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Ligurian (ligure or lengua ligure) is a Gallo-Italic language spoken in Liguria
Liguria
in Northern Italy, parts of the Mediterranean coastal zone of France, Monaco
Monaco
and in the villages of Carloforte
Carloforte
and Calasetta
Calasetta
in Sardinia. It is part of the Gallo-Italic and Western Romance
Western Romance
dialect continuum. The Genoese (Zeneize), spoken in Genoa, the capital of Liguria, is the language's prestige dialect on which the standard is based. There is a long literary tradition of Ligurian poets and writers that goes from the 13th century to the present, such as Luchetto (the Genoese Anonym), Martin Piaggio and Gian Giacomo Cavalli.

Contents

1 Geographic extent and status 2 Description 3 Variants 4 Alphabet 5 Vocabulary 6 References 7 External links

Geographic extent and status[edit]

Ligurian (Romance language).

Ligurian does not enjoy an official status in Italy
Italy
Hence, it is not protected by law.[3] Historically, Genoese (the dialect spoken in the city of Genoa) is the written koine, owing to its semi-official role as language of the Republic of Genoa, its traditional importance in trade and commerce and its vast literature. Like other regional languages in Italy, the use of Ligurian and its dialects is in rapid decline. ISTAT [4](the Italian central service of statistics) claims that in 2012, only 9% of the population used other than non-standard Italian with friends and family, which decreases to 1.8% with strangers. Furthermore, according to ISTAT, regional languages are more commonly spoken by uneducated people and the elderly, mostly in rural areas. Liguria
Liguria
is no exception. One can reasonably suppose the age pyramid to be strongly biased toward the elderly who were born before World War II, with proficiency rapidly approaching zero for newer generations. On a more positive note, Ligurian has not experienced in recent years such strong a decline in number of native speakers than other regional languages. That could be a consequence of its status or the early, catastrophic decline it underwent in the past. The language itself is actively preserved by various groups. Notable native speakers of Ligurian include Niccolò Paganini, Giuseppe Garibaldi, Christopher Columbus, Eugenio Montale, Giulio Natta, Italo Calvino, and Fabrizio De André. There is also a popular musical group, Buio Pesto, who compose songs entirely in the language. Because of the importance of Genoese trade, Ligurian was once spoken well beyond the borders of the modern province. It has since given way to standard varieties, such as Standard Italian and French. In particular, the language is traditionally spoken in coastal, northern Tuscany, southern Piedmont
Piedmont
(part of the province of Alessandria), western extremes of Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
(some areas in the province of Piacenza), in a small area of southern Sardinia
Sardinia
(the so-called Tabarchino), where its use is ubiquitous and increasing. Until recently, it was also spoken in the department of the Alpes-Maritimes of France
France
(mostly the Côte d'Azur
Côte d'Azur
from the Italian border to and including Monaco), in a township at the south of Corsica
Corsica
(Bonifacio, France) and by a large community in Gibraltar. It has been adopted formally in Monaco
Monaco
as the Monégasque dialect; or locally, Munegascu, without the status of official language (that is French). Monaco
Monaco
is the only place where a variety of Ligurian is taught in school. The Mentonasc dialect, spoken in the East of the County of Nice, is considered to be a transitional Occitan dialect to Ligurian; conversely, the Roiasc and Pignasc spoken further North in the Eastern margin of the County are Ligurian dialects with Occitan influences. Description[edit] As a Gallo-Italic language, Ligurian is most closely related to Lombard, Piedmontese and Emilian-Romagnol language, all of which are spoken in neighboring provinces. Unlike the aforementioned languages, however, it exhibits distinct Italian features. No link between Romance Ligurian and the Ligurian language of the ancient Ligurian populations, in the form of a substrate or otherwise, can be demonstrated by linguistic evidence. Only the toponyms are known to have survived from ancient Ligurian, the name Liguria
Liguria
being the most obvious example. Variants[edit] Variants of the Ligurian language are:

Zenéize (meaning Genoese, main Ligurian variant, spoken in Genoa) Spezzino (in La Spezia) Monégasque (in Monaco) Mentonasque
Mentonasque
(in Menton
Menton
(France)) Intemelio
Intemelio
(in Sanremo
Sanremo
and Ventimiglia) Brigasc
Brigasc
(in La Brigue
La Brigue
and Briga Alta) Royasc
Royasc
(French: Royasque) (in Upper Roya Valley) Tabarchino
Tabarchino
(in Calasetta
Calasetta
and Carloforte) Bonifacino (in Bonifacio) Novéize or Oltregiogo Ligurian (North of Genoa, mainly in Val Borbera and Novi Ligure)

Alphabet[edit] The Ligurian alphabet has:

7 vowels: a, e, i, ò (IPA: [ɔ]), o [u], u [y], æ [ɛ], plus the group eu [ø]. 19 consonants: b, c, ç, d, f, g, h, l, m, n, ñ (or nn- like in singing), p, q, r, s, t, v, x, z. It uses the umlaut (¨), circumflex (ˆ), acute (´), and grave (`) accents on most vowels when the full pronunciation key is given in the official spelling. It also uses the c-cedilla (ç).

Vocabulary[edit] According to the spelling of the Genoese Académia Ligùstica do Brénno

o péi (or: a péia): pear (It. and Sp. pera, Pt. pêra, Ro. pară ), plural e péie (f.) o mei (or: a méia): apple (It. mela , Ro. măr), its plural is feminine: e méie o çetrón: orange (cf. Fr. citron 'lemon'; replacing Gen. limon—cf. It. limone) o fîgo: fig (It. fico, Fr. figue, Gl. and Pt. figo), plural e fîghe (f.) o pèrsego: peach (It. pesca, Ro. piersică, Fr. pêche, Cat. préssec, Gl. pexego, Pt. pêssego), plural e pèrseghe (f.) a frambôasa: raspberry (Fr. framboise, Pt. framboesa) a çêxa: cherry (It. ciliegia Ro. cireaşă, Fr. cerise, Pt. cereja) o meréllo: strawberry a nôxe: walnut (It. noce, Pt noz, Ro nucă ) a nissêua: hazelnut (It. nocciola, Fr. noisette, Pt. avelã) o bricòccalo: apricot (It. albicocca, Cat. albercoc, Pt. abricó) l'ûga: grape (It., Sp. and Pt. uva , Ro. strugure") o pigneu: pine nut (It. pinolo,Pt. pinhão) arvî: to open (It. aprire, Fr. ouvrir, Sp. and Pt. abrir) serrâ: to close (It. chiudere, Ro. închidere, Sp. cerrar) ciæo: light (cf. It. chiaro , Ro. clar) a cà or casa: home, house (It., Sp. and Pt. casa; Ro. casă, Cat. and Ven: 'Ca(sa)) l'êuvo: egg (It. uovo, Fr. l'œuf, Ro. ou, Gl. and Pt. ovo) l'éuggio: eye (It. occhio, Ro. ochi, Fr. l'œil, Cat. ull, Gl. ollo, Pt. olho) a bócca: mouth (It. bocca, Sp. and Pt. boca, Fr. "bouche") a tésta: head (It. testa , Ro. ţeastă, in Pt. testa is forehead) a schénn-a: back (It. schiena, Ro. spinare, Cat. esquena) o bràsso: arm (It. braccio, Ro. braţ, Fr. bras, Pt. braço) a gànba: leg (It. gamba, Ro. gambă, Fr. jambe, Cat. cama) o cheu: heart (It. cuore, Ro. cord (in Ro. more commonly "Heart" translates as "inimă"), Fr. cœur, pt. coração) l'articiòcca: artichoke (It. carciofo, De. Artischocke, Fr. artichaut) a tomâta: tomato (It. pomodoro, De. Tomate, Fr. and Pt. tomate)

References[edit]

^ Ligurian at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ligurian". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Legge 482, voted on Dec 15, 1999 does not mention Ligurian as a regional language of Italy. ^ http://www.istat.it/it/archivio/136496

Jean-Philippe Dalbera, Les parlers des Alpes Maritimes : étude comparative, essai de reconstruction [thèse], Toulouse: Université de Toulouse 2, 1984 [éd. 1994, Londres: Association Internationale d’Études Occitanes] Werner Forner, “Le mentonnais entre toutes les chaises ? Regards comparatifs sur quelques mécanismes morphologiques” [Caserio & al. 2001: 11–23] Intemelion (revue), n° 1, Sanremo, 1995.

External links[edit]

Ligurian language edition of, the free encyclopedia

Associazione O Castello (in Italian/ Ligurian) ACADÉMIA LIGÙSTICA DO BRÉNNO (in Ligurian) Self Proclaimed "Official Orthography and Alphabet" (in Ligurian) A Compagna (in Italian) GENOVÉS.com.ar (English version) – Ligurian language & culture, literature, photos and resources to learn Ligurian (in English) GENOVÉS.com.ar (Homepage in Ligurian and Spanish) (in Spanish) Ligurian poetry and prose Ligurian dictionaries in Spanish and English to download for free Ligurian basic lexicon at the Global Lexicostatistical Database Firefox, a web browser in Ligurian Opera, a web browser in Ligurian

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