA in implementing entry-exit smartcard fare collection[57] for local travel within Taipei's metropolitan zone (Keelung-Zhongli), offering 10% discounts from regular local train fares. Smartcard holders can travel on regular local and express trains, but not Tarokos, sightseeing specials, nor in business class. When travelling on expresses, smartcard seats are unreserved. As expresses are often sold out, EasyCard offers de facto standee discounts.

Origin/destination validation and existing fare control areas made smartcard implementation easier. Instead of punching tickets to enter and relinquishing tickets to exit, users tap-in and tap-out. Faregates are replaced with newer integrated designs as funding allows. In the interim, ticket collectors visually verify each transaction on low-cost stand-alone terminals, allowing rapid deployment.

Smartcard development in Taiwan is currently fluid. With 13 million cards issued, readers for Mifare Classic-based EasyCard are already installed at convenience stores like Family Mart. Legislation authorizing "Third Generation e-Purse" (stored value limit ~US$300) was passed in March 2010, allowing smartcard payments for low-value non-transportation items, like Hong Kong’s Octopus Card. Three major competitors hold regional subway/bus fare collection franchises (Taipei's "Youyoka" EasyCard, Mid-Island’s Taiwan Easy Go "TaiwanTong", and Kaohsiung's "I Pass"), and TRA has active pilots with both EasyCard and TaiwanTong. Taiwan's MOTC expects to eventually integrate all electronic farecard systems nationwide.[58]

Rail pass

Besides single ticket, TRA has also been offering various types of rail pass, with which travelers can ride on trains without buying single tickets. Currently, TRA offers TR Pass to travelers such that they have unlimited ride on trains within the set period. The pass has two versions - the General Pass and the Student Pass. TRA first offered the Student Pass to foreign students in December 2006 in order to attract more foreign visitors. The offer was extended to local students in 2009. Finally, parallel to the Student Pass, a General Pass, which could be used by everyone, was issued in 2010, so as to replace the ineffective "Round-the Island Pass" (環島週遊票), which had been offered since 1998.

The Round-the Island Pass had several restrictions making it unpopular. First, holders of the pass must either travel in the clockwise or anti-clockwise direction without traveling backwards. Secondly, travelers could only pick seven stops to get off and visit. Once a traveler has got off in seven stations, the pass became invalid. These restrictions were deemed too restrictive and limited the use of the pass.[59] After the issue of TR General Pass in 2010, this pass ceased to be issued.

Passenger information systems and signage

Traditional Taiwan Railway acrylic schedule boards at Daxi Station.

TRA takes a holistic and comprehensive approach towards passenger information. Devices used (in both English and Chinese) range from schedule posters, fixed signage to departure monitors and next-train displays.

Taiwan Railway's large acrylic backlit signs to indicate station or interlocking names, and distances to previous and next stations, for use by passengers and crew. Note that this sign was from prior to the switchover from tongyong pinyin to hanyu pinyin.

Solari-like "flippy-flippies" boards, monitors, or smaller LED displays are provided at major terminals and principal stations. One display per control area shows boarding times and track assignments. Delays as short as one minute are posted. Large acrylic signboards show departure times and fares at smaller stations. Ubiquitous clocks throughout stations and facilities make it difficult to find spots where fewer than two clocks are immediately visible.

Platform signage, next train identifiers

Backlit acrylic signs (airport-style with iconic representations) identify platform and carriage numbers, and provide directions to facilities like restrooms and elevators. Boxes display schedules, tourist information, and service change notices. Large signs (legible from passing trains) indicate station names, and distances to previous/next stations, for use by passengers and crew. Platform LED displays provide next train identity, departure time, delay information, and context-sensitive messages, including public service announcements.

Onboard displays and announcements

TRA's mixed fleet ranges from 1960s hauled stock to new Tarokos and commuter MUs. Newer trains feature automated display/announcement systems with high-density dot-matrix LEDs like Taipei's metro. On long-distance coaches with longer time between station stops, scrolling displays are used. Like in Continental Europe, automated onboard announcements are multilingual. Announcements are in four major languages (Mandarin, Taiwanese, Hakka, and English). In rural areas, announcements are also made in local aboriginal languages; Huatung Line has the Pangcah/Amis tribal dialect. In unusual situations, conductors can usually make announcements in at least two languages.

Trains lacking automatic train location features are not simple to retrofit. TRA devised low-cost multi-lingual "announcement boxes" connected to the public address system, manually triggered by conductors on approach to stations.

Exterior train identification

Identifying arriving trains quickly and accurately is equally important to employees and passengers. Classically, lighted acrylic destination signboards are manually changed at terminals. Recent modernization efforts provided exterior LED displays showing destination, route, train number, and class. Newest cars have bilingual flexible displays built-in. Train numbers are especially important on expresses, helping customers identify seat reservations.

Railway reconstruction

Under the Railway Reconstruction Bureau, many projects have been undertaken to modernize the railway system and improve its efficiency.

Past projects

Still wearing the regulation cap, this Taiwan Railways Administration's Customer Service Attendant had just gone off-duty after a hard day's work. The cap's badges and drawings are from the original Republic of China national emblem, the dove of peace has now become TRA's logo, the radial lines symbolizing speed and efficiency.
The last train operating on surface trackage in Taipei City before the cut-over to underground trackage built during the Undergroundization Project: Taroko Express No. 1074 on September 20, 2008.

Completed projects include the Taipei Railway Underground Project, a NT$17.792 billion project to move a 4.42 km (2.75 mi) section of railway between Huashan and Wanhua underground.[60] Work began on the project in July 1983 and was completed by September 1989, eliminating 13 railroad crossings.[60] An extension of the project was approved by the Executive Yuan on July 20, 1988. The 5.33 km (3.31 mi) project constructed a double-track tunnel (for both conventional rail and high-speed rail) extending east towards Songshan.[61] The NT$27.48 billion project was completed in June 1994.

The "Wanhua-Banciao Project" was another underground railway project in Taipei aimed at the Wanhua and Banqiao areas.[62] The 15.38 km (9.56 mi) project included the construction of new Banqiao and Wanhua stations.[62] Construction began in September 1992, with underground railway operations beginning in July 1999 and tunnel construction for Taiwan High Speed Rail completed in April 2003.[62] The whole project was completed in 2004. The project also included the construction of a coach yard at Shulin, covering 14.3 ha (143,000 m2) and servicing both diesel multiple units and electric multiple units.[62]

Under the "East Railway Improvement Project", the route between Taipei and Hualien was electrified.[63] The section between Badu (in Keelung) and Taitung was improved by changing to 50 kg rail, automating traffic signals, and including portions of double tracks.[63] Work began in June 1998 and was completed in December 2004, costing NT$43.691 billion.[63] As part of the project, the New Guanyin Tunnel (at 10,307 m (33,816 ft), the longest double track railway tunnel in Taiwan) and the New Yongchun Tunnel were constructed.[63] The "Continued Improvement of Eastern Railways Project" was approved by the Executive Yuan on June 30, 2003, and involved a 5.7 km (3.5 mi) stretch between Dongshan and the Wulaokeng River.[64] It included the construction of the elevated Dongshan Station as well as two branch lines.[64] The project cost NT$2.779 billion, began on February 2004, and was completed by the end of 2008.[64]

The "Shalun Project" was approved on November 5, 2004 and links the TRA and THSR lines around Tainan.[65] The 6.5 km (4.0 mi)-long branch line involved the construction of two brand-new elevated stations: Shalun Station and Chang Jung Christian University Station as well as an elevated Zhongzhou Station.[65] It opened on January 2, 2011.[66]

The "Nangang Project", expected to be completed by August 2011, includes the construction of two 5.4 km (3.4 mi) tunnels between Keelung Road and the Dakeng River (for the TRA and THSR), reconstructing Songshan and Nangang stations as underground stations, construction of a 2 km (1.2 mi) mountain tunnel/ramp for the TRA, construction of a 5 km (3.1 mi) elevated railway, and the construction of the Cidu Marshalling Yard and Wudu Freight Yard.[67] At an estimated cost of NT$83.069 billion, the project is expected to eliminate 15 level crossings and boost the development of the Nangang District.[67] A project to expand the railway tracks between Nangang and Qidu from a double-track to triple-track system is expected to be completed by December 2012, decreasing the interval between trains during peak hours.[68]

Similar to the Shalun Project, the Neiwan Branch Line was approved on September 27, 2004 to connect THSR Hsinchu Station with Hsinchu City.[69] The project will eliminate eight railway crossings between Hsinchu and Zhuzhong.[69] The line totals 11.1 km (6.9 mi) and was completed in 2011.[69] The Liujia Line opened and the Neiwan Line reopened on November 11, 2011.[70]

Ongoing projects

Since the opening of the new Xinzuoying Station in Zuoying, Kaohsiung, traffic problems have plagued the area.[71] The "Zuoying Extension Plan of the Kaohsiung Railway Underground Project" aims to construct a 4.13 km (2.57 mi)-long single hold, double-tracked tunnel between Xinzuoying and TRA's Zuoying Station.[71] Neiwei Station will also be redeveloped as part of this project.[71]

The "Kaohsiung Project" aims to move railroad lines in Kaohsiung underground as well as the construction of six commuter rail stations.[72] Estimated to cost NT$71.582 billion, the 9.75 km (6.06 mi) tunnel will eliminate six level crossings and fourteen grade separated crossings and remove the railway barrier along the current route.[72] While planning for the project began in 1998, several pre-construction projects have been completed including the movement of the old Kaohsiung Station and the construction of the Jhongbo temporary elevated bridge.[72] The project is expected to be completed by December 2017, and will also include the construction of a new Kaohsiung Station.[72]

Railway lines in eastern Taiwan are undergoing electrification and double-tracking improvements to increase train speeds from 110 km/h (68 mph) to 130 km/h (81 mph).[73] The first phase of the project is expected to be completed by the end of 2013 and will cut travel time between Taipei and Taitung down by about 1.5 hours. Completion of drilling for the Shanli Tunnel, the longest on the modified route, took place in March 2012.[74]


Shifen Station on the Pingxi Line.

The TRA operates three main rail lines forming a closed loop around the main island of Taiwan and several smaller branch lines. Note that lines do not correspond to services, as services on TRA can switch between different lines.[75]

A local freight train is using the now-abandoned Kaohsiung Port Line, at the Zhongshan Road level-crossing.

Main lines

Branch lines

Passenger service


  • Keelung Harbor Line (基隆臨港線)
  • Hualien Harbor Line (花蓮臨港線)
  • Taichung Harbor Line (台中港線)
  • Kaohsiung Harbor Line (高雄臨港線)
  • Old Mountain Line (舊山線): Sanyi – Houli, Miaoli County and Taichung. A former path of the Taichung Line closed in 1998. Reopened in 2010 to steam trains on special occasions. Shengxing Station has been declared a historical site.




EMU700 series Local Train passing through Xike Station, New Taipei

Regular services

  • Regional train (區間車): Short to medium distance commuter train, stops at all stations. No assigned seating. Uses EMU (Electric multiple unit / 電車) and DRC (Diesel railcar / 柴客).
    • Regional express (區間快車): Usually run on the Coast Line and Yilan Line. Fu Hsing service at a local train's price. Launched in 2007.
  • InterCity Trains(對號列車)
    • Chu-kuang express (莒光號): More stops than Tzu-Chiang. Assigned seating. Non-reserved tickets are sold at 80% of original price.
    • Tze-chiang limited express (自強號): The fastest (and most expensive) service. It stops at the fewest stations. Its uses assigned seating while on-reserved (standing) tickets are also sold at full price. There are 6 train classes used for Tzu Chiang: orange/yellow EMU, red/white EMU, orange/silver push-pull, yellow/silver DMU, white push-pull, and red/white push-pull. Tickets for all 6 types of Tzu Chiang are the same price.
      • Taroko express train (太魯閣號): A faster variant of the Tzu Chiang which uses tilting trains. Launched in 2007.
      • Puyuma express (普悠瑪號): The fastest variant of the Tzu Chiang operating between Shulin and Hualien. Also uses tilting trains. Launched in 2013.

With the exception of the Ordinary trains (see below), all trains are modern and air conditioned. Many of the Ordinary train cars, on the other hand, are almost 40 to 50 years old, and provide an interesting experience for the more historically minded.

Limited services

  • Fu-Hsing Semi Express (復興號): Phased out of normal service. Now only runs between Shulin (Taipei) and Taitung via Hualien Friday-Monday.
  • Express / Ordinary (普通車): Stops at all stations, no air conditioning, least expensive. No assigned seating. Some Express trains (the light blue ones running on West Trunk Line) are air-conditioned while others (dark blue ones) are not equipped with air conditioners. Currently operational only on the southern end of the Western Line and being phased out with termination of service expected by the end of 2006. No longer running on the west coast.
  • Diesel Express: Only available on the Eastern Line and South Link Line. Mainly serve as commuter trains. No air conditioning. Tickets are the same price as Express and Ordinary.

Retired services

  • Kuang-Hua Express (光華號) Operated using the DR2700 series from 1966 to 1979. It set the TRA's pre-electrification speed record.

Chu-Kuang Express

In 1970, the Taiwan Railways Administration solicited equipment loans from the World Bank to increase transport capacity, the most important passenger vehicle is the 35SP32850 class, purchased from a consortium led by Japan's Hitachi, for a total of 27 vehicles.

On February 3, 1970, Chu-Kuang service was initiated with Trains #1011 through #1014 on the West Coast Mainline between Taipei and Taichung, hauled by EMD G22 class diesels (TRA classification R100 class). Fares were set at three times the per-mile cost of ordinary local service, as much as NT$117 for certain origin-destination pairs. On February 20 of the same year, the service was initiated between Taipei and Kaohsiung.

The first Chu-Kuang Expresses in the 1970s used a variety of different vehicles; although the models vary, but the body are universally white with blue line, with one door per side, and in the interior there are carpets and velvet sofa seats. After the completion of the West Coast Main Line Electrification project in 1978, all coach bodies were fully painted into orange livery, and service continued to grow.

1986 saw the introduction of rooftop air-conditioning type Chu-Kuang coaches (10200 series), like the previous launch of 35SPK2200 on the Fu-Hsing Express, the air conditioner is moved to the stainless steel lightweight roof, and each coach was outfitted with a single door per side (manually operated). In addition, these Chu-Kuang saw introduction of TRA's first disability-accessible coach, the FPK11300 type.


TRA uses a variety of railway vehicles to provide both freight and passenger service.

See also


  1. ^ "Transportation". A Brief Introduction to Taiwan. ROC Government Information Office. Archived from the original on 2006-05-18. Retrieved 2006-05-19. 
  2. ^ "Volume of Passenger Traffic" (PDF). Taiwan Railways Administration. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  3. ^ "Contact Us." Taiwan Railways Administration. Retrieved on March 1, 2014. "ADD: No.3, Beiping W. Rd., Jhongjheng District, Taipei City 100, Taiwan (R.O.C.)(Zip Code10041)" - Address in Chinese: "機關地址:臺北市北平西路三號 (郵遞區號10041)"
  4. ^ Han Cheung (14 August 2016). "The two fathers of Taiwan's railroads?". Taipei Times. Retrieved 25 August 2016. 
  5. ^ Kuan, Renjian (管仁健). Taiwan’s Chinese Education and Japanese Railroads (“台灣的中國教育與日本鐵路”). In The Taiwan You Don’t Know (Blog). Retrieved from mypaper.pchome.com.tw on July 9, 2010.
  6. ^ Taiwan Railways Administration. Museum Pages: Taiwan Railways Development Timeline. (“博物館: 臺灣鐵路發展時段”) Retrieved from railway.gov.tw on July 9, 16 2010.
  7. ^ Abbott, James (ed.) Jane’s World Railways, 38th Ed., Coulsdon, Surrey, England, 1996.
  8. ^ http://amonline.trb.org/~searchResults?searchMode=advanced&searchParam-PaperNo=11-1301
  9. ^ Taiwan Railways Administration, Ministry of Transportation and Communications. TRA Signalling Equipment Maintenance Inspection Standard Operating Procedures (“交通部台灣鐵路管理局 號誌裝置養護檢查作業程序”), Banqiao, Taiwan, 2003. Retrieved from railway.gov.tw on February 16, 2010.
  10. ^ Railway Reconstruction Bureau, Taiwan Ministry of Transportation and Communications. 2007 Annual Report Summary (“2007交通部鐵路改建工程局局務概況”). Retrieved from rrb.gov.tw on July 11, 2010.
  11. ^ Wang, Shufen (汪淑芬). Government Rescues Taiwan High Speed Rail – Chen Shiyi Suggests Concession Extension. (“政府救高鐵 陳世圯建議延長特許期”). In Epoch Times, September 21, 2009. Retrieved from epochtimes.com on July 13, 2010.
  12. ^ Ministry of Transportation and Communication, Taiwan Railways Administration, Accounting Office. 2008 Statistical Annual Report. Banqiao, Taiwan, 2008. Retrieved from railway.gov.tw on March 15, 2010.
  13. ^ Rail News Speed Report. Typhoon Parma Impacts. In Taiwan Rail News, Volume 192, Page 30, Sanchong, Taiwan, November–December, 2009.
  14. ^ Su, Jiao-Shi (蘇昭旭). Taiwan Railways Station Pictorial ("台灣鐵路車站圖誌", ISBN 978-986-7916-09-9). JJP Publishing, Taiwan, 2002.
  15. ^ Chen, Shiyi, and F.J. Huang (陳世圯,黃豐鑑). Government Should Proactively Promote Railroad Reform Bill to Assist TRA in Overcoming Financial Operating Difficulties (“政府應積極推動鐵路法修正案以協助台鐵渡過經營困境”). National Policy Research Foundation, Analysis Report 097-014. Retrieved from npf.org.tw on July 13, 2010.
  16. ^ Tseng, Tsingnaw (曾鴻儒). Plentiful En-route Real Estate Revitalization and Economic Development/Urban Renewal Helps Taiwan Railways Administration to Recoup Losses (“沿線土地多 活化啟生機/都市更新 救台鐵虧損”). In Liberty Times, June 10, 2010. Retrieved on July 13, 2010.
  17. ^ Reddy, Alla, A. Lu, and T. Wang. Subway Productivity, Profitability, and Performance: A Tale of Five Cities. In Press, TRB Paper No. 10-0487. In Transportation Research Record 2143, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C, 2010.
  18. ^ "Creative marketing gives Taiwan railway new life: official". Focus Taiwan News Channel. 2011-03-23. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
  19. ^ "Sumitomo and Nippon Sharyo wins train sets supply deal in Taiwan". Steel Guru. 2011-01-10. Retrieved 2011-01-11. 
  20. ^ 100年春節疏運情形 (Press release) (in Chinese). MOTC. 2011-02-08. Retrieved 2011-02-08. 
  21. ^ Davidson (1903), pp. 620-621: "The first Formosa railway was built by the Chinese government and was completed in 1893. On the arrival of the Japanese, the line, some 62 miles in length, came into their possession. It was found to be in such wretched condition, however, that a satisfactory train service could not be maintained. The rolling stock was also limited and entirely unsuited to the requirements. Accordingly work was commenced on the line at once. The Kelung-Taihoku branch was completely reconstructed as so to avoid the numerous short curves and the steep grades. The line leading from Taihoku to the south received also some attention, the total cost of these improvements reaching nearly two million yen. The railway was at this time under the direct control of the Military Department. In 1897, it came under the control of the Civil Department. It was the intention at one time to hand it over to the private railway company organized in Japan for the purpose of completing the Formosa railway system. The private railway company, however, failed to obtain public support, and in 1898 the Formosan government announced its intention of carrying on the work itself. Under the able direction of Chief Engineer Hasegawa the plans were soon formulated, and in 1899 work was commenced on the southern line from Takow north to Tainan, a distance of 28 miles. This section was completed in November, 1900. The Kelung and Shinchiku (Teckcham), lines were repaired, much rolling stock was added, and in the fall of 1900 work was commenced on the short branch line from Taihoku, (Taipeh) to Tamsui, (Hobe), which was completed in June 1901. There is a great deal of traffic between the port Tamsui and Taihoku and its suburbs, Banka and Daitotei (Twatutia). The new line runs via Maruyama, Shirin, Hokuto, and Kantau."
  22. ^ a b Davidson (1903), p. 620.
  23. ^ Davidson, James W. (1903). Formosa under Japanese rule. London: Japan Society. p. 47. OCLC 860694076. 
  24. ^ "History". Taiwan Railways Administration. Archived from the original on 2006-04-07. Retrieved 2006-05-19. 
  25. ^ Davidson (1903), p. 247-8.
  26. ^ Davidson (1903), p. 249.
  27. ^ Davidson (1903), p. 621.
  28. ^ Davidson (1903), p. 621-2.
  29. ^ "New train inaugurated for southern Taiwan - The China Post". 2007-11-20. Retrieved 2013-11-16. 
  30. ^ "Steam railway makes nostalgic return on mountain line - The China Post". 2010-06-06. Retrieved 2013-11-16. 
  31. ^ Marchant, John Scott (2011-11-11). "Hsinchu's Neiwan Line steams back to life". Taiwan Today. Retrieved 2013-11-16. 
  32. ^ "Puyuma train launch carries hopes of East Coast travelers - The China Post". The China Post. 2013-02-07. Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  33. ^ "Taitung to be destination for Puyuma by year-end - The China Post". The China Post. 2013-03-01. Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  34. ^ "High-speed commuter train begins, travels 130kph". 
  35. ^ Railway Reconstruction Bureau, Taiwan Ministry of Transportation and Communication. Taipei Main Station, Songshan, Wanhua-Banqiao, Nankang, and Hsinchu-Naiwan Project Briefs. Retrieved from rrb.gov.tw on March 14, 2010.
  36. ^ Vantuono, William C. Reconquering Gotham. In Railway Age, April 2010.
  37. ^ Chen, Wai-Shu (陳韋臻). To Residents Outside Wanhua: Urban Renewal May Someday Demolish Your Home. In POTS Weekly (“破週報”), Taipei, Taiwan. Retrieved from pots.com.tw on October 26, 2010.
  38. ^ 李東明 (2000). 永遠的北淡線. Taipei: 玉山. ISBN 9789578246324. 
  39. ^ Sungho Culture Company Limited. Taiwan Ministry of Transportation and Communication, TRA Tourism Express Travel Guide (Map), Taipei, Taiwan, 2009.
  40. ^ Kozel, Scott M. Center City Commuter Connection. In Pennways, May 26, 1998. Retrieved from pennways.com on October 24, 2010.
  41. ^ Lu, Lexcie. Ch.5: Downtown Access Design. In The Vital Role of Metropolitan Access in Commuter, Regional, Intercity and Overnight Rail Passenger Transportation – and Its Relationship to Technology. MIT Thesis, Cambridge, Mass., 2003.
  42. ^ a b Taiwan National Chiao-Tung University Railway Research Association (國立交通大學鐵路研究會). Taiwan Railways Operation Diagram (Stringline Chart), Version 5. Hsinchu, Taiwan, June 16, 2009.
  43. ^ McKim, Jenifer B. Magic Touch? New Developers Take Over NorthPoint. In Boston Globe, September 9, 2010.
  44. ^ CREATE Program Final Feasibility Plan, August 2005. Retrieved from createprogram.org on October 31, 2010.
  45. ^ Kirby, Matthew and P. Holmes. Taiwan Railways Alignment and Station Maps. Retrieved from taiwanrailways.com on May 11, 2010.
  46. ^ Mo, Yan-Chih. Taipei Bus Station Opens Amid Fears of Heavy Traffic. Retrieved from Taipei Times, Taipei, Taiwan, August 20, 2009 on April 19, 2010.
  47. ^ Bureau of Taiwan High Speed Rail, Ministry of Transportation and Communication. Taiwan North-South High Speed Railway Plan (Unpublished Presentation). Banqiao, Taiwan, January 2010.
  48. ^ Bureau of Taiwan High Speed Rail, Ministry of Transportation and Communication. Taiwan South-North High Speed Railway – Introduction to Mechanical and Electrical Systems Engineering. Banqiao, Taiwan, August 2008.
  49. ^ Lai, Yung-Cheng;Wang, Szu-Han;Jong, Jyh-Cherng. Development of Analytical Capacity Models for Commuter Rail Operations with Advanced Signaling Systems. Transportation Research Board 2011 Annual Meeting. amonline.trb.org Retrieved July 29, 2012.
  50. ^ Taiwan Railway Company LTD. “How One” Taiwan Travel Passport (Taiwan Railways Administration Passenger Schedule), Version 9. Banqiao, Taiwan, January 15, 2010.
  51. ^ Agence France-Presse. Airlines Hit as Taiwan Bullet Train Takes Off. Retrieved from The Standard, Hong Kong, July 19, 2007 on October 26, 2010.
  52. ^ Law and Regulations Database of the Republic of China. Transportation Law, Railroad Operating Code (交通法規/鐵路目/鐵路行車規則), Title II: Conventional Railways, Chapter 4: Operations, Section 2: Consist Operations (第二編 一般鐵路/第四章 運轉/第二節 列車運轉), Regulations 65~66, as amended August 21, 2008, Taipei, Taiwan. Retrieved from law.moj.gov.tw on November 11, 2010.
  53. ^ Taiwan Railways Administration. Ticket Policy Information: Fare Computation Principle. ("車票資訊 – 票價計算原則") Retrieved from service.tra.gov.tw on October 24, 2010.
  54. ^ Tsay, Bai-Ling (蔡百靈). 93 Years Old Deng Yo-Tsai, Taiwan Railways’ Oldest Ticket-Punching Volunteer ("93歲鄧有才 – 台鐵最老剪票志工"). Retrieved from Liberty Times, Hualien, Taiwan, September 12, 2010 on October 24, 2010.
  55. ^ User e88111 from Kaohsiung. Taiwan Railways Volunteer (Poem). In Nameless Station (Blog), December 17, 2008. Retrieved from wretch.cc on October 24, 2010.
  56. ^ Railway Culture Discussion Participant. Taiwan Railways Administration Volunteer Work. In Taiwan Deep Blue United Student Bulletin Board System (“台灣深藍學生聯合論壇”). Retrieved from student.tw on October 24, 2010.
  57. ^ Taipei Rapid Transit Corporation. Annual Report 2008. Taipei Rapid Transit Corporation, Taipei, Taiwan, 2009.
  58. ^ Shan, Shelley. EasyCard Plan Steaming Ahead. In Taipei Times, Taipei, Taiwan, August 8, 2008.
  59. ^ "台鐵新版TR PASS 3日券5日券開賣". 卡優新聞網. 
  60. ^ a b "Taipei Main Station Project". Railway Reconstruction Bureau. Retrieved 2011-01-21. 
  61. ^ "Songshan Project". Railway Reconstruction Bureau. Retrieved 2011-01-21. 
  62. ^ a b c d "Wanhua-Banciao Project". Railway Reconstruction Bureau. Retrieved 2011-01-21. 
  63. ^ a b c d "East Railway Improvement Project". Railway Reconstruction Bureau. Retrieved 2011-01-21. 
  64. ^ a b c "Continued Improvements of Eastern Railways". Railway Reconstruction Bureau. Retrieved 2011-01-21. 
  65. ^ a b "Shalun Project". Railway Reconstruction Bureau. Retrieved 2011-01-22. 
  66. ^ "Shalun Branch line cuts travel time for Tainan Commuters - The Taipei Times". The Taipei Times. 2011-01-03. Retrieved 2013-11-27. 
  67. ^ a b "Nangang Project". Railway Reconstruction Bureau. Retrieved 2011-01-22. 
  68. ^ "Triple-track system to allow faster train service". The Taipei Times. 2011-08-19. Retrieved 2011-08-18. 
  69. ^ a b c "Neiwan Project". Railway Reconstruction Bureau. Retrieved 2011-01-20. 
  70. ^ "Hsinchu's Lioujia railway line set to open on Friday- The Taipei Times". The Taipei Times. 2011-11-09. Retrieved 2013-11-27. 
  71. ^ a b c "Zuoying Project". Railway Reconstruction Bureau. Retrieved 2011-01-22. 
  72. ^ a b c d "Kaohsiung Project". Railway Reconstruction Bureau. Retrieved 2011-01-22. 
  73. ^ "Taipei-Taitung rail journey to be cut by over an hour by 2013". Focus Taiwan News Channel. 2012-03-04. Retrieved 2011-03-04. 
  74. ^ "Shanli Tunnel will alter rail travel time". Taipei Times. 2012-03-05. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  75. ^ "2015 Taiwan Railways Annual Report" (PDF). Taiwan Railways Administration. Retrieved 19 February 2017. 
  76. ^ "台鐵新店線路 - Google 我的地圖". Google My Maps. 


External links