Purity (Arabic: طهارة, Tahara(h)) is an essential aspect of
Islam. (The same term taharah is also found in Hebrew—see tumah and
taharah—applying to purity in Ancient Israel and modern Judaism
also.) It is the opposite of najis, things which are considered
ritually impure are in the state of najāsa.
1 In the Quran
2 Importance in Islam
3 Shia views on purity and impurity
3.1 Majority views
3.2 Minority views
4 Cleaning the teeth
7 See also
9 External links
In the Quran
Quran says: "In it there are men who love to observe purity and
Allah loves those who maintain purity."[Quran 9:108] and also
there is one verse which concerned with Taharah or purity and impurity
of Human as follow:"O you who believe! The polytheists are certainly
impure[najas]: so let them not approach the Holy Mosque after
thistheir year. And if you fear poverty, Allah will enrich you out of
His grace, if He wishes. Indeed Allah is all-knowing, all
Importance in Islam
Observing cleanliness of the soul, the clothes, and the surroundings
is obligatory upon every Muslim, and this is considered as one of the
pillars of Islam.
Before offering prayers, it is necessary to perform wudu, and in
certain cases, both wudu and ghusl. The purifying agent is always
clean water. However, during times when water is not available or is
scarce, symbolic wudu and ghusl can be performed with clean dry earth
which is known as Tayammum.
If the body or clothes show traces of blood, pus, urine, feces, semen
or alcohol, then Taharat becomes essential. The clothes should be
washed and the affected part of the body cleaned with pure water, or
the whole body given as ghusl as the case may be.
A person must not touch the
Quran if the person is not in the state of
Quran says: None shall touch it but those who are clean
(56:79). When in a state of janaba, one is not allowed even to recite
the Quran, let alone touch it. In a state of minor ritual impurity, it
is forbidden (in some schools, makruh) to handle the Qur'an and to
read it, and is considered to be acceptable (neutral, mubah) to recite
it, although it is better liked (recommended, mustahabb) to be
ritually pure when reciting the Qur'an. A mushaf is only a
Quran if it
Arabic Quranic text, and a book that contains more than 50%
non-Qur'anic material is not viewed as a
Quran for the above purposes,
even if it contains verses of the
Quran or the entire Quranic text.
Examples would be a tafsir, or a translation of the
Quran such as
Yusuf Ali's (with commentary) which contains over fifteen times as
much text in footnotes than it does in Quranic text or Quranic
interpretation in either
Arabic or English, or a book of hadith that
contains Quranic verses embedded in the narrations.
Shia views on purity and impurity
In respect to purity of non-Muslims, the majority of Shia Muslims
believe in the impurity of non-Muslims. However, there is a minority
among Shia which believe in purity of non-Muslims.
Some people such as
Shaykh Tusi believed that it is not permissible to
eat with Kuffar or non-Muslims. Considering non-believers as
been prevalent until twentieth century. Muhaqiq Hilli also believes in
impurity of non-believers. Most of maraji (authorities such as Sayyid
Ruhollah Khomeini, Nasir Makarim Shirazi, Sayyid
Gulpaygani, and Sayyid Abu al-Qasim Khu’i) believed in impurity of
Kuffar, including Ahle Al Kitab. Of course, Khu'i pointed out
precaution ruling in the subject. However, there are some authorities
Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr,
Muhammad Fadil Lankarani, Sayyid
‘Ali al-Sistani, and Sayyid ‘Ali Khamene’i who did not believe
in impurity of Ahle-Al-Kitab.
Some scholars such as Mulla Muhsin Fayd al-Kashani (d. 1680) and
Al-Muhaqqiq al-Bahrani (d. 1708) did not believe in the impurity of
non-believers, and particularly non-Kitabi. For instance, Kashani
believes that the impurity of Kuffar is spiritual and internal, so
there is no need to wash after touching them. This group believes in
the purity of non-Muslims and of all humans. Some people, such as
Muhammad Ibrahim JannÁti, Sayyid
Muhammad Husayn Fadlullah, Seyed
Mostafa Mohaghegh Damad, and Yusuf Sani‘i are part of this group.
Cleaning the teeth
Cleaning teeth is also very important.
Muhammad is reported to have
said that the angels of mercy turn away from a person whose mouth
emits foul smell because of unclean teeth. It is not only unhygienic
to neglect cleaning teeth but also an anti-social habit likely to
repel people from one's presence. It is narrated by
Ibn Majah to "use
the Miswaak, for verily, it purifies the mouth, and it is a Pleasure
for the Lord.
Jibreel (A.S.) exhorted me so much to use the Miswaak
that I feared that its use would be decreed obligatory upon me and
upon my Ummah. If I did not fear imposing hardship on my Ummah, I
would have made its use obligatory upon my people. Verily, I use the
Miswaak so much that I fear the front part of my mouth being peeled
(by constant and abundant brushing with the Miswaak)."
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The mixed views on the subject came about because tobacco had not been
introduced to Arabia at the time when the Qur'an was written in the
7th century A.D. Therefore, one cannot find a verse of Qur'an or words
Muhammad saying clearly that "Smoking is forbidden." However, there
are many instances where the Qur'an gives general guidelines, and
calls upon Muslims to use their reason and intelligence, and seek
guidance from Allah about what is right and wrong. It is universally
understood that smoking causes a number of health problems that often
ultimately result in death: smoking is, depending on the madhhab,
considered to be either makruh or haram, but in Sunni madhhabs it is
not considered to cause one to lose ritual purity.
Main article: Islamic sexual hygienical jurisprudence
Leviticus 15:16-18 says that after a man emits semen or has sex with a
woman they must clean themselves with water. This was regarded as
hygienic in tenth century Baghdad.
^ VARRICCHIO, 2010 & The Purity of Non-Muslims in Shi‘a
Jurisprudence.Journal of Shi‘a Islamic Studies, p. 170.174
^ Faḍlan, ibn (2014-12-08) [921-06-21]. "18". Mission to the Volga
(in Arabic). Volga River: Library of
Arabic Literature. p. 203.
ISBN 978-1-4798-0350-7. they do not wash themselves when
intercourse puts them in a state of ritual impurity. They avoid
contact with water, especially in the Winter. again on page 243
in reference this time to Vikings, paragraph 76 "do not wash
themselves when intercourse puts them in a state of ritual impurity.
They do not even wash their hands after eating. Indeed they are like
Laws of Islam concerning ritual purity