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Szczecin
Szczecin
Lagoon, Stettin Lagoon, Bay of Szczecin, or Stettin Bay (Polish: Zalew Szczeciński, German: Stettiner Haff), also Oder
Oder
lagoon (German: Oderhaff), is a lagoon in the Oder
Oder
estuary, shared by Germany and Poland. It is separated from the Pomeranian Bay
Pomeranian Bay
of the Baltic Sea by the islands of Usedom
Usedom
and Wolin. The lagoon is subdivided into the Kleines Haff ("small lagoon") in the West and the Wielki Zalew (German: Großes Haff, "great lagoon") in the East. An ambiguous historical German name was Frisches Haff, which later exclusively referred to the Vistula
Vistula
Lagoon.[1]

Oder
Oder
Lagoon
Lagoon
- Landsat satellite photo (circa 2000)

The German fishing village of Altwarp
Altwarp
on the Lagoon

Szczecin
Szczecin
Lagoon, view from Polish island of Karsibór

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Towns around the Lagoon

2 History 3 Economy 4 Recreation 5 Pollution 6 Nature 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Geography[edit]

The lagoon

Seagulls on the lagoon in winter

From the South, the lagoon is fed by several arms of the Oder
Oder
river and smaller rivers like Ziese, Peene, Zarow, Uecker, and Ina.[2] In the North, the lagoon is connected to the Baltic Sea's Bay of Pomerania
Pomerania
with the three straits Peenestrom, Świna
Świna
and Dziwna, which divide the mainland and the islands of Usedom
Usedom
and Wolin
Wolin
. The lagoon covers an area of 687 km², its natural depth is an average 3.8 metres, and 8.5 metres at maximum.[3] The depth of shipping channels however can exceed 10.5 metres.[3] Thus, the lagoon holds about 2.58 km3 of water.[4] The annual average water temperature is 11 °C.[4] 94% of the water loads discharged into the lagoon are from the Oder river and its confluences, amounting to an average annual 17 km3 or 540 m3 per second.[5] All other confluences contribute a combined annual 1 km3.[5] Since no reliable data for an inflow from the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
exist, the combined inflow is an estimated 18 km3 from a catchment area of 129,000 km2, residing in the lagoon for an average 55 days before being discharged into the Pomeranian Bay.[4] The nutrients thereby transported into the lagoon have made it hyper(eu)trophic to eutrophic.[6] The straits Peenestrom, Świna
Świna
and Dziwna
Dziwna
are responsible for 17%, 69%, and 14% of the discharge, respectively.[7] The average salinity is between 0.5 and 2 psu, yet at times more salt water penetrates through the Świna
Świna
locally raising the salinity to 6 psu.[5] Towns around the Lagoon[edit]

Szczecin
Szczecin
(Poland) Świnoujście
Świnoujście
(Poland) Police (Poland) Ueckermünde
Ueckermünde
(Germany) Wolin
Wolin
(Poland) Usedom
Usedom
(Germany) Nowe Warpno
Nowe Warpno
(Poland)

History[edit]

Szczecin
Szczecin
Lagoon/Stettiner Haff area, city of Stettin/ Szczecin
Szczecin
not included

In 1880, the Kaiserfahrt
Kaiserfahrt
("Emperor's passage") channel on Usedom
Usedom
was opened, a water route with a depth of 10 metres connecting the lagoon with the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
by bypassing the eastern part of the Swine, allowing large ships to enter the lagoon and the seaport of Stettin quicker and safer. The canal, approximately 12 km long and 10 metres deep, was dug by the German Empire
German Empire
between 1874 and 1880, during the reign of the first Kaiser Wilhelm (1797–1888) after whom it was named. Also, the work resulted in a new island named Kaseburg
Kaseburg
(Karsibór) being cut off from Usedom. After 1945, the areas east of Oder
Oder
Neisse line became part of Poland, including the former German seaport cities of Stettin (Szczecin) and Swinemünde (Świnoujście) on the western bank of the river Oder. The Kaiserfahrt
Kaiserfahrt
was renamed Piast
Piast
Canal, after the Polish Piast
Piast
dynasty. The German-Polish border also divides the bight called Neuwarper See near Rieth (de), Luckow. Economy[edit]

Beach in Trzebież
Trzebież
near Police, Poland

The lagoon has served as an important fishing grounds for centuries, as a major transportation pathway since the 18th century, and as a tourist destination since the 20th century.[3] Recreation[edit] Today the lagoon offers a selection of passenger ship tours, a wide range of water sports and some notable beaches. Tourists can discover winegrowing, the narrow-gauge railway, museums, castles, many hiking and cycling routes and a small village reviving the life of the former Slavic settlements. Pollution[edit] The lagoon suffers from heavy pollution, mainly from the Oder
Oder
river, resulting in eutrophication. High concentrations of aluminium and iron sediments have been found in the river causing rapid algae growth inside the lagoon. However, long-term nutrient concentrations show a high inter-annual variability and have declined during recent years. Nature[edit] The southern shore of the lagoon belongs to the Am Stettiner Haff Nature Park, its northern shore and the island of Usedom
Usedom
to the Usedom Island Nature Park. To the west is the Anklamer Stadtbruch Nature Reserve and, within it, the Anklamer Torfmoor, a protected wetland which is renaturalising after being used for peat extraction. See also[edit]

Curonian Lagoon Vistula
Vistula
Lagoon

Coordinates: 53°48′16″N 14°08′25″E / 53.80444°N 14.14028°E / 53.80444; 14.14028 References[edit]

^ Erhard Riemann, Alfred Schoenfeldt, Ulrich Tolksdorf, Reinhard Goltz, Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur (Germany), Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, Mainz, Preussisches Wörterbuch: Deutsche Mundarten Ost- und Westpreussens, 6th edition, Wachholtz, 1974, p.595, ISBN 3-529-04611-6 ^ Gerald Schernewski, Baltic coastal ecosystems: structure, function, and coastal zone management, Springer, 2002, p.79, ISBN 3-540-42937-9 ^ a b c Ulrich Schiewer, Ecology of Baltic coastal waters, Springer, 2008, p.115, ISBN 3-540-73523-2 ^ a b c Ulrich Schiewer, Ecology of Baltic coastal waters, Springer, 2008, p.117, ISBN 3-540-73523-2 ^ a b c Ulrich Schiewer, Ecology of Baltic coastal waters, Springer, 2008, p.116, ISBN 3-540-73523-2 ^ Ulrich Schiewer, Ecology of Baltic coastal waters, Springer, 2008, p.118, ISBN 3-540-73523-2 ^ Ulrich Schiewer, Ecology of Baltic coastal waters, Springer, 2008, p.119, ISBN 3-540-73523-2

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lagoon
Lagoon
of Szczecin.

Glasby GP, Szefer P, Geldon J, Warzocha J (September 2004). "Heavy-metal pollution of sediments from Szczecin
Szczecin
Lagoon
Lagoon
and the Gdansk Basin, Poland". Sci. Total Environ. 330 (1-3): 249–69. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.04.004. PMID 15325172. 

v t e

Tributaries of the Oder
Oder
/ Odra

Main tributaries of the left bank

Budišovka Čermná Opava Psina (Cyna) Cisek Olszówka Stradunia Osobłoga Nysa Kłodzka Oława Ślęza Bystrzyca Średzka Woda Cicha Woda Kaczawa Ślepca Zimnica Dębniak Biała Woda Czarna Struga Śląska Ochla Zimny Potok Bóbr Olcha Racza Lusatian Neisse Finow Canal Gręziniec Gunica

Main tributaries of the right bank

Suchá Luha Jičínka Sedlnice Lubina Ostravice Olza Ruda Bierawka Kłodnica Gliwice Canal Czarnka Mała Panew Stobrawa Widawa Jezierzyca Barycz Krzycki Rów Obrzyca Jablonna Pliszka Ołobok Gryzynka Warta Myśla Kurzyca Stubia Rurzyca Tywa Płonia Ina Gowienica

Distributary

East Oder
Oder
(Regalica) West Oder Szczecin
Szczecin
Lagoon Dziwna Świna Peene

Cities

Ostrava Bohumín Racibórz Kędzierzyn-Koźle Krapkowice Opole Brzeg Oława Jelcz-Laskowice Wrocław Brzeg
Brzeg
Dolny Ścinawa Szlichtyngowa Głogów Bytom Odrzański Nowa Sól Krosno Odrzańskie Eisenhüttenstadt Frankfurt (Oder) Słubice Kostrzyn nad Odrą Cedynia Schwedt Vierraden Gartz Gryfino Szczecin Police

v t e

Geography of Pomerania

Regions

Current

Western Pomerania West Pomeranian Voivodeship Pomerelia

Kashubia Pomorskie

Pomerania
Pomerania
euroregion

Former

Farther Pomerania Circipania Lauenburg and Bütow Land Lands of Schlawe and Stolp

Administration

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern West Pomeranian Voivodeship Pomeranian Voivodeship Złotów County

Towns

Lists

List of towns in Vorpommern List of towns in Farther Pomerania List of placenames in the Province of Pomerania

A–H I–P Q–Z

Largest

>100,000

Tricity

Gdańsk Gdynia Sopot

Szczecin Koszalin

>50,000

Słupsk Stargard Stralsund Greifswald

Islands

Greifswalder Oie Hiddensee Rügen Ummanz Usedom Vilm Wolin

Peninsulae

Fischland-Darß-Zingst Jasmund Hela Mönchgut Wittow

Rivers

Dziwna Grabowa Ina Łeba Oder Parsęta Peene Peenestrom Randow Recknitz Rega Ryck Słupia Świna Tollense Trebel Uecker Vistula Wieprza

Lakes

Lake Dąbie Lake Gardno Kummerower See Lake Łebsko Lake Miedwie

Bays, lagoons

Bay of Gdańsk Bay of Greifswald Bay of Pomerania Szczecin
Szczecin
Lagoon

National parks

Western Pomerania
Pomerania
Lagoon
Lagoon
Area National Park Jasmund
Jasmund
National Park Lower Oder
Oder
Valley National Park Wolin
Wolin
National Park Słowiński National Park

v t e

History of Pomerania

10,000 BC – 600 AD 600–1100 1100–1300 1300–1500 1500–1806 1806–1933 1933–1945 1945–present

Administrative

Western Pomerania Farther Pomerania (before 1945)

Billung March Northern March Principality of Rügen Duchy of Pomerania

House of Pomerania List of Dukes Cammin Gützkow Schlawe-Stolp Lauenburg-Bütow Partitions Pomerania-Stolp

Swedish Pomerania Brandenburgian Pomerania
Pomerania
(Draheim) Province of Pomerania
Pomerania
1815–1945

Neumark Köslin Region Stettin Region Stralsund
Stralsund
Region Posen-West Prussia
Posen-West Prussia
Region List of placenames

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

Zachodniopomorskie (after 1945)

Szczecin
Szczecin
Voivodeship Koszalin
Koszalin
Voivodeship Słupsk
Słupsk
Voivodeship West Pomeranian Voivodeship

Pomerelia
Pomerelia
(Kashubia)

Medieval duchies (Samborides) State of the Teutonic Order Royal Prussia
Royal Prussia
( Pomeranian Voivodeship
Pomeranian Voivodeship
1466–1772) Free City of Danzig
Free City of Danzig
1807–1814 West Prussia Pomeranian Voivodeship
Pomeranian Voivodeship
1919–1939 (Polish Corridor) Free City of Danzig
Free City of Danzig
1920–1939 Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia Pomeranian Voivodeship

Ecclesiastical

Roman Catholic

Historical

Conversion of Pomerania Diocese of Kolberg (Congress of Gniezno) Diocese of Cammin Diocese of Culm Diocese of Roskilde Diocese of Włocławek (Leslau) Prelature of Schneidemühl

Extant

Archdiocese of Berlin Archdiocese of Szczecin-Kamień Diocese of Koszalin-Kołobrzeg Diocese of Pelplin

Protestant

Protestant Reformation Evangelical Lutheran Church in Northern Germany Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Poland Pentecostal Church in Poland Evangelical State Church in Prussia
Evangelical State Church in Prussia
(extinct) Pomeranian Evangelical Church
Pomeranian Evangelical Church
(extinct)

Demography

Archaeological cultures

Hamburg Maglemosian Ertebølle-Ellerbek Linear Pottery Funnelbeaker Havelland Corded Ware Comb Ceramic Nordic Bronze Age Lusatian Jastorf Pomeranian Oksywie Wielbark Gustow Dębczyn (Denzin)

Peoples

Gepids Goths Lemovii Rugii Vidivarii Vistula
Vistula
Veneti Slavic Pomeranians Prissani Rani Ukrani Veleti Lutici Velunzani German Pomeranians Kashubians Poles Slovincians

Major demographic events

Migration Period Ostsiedlung WWII flight and expulsion of Germans Post-WWII settlement of Poles
Poles
and Ukrainians

Languages and dialects

West Germanic

Low German

Low Prussian Central Pomeranian Mecklenburgisch-Vorpommersch East Pomeranian West Pomeranian

Standard German

West Slavic

Polabian Polish Pomeranian

Kashubian Slovincian

Treaties

1200–1500

Kremmen (1236) Landin (1250) Kępno (1282) Soldin (1309) Templin (1317) Stralsund
Stralsund
(1354) Stralsund
Stralsund
(1370) Thorn (1411) Soldin (1466) Thorn (1466) Prenzlau (1448 / 1472 / 1479) Pyritz (1493)

1500–1700

Grimnitz (1529) Stettin (1570) Franzburg (1627) Stettin (1630) Westphalia (1648) Stettin (1653) Labiau (1656) Wehlau and Bromberg (1657) Oliva (1660) Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1679) Lund (1679)

1700–present

Stockholm (1719 / 1720) Frederiksborg (1720) Kiel (1814) Vienna (1815) Versailles (19

.