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The TULIP is a Eurasian and North African genus of herbaceous , perennial , bulbous plants in the lily family , with showy flowers . About 75 wild species are currently accepted.

The genus's native range extends west to the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
, through North Africa
North Africa
to Greece
Greece
, the Balkans
Balkans
, Turkey
Turkey
, throughout the Levant
Levant
( Syria
Syria
, Israel
Israel
, Palestinian Territories , Lebanon
Lebanon
, Jordan
Jordan
) and Iran
Iran
, north to Ukraine
Ukraine
, southern Siberia
Siberia
and Mongolia
Mongolia
, and east to the Northwest of China
China
. The tulip's centre of diversity is in the Pamir , Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
, and Tien Shan mountains. It is a common element of steppe and winter-rain Mediterranean vegetation .

A number of species and many hybrid cultivars are grown in gardens or as potted plants.

CONTENTS

* 1 Description

* 1.1 Phytochemistry

* 2 Taxonomy

* 2.1 Species
Species

* 2.1.1 Subgenus Clusianae * 2.1.2 Subgenus Orithyia * 2.1.3 Subgenus Tulipa
Tulipa
* 2.1.4 Subgenus Eriostemones * 2.1.5 Unplaced * 2.1.6 Species
Species
not belonging to the genus Tulipa; classified in other genera * 2.1.7 " Species
Species
tulips"

* 2.2 Etymology

* 3 Distribution and habitat * 4 Ecology

* 5 Cultivation

* 5.1 History

* 5.1.1 Islamic World * 5.1.2 Introduction to Western Europe * 5.1.3 Introduction to the United States
United States

* 5.2 Propagation * 5.3 Horticultural classification * 5.4 Neo-tulipae * 5.5 Horticulture

* 6 Culture * 7 See also * 8 References

* 9 Bibliography

* 9.1 Books * 9.2 Articles

* 10 External links

DESCRIPTION

Tulips are spring-blooming perennials that grow from bulbs . Depending on the species, tulip plants can be between 4 inches (10 cm) and 28 inches (71 cm) high. The tulip's flowers usually bloom on scapes with leaves in a rosette at ground level and a single flowering stalk arising from amongst the leaves. Tulip
Tulip
stems have few leaves. Larger species tend to have multiple leaves. Plants typically have two to six leaves, some species up to 12. The tulip's leaf is strap-shaped, with a waxy coating, and the leaves are alternately arranged on the stem; these fleshy blades are often bluish green in colour. Most tulips produce only one flower per stem, but a few species bear multiple flowers on their scapes (e.g. Tulipa turkestanica ). The generally cup or star-shaped tulip flower has three petals and three sepals , which are often termed tepals because they are nearly identical. These six tepals are often marked on the interior surface near the bases with darker colourings. Tulip
Tulip
flowers come in a wide variety of colours, except pure blue (several tulips with "blue" in the name have a faint violet hue).

The flowers have six distinct, basifixed stamens with filaments shorter than the tepals. Each stigma has three distinct lobes, and the ovaries are superior, with three chambers. The tulip's seed is a capsule with a leathery covering and an ellipsoid to globe shape. Each capsule contains numerous flat, disc-shaped seeds in two rows per chamber. These light to dark brown seeds have very thin seed coats and endosperm that does not normally fill the entire seed.

PHYTOCHEMISTRY

Tulipanin is an anthocyanin found in tulips. It is the 3-rutinoside of delphinidin . The chemical compounds named tuliposides and tulipalins can also be found in tulips and are responsible for allergies. Tulipalin A , or α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone, is a common allergen , generated by hydrolysis of the glucoside tuliposide A . It induces a dermatitis that is mostly occupational and affects tulip bulb sorters and florists who cut the stems and leaves. Tulipanin A and B are toxic to horses, cats and dogs.

TAXONOMY

The genus Tulipa
Tulipa
was traditionally divided into two sections, Eriostemones and Tulipa
Tulipa
(as Leiostemones), and comprises ca. 76 species.

In 1997, the two sections were raised to subgenera and subgenus Tulipa
Tulipa
was divided into five sections:

* Clusianae

* Eichleres

* subdivided into eight series

* Kopalkowskiana * Tulipanum * Tulipa

Subgenus Eriostemones was divided into the sections:

* Biflores * Sylvestres * Saxatiles

In 2009, two other subgenera were proposed, Clusianae and Orithyia, and this total of four subgenera was corroborated by a recent study (Christenhusz et al. 2013 ). That study did not find support for any of the previous sections proposed, and since hybridisation is relatively common, it is probably better to refrain from subdividing the subgenera any further. Some species formerly classified as Tulipa are now considered as the separate genus Amana , including Amana edulis ( Tulipa
Tulipa
edulis). These species are more closely allied to Erythronium .

SPECIES

The classification into four subgenera below is based on Christenhusz et al. (2013).

This list was used as the basis for The Genus Tulipa. Tulips of the World.

Subgenus Clusianae

* Tulipa clusiana Redouté (lady tulip) - Greece, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, W Himalayas * Tulipa
Tulipa
harazensis Rech.f. - Iran * Tulipa linifolia Regel (Bokhara tulip) - Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan * Tulipa
Tulipa
montana Lindl. - Turkmenistan, Iran

Subgenus Orithyia

* Tulipa
Tulipa
heteropetala Ledeb. - Altay Krai, Kazakhstan, Xinjiang * Tulipa
Tulipa
heterophylla (Regel) Baker - Kazakhstan, Xinjiang, Kyrgyzstan * Tulipa
Tulipa
sinkiangensis Z.M.Mao - Xinjiang * Tulipa
Tulipa
uniflora (L.) Besser ex Baker (Siberian tulip) - Siberia, Mongolia, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Kazakhstan

Subgenus Tulipa

Tulipa agenensis in Israel
Israel
(details). Tulipa agenensis in Jerusalem Forest , Israel
Israel
Tulipa agenensis sharonensis in HaSharon, Israel
Israel
Tulipa
Tulipa
agenensis, Israel
Israel

* Tulipa agenensis Redouté (eyed tulip) - Greece, Middle East * Tulipa albanica Kit Tan & Shuka (Albanian tulip) - Albania * Tulipa
Tulipa
alberti Regel (Albert's tulip) - - Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan * Tulipa aleppensis Boiss. ex Regel (Aleppo tulip)- Turkey, Syria, Lebanon * Tulipa altaica Pall. ex Spreng. (Altai tulip) - Altai Krai, Western Siberia, Kazakhstan, Xinjiang * Tulipa
Tulipa
anisophylla Vved. - Tajikistan * Tulipa armena Boiss. (Armenian tulip) - Turkey, Iran, South Caucasus * Tulipa
Tulipa
banuensis Grey-Wilson (Afghan tulip) - Afghanistan * Tulipa
Tulipa
borszczowii Regel - Kazakhstan * Tulipa
Tulipa
botschantzevae S.N.Abramova & Zakal. - Turkmenistan, Iran * Tulipa
Tulipa
butkovii Botschantz. - Uzbekistan * Tulipa
Tulipa
carinata Vved. (Pamir tulip) - Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan * Tulipa cypria
Tulipa cypria
Stapf ex Turrill (Cyprian tulip) - Cyprus * Tulipa
Tulipa
dubia Vved. - Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan * Tulipa
Tulipa
faribae Ghahr., Attar & Ghahrem.-Nejad - Iran * Tulipa
Tulipa
ferganica Vved. - Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan * Tulipa
Tulipa
foliosa - Turkey * Tulipa
Tulipa
fosteriana W.Irving - Afghanistan, Central Asia * Tulipa
Tulipa
× gesneriana L. (garden tulip) * Tulipa
Tulipa
greigii Regel (maculate tulip) - Iran, Central Asia * Tulipa
Tulipa
heweri Raamsd. - Afghanistan * Tulipa
Tulipa
hissarica Popov & Vved. - Tajikistan, Uzbekistan * Tulipa
Tulipa
hoogiana B.Fedtsch. - Turkmenistan, Iran * Tulipa
Tulipa
hungarica Borbás (Rhodope tulip) - Hungary, Serbia, Bulgaria * Tulipa
Tulipa
iliensis Regel - Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Xinjiang * Tulipa
Tulipa
ingens (Tubergen's tulip) - Tajikistan, Uzbekistan * Tulipa
Tulipa
julia K.Koch (Julia tulip) - Turkey, South Caucasus, Syria, Lebanon * Tulipa
Tulipa
kaufmanniana Regel (waterlily tulip) - Central Asia * Tulipa
Tulipa
kolpakowskiana Regel (sun tulip) - Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Xinjiang, Afghanistan * Tulipa
Tulipa
korolkowii Regel - Central Asia * Tulipa
Tulipa
kosovarica Kit Tan, Shuka & Krasniqi - Kosovo * Tulipa
Tulipa
kuschkensis B.Fedtsch. - Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Iran * Tulipa
Tulipa
lanata Regel - Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, W Himalayas * Tulipa
Tulipa
lehmanniana Merckl. (Lehmann's tulip) - Afghanistan, Iran, Central Asia * Tulipa
Tulipa
lemmersii - Kazakhstan * Tulipa
Tulipa
ostrowskiana Regel - Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan * Tulipa
Tulipa
persica (Lindl.) Sweet (Persian tulip) - Iran * Tulipa
Tulipa
platystemon Vved. - Kyrgyzstan * Tulipa
Tulipa
praestans H.B.May (multiflowered tulip) - Tajikistan * Tulipa
Tulipa
scardica Bornm. (Balkan tulip) - Kosovo, Greece * Tulipa
Tulipa
scharipovii Tojibaev - Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan * Tulipa
Tulipa
schmidtii Fomin - Iran, South Caucasus * Tulipa serbica Tatic & Krivošej - Kosovo, Serbia * Tulipa
Tulipa
sosnowskyi Achv. "> , but regarded as a synonym of T. undulatifolia by others.

* Tulipa
Tulipa
uzbekistanica Botschantz. & Sharipov - Uzbekistan * Tulipa
Tulipa
vvedenskyi Botschantz. - Tajikistan

Subgenus Eriostemones

* Tulipa
Tulipa
biflora Pall. (two-flowered tulip) - Macedonia, Egypt, Crimea, Russia, Asia from Saudi Arabia to Xinjiang + Western Siberia * Tulipa
Tulipa
bifloriformis Vved. - Central Asia * Tulipa
Tulipa
cinnabarina K.Perss. - Turkey * Tulipa
Tulipa
cretica Boiss. "> , the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families accepts some species which other sources include in T. humilis:

* Tulipa
Tulipa
aucheriana Baker – E. Turkey
Turkey
to Afghanistan * Tulipa
Tulipa
kurdica Wendelbo – N. Iraq * Tulipa pulchella (Regel) Baker – S. & S.E. Turkey
Turkey
to N. Iran * Tulipa
Tulipa
violacea Boiss. & Buhse – S.E. Transcaucasus

* Tulipa
Tulipa
kolbintsevii Zonn. - Kazakhstan * Tulipa
Tulipa
koyuncui Eker & Babaç - Turkey * Tulipa
Tulipa
orithyioides Vved. - Central Asia * Tulipa
Tulipa
orphanidea Boiss. accepted by the World Checklist of Selected Plant
Plant
Families as of May 2015 , but regarded as unplaced by Christenhusz et al.

Species
Species
Not Belonging To The Genus Tulipa; Classified In Other Genera

* Tulipa
Tulipa
anhuiensis X.S.Shen, now: Amana anhuiensis (X.S.Shen) Christenh. * Tulipa
Tulipa
breyniana L., now: Moraea collina Thunb. (Iridaceae). * Tulipa
Tulipa
edulis (Miq.) Baker, now: Amana edulis (Miq.) Honda. * Tulipa
Tulipa
erythronioides Baker, now: Amana erythronioides (Baker) D.Y.Tan & D.Y.Hong. * Tulipa
Tulipa
graminifolia Baker ex S.Moore, now: Amana edulis (Miq.) Honda. * Tulipa latifolia (Makino) Makino, now: Amana erythronioides (Baker) D.Y.Tan & D.Y.Hong * Tulipa
Tulipa
ornithogaloides Fisch. ex Besser, now: Gagea triflora (Ledeb.) Schult. "> Variegation produced by the tulip breaking virus

Botrytis tulipae is a major fungal disease affecting tulips, causing cell death and eventually the rotting of the plant. Other pathogens include anthracnose , bacterial soft rot , blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii , bulb nematodes , other rots including blue molds , black molds and mushy rot.

The fungus Trichoderma viride can infect tulips, producing dried leaf tips and reduced growth, although symptoms are usually mild and only present on bulbs growing in glasshouses .

Variegated tulips admired during the Dutch tulipomania gained their delicately feathered patterns from an infection with the tulip breaking virus , a mosaic virus that was carried by the green peach aphid , Myzus persicae. While the virus produces fantastically streaked flowers, it also weakens plants and reduces the number of offsets produced. Tulips affected by mosaic virus are called "broken"; while such plants can occasionally revert to a plain or solid colouring, they will remain infected and have to be destroyed. Today the virus is almost eradicated from tulip growers' fields. The multicoloured patterns or modern varieties result from breeding; they normally have solid, not feathered borders between the colours.

CULTIVATION

HISTORY

Islamic World

Tulipa sylvestris subsp. australis with seedpod (right), 1804

Cultivation of the tulip began in Persia, probably in the 10th century. Early cultivars must have emerged from hybridisation in gardens from wild collected plants, which were then favoured, possibly due to flower size or growth vigour. The tulip is not mentioned by any writer from antiquity, therefore it seems probable that tulips were introduced into Anatolia only with the advance of the Seljuks
Seljuks
. In the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, numerous types of tulips were cultivated and bred, and today, 14 species can still be found in Turkey. Tulips are mentioned by Omar Kayam and Celaleddin Rûmi .

In 1574, Sultan Selim II . ordered the Kadi of A‘azāz in Syria
Syria
to send him 50,000 tulip bulbs. However, Harvey points out several problems with this source, and there is also the possibility that tulips and hyacinth (sümbüll), originally Indian spikenard (Nardostachys jatamansi) have been confused. Sultan Selim also imported 300,000 bulbs of Kefe Lale (also known as Cafe-Lale, from the medieval name Kaffa, probably Tulipa schrenkii ) from Kefe for his gardens in the Topkapı Sarayı in Istanbul
Istanbul
.

Sultan Ahmet III maintained famous tulip gardens in the summer highland pastures (Yayla) at Spil Dağı above the town of Manisa
Manisa
. They seem to have consisted of wild tulips. However, from the 14 tulip species known from Turkey, only four are considered to be of local origin, so wild tulips from Iran
Iran
and Central Asia may have been brought into Turkey
Turkey
during the Seljuk and especially Ottoman periods. Sultan Ahmet also imported domestic tulip bulbs from the Netherlands.

The gardening book Revnak'ı Bostan (Beauty of the Garden) by Sahibül Reis ülhaç Ibrahim Ibn ülhaç Mehmet, written in 1660 does not mention the tulip at all, but contains advice on growing hyacinths and lilies . However, there is considerable confusion of terminology, and tulips may have been subsumed under hyacinth, a mistake several European botanists were to perpetuate. In 1515, the scholar Qasim from Herat
Herat
in contrast had identified both wild and garden tulips (lale) as anemones (shaqayq al-nu'man), but described the crown imperial as laleh kakli.

In a Turkic text written before 1495, the Chagatay Husayn Bayqarah mentions tulips (lale). Babur , the founder of the Mughal Empire , also names tulips in the Baburnama . He may actually have introduced them from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to the plains of India, as he did with other plants like melons and grapes.

In Moorish Andalus , a "Makedonian bulb" (basal al-maqdunis) or "bucket-Narcissus " (naryis qadusi) was cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. It was supposed to have come from Alexandria
Alexandria
and may have been Tulipa sylvestris , but the identification is not wholly secure.

Introduction To Western Europe

Tulip
Tulip
cultivation in the Netherlands
Netherlands

Although it is unknown who first brought the tulip to Northwestern Europe, the most widely accepted story is that it was Oghier Ghislain de Busbecq , an ambassador for Emperor Ferdinand I to Suleyman the Magnificent . According to a letter, he saw "an abundance of flowers everywhere; Narcissus , hyacinths and those in Turkish called Lale, much to our astonishment because it was almost midwinter, a season unfriendly to flowers." However, in 1559, an account by Conrad Gessner describes tulips flowering in Augsburg
Augsburg
, Swabia in the garden of Councillor Heinrich Herwart . In Central and Northern Europe, tulip bulbs are generally removed from the ground in June and must be replanted by September for the winter. It is doubtful that Busbecq could have had the tulip bulbs harvested, shipped to Germany and replanted between March 1558 and Gessner's description the following year. Pietro Andrea Mattioli illustrated a tulip in 1565 but identified it as a narcissus , however.

Carolus Clusius is largely responsible for the spread of tulip bulbs in the final years of the sixteenth century. He planted tulips at the Vienna Imperial Botanical Gardens in 1573. He finished the first major work on tulips in 1592, and made note of the variations in colour. After he was appointed director of the Leiden University 's newly established Hortus Botanicus , he planted both a teaching garden and his private garden with tulips in late 1593. Thus, 1594 is considered the date of the tulip's first flowering in the Netherlands
Netherlands
, despite reports of the cultivation of tulips in private gardens in Antwerp
Antwerp
and Amsterdam
Amsterdam
two or three decades earlier. These tulips at Leiden would eventually lead to both the Tulip mania and the tulip industry in the Netherlands. In 1596 and 1598, over a hundred bulbs were stolen from his garden in a single raid.

Between 1634 and 1637, the enthusiasm for the new flowers triggered a speculative frenzy now known as the tulip mania . Tulip
Tulip
bulbs became so expensive that they were treated as a form of currency, or rather, as futures. Around this time, the ceramic tulipiere was devised for the display of cut flowers stem by stem. Vases and bouquets, usually including tulips, often appeared in Dutch still-life painting . To this day, tulips are associated with the Netherlands, and the cultivated forms of the tulip are often called "Dutch tulips." The Netherlands
Netherlands
have the world's largest permanent display of tulips at the Keukenhof .

Tulip
Tulip
cultivars have usually several species in their direct background, but most have been derived from Tulipa
Tulipa
suaveolens , often erroneously listed as Tulipa schrenkii . Tulipa gesneriana is in itself an early hybrid of complex origin and is probably not the same taxon as was described by Conrad Gessner in the 16th century.

Introduction To The United States

It is believed the first tulips in the United States
United States
were grown near Spring Pond at the Fay Estate in Lynn and Salem , Massachusetts
Massachusetts
. From 1847 to 1865, Richard Sullivan Fay, Esq., one of Lynn's wealthiest men, settled on 500 acres (2.0 km2) located partly in present-day Lynn and partly in present-day Salem. Mr. Fay imported many different trees and plants from all parts of the world and planted them among the meadows of the Fay Estate.

PROPAGATION

Tulip
Tulip
pistil surrounded by stamens. Tulip
Tulip
stamen: note the pollen grains. The reproductive organs of a tulip

Tulips can be propagated through bulb offsets , seeds or micropropagation . Offsets and tissue culture methods are means of asexual propagation for producing genetic clones of the parent plant, which maintains cultivar genetic integrity. Seeds are most often used to propagate species and subspecies or to create new hybrids . Many tulip species can cross-pollinate with each other, and when wild tulip populations overlap geographically with other tulip species or subspecies, they often hybridise and create mixed populations. Most commercial tulip cultivars are complex hybrids, and often sterile .

Offsets require a year or more of growth before plants are large enough to flower. Tulips grown from seeds often need five to eight years before plants are of flowering size. Commercial growers usually harvest the tulip bulbs in late summer and grade them into sizes; bulbs large enough to flower are sorted and sold, while smaller bulbs are sorted into sizes and replanted for sale in the future. The Netherlands
Netherlands
are the world's main producer of commercial tulip plants, producing as many as 3 billion bulbs annually, the majority for export.

HORTICULTURAL CLASSIFICATION

'Yonina', a division 6 cultivar 'Texas Flame', a division 10 cultivar

In horticulture, tulips are divided up into fifteen groups (Divisions) mostly based on flower morphology and plant size.

* DIV. 1: SINGLE EARLY – with cup-shaped single flowers, no larger than 8 cm across (3 inches). They bloom early to mid season. Growing 15 to 45 cm tall. * DIV. 2: DOUBLE EARLY – with fully double flowers, bowl shaped to 8 cm across. Plants typically grow from 30–40 cm tall. * DIV. 3: TRIUMPH – single, cup shaped flowers up to 6 cm wide. Plants grow 35–60 cm tall and bloom mid to late season. * DIV. 4: DARWIN HYBRID – single flowers are ovoid in shape and up to 8 cm wide. Plants grow 50–70 cm tall and bloom mid to late season. This group should not be confused with older Darwin tulips, which belong in the Single Late Group below. * DIV. 5: SINGLE LATE – cup or goblet-shaded flowers up to 8 cm wide, some plants produce multi-flowering stems. Plants grow 45–75 cm tall and bloom late season. * DIV. 6: LILY-FLOWERED – the flowers possess a distinct narrow 'waist' with pointed and reflexed petals. Previously included with the old Darwins, only becoming a group in their own right in 1958. * DIV. 7: FRINGED (CRISPA) * DIV. 8: VIRIDIFLORA * DIV. 9: REMBRANDT * DIV. 10: PARROT * DIV. 11: DOUBLE LATE – Large, heavy blooms. They range from 18 to 22 inches tall. * DIV. 12: KAUFMANNIANA – Waterlily tulip. Medium-large creamy yellow flowers marked red on the outside and yellow at the center. Stems 6 in. tall. * DIV. 13: FOSTERIANA (EMPEROR) * DIV. 14: GREIGII – Scarlet flowers 6 in. across, on 10 in. stems. Foliage mottled with brown. * DIV. 15: SPECIES (BOTANICAL) * DIV. 16: MULTIFLOWERING – not an official division, these tulips belong in the first 15 divisions but are often listed separately because they have multiple blooms per bulb.

They may also be classified by their flowering season:

* Early flowering: Single Early Tulips, Double Early Tulips, Greigii Tulips, Kaufmanniana Tulips, Fosteriana Tulips, § Species
Species
tulips * Mid-season flowering: Darwin Hybrid Tulips, Triumph Tulips, Parrot Tulips * Late season flowering: Single Late Tulips, Double Late Tulips, Viridiflora Tulips, Lily-flowering Tulips, Fringed Tulips, Rembrandt Tulips

NEO-TULIPAE

A number of names are based on naturalised garden tulips, and are usually referred to as neo-tulipae. These are often difficult to trace back to their original cultivar, and in some cases have been occurring in the wild for many centuries. The history of naturalisation is unknown, but populations are usually associated with agricultural practices and are possibly linked to saffron cultivation . Some neo-tulipae have been brought into cultivation, and are often offered as botanical tulips. These cultivated plants can be classified into two Cultivar Groups: 'Grengiolensis Group', with picotee tepals, and the 'Didieri Group' with unicolourous tepals.

HORTICULTURE

Tulip
Tulip
bulbs are typically planted around late summer and fall, in well-drained soils. Tulips should be planted 4 to 6 inches (10 to 15 cm) apart from each other. The recommended hole depth is 4 to 8 inches (10 to 20 cm) deep, and is measured from the top of the bulb to the surface. Therefore, larger tulip bulbs would require deeper holes. Species
Species
tulips are normally planted deeper.

CULTURE

Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
uses a grey tulip emblem on its aircraft Iranian 20 Rials coin Obverse with 22 tulips Reverse with 3 tulips

The tulip was a topic for Persian poets from the thirteenth century. In the poem Gulistan by Musharrifu\'d-din Saadi , described a visionary garden paradise with "The murmur of a cool stream / bird song, ripe fruit in plenty / bright multicoloured tulips and fragrant roses..." The gift of a red or yellow tulip was a declaration of love, the flower's black center representing a heart burned by passion. In recent times, tulips have featured in the poems of Simin Behbahani .

Tulips are called lale in Turkish (from Persian : "lale" لاله). When written in Arabic letters, "lale" has the same letters as Allah, which is why the flower became a holy symbol. It was also associated with the House of Osman , resulting in tulips being widely used in decorative motifs on tiles, mosques, fabrics, crockery, etc. in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. The tulip was seen as a symbol of abundance and indulgence. The era during which the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was wealthiest is often called the Tulip era or Lale Devri in Turkish .

The shape of emblem of Iran
Iran
is chosen to resemble a tulip, in memory of the people who died for Iran.

Tulips became popular garden plants in east and west, but, whereas the tulip in Turkish culture was a symbol of paradise on earth and had almost a divine status, in the Netherlands
Netherlands
it represented the briefness of life.

The Black Tulip is a historical romance by Alexandre Dumas, père
Alexandre Dumas, père
. The story takes place in the Dutch city of Haarlem
Haarlem
, where a reward is offered to the first grower who can produce a truly black tulip.

The Tulip
Tulip
is also viewed prominently in a number of the Major Arcana cards of the Oswald Wirth Tarot deck. Specifically: Arcanas Zero, One, Four, and Fifteen.

Today, Tulip
Tulip
festivals are held around the world, for example in the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Spalding , England
England
. There is also a popular festival in Morges
Morges
, Switzerland. Every spring, there are tulip festivals in North America
North America
, including the Tulip Time Festival in Holland , Michigan
Michigan
, the Skagit Valley Tulip Festival in Skagit Valley , Washington , the Tulip Time Festival in Orange City and Pella , Iowa
Iowa
, and the Canadian Tulip Festival in Ottawa
Ottawa
, Ontario
Ontario
, Canada
Canada
. Tulips are also popular in Australia
Australia
and several festivals are held in September and October, during the Southern Hemisphere 's spring .

SEE ALSO

* List of Award of Garden Merit tulips * Tulip period
Tulip period
* Tulip mania

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant
Plant
Families * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M Christenhusz, Maarten J.M.; Govaerts, Rafaël; David, John C.; Hall, Tony; Borland, Katherine; Roberts, Penelope S.; Tuomisto, Anne; Buerki, Sven; Chase, Mark W.; Fay, Michael F. (2013). "Tiptoe through the tulips – cultural history, molecular phylogenetics and classification of Tulipa
Tulipa
(Liliaceae)". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 172 (3): 280–328. doi :10.1111/boj.12061 . * ^ King, Michael (2005). Gardening with Tulips. Portland, OR: Timber Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-88192-744-9 . * ^ King (2005) , p. 164 * ^ Tenenbaum, Frances, ed. (2003). Taylor's Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. Houghton Mifflin. p. 395. ISBN 0-618-22644-3 . * ^ Flora of North America
North America
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