Coordinates : 30°02′40″N 31°14′09″E / 30.0444°N
31.2357°E / 30.0444; 31.2357
Tahrir Square in 1958
Omar Makram Statue near Omar Makram Mosque — Tahrir Square,
TAHRIR SQUARE (Arabic : ميدان التحرير Mīdān
at-Taḥrīr, IPA: , English : Liberation Square), also known as
"Martyr Square", is a major public town square in Downtown
Egypt . The square has been the location and focus for political
Cairo , most notably those that led to the 2011
Egyptian revolution and the resignation of President
Hosni Mubarak .
* 1 History
* 2 Features
* 3 Public use and demonstrations
2011 Egyptian Revolution
* 3.2 Post-revolution
* 3.2.1 June 2013 protests and coup d\'état
* 4 See also
* 5 References
* 6 External links
The square was originally called "Ismailia Square" (ميدان
الأسماعيليّة Mīdān al-Ismā‘īliyyah), after the
Khedive Ismail , who commissioned the new downtown
district's 'Paris on the
Nile ' design. After the Egyptian Revolution
of 1919 , the square became widely known as Tahrir (Liberation)
Square, but the square was not officially renamed until the Egyptian
Revolution of 1952 , which changed
Egypt from a constitutional
monarchy into an autocratic republic . The square was a focal point
Egyptian Revolution of 2011
Egyptian Revolution of 2011
Tahrir Square at night with
traffic circle , view northwest from
Talaat Harb Street
View south towards the Mogamma building and Omar Makram statue
At the centre of
Tahrir Square is a large and busy traffic circle .
On the north-east side is a plaza with a statue of nationalist hero
Omar Makram , celebrated for his resistance against Napoleon I's
invasion of Egypt, and beyond is the Omar Makram Mosque.
The square is the northern terminus of the historic Qasr al-Ayni
Street , the western terminus of
Talaat Harb Street , and via Qasr
al-Nil Street crossing its southern portion it has direct access to
Qasr al-Nil Bridge crossing the nearby
Nile River .
The area around
Tahrir Square includes the
Egyptian Museum , the
Folklore Arts House, the Mogamma government building, the Headquarters
of the Arab League building, the
Nile Hotel, Kasr El Dobara
Evangelical Church and the original downtown campus of the American
Cairo . The National Democratic Party-NDP headquarters
building stood here until it was set on fire during the revolution and
demolished in 2015.
Cairo Metro serves
Tahrir Square with the Sadat Station, which is
the downtown junction of the system's two lines, linking to
Helwan , and other districts and suburbs of Greater
Its underground access viaducts provide the safest routes for
pedestrians crossing the broad roads of the heavily trafficked square.
PUBLIC USE AND DEMONSTRATIONS
Tahrir Square has been the traditional site for numerous major
protests and demonstrations over the years, including the 1977
Egyptian Bread Riots , and the March 2003 protest against the War in
Iraq . Protesters on an army vehicle during the 2011 Egyptian
2011 EGYPTIAN REVOLUTION
2011 Egyptian Revolution
Tahrir Square was the focal point of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution
against former president
Hosni Mubarak . Over 50,000 protesters first
occupied the square on 25 January, during which the area's wireless
services were reported to be impaired. In the following days, Tahrir
Square continued to be the primary destination for protests in Cairo.
On 29 January, Egyptian fighter aircraft flew low over the people
gathered in the square. On 30 January, the seventh day of the
BBC and other correspondents reported that the number of
demonstrators had grown to at least 100,000, and on 31 January, Al
Jazeera correspondents reported that the demonstrations had grown to
at least 250,000 people. On 1 February,
Al Jazeera reported that more
than one million protesters peacefully gathered in the square and
adjacent streets. However, such media reports that so many people
congregated in Cairo’s largest public square are believed to be
exaggerated for political purposes and, according to
analysis, the real number of gathered protesters never exceeded
300,000 people. People congregated in
Tahrir Square on 9
The square became established as a focal point and a symbol for the
ongoing Egyptian democracy demonstrations. On 2 February, violence
erupted between the pro-Mubarak and pro-democracy demonstrators there,
followed by the 3 February 'Friday of Departure' demonstration, one of
the named "day of" events centered in the square. Within a week, due
to international media coverage, the image and name of Tahrir Square
became known worldwide.
Facebook page called "Tahrir Square" ميدان التحرير was
maintained by a rotating staff of twenty during the uprising,
particularly to offset the lack of and/or distorted coverage of events
and responses in the state-run media outlets.
The 18-day revolt centered in the square provided the Egyptian Armed
Forces an opportunity to remove Mubarak from power on Friday, 11
February 2011, when the president officially stepped down from office.
The announcement that Mubarak had passed all authority to the Council
of the Armed Forces was made by longtime intelligence chief and new
Omar Suleiman .
Tahrir Square erupted in a night-long
celebration after the twilight announcement, with shouts such as "Lift
your head up high, you're Egyptian", "Everyone who loves Egypt, come
and rebuild Egypt", and others. The next day, Egyptian Cairen women
and men came to clean up the square, "they came and cleaned up after
their revolution," relaying 'projectiles' in the cobblestone paving
and removing eighteen days' worth of trash and graffiti .
Tahrir Square in the early morning, November 2012
Tahrir Square, with 'democracy anniversary' celebrations and visits
from foreign dignitaries, continued to be a symbol of the 2011
Egyptian Revolution. British Prime Minister
David Cameron ,
Catherine Ashton , the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and
Security Policy of the
European Union ,
Hillary Clinton , Secretary of
State of the
United States ,
John Kerry , Chairman of the American
Senate Committee on Foreign Relations ,
Kevin Rudd Foreign Minister of
Australia, and American actor
Sean Penn visited
Tahrir Square after
2011 Egyptian Revolution .
One of the ships in the planned
Freedom Flotilla II , intended to
break the Israeli blockade of Gaza, was named Tahrir after the square.
Among its passengers was
Haaretz reporter Amira Hass. Ultimately, the
sailing did not take place.
Tahrir Square has also been the site of numerous mass sexual
assaults. These crimes have increased since Mubarak's removal in 2011.
June 2013 Protests And Coup D\'état
June 2013 Egyptian protests
June 2013 Egyptian protests and 2013 Egyptian coup
On 29 June 2013, millions of Egyptians converged on
Tahrir Square to
demonstrate against the Egyptian President
Mohamed Morsi , demanding
his resignation from office. The demonstrators used the slogan "the
people want the ouster of the regime ," used in the protests that led
to the 2011 revolution.
By the 30th, their number had increased and demonstrations were
reported to be in progress in 18 locations across Cairo. The
demonstration was noted as the largest revolution in modern-day
history. Bring together more than 33 million people to the Egyptian
streets. On 3 July 2013, General
Abdul Fatah al-Sisi announced the
removal of President
Mohamed Morsi and suspended the Egyptian
constitution after ongoing public protests in what is described as a
coup d\'état by Morsi supporters and the international community,
and by its supporters and the media as a revolution . .
* The Square , a documentary film about the square and its role in
* ^ Vatikiotis, Panayiotis J. (1997). The Middle East: From the End
of Empire to the End of the Cold War. Routledge. p. 194.
* ^ "Midan Al-Tahrir, Liberation Square". Tour Egypt.
Egypt demolishes Mubarak’s party headquarters
* ^ Hiel, Betsy (19 June 2005). "Egyptian reformers taking it to
streets". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review.
* ^ "
Egypt protests: Anti-Mubarak demonstrators arrested". BBC
News. 26 January 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
* ^ "Egyptians report poor communication services on Day of Anger".
Almasry Alyoum . 25 January 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2011.
* ^ "
Egypt protests: curfew defied in
Cairo and other cities". BBC
News. 29 January 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
* ^ "
Egypt protesters step up pressure on Hosni Mubarak".
31 January 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
* ^ "Live blog 31/1 —
Al Jazeera News. 31
January 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
* ^ "Protesters flood
Al Jazeera News. 1 February
2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
* ^ "Gauging the Size of the Egyptian Protests". STRATFOR. 31
January 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
* ^ "Update on the Size of Protests in Cairo". STRATFOR. 1 February
2011. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
* ^ "Battle of Tahrir Square".
Al Jazeera News. 3 February 2011.
Retrieved 3 February 2011.
* ^ Fahim, Kareem; El-Naggar, Mana; Stack, Liam; Ou, Ed (8 February
2011). "Emotions of a Reluctant Hero Galvanize Protesters". The New
York Times. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
* ^ "Egypt: The Distance Between Enthusiasm and Reality". STRATFOR.
14 February 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
* ^ Kirkpatrick, David D. and Anthony Shadid from Cairo. Other
reporting was contributed by Kareem Fahim, Liam Stack, Mona El-Naggar
and Thanassis Cambanis from Cairo, and Alan Cowell from Paris,
"Mubarak Steps Down, Ceding Power to Military" ,The New York Times, 11
* ^ "
Egypt crisis: President
Hosni Mubarak resigns as leader". BBC
News. 12 February 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
* ^ A B "Ahdaf Soueif: Protesters reclaim the spirit of Egypt". BBC
News. 13 February 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
* ^ "Thousands attend political rally in central Cairo".
18 February 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
* ^ "
David Cameron meets locals around Cairo\'s Tahrir Square". BBC
News. 21 February 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
* ^ Hass, Amira (31 January 2011). "Fear and no clean clothing:
Amira Hass preparing to sail for Gaza -
Haaretz Daily Newspaper
Israel News". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
* ^ Hamza Hendawi The Associated Press, Alastair Macdonald (30 July
Egypt protests: Thousands gather at
Tahrir Square to demand
Morsi\'s ouster". thestar.com.
* ^ "Egypt:
Tahrir Square amid demonstration".
30 June 2013.
* ^ "