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Tausug (Tausug: Bahasa Sūg, Malay: Bahasa Suluk) is a regional language spoken in the province of Sulu
Sulu
in the Philippines, in the eastern area of the state of Sabah, Malaysia, and in North Kalimantan, Indonesia
Indonesia
by the Tausūg people. It is widely spoken in the Sulu Archipelago
Sulu Archipelago
(Basilan, Sulu
Sulu
and Tawi-Tawi), Zamboanga Peninsula
Zamboanga Peninsula
(Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga Sibugay, Zamboanga del Sur, and Zamboanga City), Southern Palawan, Malaysia
Malaysia
(eastern Sabah) and Indonesia
Indonesia
(North Kalimantan). Tausug and Chavacano
Chavacano
are the only Philippine languages
Philippine languages
spoken on the island of Borneo. The Tausug language
Tausug language
is very closely related to the Surigaonon language of the provinces Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur
Surigao del Sur
and Agusan del Sur, and to the Butuanon language of northeastern Mindanao.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Phonology

2.1 Consonants 2.2 Vowels

3 Script

3.1 Letters

4 Grammar

4.1 Pronouns

4.1.1 Personal life 4.1.2 Demonstrative

4.2 Enclitic Particles 4.3 Existential 4.4 Interrogative words

5 Examples

5.1 Loan words 5.2 Numbers

6 See also 7 External links 8 References

Etymology[edit] The name of the language in Tausug is Bahasa Sūg ("language of Sulu"). Tausūg is derived from two words: Tau ("person") and sūg ("current"), presumably referring to their economic livelihood that depends on the strong currents of the Sulu
Sulu
Sea, where they used to trans-navigate as fishermen, pearl divers and traders. Even today, the Sulu
Sulu
Sea is still the strategic trade route of the southern Philippines
Philippines
and the nearby ASEAN
ASEAN
nations. As early as the 10th century, the trade route between Sulu
Sulu
and China and North Borneo is believed to have been already flourishing. The people in the area were known as the "people of the current", the literal translation of "Tausūg". Phonology[edit] [3]

Tausug Alphabet

Letter A B D G H I J K L M

Name Alip bā' dāl gā' hā' ī jīm kāp lām mīm

IPA /a/ /b/, /β/ /d/ /ɡ/, /ɣ/ /h/, /ɦ/ /i/ /dʒ/ /k/ /l/ /m/

Letter N Ng P R S T U W Y '

Name nūn ngā' pā' rā' sīn tā' ū wāw yā' hamja

IPA /n/ /ŋ/ /p/ /r/, /ɹ/ /s/ /t/ /u/ /w/ /j/ /ʔ/

Consonants[edit] Features: Gemination of all non-glottal consonants

b [b] or [β] when between vowels[4] d [d] g [ɡ] or [ɣ] when between vowels[4] h [h] or [ɦ] when between vowels[3] j [dʒ] k [k] l [l] m [m] n [n] ng [ŋ] p [p] r [r] or [ɹ] when before a nasal consonant[3] s [s] t [t] w [w] y [j]

Vowels[edit] Features: Vowel lengthening (e.g. bāy 'house'). Stress: Nonphonemic stress on final syllable.

a/ā [a,ɐ,ɑ] and [aː] i/ī [i,ɪ] and [iː] u/ū [u,ʊ] and [uː] ü [ɜ] There is also an unstressed sound [ə][3]. The letters o and e are used in loan words and names from other languages.

Diphthongs: aw, uy, ay, iw[5] Script[edit] It is alleged that the Tausug language
Tausug language
was previously written in a Baybayin-related script called "Luntarsug."[6] The former Sultan of Sulu
Sulu
appears to have confirmed this view with physical evidence. The Tausūg language was previously written with the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet. The script used was inspired by the use of Jawi in writing the Malay language. An example of the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet in writing the Tausūg language:

Latin script
Latin script
– Wayruun tuhan malaingkan Allāh, hi Muhammad rasūl sin Allāh Arabic script
Arabic script
– وَيْـرُٷنْ تُـهَـنْ مَـلَـيِـڠْـكَـن هَالله، هِـمُـحَـمَّـدْ ئِـڠ رَسُـولْ سِـڠ الله English translation – There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah

The Arabic script
Arabic script
used to write the Tausug language
Tausug language
differs in some aspects to the script used for the Arabic
Arabic
language and in the Jawi script used for Malay languages. One of the main differences is in the way that word-initial vowels are written. In Arabic, /in/ is (إن); in Jawi (Malay), it is (ان). In Tausug, it is (ئِن). The Tausug Arabic script
Arabic script
utilises the letter yā ' with a hamza to represent a short vowel. If a kasra (ِ) is added, it becomes an 'i ' sound. If a fatha (َ) is added, it becomes an 'a' sound. If a damma (ُ) is added, it becomes a 'u ' sound. Letters[edit]

Tausug Alphabet – Arabic
Arabic
Script

Character Isolated Initial Medial Final Name

ا ﺍ

ﺎ alip

ب ﺏ ﺑ ـﺒ ـﺐ bā'

ت ﺕ ﺗ ـﺘ ـﺖ tā'

ج ﺝ ﺟ ـﺠ ـﺞ jīm

د د

ـد dāl

ر ﺭ

ـر rā'

س ﺱ ﺳ ـﺴ ـﺲ sīn

غ ﻍ ﻏ ـﻐـ ـﻎ gayn

ڠ ڠ ڠـ ـڠـ ـڠ ngā'

ف ﻑ ﻓ ـﻔ ـﻒ pā'

ک ک ﻛ ـﻜ ـک kāp

گ گ ﮔ ـﮕـ ـﮓ gāp

ل ﻝ ﻟ ـﻠ ـﻞ lām

م ﻡ ﻣ ـﻤ ـﻢ mīm

ن ﻥ ﻧ ـﻨ ﻦ nūn

و ﻭ

ـو wāw

ه ﻩ ﻫ ـﻬ ﻪ hā'

ي ﻱ ﻳ ـﻴـ ﻲ yā'

ء ء

ء hamja

أ أ

ـأ alip with hamja above

ﺅ ﺅ

ـﺆ wāw with hamja above

ئ ئ ئـ ــئـ ـئ yā ' with hamja above

لا لا لا ــلا ــلا lām alip

Grammar[edit] Pronouns[edit] Personal life[edit]

  Absolutive Ergative Oblique

1st person singular aku ku käku'

1st person dual kita natu', ta katu'

2nd person singular ikaw, kaw mu kaymu

3rd person singular siya niya kaniya

1st person plural inclusive kitaniyu natu'niyu, taniyu kätu'niyu, kätu'natu'

1st person plural exclusive kami namu kämu'

2nd person plural kamu niyu kaniyu

3rd person plural sila nila kanila

Demonstrative[edit] Enclitic Particles[edit] Existential[edit] Interrogative words[edit] [7]

English Bahasa Sug

Who? Hisiyu?

What? Unu?

Where? Hawnu? or Hariin?

Why? Mayta'?

When? (future) Ku'nu?

When? (past) Ka'nu?

How? (process) Biya'diin?

How? (condition) Maunu-unu?

Examples:

English Bahasa Sug

Who is your father? Hisiyu in ama ' mu?

What is he doing? Unu in hiyhinang niya?

Where are you? Hawnu kaw? or Hariin kaw?

Why are you crying? Mayta ' kaw nagtangis?

When are you arriving? (future) Ku'nu kaw dumatung?

When did you arrived? (past) Ka'nu kaw dimatung?

How did you know that? (process) Biya'diin mu yan naingat?

How is Hamid? (condition) Maunu-unu na hi Hamid?

Examples[edit]

English Tausug Latin Script Tausug Arabic
Arabic
Script

What is your name? Unu in ngān mu? اُنُ ئِـڠ ڠَـانـمُ؟

My name is Muhammad In ngān ku Muhammad ئِـڠ ڠَـانـكُ مُـحَـمَّـد

How are you? Maunu-unu nakaw? مَـؤُنُ اُنُ نَـكَـو؟

I am good Marayaw da isab مَـرَيَـو دَ ئِـسَـب

Where is Ahmad? Hawnu hi Ahmad? هَـونُ هِ أحـمَـد؟

He is in the house Ha bāy siya هَ بَـاي سِـيَ

Thank you Magsukul مَـگـسُـكُـل

Loan words[edit] Many Tausug words derive from the Arabic
Arabic
language. Some examples of Arabic
Arabic
words in Tausug are

Tausug Word Meaning (Tausug) Arabic
Arabic
Word Pronunciation Meaning (Arabic)

Adab manners أدب adab manners

Ahirat Hereafter آخرة ākhirah hereafter

Ajayb amazing عجيب 'ajīb amazing

Akkal intelligence عقل 'Aql intellect

Alam universe عالم 'ālam world

Allāh God الله Allāh God

Amānat message أمانة amānah trust

Ammal use عمل 'amal to make

Awal origin أوّل awwal first

Awliya ascetic أولياء awliyā' ascetics

Ayat verse آية āyah verse

Ayb shame عيب 'ayb shame

Barawi Desert robber بدوي badawī bedouin

Batāl unclean باطل bātil void

Bilāl Muezzin/caller to prayer بلال Bilāl Bilal ibn Rabah

Daawa excuse/alibi دعوة da'wah invitation

Duhul extremity دخول dukhūl entrance

Daira city دائرة dā'irah area

Dayyus cuckold ديّوث dayyūth cuckold

Dunya earth دنيا dunyā world

Duwaa prayer دعاء du'ā prayer/supplication

Habal news خبر khabar news

Hadas impurity حدث hadath impurity

Hakīka birth ritual عقيقة aqīqah birth ritual

Hakīkat truth حقيقة haqīqah truth

Hatīb speaker خطيب khatīb speaker

Hawa Eve حواء Hawā' Eve

Hidāyat announcement هداية hidāyah guidance

Hikmat wisdom حكمة hikmah wisdom

Hukum judge حكم hukm ruling

Humus alms خمس khums fifth

Hutba' sermon خطبة khutbah sermon

Hurup sound of a letter حروف hurūf letters

Ibilīs demon إبليس Iblīs devil

Ihilās sincerity إخلاص ikhlās sincerity

Ijin blessing إذن idhn permission

Ilmu' knowledge علم 'ilm knowledge

Imān forbearingness إيمان īmān faith

Intiha' end إنتهى intihā end

Irādat determination إرادة irādah determination

Islām Islam إسلام Islām Islam

Istigapar to beg pardon إستغفار istighfār to beg pardon

Instinja pure إستنجاء istinjā' to clean one's self

Jabūr Psalms زبور zabūr Psalms

Jāhil foolish جاهل jāhil ignorant

Jakāt tithe زكاة zakāh tithe

Jamāa congregation جماعة jamā'ah congregation

Jamān clock زمان zamān time

Janāja bier جنازة janāzah funeral

Jāt appearance ذات dhāt self

Jaytūn olive زيتون zaytūn olive

Jin spirit جنّ jinn demon

Jinā adultery زنا zinā adultery

Juba garment جبّة jubbah garment

Jubul anus دبر dubr anus

Junub pollution جنوب junūb dirty

Jurriyat lineage ذرية dhurriyyah offspring

Kahawa coffee قهوة qahwah coffee

Kāpil disbeliever كافر kāfir disbeliever

Karāmat miracle كرامة karāmah miracle

Kawwāt power قوّة quwwah force

Kubul grave قبور qubūr graves

Kudarat Power of God قدرة qudrah ability

Kulbān sacrifice قربان qurbān sacrifice

Kuppiya' male head covering كوفيّة kūffiyah kefiyyeh

Kupul disbelief كفز kufr disbelief

Lidjiki' blessing رزق rizq sustenance

Maana meaning معنة ma'nah meaning

Magrib sunset مغرب maghrib sunset

Magsukul Thanks شكر shukr thanks

Mahluk human مخلوق maklūq created

Maksud purpose مقصود maqsūd intended

Makbul fulfilled مقبول maqbūl accepted

Malak Beautiful ملك malak Angel

Maruhum deceased مرحوم marhūm deceased

Masrik east مشرق mashriq east

Matakaddam parable متقدّم mutaqaddam preceding

Mayat corpse ميت mayt dead

Mujijat mystery معجزة mu'jizah miracle

Mulid pupil مريد murīd pupil

Munapik hypocrite منافق munāfiq hypocrite

Murtad apostate مرتد murtad apostate

Muskil uncommon مشكل mushkil problem

Mustahak lawful owner مستحقّ mustahaqq deserving

Mustajab occurred مستجاب mustajāb answered

Muwallam scholar معلّم mu'allim teacher

Nabī prophet نبي nabī prophet

Najal promise نذر nadhar vow/promise

Najjis filth ناجس nājis filthy

Napas breath نفس nafas breathe

Napsu desire نفس nafs ego/desire

Nasihat advice نصيحة nasīhah advice

Paham familiarity فهم fahm understanding

Pardu' legislation فرض fard compulsory

Piil action فعل fi'l action

Pikil think فكر fikr thought

Pir'awn Pharaoh فرعون fir'awn Pharaoh

Rahmat blessing رحمة rahmah mercy

Rasūl messenger رسول rasūl messenger

Ruku' bow ركوع rukū' bowing

Rukun precept ركن rukn pillar

Sabab because سبب sabab reason/cause

Sahabat follower صحابة sahābah companions

Saytān Satan شيطان shaytān Satan

Sual discussion سؤال su'āl question

Subu dawn صبح subh dawn

Sunnat female circumcision سنّة sunnah tradition/sunnah

Takabbul arrogant تكبّر takabbur arrogance

Takwīm calendar تقويم taqwīm calendar

Tallak divorce طلاق talāq divorce

Tarasul Tausug poem تراسل tarāsul correspondence

Tasbi prayer beads تسبيح tasbīh praise

Ummul age عمر 'amr age

Wajib compulsory واجب wājib compulsory

Wakap pause وقف waqf pause

Waktu time وقت waqt time

Tausug words derived from Sanskrit

Tausug Word Meaning (Tausug) Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Word Pronunciation Meaning (Sanskrit)

Guru teacher गुरु guru teacher

Naga dragon नाग nāga serpent

Āgama religion आगम āgama religion

Lahu' eclipse राहु rāhu eclipse

Lupa appearance रूप rūpa appearance

Dukka grieve दुःख duḥkha suffering

Sutla' silk सूत्र sūtra to sew/thread

Numbers[edit]

Tausug Cebuano Malay Kadazan-Dusun Javanese

1 – Isa (Hambook) usa satu iso siji

2 – Duwa duha dua duo loro

3 – Tū tulo tiga tolu telu

4 – Upat upat empat apat papat

5 – Lima lima lima limo limo

6 – Unum unom enam onom enem

7 – Pitu pito tujuh turu pitu

8 – Walu walo lapan walu wolu

9 – Siyam siyam sembilan siam songo

10 – Hangpu' napu'o sepuluh hopod sepuloh

Tausug Cebuano Malay

11 – Hangpuh tag isa napulo'g usa sebelas

20 – Kawha'an kawhaan dua puluh

30 – Katlu'an katloan tiga puluh

40 – Ka'patan kap'atan empat puluh

50 – Kay'man kalim'an lima puluh

60 – Ka'numan kanuman enam puluh

70 – Kapituwan kapitoan tujuh puluh

80 – Kawaluhan kawalohan delapan puluh

90 – Kasiyaman kasiyaman sembilan puluh

100 – Hanggattus usa ka gatus se ratus

1,000 – Ha'ngibu usa ka libo se ribu

See also[edit]

Languages of the Philippines Bikol Cebuano Chavacano Hiligaynon Kapampangan Ilocano Pangasinan Visayan languages Waray-Waray

External links[edit]

Tausug language
Tausug language
test of at Wikimedia Incubator

Publications in Tausūg and other Philippine languages Tausug Language by Dr. Carl G. Rubino Bansa.org Tausug Dictionary Tausug English Glossary Search for common Tausug Words Tausug 101 by Anak Iluh

References[edit]

^ Tausug at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tausug". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ a b c d see Tan, Evangeline K. (1967). "The phonology of Tausug: a descriptive analysis". open.library.ubc.ca. M.A.Thesis, University of British Columbia. p. 16.  ^ a b Jawali, Hamsali S. 2006. Ta'u-sug–English–Tagalog Dictionary. National Bookstore: Mandaluyong. ^ As in issiw, variant of hisiyu, 'who.' ^ "Luntarsug: Reconstruction of a Lost Ancient Sulu
Sulu
Script". layagsug.com.  ^ "Blogger". www.tausug101.blogspot.com. 

Sundita, Christopher Allen (2002). In Bahasa Sug: An Introduction to Tausug. Lobel & Tria Partnership, Co. ISBN 971-92226-6-2. 

v t e

Visayan languages

Asi

Asi

Cebuan

Cebuano

Boholano

Central

Romblomanon

Warayan

Baybayanon Kinabalian Waray

Peripheral

Ati Bantayanon Capiznon Hiligaynon Porohanon

Bisakol ?

Masbateño North Sorsogon (Masbate) South Sorsogon (Gubat)

West

Aklanon Caluyanon Kinaray-a Onhan

Kuyan

Cuyonon Ratagnon

South

Surigaonon

Butuan-Tausug

Butuanon Tausug

See also: Visayan peoples

v t e

Philippine languages

Northern Philippine

Batanic (Bashiic) ?

Itbayat Ivatan Yami

Northern Luzon

Ilocano Arta † Dicamay Agta †

Cagayan Valley

Ibanag Isnag Atta Itawis Yogad Cagayan Aeta Gaddang Ga'dang

South-Central Cordilleran

Pangasinan Northern Alta Southern Alta Isinai Itneg Kalinga Ifugao Tuwali ? Balangao Bontok-Finallig Kankanaey Ilongot Ibaloi Iwaak Kallahan Karao

Central Luzon

Kapampangan Remontado Agta (Sinauna) Abellen Ambala Bolinao Botolan Mag-antsi Mag-indi Mariveleño Sambal

Northern Mindoro

Alangan Iraya Tadyawan

Greater Central Philippine ?

Southern Mindoro

Buhid Hanuno'o Tawbuid

Central Philippine

Tagalic

Tagalog Kasiguranin

Bikol

Central Bikol Isarog Agta Mount Iraya Agta Albay Bikol Mount Iriga Agta Rinconada Pandan Bikol

Visayan

Cebuano

Boholano

Hiligaynon Waray Tausug Karay-a Aklanon Capiznon Asi Baybayanon Kabalian Bantayanon Porohanon Romblomanon Caluyanon Onhan Cuyunon Ratagnon Surigaonon Butuanon

Bisakol ?

Masbateño Sorsoganon

Unclassified

Sulod Magahat Karolanos Ata †

Mansakan

Davawenyo Kalagan Kamayo Mamanwa Mandaya Mansaka

Palawan

Aborlan Tagbanwa Central Tagbanwa Palawan
Palawan
Batak Palawano

Mindanao

Subanon

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Maguindanao Maranao Iranun

Manobo

Agusan Ata Manobo Matigsalug Obo Ilianen Western Bukidnon Binukid Higaonon Kagayanen Kamigin Cotabato Manobo Sarangani Tagabawa

Gorontalo-Mongondow

Bolango Buol Bintauna Gorontalo Kaidipang Lolak Suwawa Mongondow Ponosakan

Kalamian

Agutaynen Calamian Tagbanwa

Bilic

Bagobo B'laan T'boli Tiruray

Sangiric

Sangirese Talaud Bantik Ratahan

Minahasan

Tonsawang Tontemboan Tombulu Tondano Tonsea

Unclassified

Umiray Dumaget Ati

Manide-Inagta

Inagta Alabat Manide

† indicates extinct status ? indicates classification dispute

v t e

Borneo–Philippine languages

Philippine

Northern Philippine

Batanic (Bashiic) ?

Itbayat Ivatan Yami

Northern Luzon

Ilocano Pangasinan Ibanag Arta Isnag Atta Itawis Yogad Cagayan Aeta Gaddang Ga'dang Northern Alta Southern Alta Isinai Itneg Kalinga Ifugao Tuwali ? Balangao Bontok-Finallig Kankanaey Ilongot Ibaloi Iwaak Kallahan Karao Dicamay Agta †

Central Luzon

Kapampangan Abellen Ambala Bolinao Botolan Mag-antsi Mag-indi Mariveleño Sambal Remontado Agta (Sinauna)

Northern Mindoro

Alangan Iraya Tadyawan

Greater Central Philippine ?

Southern Mindoro

Buhid Hanuno'o Tawbuid

Central Philippine

Tagalog Cebuano Hiligaynon Waray Central Bikol Tausug Kinaray-a Sulodnon Aklanon Capiznon Masbatenyo Albay Bikol Asi Bantayanon Baybayanon Boholano Butuanon Caluyanon Cuyunon South Sorsogon (Gubat) Central Sorsogon (Masbate) Isarog Agta Kabalian Mount Iraya Agta Mount Iriga Agta Onhan Pandan Bikol Porohanon Ratagnon Rinconada Romblomanon Surigaonon

Unclassified

Sulod

Mansakan

Davawenyo Kalagan Kamayo Mamanwa Mandaya Mansaka

Palawan

Aborlan Tagbanwa Central Tagbanwa Palawan
Palawan
Batak Palawano

Mindanao

Maguindanao Maranao Agusan Ata Manobo Binukid Cotabato Manobo Higaonon Ilianen Iranun Kagayanen Kamigin Matigsalug Obo Sarangani Subanen Tagabawa Western Bukidnon

Gorontalo-Mongondow

Bolango Buol Bintauna Gorontalo Kaidipang Lolak Suwawa Mongondow Ponosakan

Kalamian

Agutaynen Calamian Tagbanwa

Bilic

Bagobo B'laan T'boli Tiruray

Sangiric

Sangirese Talaud Bantik Ratahan

Minahasan

Tonsawang Tontemboan Tombulu Tondano Tonsea

Unclassified

Umiray Dumaget Ati

Manide-Inagta

Inagta Alabat Manide

Bornean

North Bornean

Sabahan

Ida'an Bonggi Molbog Brunei Bisaya Tatana ( Sabah
Sabah
Bisaya) Lotud Dusun Kuijau Eastern Kadazan Gana' Kota Marudu Talantang Kamaragang (Momogun) Klias River Kadazan Coastal Kadazan Yakan Tombonuwo Kinabatangan Sungai Keningau Murut Okolod Tagol Paluan Selungai Murut Timugon Bookan Abai Papar Kalabakan Sembakung Serudung Nonukan Tidong

Unclassified

Dumpas

North Sarawakan

Kenyah (Bakung) Sebob Tutoh Uma ' Lasan Wahau Kenyah Penan ? Kelabit Lengilu Lundayeh Sa'ban Tring Berawan Belait Kiput Narom Tutong

Unclassified

Bintulu

Melanau-Kajang

Kajaman Lahanan Sekapan Daro-Matu Kanowit-Tanjong Melanau Bukitan Punan Batu Sian Ukit Basap Burusu Bah-Biau Punan Sajau Punan Merap Bukat Seru † Lelak †

Kayan-Murik

Kayan Bahau Modang Segai Hovongan Aoheng Aput Punan Krio Dayak Murik

Land Dayak

Bekati' Sara Lara' Bukar Sadong Rejang Biatah Tringgus Jagoi Jangkang Kembayan Semandang Ribun Benyadu' Sanggau

Barito

Malagasy Deyah Malang Witu Ma'anyan Paku Lawangan Kohin Dihoi Siang Bakumpai Ngaju Ampanang Tunjung

Sama-Bajaw ?

Abaknon Bajaw Sinama Pangutaran Sama

Bold indicates languages with more than 1 million speakers ? indicates classification dispute † indicates extinct status

v t e

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Aklanon Bikol Cebuano Chavacano Hiligaynon Ibanag Ilocano Ivatan Kapampangan Karay-a Maguindanao Maranao Pangasinan Sambal Surigaonon Tagalog Tausug Waray Yakan

Indigenous languages (by region)

Luzon

Ilocos

Bolinao

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Atta Balangao Bontoc Ga'dang Kalinga Kallahan Kankanaey Ibaloi Ifugao Isnag Itneg Itawis Iwaak Malaweg Tuwali

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Abellen Ambala Antsi Botolan Casiguran Dumagat Agta Indi Kasiguranin Mariveleño Northern Alta Southern Alta Umiray Dumaget

Calabarzon

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Mimaropa

Agutaynen Alangan Asi Calamian Tagbanwa Central Tagbanwa Cuyonon Iraya Kagayanen Molbog Onhan Palawan
Palawan
Batak Palawano Ratagnon Romblomanon Tadyawan

Bicol

Albay Bikol Inagta Partido Manide Masbateño Mount Iraya Agta Pandan Bikol Rinconada Bikol Sorsoganon Southern Catanduanes Bikol

Visayas

Western Visayas

Ati Caluyanon Capiznon Sulod

Negros Island

Ata Karolanos Magahat

Central Visayas

Bantayanon Eskayan Porohanon

Eastern Visayas

Abaknon Baybay Kabalian

Mindanao

Zamboanga Peninsula

Subanon

Northern Mindanao

Bukid Higaonon Ilianen Iranun Kamigin Matigsalug Subanon Western Bukidnon

Caraga

Agusan Ata Manobo Butuanon Higaonon Kamayo Mamanwa

Davao

Bagobo B'laan Davawenyo Kalagan Mandaya Mansaka Obo Sangirese Sarangani Tagabawa

Soccsksargen

B'laan Cotabato Manobo Ilianen Iranun Obo Tboli Tiruray

Muslim Mindanao

Iranun Pangutaran Sama Sama

Immigrant languages

Arabic Basque Chinese

Mandarin Hokkien

French German Japanese Korean Malay

Indonesian Malaysian

Sindhi Spanish

History

Vietnamese

Sign languages

American Sign Philippine Sign

Historical languages

Proto-Philippine Old Tagalog

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Languages of Indonesia

Sunda-Sulawesi languages

Malayo-Sumbawan

Indonesian

Bahasa Binan Slang

Malay

Anambas/Natuna Bangka Bengkulu Berau Jambi Jaring Halus Kutai Larantuka Palembang Pontianak

Acehnese Balinese Bamayo Banjarese Col Duano' Haji Iban Kangean Kaur Kendayan Keninjal Kerinci Kubu Lubu Loncong Madurese Minangkabau Mualang Pekal Sasak Seberuang Sumbawan Sundanese

Baduy Bantenese

Javanese

Javanese

Banyumasan Osing Tenggerese

Celebic

Andio Badaic Bahonsuai Balaesang Balantak Banggai Batui Boano Bobongko Bonerate Bungku Busoa Cia-Cia Dampelas Dondo Kalao Kaili Kaimbulawa Kamaru Kodeoha Kulisusu Kumbewaha Lasalimu Laiyolo Lauje Liabuku Mbelala Moronene Mori Bawah Mori Atas Moma Muna Padoe Pancana Pendau Rahambuu Rampi Saluan Sarudu Sedoa Pamona Taje Tajio Tukang Besi Tolaki Tomadino Topoiyo Tomini Totoli Uma Waru Wawonii Wolio Wotu

Lampungic

Komering Lampung

Northwest Sumatran

Batak

Alas Batak Angkola Batak Dairi Batak Karo Batak Mandailing Batak Simalungun Batak Toba

Enggano Gayo Mentawai Nias Simeulue Sikule

South Sulawesi

Aralle-Tabulahan Bambam Bentong Budong-Budong Buginese Campalagian Dakka Duri Embaloh Enrekang Kalumpang Konjo Lemolang Maiwa Makassarese Malimpung Mamasa Mamuju Mandar Panasuan Pannei Selayar Seko Tae’ Talondo’ Taman Toraja-Sa’dan Ulumanda’

Bornean languages

Barito

Ampanang Bajaw Bakumpai Deyah Kohin Lawangan Ma'anyan Malang Ngaju Ot Danum Ot Siang Tunjung Witu Pakau

Kayan–Murik

Aoheng Aput Bahau Hovongan Kayan Krio Modang Punan Merah Segai

Land Dayak

Bakati’ Biatah Bukar Sadong Jangkang Kembayan Laraʼ Nyadu’ Rejangese Ribun Sanggau Sara Semandang Tringgus

North Bornean

Bah-Biau Basap Bukat Bukitan Kelabit Kenyah

Mainstream

Lengilu Lun Bawang Murut

Okolod Selungai Sembakung Tagol

Punan Merap Punan Tubu Sa'ban Sajau Tidung

Burusu Kalabakan Nonukan

Philippine languages

Central Philippine

Tausug

Gorontalo-Mongondow

Bintauna Bolango Buol Gorontaloan Kaidipang Lolak Mongondow Ponosakan Suwawa

Minahasan

Tombulu Tondano Tonsawang Tonsea Tontemboan

Sangiric

Bantik Ratahan Sangirese Talaud

Central-Eastern languages

Aru

Barakai Batuley Dobel Karey Koba Kola-Kompane Lola Lorang Manombai Mariri Tarangan Ujir

Central Maluku

Alune Amahai Ambelau Asilulu Banda Bati Benggoi Boano Bobot Buru Geser Haruku Hitu Hoti Huaulu Hulung Kaibobo Kamarian Laha Larike-Wakasihu Latu Liana-Seti Lisabata-Nuniali Lisela Loun Luhu Mangole Manipa Manusela Masiwang Naka'ela Nuaulu Nusa Laut Paulohi Salas Saleman Saparua Seit-Kaitetu Sepa-Teluti Sula Taliabo Teor-Kur Tulehu Watubela Wemale Yalahatan

Flores–Lembata

Adonara Alorese Ile Ape Kedang Lamaholot Lamalera Lamatuka Levuka Lewo Eleng Lewotobi Sika South Lembata West Lembata

Halmahera- Cenderawasih

Ambai Ansus Arguni Bedoanas Biak Busami Dusner Erokwanas Irarutu Iresim Kuri Kurudu Munggui Marau Meoswar Mor Pom Papuma Roon Serui-Laut Tandia Wabo Waropen Wandamen Woi Yaur Yeretuar

Kei-Tanimbar

Fordata Kei Onin Sekar Uruangnirin Yamdena

Selaru

Selaru Seluwasan

Sumba–Flores

Anakalangu Baliledo Bima Dhao Ende-Li'o-Ke'o-Nage Gaura Hawu Kambera Kodi Komodo Lamboya Mamboru Manggarai Ngadha Palu'e Pondok Rajong Rembong Riung Rongga So'a Kepo' Wae Rana Wanukaka Wejewa

Timor–Babar

Tetum Uab Meto Amarasi Baikeno Bekais Bilba Dai Dawera-Daweloor Dela-Oenale Dengka East Damar Emplawas Helong Imroing Kisar Leti Lole Luang Masela Nila North Babar Ringgou Romang Serili Serua Southeast Babar Tela'a Termanu Te'un Tii West Damar Wetar

Western Oceanic

Anus Bonggo Kayupulau Liki Masimasi Ormu Podena Kaptiau Sobei Tarpia Tobati Wakde Yamna

Other

Kowiai

Papuan languages

Abui Abun Adang Aghu Airoran Asmat Auye Ayamaru Bagusa Baham Baropasi Bauzi Bayono-Awbono Berik Betaf Bimin Blagar Bonerif Bunak Burate Burmeso Burumakok Buruwai Citak Dabe Dao Demisa Demta Dineor Ekari Faiwol Galela Gamkonora Grand Valley Dani Hattam Hupla Iha Isirawa Itik Iwur Jofotek-Bromnya Kaera Kafoa Kalabra Kamang Kamberau Kamoro Kanum Karas Karon Dori Kauwera Kehu Keijar Klon Kofei Kombai Kombai–Wanggom Komyandaret Koneraw Kopka Kopkaka Korowai Kui Kula Kuwani Kwerba Mamberamo Kwerba Kwesten Kwinsu Loloda Maklew Mander Mandobo Mantion Mawes Meax Meninggo Mian Modole Moi Mombum Momina Momuna Moni Moraid Mpur Muyu Nafri Nakai Nduga Nedebang Ngalum Nggem Ninggerum Nisa-Anasi Oksapmin Orya Pagu Pisa Retta Sahu Samarokena Saponi Sauri Sause Saweru Sawi Sawila Seget Sempan Sentani Setaman Shiaxa Silimo Skou Suganga Tabaru Tabla Tangko Tause Tefaro Tehit Teiwa Telefol Ternate Tidore Tifal Tobelo Trimuris Tsaukambo Tunggare Urapmin Vitou Waioli Walak Wambon Wano Wares Wersing West Makian Western Dani Western Pantar Wolani Woria Yali Yawa Yelmek Yonggom

Other languages

Creoles and Pidgins

Malay-based creoles

Ambonese Malay Baba Malay Bandanese Malay Bacanese Malay Balinese Malay Betawi Gorap Kupang Malay Manado Malay Makassar Malay North Moluccan Malay Papuan Malay

Other creoles and pidgins

Javindo Petjo Mardijker Pidgin Iha Pidgin Onin Portugis Bidau Creole Portuguese

Sinitic languages

Cantonese Fuzhounese Hainanese Hakka Hokkien

Medan Riau

Mandarin Pu-Xian Min Teochew

Afro-Asiatic languages

Modern Standard Arabic

Dravidian languages

Tamil

Germanic languages

English Dutch (historical)

Sign languages

Indonesian Sign Language Kata Kolok

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Languages of Malaysia

Main

Official

Malaysian

Recognised

English (comparison with British English)

Significant minority

Chinese

Sino-Tibetan

Cantonese Eastern Min Fuqing Fuzhou Hokkien Mandarin Chinese Malaysian Mandarin Pu-Xian Min Penang Hokkien Southern Peninsular Malaysian Hokkien Yue Chinese

Indian

Dravidian

Malayalam Tamil

Malaysian Tamil

Telugu

Indo-European

Gujarati Hindi Punjabi Urdu

Families

Austroasiatic

Aslian

Austronesian

Bornean Land Dayak Malayic Philippine Sama–Bajaw

Tai-Kadai

Tai

Creoles

Chavacano Kristang Manglish Other Malay trade and creole languages

Natives & Indigenous

Nationwide

Banjar Buginese Javanese Malay (Malayan)

Peninsular Malaysia

Baba Malay Batek Baweanese Cheq Wong Chetty Malay Duano’ Jah Hut Jahai Jakun Jedek Kedah Malay Kelantan-Pattani Malay Kenaboi1 Kensiu Kintaq Kristang Lanoh Mah Meri Minriq Mintil Mos Negeri Sembilan Malay Orang Kanaq Orang Seletar Pahang Malay Perak Malay Rawa Malay Sabüm1 Semai Semaq Beri Semelai Semnam Southern Thai Temiar Temoq2 Temuan Terengganu Malay Wila'1

East Malaysia

Abai Bahau Bajaw Balau Belait Berawan Biatah Bintulu Bonggi Bookan Bruneian/Kedayan Malay Brunei Bisaya Bukar Sadong Bukitan Coastal Kadazan Cocos Malay Daro-Matu Dumpas Dusun Eastern Kadazan Gana’ Iban Ida'an Iranun Jagoi Jangkang Kajaman Kalabakan Kanowit Kayan Kelabit Kendayan Keningau Murut Kinabatangan Kiput Klias River Kadazan Kota Marudu Talantang Kuijau Lahanan Lelak1 Lengilu1 Lotud Lun Bawang Mainstream Kenyah Maranao Melanau Molbog Momogun Murik Kayan Narom Nonukan Tidong Okolod Paluan Papar Punan Batu2 Penan Remun Sa'ban Sabah
Sabah
Bisaya Sabah
Sabah
Malay Sama Sarawak Malay Sebop Sebuyau Sekapan Selungai Murut Sembakung Seru1 Serudung Sian Suluk Sungai Tagol Timugon Tombonuwo Tring Tringgus Tutoh Ukit2 Uma’ Lasan

Mixed & Others

Rojak Tanglish Esperanto

Immigrants

African Arab Bangladeshi Burmese Cambodian East Timorese Filipino Indonesian

comparison with Malaysian

Iranian Japanese Korean Laotian Nepalese Pakistani Sri Lankan Thai Vietnamese

Signs

Main

Malaysian Sign Language (Manually Coded Malay)

By states

Penang Sign Language Selangor Sign Language

1 Extinct languages. 2 Nearly extinct languages.

Authority control

N

.