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The TAHIRID DYNASTY (Persian : طاهریان‎‎) was a dynasty, of Persian dihqan origin, that governed the Abbasid province of Khorasan from 821 to 873 and the city of Baghdad
Baghdad
from 820 until 891. The dynasty was founded by Tahir ibn Husayn , a leading general in the service of the Abbasid caliph al-Ma\'mun . Their capital in Khorasan was initially located at Merv
Merv
but was later moved to Nishapur
Nishapur
. The Tahirids enjoyed a high degree of autonomy in their governance of Khorasan, but they remained subject to the Abbasid caliphate and were not independent rulers.

CONTENTS

* 1 Governors of Khorasan

* 1.1 Rise * 1.2 Fall

* 2 Governors of Baghdad
Baghdad
* 3 Language and Culture * 4 Members of the Tahirid dynasty
Tahirid dynasty
* 5 Family tree * 6 References * 7 See also

GOVERNORS OF KHORASAN

RISE

The founder of the Tahirid dynasty
Tahirid dynasty
was Tahir ibn Husayn , a general who had played a major role in the civil war between the rival caliphs al-Amin and al-Ma\'mun . He and his ancestors had previously been awarded minor governorships in eastern Khorasan for their service to the Abbasids. In 821, Tahir was made governor of Khorasan, but he died soon afterwards. The caliph then appointed Tahir's son, Talha, whose governorship lasted from 822–828. Tahir's other son, Abdullah, was instated as the wali of Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula, and when Talha died in 828 he was given the governorship of Khorasan. Abdullah is considered one of the greatest of the Tahirid rulers, as his reign witnessed a flourishing of agriculture in his native land of Khorasan, popularity among the populations of the eastern lands of the Abbasid caliphate and extending influence due to his experience with the western parts of the caliphate.

The replacement of the Pahlavi script with the Arabic
Arabic
script in order to write the Persian language was done by the Tahirids in 9th century Khurasan.

FALL

Abdullah died in 845 and was succeeded by his son Tahir II . Not much is known of Tahir's rule, but the administrative dependency of Sistan was lost to rebels during his governorship. Tahirid rule began to seriously deteriorate after Tahir's son Muhammad ibn Tahir became governor, due to his carelessness with the affairs of the state and lack of experience with politics. Oppressive policies in Tabaristan
Tabaristan
, another dependency of Khorasan, resulted in the people of that province revolting and declaring their allegiance to the independent Zaydi ruler Hasan ibn Zayd in 864. In Khorasan itself, Muhammad's rule continued to grow increasingly weak, and in 873 he was finally overthrown by the Saffarid dynasty , who annexed Khorasan to their own empire in eastern Persia
Persia
.

GOVERNORS OF BAGHDAD

Besides their hold over Khorasan, the Tahirids also served as the military governors (_ashab al-shurta _) of Baghdad, beginning with Tahir's appointment to that position in 820. After he left for Khorasan, the governorship of Baghdad
Baghdad
was given to a member of a collateral branch of the family, Ishaq ibn Ibrahim , who controlled the city for over twenty-five years. During Ishaq's term as governor, he was responsible for implementing the Mihna (inquisition) in Baghdad. His administration also witnessed the departure of the caliphs from Baghdad, as they made the recently constructed city of Samarra their new capital. When Ishaq died in 849 he was succeeded first by two of his sons, and then in 851 by Tahir's grandson Muhammad ibn Abdallah .

Abdallah played a major role in the events of the "Anarchy at Samarra " in the 860s, giving refuge to the caliph al-Musta\'in and commanding the defense of Baghdad
Baghdad
when it was besieged by the forces of the rival caliph al-Mu\'tazz in 865. The following year, he forced al-Musta'in to abdicate and recognized al-Mu'tazz as caliph, and in exchange was allowed to retain his control over Baghdad. Violent riots plagued Baghdad
Baghdad
during the last years of Abdallah's life, and conditions in the city remained tumultuous after he died and was succeeded by his brothers, first Ubaydallah and then Sulayman . Eventually order was restored in Baghdad, and the Tahirids continued to serve as governors of the city for another two decades. In 891, however, Badr al-Mu\'tadidi was put in charge of the security of Baghdad
Baghdad
in place of the Tahirids, and the family soon lost their prominence within the caliphate after that.

LANGUAGE AND CULTURE

The Tahirids were highly Arabized in culture and outlook, and eager to be accepted in the Caliphal world where cultivation of things Arabic
Arabic
gave social and cultural prestige. For this reason, the Tahirids could not play a part in the renaissance of New Persian language and culture. But the Persian language, was at least tolerated in the entourage of the Tahirids and the amirs were not positively Anti-Iranian. On the other hand, the Saffarids
Saffarids
played the leading part in the renaissance of Persian literature.

MEMBERS OF THE TAHIRID DYNASTY

Map of Tahirid Khurasan
Khurasan

GOVERNOR TERM

GOVERNORS OF KHURASAN

Tahir ibn Husayn 821-822

Talha ibn Tahir 822-828

Abdallah ibn Tahir al-Khurasani 828-845

Tahir (II) ibn Abdallah 845-862

Muhammad ibn Tahir (II) 862-873

GOVERNORS OF BAGHDAD

Tahir ibn Husayn 820-822

Ishaq ibn Ibrahim al-Mus\'abi 822-850

Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Ibrahim 850-851

Abdallah ibn Ishaq ibn Ibrahim 851

Muhammad ibn Abdallah ibn Tahir 851-867

Ubaydallah ibn Abdallah ibn Tahir 867-869

Sulayman ibn Abdallah ibn Tahir
Sulayman ibn Abdallah ibn Tahir
869-879

Ubaydallah ibn Abdallah (again) 879-885

Muhammad ibn Tahir (II) 885-890

Ubaydallah ibn Abdallah (again) 890-891

FAMILY TREE

Bold denotes a Tahirid that served as governor of Khorasan; italics denotes an individual who served as governor of Baghdad.

Mos'eb

Husayn

_TAHIR I _ 821–822

Ibrahim

TALHA 822–828

ABDALLAH 828–845

_Ishaq _

TAHIR II 845–862 _Muhammad _

_Ubaydallah _

_Sulayman _

_Muhammad _

_Abdullah _

_MUHAMMAD _ 862–872

REFERENCES

* ^ _Introduction: the Turko-Persian tradition_, Robert L. Canfield, TURKO-PERSIA IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE, ed. Robert Leroy Canfield, (Cambridge University Press, 1991), 6. * ^ _Language situation and scripts: Arabic_, S. Blair, HISTORY OF CIVILIZATIONS OF CENTRAL ASIA, Vol. IV, ed. C.E. Bosworth and M.S. Asimov, (Motilal Banarsidass, 2003), 340. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _The Tahirids and Saffarids_, C.E. Bosworth, THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF IRAN, Vol. 4, ed. Richard Nelson Frye, (Cambridge University Press, 1999), 90-91. * ^ _Sectarian and national movements in Iran, Khurasan
Khurasan
and Transoxanial during Umayyad in early Abbasid times_, F. Daftary, HISTORY OF CIVILIZATIONS OF CENTRAL ASIA, Vol. IV, 57. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _Tahirids_, C.E. Bosworth, THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF ISLAM, Vol. X, ed. P. J. Bearman, T. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W. P. Heinrichs, (Brill, 2000), 104-105. * ^ Hammuda, Abdul Hamid, H. The History of Independent Islamic States:Tarikh Adduwal Al-Islamiyyah Al-Mustaqillah, al-Dar al-Thaqafiyyah lil-Nashr, Cairo, 2010, p.30-40 * ^ Ira M. Lapidus (29 October 2012). _Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 256–. ISBN 978-0-521-51441-5 . * ^ Ira M. Lapidus (22 August 2002). _A History of Islamic Societies_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 127–. ISBN 978-0-521-77933-3 . * ^ see Hammuda * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1996), _The New Islamic Dynasties_, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996), 168-9. * ^ Turner, John P., "Ishaq ibn Ibrahim," in _ Medieval
Medieval
Islamic Civilization, Volume 1,_ Ed. Josef W. Meri (Routledge 2006), p. 402. * ^ Gordon, Matthew S. (2001), _The Breaking of a Thousand Swords: A History of the Turkish Military of Samarra (A.H. 200-275/815-889 C.E.),_ Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, p. 47 ff. * ^ Kennedy, Hugh (2001), _The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State,_ London: Routledge, pp. 135-9. * ^ Yar-Shater, Ehsan, ed. (1985-2007), _The History of al-Tabari,_ Vols. 1-40, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, v. XXXV p. 124 ff.; v. XXXVI pp. 3-5, 13 ff. * ^ Bosworth, C. E. (1969). "The Ṭāhirids and Persian Literature". _IRAN, the journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies_. 7: 103–106. doi :10.2307/4299615 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Yar-Shater, Ehsan, ed. (1985-2007), _The History of al-Tabari,_ Vols. 1-40, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, v. XXXIV pp. 105, 108, 110, 116; v. XXXVII pp. 147, 160 * ^ Kraemer, Joel L (1989), Foreword, in Ehsan Yar-Shater (Ed.), _The History of al-Tabari, Volume XXXIV: Incipient Decline,_ Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, p. xxviii.

SEE ALSO

* Iranian Intermezzo * List of Muslims * List of Sunni Muslim dynasties

* v * t * e

Tahirid dynasty
Tahirid dynasty

EARLY MEMBERS

* Ruzaiq * Mus\'ab * Husayn ibn Mus\'ab

IN BAGHDAD (820–891)

* Ishaq ibn Ibrahim al-Mus\'abi * Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Ibrahim * Abdallah ibn Ishaq ibn Ibrahim * Muhammad ibn Abdallah ibn Tahir * Ubaydallah ibn Abdallah ibn Tahir * Sulayman ibn Abdallah ibn Tahir
Sulayman ibn Abdallah ibn Tahir
* Ubaydallah ibn Abdallah ibn Tahir * Muhammad ibn Tahir (II) * Ubaydallah ibn Abdallah ibn Tahir

IN KHURASAN (821–873)

* Tahir ibn Husayn * Talha ibn Tahir * Abdallah ibn Tahir al-Khurasani * Tahir (II) ibn Abdallah * Muhammad ibn Tahir (II)

* v * t * e

Iran
Iran
topics

HISTORY

Prehistory

ANCIENT

3400–550 BCE

* Kura-Araxes culture (3400–2000 BC) * Proto-Elamite civilization (3200–2800 BC) * Elamite dynasties (2800–550 BC) * Akkadian Empire (c.2334 BC–c.2154 BC) * Kassites (c.1500–c.1155 BC) * Kingdom of Mannai (10th–7th century BC) * Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–609 BC) * Urartu (860 BC–590 BC) * Median Empire (728–550 BC) * (Scythian Kingdom) (652–625 BC) * Neo-Babylonian Empire (626–539 BC)

550 BC – 224 AD

* Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
(550–330 AD) * Kingdom of Armenia (331 BC–428 AD) * Atropatene
Atropatene
(320s BC–3rd century AD) * Seleucid Empire (330 BC–150 AD) * Parthian Empire (248 BC – 224 AD)

224–651 AD

* Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
(224–651 AD)

MEDIEVAL

637 – 1055

* Patriarchal Caliphate (637–651) * Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) * Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258) * Tahirid dynasty
Tahirid dynasty
(821–873) * Alavid dynasty (864–928) * Saffarid dynasty (861–1003) * Samanid dynasty (819–999) * Ziyarid dynasty (928–1043) * Buyid dynasty (934–1062)

975–1432

* Ghaznavid Empire (975–1187) * Ghurid dynasty (1011–1215) * Seljuk Empire (1037–1194) * Khwarazmian dynasty (1077–1231) * Eldiguzids
Eldiguzids
(1135/36-1225) * Ilkhanate (1256–1335) * Kurt dynasty
Kurt dynasty
(1231–1389) * Muzaffarid dynasty (1314–1393) * Chobanid dynasty (1337–1357) * Jalairid Sultanate
Jalairid Sultanate
dynasty (1339–1432)

1370–1925

* Timurid Empire (1370–1507) * Qara Qoyunlu Turcomans (1375–1468) * Ag Qoyunlu Turcomans (1378–1508) * Safavid Empire (1501 – 1722 / 1736) * Afsharid dynasty
Afsharid dynasty
(1736–50) * Zand Dynasty (1750–94)

* Qajar Dynasty (1794–1925)

* Khanates of the Caucasus (18th century–20th century)

MODERN

1925–1979

* Pahlavi dynasty (1925–1979) * Iran
Iran
Constituent Assembly, 1949 * 1953 coup d\'état * Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
(1979) * Interim Government

ISLAMIC REPUBLIC

* History (1979–)

* Arab separatism in Khuzestan

* Embassy siege (1980)

* Iran–Iraq War (1980–88) * Iranian pilgrim massacre (1987) * Iran
Iran
Air Flight 655 shootdown (1988) * PJAK insurgency * Balochistan conflict * Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War
* Military intervention against ISIL

SEE ALSO

* Ancient Iran
Iran
* Greater Iran * Iranic peoples (languages ) * Kura–Araxes culture * Jiroft culture * Aryans * Persian people * Azerbaijanis * Caucasian peoples * Kings of Persia
Persia
* Cities * Military history * History of democracy * List of years in Iran
Iran

GEOGRAPHY

* Cities (list ) * Earthquakes * Iranian Azerbaijan * Iranian Balochistan * Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests * Caucasus
Caucasus
* Iranian Kurdistan * Iranian Plateau * Lake Urmia * Islands * Mountains * Provinces * Wildlife

POLITICS

GENERAL

* Censorship * Constitution ( Persian Constitutional Revolution ) * Elections (2009 presidential * Green Revolution ) * Foreign relations * Human rights (LGBT ) * Judicial system * Military (Army * Air Force * Navy ) * Ministry of Intelligence and National Security * Cyberwarfare * Nuclear program (UN Security Council Resolution 1747 ) * Political parties * Principlists * Propaganda * Reformists * Terrorism (state-sponsorship allegations ) * White Revolution (1963) * Women\'s rights movement

COUNCILS

* Assembly (or Council) of Experts * Expediency Discernment Council * City and Village Councils * Guardian Council * Islamic Consultative Assembly (parliament) * Supreme National Security Council

OFFICIALS

* Ambassadors * President * Provincial governors * Supreme Leader

ECONOMY

GENERAL

* Bonyad (charitable trust) * Brain drain * Companies (Automotive industry ) * Corruption * Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) * Economic history * Economic Reform Plan * Energy * Environmental issues * Foreign direct investment * Intellectual property * International oil bourse * International rankings * Iran
Iran
and the World Trade Organization * Taxation * Main economic laws * Economy of the Middle East * Milad Tower and complex * Military equipment manufactured * Nuclear program (UN Security Council Resolution 1747 ) * Privatization * Rial (currency) * Space Agency * Setad * Supreme Audit Court * Tehran Stock Exchange * Venture capital (Technology start-ups )

SECTORS

* Agriculture (fruit ) * Banking and insurance (Banks (Central Bank ) * Electronic banking ) * Construction * Defense * Health care (Pharmaceuticals ) * Industry * Mining * Petroleum ( Anglo-Persian Oil Company ) * Telecommunications and IT (TCI ) * Transport (airlines * metro * railways * shipping ) * Tourism

State-owned companies

* Defense Industries Organization (DIO) * Industrial Development and Renovation Organization (IDRO) * Iran
Iran
Aviation Industries Organization (IAIO) * Iran
Iran
Electronics Industries (IEI) * National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) * National Development Fund

PLACES

* Asaluyeh
Asaluyeh
industrial corridor * Chabahar Free Trade-Industrial Zone * Kish Island
Kish Island
Free Trade Zone * Research centers

SOCIETY

DEMOGRAPHICS

LANGUAGES

* Persian (Farsi) * Armenian * Azerbaijani * Kurdish * Georgian * Neo-Aramaic * Iranian languages

PEOPLES

* Iranian citizens (abroad )

* Ethnic minorities

* Armenians * Assyrians * Azerbaijanis * Circassians * Georgians * Kurds * Persian Jews * Turkmen

RELIGION

* Islam * Bahá\'í (persecution ) * Christianity * Zoroastrians (persecution ) * minorities

OTHER

* Corruption * Crime * Education (higher * scientists and scholars * universities ) * Brain drain * Health care * International rankings * Nationality * Water supply and sanitation * Women

CULTURE

* Architecture (Achaemenid * architects ) * Art (modern / contemporary ) * Blogs * Calendars (Persian New Year (_Nowruz_) ) * Chādor (garment) * Chicago Persian antiquities dispute * Cinema * Crown jewels * Cuisine * Folklore * Intellectual movements * Iranians * Iranian studies * Islam (Islamization ) * Literature * Media (news agencies (student ) * newspapers ) * Mythology * National symbols (Imperial Anthem ) * Opium consumption * Persian gardens * Persian name * Philosophy