The TULIP is a Eurasian and North African genus of herbaceous ,
perennial , bulbous plants in the lily family , with showy flowers .
About 75 wild species are currently accepted.
The genus's native range extends west to the
Iberian Peninsula ,
North Africa to
Greece , the
Turkey , throughout the
Palestinian Territories ,
Iran , north to
Ukraine , southern
Mongolia , and east
to the Northwest of
China . The tulip's centre of diversity is in
the Pamir ,
Hindu Kush , and
Tien Shan mountains. It is a common
element of steppe and winter-rain
Mediterranean vegetation .
A number of species and many hybrid cultivars are grown in gardens or
as potted plants.
* 1 Description
* 1.1 Phytochemistry
* 2 Taxonomy
* 2.1.1 Subgenus Clusianae
* 2.1.2 Subgenus Orithyia
* 2.1.3 Subgenus
* 2.1.4 Subgenus Eriostemones
* 2.1.5 Unplaced
Species not belonging to the genus Tulipa; classified in
* 2.1.7 "
* 2.2 Etymology
* 3 Distribution and habitat
* 4 Ecology
* 5 Cultivation
* 5.1 History
* 5.1.1 Islamic World
* 5.1.2 Introduction to Western Europe
* 5.1.3 Introduction to the
* 5.2 Propagation
* 5.3 Horticultural classification
* 5.4 Neo-tulipae
* 5.5 Horticulture
* 6 Culture
* 7 See also
* 8 References
* 9 Bibliography
* 9.1 Books
* 9.2 Articles
* 10 External links
Tulips are spring-blooming perennials that grow from bulbs .
Depending on the species, tulip plants can be between 4 inches (10 cm)
and 28 inches (71 cm) high. The tulip's flowers usually bloom on
scapes with leaves in a rosette at ground level and a single flowering
stalk arising from amongst the leaves.
Tulip stems have few leaves.
Larger species tend to have multiple leaves. Plants typically have two
to six leaves, some species up to 12. The tulip's leaf is
strap-shaped, with a waxy coating, and the leaves are alternately
arranged on the stem; these fleshy blades are often bluish green in
colour. Most tulips produce only one flower per stem, but a few
species bear multiple flowers on their scapes (e.g. Tulipa
turkestanica ). The generally cup or star-shaped tulip flower has
three petals and three sepals , which are often termed tepals because
they are nearly identical. These six tepals are often marked on the
interior surface near the bases with darker colourings.
come in a wide variety of colours, except pure blue (several tulips
with "blue" in the name have a faint violet hue).
The flowers have six distinct, basifixed stamens with filaments
shorter than the tepals. Each stigma has three distinct lobes, and the
ovaries are superior, with three chambers. The tulip's seed is a
capsule with a leathery covering and an ellipsoid to globe shape. Each
capsule contains numerous flat, disc-shaped seeds in two rows per
chamber. These light to dark brown seeds have very thin seed coats
and endosperm that does not normally fill the entire seed.
Tulipanin is an anthocyanin found in tulips. It is the 3-rutinoside
of delphinidin . The chemical compounds named tuliposides and
tulipalins can also be found in tulips and are responsible for
allergies. Tulipalin A , or α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone, is a
common allergen , generated by hydrolysis of the glucoside tuliposide
A . It induces a dermatitis that is mostly occupational and affects
tulip bulb sorters and florists who cut the stems and leaves.
Tulipanin A and B are toxic to horses, cats and dogs.
Tulipa was traditionally divided into two sections,
Tulipa (as Leiostemones), and comprises ca. 76
In 1997, the two sections were raised to subgenera and subgenus
Tulipa was divided into five sections:
* subdivided into eight series
Subgenus Eriostemones was divided into the sections:
In 2009, two other subgenera were proposed, Clusianae and Orithyia,
and this total of four subgenera was corroborated by a recent study
(Christenhusz et al. 2013 ). That study did not find support for any
of the previous sections proposed, and since hybridisation is
relatively common, it is probably better to refrain from subdividing
the subgenera any further. Some species formerly classified as Tulipa
are now considered as the separate genus Amana , including Amana
Tulipa edulis). These species are more closely allied to
The classification into four subgenera below is based on Christenhusz
et al. (2013).
This list was used as the basis for The Genus Tulipa. Tulips of the
Tulipa clusiana Redouté (lady tulip) - Greece, Iran, Iraq,
Afghanistan, Pakistan, W Himalayas
Tulipa harazensis Rech.f. - Iran
Tulipa linifolia Regel (Bokhara tulip) - Iran, Afghanistan,
Tulipa montana Lindl. - Turkmenistan, Iran
Tulipa heteropetala Ledeb. - Altay Krai, Kazakhstan, Xinjiang
Tulipa heterophylla (Regel) Baker - Kazakhstan, Xinjiang,
Tulipa sinkiangensis Z.M.Mao - Xinjiang
Tulipa uniflora (L.) Besser ex Baker (Siberian tulip) - Siberia,
Mongolia, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Kazakhstan
Tulipa agenensis in
Tulipa agenensis in
Jerusalem Forest ,
Tulipa agenensis sharonensis in
Tulipa agenensis Redouté (eyed tulip) - Greece, Middle East
Tulipa albanica Kit Tan & Shuka (Albanian tulip) - Albania
Tulipa alberti Regel (Albert's tulip) - - Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Tulipa aleppensis Boiss. ex Regel (Aleppo tulip)- Turkey, Syria,
Tulipa altaica Pall. ex Spreng. (Altai tulip) - Altai Krai,
Western Siberia, Kazakhstan, Xinjiang
Tulipa anisophylla Vved. - Tajikistan
Tulipa armena Boiss. (Armenian tulip) - Turkey, Iran, South
Tulipa banuensis Grey-Wilson (Afghan tulip) - Afghanistan
Tulipa borszczowii Regel - Kazakhstan
Tulipa botschantzevae S.N.Abramova & Zakal. - Turkmenistan, Iran
Tulipa butkovii Botschantz. - Uzbekistan
Tulipa carinata Vved. (Pamir tulip) - Tajikistan, Uzbekistan,
Tulipa cypria Stapf ex Turrill (Cyprian tulip) - Cyprus
Tulipa dubia Vved. - Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan
Tulipa faribae Ghahr., Attar & Ghahrem.-Nejad - Iran
Tulipa ferganica Vved. - Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan
Tulipa foliosa - Turkey
Tulipa fosteriana W.Irving - Afghanistan, Central Asia
Tulipa × gesneriana L. (garden tulip)
Tulipa greigii Regel (maculate tulip) - Iran, Central Asia
Tulipa heweri Raamsd. - Afghanistan
Tulipa hissarica Popov & Vved. - Tajikistan, Uzbekistan
Tulipa hoogiana B.Fedtsch. - Turkmenistan, Iran
Tulipa hungarica Borbás (Rhodope tulip) - Hungary, Serbia,
Tulipa iliensis Regel - Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Xinjiang
Tulipa ingens (Tubergen's tulip) - Tajikistan, Uzbekistan
Tulipa julia K.Koch (Julia tulip) - Turkey, South Caucasus, Syria,
Tulipa kaufmanniana Regel (waterlily tulip) - Central Asia
Tulipa kolpakowskiana Regel (sun tulip) - Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,
Tulipa korolkowii Regel - Central Asia
Tulipa kosovarica Kit Tan, Shuka & Krasniqi - Kosovo
Tulipa kuschkensis B.Fedtsch. - Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Iran
Tulipa lanata Regel - Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, W
Tulipa lehmanniana Merckl. (Lehmann's tulip) - Afghanistan, Iran,
Tulipa lemmersii - Kazakhstan
Tulipa ostrowskiana Regel - Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Tulipa persica (Lindl.) Sweet (Persian tulip) - Iran
Tulipa platystemon Vved. - Kyrgyzstan
Tulipa praestans H.B.May (multiflowered tulip) - Tajikistan
Tulipa scardica Bornm. (Balkan tulip) - Kosovo, Greece
Tulipa scharipovii Tojibaev - Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan
Tulipa schmidtii Fomin - Iran, South Caucasus
Tulipa serbica Tatic & Krivošej - Kosovo, Serbia
Tulipa sosnowskyi Achv. "> , but regarded as a synonym of T.
undulatifolia by others.
Tulipa uzbekistanica Botschantz. & Sharipov - Uzbekistan
Tulipa vvedenskyi Botschantz. - Tajikistan
Tulipa biflora Pall. (two-flowered tulip) - Macedonia, Egypt,
Crimea, Russia, Asia from Saudi Arabia to Xinjiang + Western Siberia
Tulipa bifloriformis Vved. - Central Asia
Tulipa cinnabarina K.Perss. - Turkey
Tulipa cretica Boiss. "> , the World Checklist of Selected Plant
Families accepts some species which other sources include in T.
Tulipa aucheriana Baker – E.
Turkey to Afghanistan
Tulipa kurdica Wendelbo – N. Iraq
Tulipa pulchella (Regel) Baker – S. & S.E.
Turkey to N. Iran
Tulipa violacea Boiss. & Buhse – S.E. Transcaucasus
Zonn. - Kazakhstan
Tulipa koyuncui Eker & Babaç - Turkey
Tulipa orithyioides Vved. - Central Asia
Tulipa orphanidea Boiss. accepted by the World Checklist of
Plant Families as of May 2015 , but regarded as unplaced by
Christenhusz et al.
Species Not Belonging To The Genus Tulipa; Classified In Other Genera
Tulipa anhuiensis X.S.Shen, now: Amana anhuiensis (X.S.Shen)
Tulipa breyniana L., now:
Moraea collina Thunb. (Iridaceae).
Tulipa edulis (Miq.) Baker, now:
Amana edulis (Miq.) Honda.
Tulipa erythronioides Baker, now: Amana erythronioides (Baker)
D.Y.Tan & D.Y.Hong.
Tulipa graminifolia Baker ex S.Moore, now:
Amana edulis (Miq.)
Tulipa latifolia (Makino) Makino, now: Amana erythronioides
(Baker) D.Y.Tan & D.Y.Hong
Tulipa ornithogaloides Fisch. ex Besser, now:
(Ledeb.) Schult. ">
Variegation produced by the tulip breaking
Botrytis tulipae is a major fungal disease affecting tulips, causing
cell death and eventually the rotting of the plant. Other pathogens
include anthracnose , bacterial soft rot , blight caused by Sclerotium
rolfsii , bulb nematodes , other rots including blue molds , black
molds and mushy rot.
Trichoderma viride can infect tulips, producing dried leaf
tips and reduced growth, although symptoms are usually mild and only
present on bulbs growing in glasshouses .
Variegated tulips admired during the Dutch tulipomania gained their
delicately feathered patterns from an infection with the tulip
breaking virus , a mosaic virus that was carried by the green peach
aphid , Myzus persicae. While the virus produces fantastically
streaked flowers, it also weakens plants and reduces the number of
offsets produced. Tulips affected by mosaic virus are called "broken";
while such plants can occasionally revert to a plain or solid
colouring, they will remain infected and have to be destroyed. Today
the virus is almost eradicated from tulip growers' fields. The
multicoloured patterns or modern varieties result from breeding; they
normally have solid, not feathered borders between the colours.
Tulipa sylvestris subsp. australis with seedpod (right), 1804
Cultivation of the tulip began in Persia, probably in the 10th
century. Early cultivars must have emerged from hybridisation in
gardens from wild collected plants, which were then favoured, possibly
due to flower size or growth vigour. The tulip is not mentioned by any
writer from antiquity, therefore it seems probable that tulips were
introduced into Anatolia only with the advance of the
Seljuks . In
Ottoman Empire , numerous types of tulips were cultivated and
bred, and today, 14 species can still be found in Turkey. Tulips are
Omar Kayam and Celaleddin Rûmi .
In 1574, Sultan
Selim II . ordered the Kadi of A‘azāz in
send him 50,000 tulip bulbs. However, Harvey points out several
problems with this source, and there is also the possibility that
tulips and hyacinth (sümbüll), originally Indian spikenard
(Nardostachys jatamansi) have been confused. Sultan Selim also
imported 300,000 bulbs of Kefe Lale (also known as Cafe-Lale, from the
medieval name Kaffa, probably
Tulipa schrenkii ) from Kefe for his
gardens in the Topkapı Sarayı in
Ahmet III maintained famous tulip gardens in the summer
highland pastures (Yayla) at
Spil Dağı above the town of
They seem to have consisted of wild tulips. However, from the 14 tulip
species known from Turkey, only four are considered to be of local
origin, so wild tulips from
Iran and Central Asia may have been
Turkey during the Seljuk and especially Ottoman periods.
Sultan Ahmet also imported domestic tulip bulbs from the Netherlands.
The gardening book Revnak'ı Bostan (Beauty of the Garden) by
Sahibül Reis ülhaç Ibrahim Ibn ülhaç Mehmet, written in 1660 does
not mention the tulip at all, but contains advice on growing hyacinths
and lilies . However, there is considerable confusion of terminology,
and tulips may have been subsumed under hyacinth, a mistake several
European botanists were to perpetuate. In 1515, the scholar Qasim from
Herat in contrast had identified both wild and garden tulips (lale) as
anemones (shaqayq al-nu'man), but described the crown imperial as
In a Turkic text written before 1495, the Chagatay Husayn Bayqarah
mentions tulips (lale).
Babur , the founder of the
Mughal Empire ,
also names tulips in the
Baburnama . He may actually have introduced
Afghanistan to the plains of India, as he did with other
plants like melons and grapes.
In Moorish Andalus , a "Makedonian bulb" (basal al-maqdunis) or
"bucket-Narcissus " (naryis qadusi) was cultivated as an ornamental
plant in gardens. It was supposed to have come from
Alexandria and may
Tulipa sylvestris , but the identification is not wholly
Introduction To Western Europe
Tulip cultivation in the
Although it is unknown who first brought the tulip to Northwestern
Europe, the most widely accepted story is that it was Oghier Ghislain
de Busbecq , an ambassador for Emperor Ferdinand I to Suleyman the
Magnificent . According to a letter, he saw "an abundance of flowers
everywhere; Narcissus , hyacinths and those in Turkish called Lale,
much to our astonishment because it was almost midwinter, a season
unfriendly to flowers." However, in 1559, an account by Conrad
Gessner describes tulips flowering in
Swabia in the garden
of Councillor Heinrich Herwart . In Central and Northern Europe, tulip
bulbs are generally removed from the ground in June and must be
replanted by September for the winter. It is doubtful that Busbecq
could have had the tulip bulbs harvested, shipped to Germany and
replanted between March 1558 and Gessner's description the following
Pietro Andrea Mattioli illustrated a tulip in 1565 but
identified it as a narcissus , however.
Carolus Clusius is largely responsible for the spread of tulip bulbs
in the final years of the sixteenth century. He planted tulips at the
Vienna Imperial Botanical Gardens in 1573. He finished the first major
work on tulips in 1592, and made note of the variations in colour.
After he was appointed director of the
Leiden University 's newly
established Hortus Botanicus , he planted both a teaching garden and
his private garden with tulips in late 1593. Thus, 1594 is considered
the date of the tulip's first flowering in the
Netherlands , despite
reports of the cultivation of tulips in private gardens in
Amsterdam two or three decades earlier. These tulips at Leiden would
eventually lead to both the
Tulip mania and the tulip industry in the
Netherlands. In 1596 and 1598, over a hundred bulbs were stolen from
his garden in a single raid.
Between 1634 and 1637, the enthusiasm for the new flowers triggered a
speculative frenzy now known as the tulip mania .
Tulip bulbs became
so expensive that they were treated as a form of currency, or rather,
as futures. Around this time, the ceramic tulipiere was devised for
the display of cut flowers stem by stem. Vases and bouquets, usually
including tulips, often appeared in Dutch still-life painting . To
this day, tulips are associated with the Netherlands, and the
cultivated forms of the tulip are often called "Dutch tulips." The
Netherlands have the world's largest permanent display of tulips at
Tulip cultivars have usually several species in their direct
background, but most have been derived from
Tulipa suaveolens , often
erroneously listed as
Tulipa schrenkii .
Tulipa gesneriana is in
itself an early hybrid of complex origin and is probably not the same
taxon as was described by
Conrad Gessner in the 16th century.
Introduction To The United States
It is believed the first tulips in the
United States were grown near
Spring Pond at the Fay Estate in Lynn and Salem ,
Massachusetts . From
1847 to 1865, Richard Sullivan Fay, Esq., one of Lynn's wealthiest
men, settled on 500 acres (2.0 km2) located partly in present-day Lynn
and partly in present-day Salem. Mr. Fay imported many different trees
and plants from all parts of the world and planted them among the
meadows of the Fay Estate.
Tulip pistil surrounded by stamens.
Tulip stamen: note the
pollen grains. The reproductive organs of a tulip
Tulips can be propagated through bulb offsets , seeds or
micropropagation . Offsets and tissue culture methods are means of
asexual propagation for producing genetic clones of the parent plant,
which maintains cultivar genetic integrity. Seeds are most often used
to propagate species and subspecies or to create new hybrids . Many
tulip species can cross-pollinate with each other, and when wild tulip
populations overlap geographically with other tulip species or
subspecies, they often hybridise and create mixed populations. Most
commercial tulip cultivars are complex hybrids, and often sterile .
Offsets require a year or more of growth before plants are large
enough to flower. Tulips grown from seeds often need five to eight
years before plants are of flowering size. Commercial growers usually
harvest the tulip bulbs in late summer and grade them into sizes;
bulbs large enough to flower are sorted and sold, while smaller bulbs
are sorted into sizes and replanted for sale in the future. The
Netherlands are the world's main producer of commercial tulip plants,
producing as many as 3 billion bulbs annually, the majority for
'Yonina', a division 6 cultivar 'Texas Flame', a division
In horticulture, tulips are divided up into fifteen groups
(Divisions) mostly based on flower morphology and plant size.
* DIV. 1: SINGLE EARLY – with cup-shaped single flowers, no larger
than 8 cm across (3 inches). They bloom early to mid season. Growing
15 to 45 cm tall.
* DIV. 2: DOUBLE EARLY – with fully double flowers, bowl shaped to
8 cm across. Plants typically grow from 30–40 cm tall.
* DIV. 3: TRIUMPH – single, cup shaped flowers up to 6 cm wide.
Plants grow 35–60 cm tall and bloom mid to late season.
* DIV. 4: DARWIN HYBRID – single flowers are ovoid in shape and up
to 8 cm wide. Plants grow 50–70 cm tall and bloom mid to late
season. This group should not be confused with older Darwin tulips,
which belong in the Single Late Group below.
* DIV. 5: SINGLE LATE – cup or goblet-shaded flowers up to 8 cm
wide, some plants produce multi-flowering stems. Plants grow 45–75
cm tall and bloom late season.
* DIV. 6: LILY-FLOWERED – the flowers possess a distinct narrow
'waist' with pointed and reflexed petals. Previously included with the
old Darwins, only becoming a group in their own right in 1958.
* DIV. 7: FRINGED (CRISPA)
* DIV. 8: VIRIDIFLORA
* DIV. 9: REMBRANDT
* DIV. 10: PARROT
* DIV. 11: DOUBLE LATE – Large, heavy blooms. They range from 18
to 22 inches tall.
* DIV. 12: KAUFMANNIANA – Waterlily tulip. Medium-large creamy
yellow flowers marked red on the outside and yellow at the center.
Stems 6 in. tall.
* DIV. 13: FOSTERIANA (EMPEROR)
* DIV. 14: GREIGII – Scarlet flowers 6 in. across, on 10 in.
stems. Foliage mottled with brown.
* DIV. 15: SPECIES (BOTANICAL)
* DIV. 16: MULTIFLOWERING – not an official division, these tulips
belong in the first 15 divisions but are often listed separately
because they have multiple blooms per bulb.
They may also be classified by their flowering season:
* Early flowering: Single Early Tulips, Double Early Tulips, Greigii
Tulips, Kaufmanniana Tulips, Fosteriana Tulips, §
* Mid-season flowering: Darwin Hybrid Tulips, Triumph Tulips, Parrot
* Late season flowering: Single Late Tulips, Double Late Tulips,
Viridiflora Tulips, Lily-flowering Tulips, Fringed Tulips, Rembrandt
A number of names are based on naturalised garden tulips, and are
usually referred to as neo-tulipae. These are often difficult to trace
back to their original cultivar, and in some cases have been occurring
in the wild for many centuries. The history of naturalisation is
unknown, but populations are usually associated with agricultural
practices and are possibly linked to saffron cultivation . Some
neo-tulipae have been brought into cultivation, and are often offered
as botanical tulips. These cultivated plants can be classified into
Cultivar Groups: 'Grengiolensis Group', with picotee tepals, and
the 'Didieri Group' with unicolourous tepals.
Tulip bulbs are typically planted around late summer and fall, in
well-drained soils. Tulips should be planted 4 to 6 inches (10 to 15
cm) apart from each other. The recommended hole depth is 4 to 8 inches
(10 to 20 cm) deep, and is measured from the top of the bulb to the
surface. Therefore, larger tulip bulbs would require deeper holes.
Species tulips are normally planted deeper.
Turkish Airlines uses a grey tulip emblem on its aircraft
Iranian 20 Rials coin Obverse with 22 tulips Reverse with 3
The tulip was a topic for Persian poets from the thirteenth century.
In the poem Gulistan by Musharrifu\'d-din Saadi , described a
visionary garden paradise with "The murmur of a cool stream / bird
song, ripe fruit in plenty / bright multicoloured tulips and fragrant
roses..." The gift of a red or yellow tulip was a declaration of
love, the flower's black center representing a heart burned by
passion. In recent times, tulips have featured in the poems of Simin
Tulips are called lale in Turkish (from Persian : "lale" لاله).
When written in Arabic letters, "lale" has the same letters as Allah,
which is why the flower became a holy symbol. It was also associated
with the House of Osman , resulting in tulips being widely used in
decorative motifs on tiles, mosques, fabrics, crockery, etc. in the
Ottoman Empire . The tulip was seen as a symbol of abundance and
indulgence. The era during which the
Ottoman Empire was wealthiest is
often called the
Tulip era or Lale Devri in Turkish .
The shape of emblem of
Iran is chosen to resemble a tulip, in memory
of the people who died for Iran.
Tulips became popular garden plants in east and west, but, whereas
the tulip in Turkish culture was a symbol of paradise on earth and had
almost a divine status, in the
Netherlands it represented the
briefness of life.
The Black Tulip is a historical romance by
Alexandre Dumas, père
Alexandre Dumas, père .
The story takes place in the Dutch city of
Haarlem , where a reward is
offered to the first grower who can produce a truly black tulip.
Tulip is also viewed prominently in a number of the Major Arcana
cards of the Oswald Wirth Tarot deck. Specifically: Arcanas Zero, One,
Four, and Fifteen.
Tulip festivals are held around the world, for example in the
Netherlands and Spalding ,
England . There is also a popular festival
Morges , Switzerland. Every spring, there are tulip festivals in
North America , including the
Tulip Time Festival in Holland ,
Michigan , the
Skagit Valley Tulip Festival in
Skagit Valley ,
Washington , the
Tulip Time Festival in Orange City and Pella ,
Canadian Tulip Festival in
Canada . Tulips
are also popular in
Australia and several festivals are held in
September and October, during the
Southern Hemisphere 's spring .
List of Award of Garden Merit tulips
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Rafaël; David, John C.; Hall, Tony; Borland, Katherine; Roberts,
Penelope S.; Tuomisto, Anne; Buerki, Sven; Chase, Mark W.; Fay,
Michael F. (2013). "Tiptoe through the tulips – cultural history,
molecular phylogenetics and classification of
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* ^ King, Michael (2005). Gardening with Tulips. Portland, OR:
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* ^ King (2005) , p. 164
* ^ Tenenbaum, Frances, ed. (2003). Taylor's Encyclopedia of Garden
Plants. Houghton Mifflin. p. 395. ISBN 0-618-22644-3 .
* ^ Flora of
North America Editorial Committee. 2002. Flora of
North America. North of Mexico Vol. 26, orchidales. New York: Oxford
University Press. Page 199
* ^ Botschantzeva, Z. P. (1982). Tulips: taxonomy, morphology,
cytology, phytogeography and physiology. CRC Press. p. 120. ISBN
* ^ Christensen, L. P.; Kristiansen, K. (1999). "Isolation and
quantification of tuliposides and tulipalins in tulips (Tulipa) by
high-performance liquid chromatography". Contact dermatitis. 40 (6):
300–9. PMID 10385332 . doi :10.1111/j.1600-0536.1999.tb06080.x .
* ^ Sasseville, D (2009). "
Dermatitis from plants of the new
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19487175 . doi :10.1684/ejd.2009.0714 .
* ^ "Tulip".
ASPCA . Retrieved 2013-04-01.
* ^ Southern, David I. (1967). "
Species relationships in the genus
Tulipa". Chromosoma. 23: 80. doi :10.1007/BF00293313 .
* ^ Zonneveld, Ben J. M. (2009). "The systematic value of nuclear
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Tulipa L. (Liliaceae)". Plant
Systematics and Evolution. 281: 217. doi :10.1007/s00606-009-0203-7 .
* ^ Clennett et al 2012 .
* ^ Everett, D. (2013). The genus Tulipa. Tulips of the World. Kew
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* ^ "Kolpakowski Tulip, aka Sun Tulip". www.paghat.com. Retrieved
24 July 2014.
* ^ A B C "Search for Tulipa". World Checklist of Selected Plant
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew . Retrieved 2015-05-05.
* ^ Eyster, William H. (1950). "The \'Species\' Tulips". Organic
Gardening. 16–17: 22. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
* ^ Bales, Suzanne F. (1992). Bulbs. Macmillan General Reference.
p. 74. ISBN 9780671863920 .
* ^ Fell, Derek (1990). The Easiest Flowers to Grow. Ortho Books.
p. 97. ISBN 9780897212205 .
* ^ "Tulip". Etymplogy Online. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
* ^ Reyes, A. Leon; Prins, T. P.; van Empel, J.-P.; van Tuyl, J. M.
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