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LIGURIAN (ligure or lengua ligure) is a Gallo-Italic language spoken in Liguria in Northern Italy
Italy
, parts of the Mediterranean coastal zone of France, Monaco
Monaco
and in the villages of Carloforte
Carloforte
and Calasetta in Sardinia . It is part of the Western Romance language continuum . The Genoese (Zeneize), spoken in Genoa
Genoa
, the capital of Liguria, is the language's prestige dialect on which the standard is based.

Ligurian has almost 500,000 native speakers, and is still widely spoken by many in Genoa
Genoa
and in many of the small towns and villages in the region. There are also many groups dedicated to the preservation of the language such as Associazione Culturale O Castello in Chiavari , which offers Ligurian (Genovese) language courses. Notable native speakers of Ligurian include Niccolò Paganini , Giuseppe Garibaldi , Christopher Columbus , Eugenio Montale , Giulio Natta , Italo Calvino , and Fabrizio De André .There is also a popular musical group, Buio Pesto , who compose songs entirely in the Genoese dialect.

There is a long literary tradition of Ligurian poets and writers that goes from the 13th century to the present, such as Luchetto (the Genoese Anonym), Martin Piaggio and Gian Giacomo Cavalli.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geographic extent * 2 Description * 3 Variants * 4 Alphabet * 5 Vocabulary * 6 References * 7 External links

GEOGRAPHIC EXTENT

Ligurian (Romance language).

Besides Liguria (Ligurian Liguria), the language is traditionally spoken in coastal, northern Tuscany
Tuscany
, southern Piedmont
Piedmont
(part of the province of Alessandria ), western extremes of Emilia-Romagna (some areas in the province of Piacenza ), in a small area of southern Sardinia (Italy), the Alpes-Maritimes of France
France
(mostly the Côte d\'Azur from the Italian border to and including Monaco
Monaco
), and in a township at the south of Corsica
Corsica
(France). It has been adopted formally in Monaco
Monaco
as the Monegasque language ; or locally, Munegascu.

The Mentonasc dialect, spoken in the East of the County of Nice
County of Nice
, is considered to be a transitional Occitan dialect to Ligurian; conversely, the Roiasc and Pignasc spoken further North in the Eastern margin of the County are Ligurian dialects with Occitan influences.

In Italy, the language has given way to Standard Italian and in France
France
to French .

DESCRIPTION

Ligurian exhibits distinct Italian features but also has features of other Romance languages. No link between Romance Ligurian and the Ligurian language of the ancient Ligurian populations , in the form of a substrate or otherwise, can be demonstrated by linguistic evidence. There are, however, toponomastic derivations from ancient Ligurian.

VARIANTS

Variants of the Ligurian language are:

* Zenéize (meaning Genoese, main Ligurian variant, spoken in Genoa ) * Spezzino (in La Spezia
La Spezia
) * Monegasque (in Monaco
Monaco
) * Mentonasque (in Menton
Menton
(France)) * Intemelio (in Sanremo
Sanremo
and Ventimiglia ) * Brigasc (in La Brigue and Briga Alta
Briga Alta
) * Royasc
Royasc
(French : Royasque) (in Upper Roya Valley) * Tabarchino
Tabarchino
(in Calasetta and Carloforte
Carloforte
) * Bonifacino (in Bonifacio ) * Novéize or Oltregiogo Ligurian (North of Genoa, mainly in Val Borbera and Novi Ligure
Novi Ligure
)

ALPHABET

The Ligurian alphabet has:

* 7 vowels: A, E, I, ò (IPA : ), O , U , æ , plus the group EU . * 19 consonants: B, C, ç, D, F, G, H, L, M, N, ñ (OR NN- LIKE IN SINGING), P, Q, R, S, T, V, X, Z. * It uses the umlaut (¨), circumflex (ˆ), acute (´), and grave (`) accents on most vowels when the full pronunciation key is given in the official spelling. It also uses the c-cedilla (ç).

VOCABULARY

According to the spelling of the Genoese Académia Ligùstica do Brénno

* o péi (or: a péia): pear (It. and Sp. pera, Pt. pêra, Ro. pară ), plural e péie (f.) * o mei (or: a méia): apple (It. mela , Ro. măr), its plural is feminine: e méie * o çetrón: orange (cf. Fr. citron 'lemon'; replacing Gen. limon—cf. It. limone) * o fîgo: fig (It. fico, Fr. figue, Gl. and Pt. figo), plural e fîghe (f.) * o pèrsego: peach (It. pesca, Ro. piersică, Fr. pêche, Cat. préssec, Gl. pexego, Pt. pêssego), plural e pèrseghe (f.) * a frambôasa: raspberry (Fr. framboise, Pt. framboesa) * a çêxa: cherry (It. ciliegia Ro. cireaşă, Fr. cerise, Pt. cereja) * o meréllo: strawberry * a nôxe: walnut (It. noce, Pt noz, Ro "nucă" ) * a nissêua: hazelnut (It. nocciola, Fr. noisette, Pt. avelã) * o bricòccalo: apricot (It. albicocca, Cat. albercoc, Pt. abricó) * l'ûga: grape (It., Sp. and Pt. uva , Ro. strugure") * o pigneu: pine nut (It. pinolo,Pt. pinhão) * arvî: to open (It. aprire, Fr. ouvrir, Sp. and Pt. abrir) * serrâ: to close (It. chiudere, Ro. închidere, Sp. cerrar) * ciæo: light (cf. It. chiaro , Ro. clar) * a cà or casa: home, house (It., Sp. and Pt. casa; Ro. casă, Cat. and Ven: 'Ca(sa)) * l'êuvo: egg (It. uovo, Fr. l'œuf, Ro. ou, Gl. and Pt. ovo) * l'éuggio: eye (It. occhio, Ro. ochi, Fr. l'œil, Cat. ull, Gl. ollo, Pt. olho) * a bócca: mouth (It. bocca, Sp. and Pt. boca, Fr. "bouche") * a tésta: head (It. testa , Ro. ţeastă, in Pt. testa is forehead) * a schénn-a: back (It. schiena, Ro. spinare, Cat. esquena) * o bràsso: arm (It. braccio, Ro. braţ, Fr. bras, Pt. braço) * a gànba: leg (It. gamba, Ro. gambă, Fr. jambe, Cat. cama) * o cheu: heart (It. cuore, Ro. cord (in Ro. more commonly "Heart" translates as "inimă"), Fr. cœur, pt. coração) * l'articiòcca: artichoke (It. carciofo, De. Artischocke, Fr. artichaut) * a tomâta: tomato (It. pomodoro, De. Tomate, Fr. and Pt. tomate)

REFERENCES

* ^ Ligurian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ligurian". Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.

* Jean-Philippe Dalbera, Les parlers des Alpes Maritimes
Alpes Maritimes
: étude comparative, essai de reconstruction , Toulouse: Université de Toulouse 2, 1984 * Werner Forner , “Le mentonnais entre toutes les chaises ? Regards comparatifs sur quelques mécanismes morphologiques” * Intemelion (revue), n° 1, Sanremo
Sanremo
, 1995.

EXTERNAL LINKS

LIGURIAN LANGUAGE EDITION of , the free encyclopedia