A T AND O MAP or O-T or T-O map (orbis terrarum, orb or circle of the
lands; with the letter T inside an O), is a type of medieval world map
, sometimes also called a BEATINE MAP or a
* 1 History and description * 2 Gallery * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading
HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION
Latin : Orbis a rotunditate circuli dictus, quia sicut rota est
Undique enim Oceanus circumfluens eius in circulo ambit fines. Divisus
est autem trifarie: e quibus una pars Asia, altera Europa, tertia
English: The mass of solid land is called round after the roundness of a circle, because it is like a wheel Because of this, the Ocean flowing around it is contained in a circular limit, and it is divided in three parts, one part being called Asia, the second Europe, and the third Africa.
Although Isidore taught in the
Etymologiae that the Earth was
"round", his meaning was ambiguous and some writers think he referred
to a disc-shaped Earth. However, other writings by Isidore make it
clear that he considered the Earth to be globular. Indeed, the theory
of a spherical earth had always been the prevailing assumption among
the learned since at least
T and O map
The T is the
This qualitative and conceptual type of medieval cartography could yield extremely detailed maps in addition to simple representations. The earliest maps had only a few cities and the most important bodies of water noted. The four sacred rivers of the Holy Land were always present. More useful tools for the traveler were the itinerary , which listed in order the names of towns between two points, and the periplus that did the same for harbors and landmarks along a seacoast. Later maps of this same conceptual format featured many rivers and cities of Eastern as well as Western Europe, and other features encountered during the Crusades . Decorative illustrations were also added in addition to the new geographic features. The most important cities would be represented by distinct fortifications and towers in addition to their names, and the empty spaces would be filled with mythical creatures.
The world map from the Saint-Sever Beatus , dating to ca. AD 1050.
From a 12th c. copy of Etymologiae. *
Unknown, Mer Des Hystoires World Map, 1491. This map follows the
model of the T-O map, centered on
On the left part of the sheet is a zonal or climatic map, communicating geographical information. On the right is