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Coordinates: 30°02′40″N 31°14′09″E / 30.0444°N 31.2357°E / 30.0444; 31.2357

Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
in 1958

Omar Makram Statue near Omar Makram Mosque — Tahrir Square, Cairo

Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
(Arabic: ميدان التحرير‎ Mīdān at-Taḥrīr, IPA: [meˈdæːn ettæħˈɾiːɾ], English: Liberation Square), also known as "Martyr Square", is a major public town square in Downtown Cairo, Egypt. The square has been the location and focus for political demonstrations in Cairo, most notably those that led to the 2011 Egyptian revolution
2011 Egyptian revolution
and the resignation of President Hosni Mubarak.

Contents

1 History 2 Features 3 Public use and demonstrations

3.1 2011 Egyptian Revolution 3.2 Post-revolution

3.2.1 June 2013 protests and coup d'état

4 See also 5 References 6 External links

History[edit] The square was originally called "Ismailia Square" (ميدان الأسماعيليّة Mīdān al-Ismā‘īliyyah), after the 19th-century ruler Khedive Ismail, who commissioned the new downtown district's 'Paris on the Nile' design. After the Egyptian Revolution of 1919, the square became widely known as Tahrir (Liberation) Square, but the square was not officially renamed until the Egyptian Revolution
Revolution
of 1952, which changed Egypt
Egypt
from a constitutional monarchy into an autocratic republic. The square was a focal point for the Egyptian Revolution
Revolution
of 2011.[1]

Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
at night with traffic circle, view northwest from Talaat Harb Street

Features[edit]

View south towards the Mogamma building and Omar Makram statue

At the centre of Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
is a large and busy traffic circle. On the north-east side is a plaza with a statue of nationalist hero Omar Makram, celebrated for his resistance against Napoleon I's invasion of Egypt, and beyond is the Omar Makram Mosque.[2] The square is the northern terminus of the historic Qasr al-Ayni Street, the western terminus of Talaat Harb Street, and via Qasr al-Nil Street crossing its southern portion it has direct access to the Qasr al-Nil Bridge
Qasr al-Nil Bridge
crossing the nearby Nile
Nile
River. The area around Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
includes the Egyptian Museum, the Folklore Arts House, the Mogamma government building, the Headquarters of the Arab League building, the Nile
Nile
Hotel, Kasr El Dobara Evangelical Church and the original downtown campus of the American University in Cairo. The National Democratic Party-NDP headquarters building stood here until it was set on fire during the revolution and demolished in 2015.[3] The Cairo
Cairo
Metro serves Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
with the Sadat Station, which is the downtown junction of the system's two lines, linking to Giza, Maadi, Helwan, and other districts and suburbs of Greater Cairo. Its underground access viaducts provide the safest routes for pedestrians crossing the broad roads of the heavily trafficked square. Public use and demonstrations[edit] Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
has been the traditional site for numerous major protests and demonstrations over the years, including the 1977 Egyptian Bread Riots, and the March 2003 protest against the War in Iraq.[4]

Protesters on an army vehicle during the 2011 Egyptian Revolution
2011 Egyptian Revolution
in Tahrir Square

2011 Egyptian Revolution[edit] Main article: 2011 Egyptian Revolution Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
was the focal point of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution against former president Hosni Mubarak.[5] Over 50,000 protesters first occupied the square on 25 January, during which the area's wireless services were reported to be impaired.[6] In the following days, Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
continued to be the primary destination for protests in Cairo.[7] On 29 January, Egyptian fighter aircraft flew low over the people gathered in the square. On 30 January, the seventh day of the protests, PIK BBC
BBC
and other correspondents reported that the number of demonstrators had grown to at least 100,000,[8] and on 31 January, Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
correspondents reported that the demonstrations had grown to at least 250,000 people.[9] On 1 February, Al Jazeera reported that more than one million protesters peacefully gathered in the square and adjacent streets.[10] However, such media reports that so many people congregated in Cairo’s largest public square are believed to be exaggerated for political purposes and, according to Stratfor's analysis, the real number of gathered protesters never exceeded 300,000 people.[11][12]

People congregated in Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
on 9 February 2011

The square became established as a focal point and a symbol for the ongoing Egyptian democracy demonstrations. On 2 February, violence erupted between the pro-Mubarak and pro-democracy demonstrators there, followed by the 3 February 'Friday of Departure' demonstration, one of the named "day of" events centered in the square. Within a week, due to international media coverage, the image and name of Tahrir Square became known worldwide.[13] A Facebook
Facebook
page called "Tahrir Square" ميدان التحرير was maintained by a rotating staff of twenty during the uprising, particularly to offset the lack of and/or distorted coverage of events and responses in the state-run media outlets.[14] The 18-day revolt centered in the square provided the Egyptian Armed Forces an opportunity to remove Mubarak from power on Friday, 11 February 2011, when the president officially stepped down from office.[15] The announcement that Mubarak had passed all authority to the Council of the Armed Forces was made by longtime intelligence chief and new vice president Omar Suleiman.[16][17] Tahrir Square erupted in a night-long celebration after the twilight announcement, with shouts such as "Lift your head up high, you're Egyptian", "Everyone who loves Egypt, come and rebuild Egypt", and others.[18] The next day, Egyptian Cairen women and men came to clean up the square, "they came and cleaned up after their revolution," relaying 'projectiles' in the cobblestone paving and removing eighteen days' worth of trash and graffiti.[18] Post-revolution[edit]

Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
in the early morning, November 2012

Tahrir Square, with 'democracy anniversary' celebrations and visits from foreign dignitaries, continued to be a symbol of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution.[19][20] British Prime Minister David Cameron, Catherine Ashton, the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy of the European Union, Hillary Clinton, Secretary of State of the United States, John Kerry, Chairman of the American Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Kevin Rudd
Kevin Rudd
Foreign Minister of Australia, and American actor Sean Penn
Sean Penn
visited Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
after the 2011 Egyptian Revolution. One of the ships in the planned Freedom Flotilla II, intended to break the Israeli blockade of Gaza, was named Tahrir after the square. Among its passengers was Haaretz
Haaretz
reporter Amira Hass. Ultimately, the sailing did not take place.[21] June 2013 protests and coup d'état[edit] Main articles: June 2013 Egyptian protests
June 2013 Egyptian protests
and 2013 Egyptian coup d'état On 29 June 2013, millions of Egyptians converged on Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
to demonstrate against the Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi, demanding his resignation from office.[22][23] The demonstrators used the slogan "the people want the ouster of the regime," used in the protests that led to the 2011 revolution.[24] By the 30th, their number had increased[25] and demonstrations were reported to be in progress in 18 locations across Cairo.[26] The demonstration was noted as the largest revolution in modern-day history. Bring together more than 33 million people to the Egyptian streets. On 3 July 2013, General Abdul Fatah al-Sisi
Abdul Fatah al-Sisi
announced the removal of President Mohamed Morsi
Mohamed Morsi
and suspended the Egyptian constitution after ongoing public protests in what is described as a coup d'état by Morsi supporters and the international community,[27][28][29][30][31] and by its supporters and the media as a revolution.[32][33][34][35] See also[edit]

Egypt
Egypt
portal

Downtown Cairo The Square, a documentary film about the square and its role in Egyptian politics Graffiti

References[edit]

^ Vatikiotis, Panayiotis J. (1997). The Middle East: From the End of Empire to the End of the Cold War. Routledge. p. 194.  ^ "Midan Al-Tahrir, Liberation Square". Tour Egypt.  ^ Egypt
Egypt
demolishes Mubarak’s party headquarters ^ Hiel, Betsy (19 June 2005). "Egyptian reformers taking it to streets". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review.  ^ " Egypt
Egypt
protests: Anti-Mubarak demonstrators arrested". BBC
BBC
News. 26 January 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2011.  ^ "Egyptians report poor communication services on Day of Anger". Almasry Alyoum. 25 January 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2011.  ^ " Egypt
Egypt
protests: curfew defied in Cairo
Cairo
and other cities". BBC
BBC
News. 29 January 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2011.  ^ " Egypt
Egypt
protesters step up pressure on Hosni Mubarak". BBC
BBC
News. 31 January 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2011.  ^ "Live blog 31/1 — Egypt
Egypt
protests". Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
News. 31 January 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2011.  ^ "Protesters flood Egypt
Egypt
streets". Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
News. 1 February 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011.  ^ "Gauging the Size of the Egyptian Protests". STRATFOR. 31 January 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2011.  ^ "Update on the Size of Protests in Cairo". STRATFOR. 1 February 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2011.  ^ "Battle of Tahrir Square". Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
News. 3 February 2011. Retrieved 3 February 2011.  ^ Fahim, Kareem; El-Naggar, Mana; Stack, Liam; Ou, Ed (8 February 2011). "Emotions of a Reluctant Hero Galvanize Protesters". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 February 2011.  ^ "Egypt: The Distance Between Enthusiasm and Reality". STRATFOR. 14 February 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2011.  ^ Kirkpatrick, David D. and Anthony Shadid from Cairo. Other reporting was contributed by Kareem Fahim, Liam Stack, Mona El-Naggar and Thanassis Cambanis from Cairo, and Alan Cowell from Paris, "Mubarak Steps Down, Ceding Power to Military" ,The New York Times, 11 February 2011. ^ " Egypt
Egypt
crisis: President Hosni Mubarak
Hosni Mubarak
resigns as leader". BBC
BBC
News. 12 February 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2011.  ^ a b "Ahdaf Soueif: Protesters reclaim the spirit of Egypt". BBC News. 13 February 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2011.  ^ "Thousands attend political rally in central Cairo". BBC
BBC
News. 18 February 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2011.  ^ " David Cameron
David Cameron
meets locals around Cairo's Tahrir Square". BBC
BBC
News. 21 February 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2011.  ^ Hass, Amira (31 January 2011). "Fear and no clean clothing: Amira Hass preparing to sail for Gaza - Haaretz
Haaretz
Daily Newspaper Israel News". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 28 December 2011.  ^ Hamza Hendawi The Associated Press, Alastair Macdonald (30 July 2013). " Egypt
Egypt
protests: Thousands gather at Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
to demand Morsi's ouster". thestar.com.  ^ "Egypt: BBC
BBC
inside Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
amid demonstration". BBC
BBC
News. 30 June 2013.  ^ " Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
protesters show President Mursi the 'red card'". Al Arabiya. 30 June 2013.  ^ " BBC
BBC
in Egypt: 'People were not expecting this'". BBC
BBC
News. 30 June 2013.  ^ Umar Farooq (30 June 2013). "Seeking New Leadership, Millions of Egyptians Take to the Streets". The Atlantic.  ^ "Coup may give Egypt
Egypt
window to tackle economic problem". Al Arabiya. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.  ^ "26 dead, more than 850 wounded as post-coup violence hits Egypt". CNN. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.  ^ "Turkey 'strongly condemns' Egypt
Egypt
killings". Al Ahram. 7 July 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.  ^ "Amid post-coup clashes, Egypt's Islamists split". USA Today. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.  ^ "Turkey's stance on Egypt
Egypt
coup 'shows its democratic maturity'". Hurriyet Daily News. 7 July 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.  ^ " Revolution
Revolution
in Egypt, again". Deutsche Welle. 4 July 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013.  ^ " Mohamed Morsi
Mohamed Morsi
ousted in Egypt's second revolution in two years". The Guardian. 3 July 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013.  ^ "Ahmed Said to Newsmax: Egyptian Uprising 'Big Revolution'". Newsmax. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013.  ^ "Was Morsi's Ouster a Coup Or New Egyptian Revolution?". Al Monitor. 4 July 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tahrir Square.

Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
travel guide from Wikivoyage BBC: Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
in wide angle images slideshow iPhone Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
App BlackBerry Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
App "Tahrir Documents". University of California, Los Angeles. Collected from demonstrations in Cairo’s Tahrir Square  2011–present "University on the Square: Documenting Egypt's 21st century revolution". Rare Books and Special
Special
Collections Library, the American University in Cairo. 

v t e

Egyptian crisis (2011–14)

Part of the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
and Arab Winter

Timeline

Mubarak government

Revolution
Revolution
of 2011

Timeline Resignation of Hosni Mubarak Domestic responses International reactions

Tantawi government

Timeline Muslim Brotherhood (post-Mubarak) Trials and judicial hearings Human rights in Egypt
Egypt
under the SCAF Reform process

Constitutional review committee 2011 constitutional referendum 2011 Constitutional Declaration

2011 attack on the Israeli Embassy in Egypt Maspero demonstrations November 2011 Tahrir clashes Port Said Stadium riot Elections

2011–12 parliamentary election 2012 Shura Council election 2012 presidential election

Morsi government

Timeline Reform process

Constituent Assembly 2012 constitutional referendum 2012 Constitution

2012–13 protests June 2013 protests 2013 coup d'état

Mansour government

2013–14 post-coup unrest

Republican Guard HQ clashes August 2013 Rabaa massacre Kerdasa massacre Battle of Kerdasa

Bombings

December 2013 Mansoura January 2014 Cairo

Reform process

2014 constitutional referendum 2014 Constitution

2014 presidential election

Sinai insurgency

Operation Eagle August 2011 attacks August 2012 attack Operation Sinai 2014 Taba bus bombing October 2014 attacks

Places

Cairo

Tahrir Square Qasr al-Nil Bridge Rabaa Al-Adawiya Mosque 6th October Bridge

Alexandria

Sidi Bishr

Mubarak government

Presidency

Hosni Mubarak
Hosni Mubarak
(President) Omar Suleiman
Omar Suleiman
(Vice President)

Cabinet

Ahmed Nazif
Ahmed Nazif
(Prime Minister, Cabinet) Ahmed Shafik
Ahmed Shafik
(Prime Minister, Cabinet) Ahmed Aboul Gheit
Ahmed Aboul Gheit
(Foreign Minister) Habib el-Adly (Interior Minister)

NDP figures

Gamal Mubarak Ahmed Ezz Zakaria Azmi Ahmad Fathi Sorour Safwat El-Sherif Hussein Salem

Tantawi government

Armed Forces

Mohamed Hussein Tantawi
Mohamed Hussein Tantawi
(Chairman) Sami Hafez Anan Mohab Mamish Reda Mahmoud Hafez Mohamed Abd El Aziz Seif-Eldeen

Cabinet

Kamal Ganzouri
Kamal Ganzouri
(Prime Minister) Mohamed Kamel Amr
Mohamed Kamel Amr
(Foreign Minister)

Morsi government

Presidency

Mohamed Morsi
Mohamed Morsi
(President) Mahmoud Mekki (Vice President)

Cabinet

Hesham Qandil
Hesham Qandil
(Prime Minister, Cabinet) Mohamed Kamel Amr
Mohamed Kamel Amr
(Foreign Minister) Ahmed Gamal el-Din
Ahmed Gamal el-Din
(Interior Minister)

FJP figures

Khairat El-Shater Mohammed Badie Essam el-Erian Saad El-Katatni Mohamed Beltagy Safwat Hegazi

Opposition groups

Coalition of the Youth of the Revolution We are all Khaled Said April 6 Youth Movement Kefaya Revolutionary Socialists Strong Egypt
Egypt
Party Costa Salafis Al-Ahly Ultras Zamalek’s Ultras White Knights Mosireen National Association for Change Muslim Brotherhood Youth Tamarod The Third Square Masmou3 Road of the Revolution
Revolution
Front

Opposition figures

Mohamed ElBaradei Hamdeen Sabahi Abdel Moneim Aboul Fotouh Bothaina Kamel George Ishak Mohamed Soliman Khaled Ali Kamal Khalil Kamal Abbas Ayman Nour Kamal el-Fayoumi Sameh Naguib Hisham Bastawisy

Activists

Wael Ghonim Mahmoud Badr Ahmed Maher Hossam el-Hamalawy Gihan Ibrahim Wael Khalil Wael Abbas Nawara Negm Alaa Abd El-Fattah Mona Seif Asmaa Mahfouz Israa Abdel Fattah Maikel Nabil Sanad Ahmed D

.