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The SYRMIAN FRONT (Serbo-Croatian : Sremski front, Сремски фронт) was an Axis line of defense during World War II
World War II
. It was established as part of the Eastern Front in late October 1944 in Syrmia
Syrmia
and east Slavonia
Slavonia
, northwest of Belgrade
Belgrade
.

After the Yugoslav Partisans
Yugoslav Partisans
and the Red Army
Red Army
expelled the Germans from Belgrade
Belgrade
in the Belgrade Offensive
Belgrade Offensive
, the retreating Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
and the Croatian Armed Forces used fortifications to protect the withdrawal of German Army Group E from the Balkans
Balkans
. With help from their Soviet allies, the Partisans (by then recognized as the Yugoslav army), joined by Bulgarian and Italian forces, fought a difficult winter campaign and finally broke through the front on 12 April 1945.

After the Syrmian front was broken, occupied Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was liberated.

CONTENTS

* 1 Operative background and significance * 2 Operations * 3 References * 4 Sources

OPERATIVE BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE

Main article: Belgrade Offensive
Belgrade Offensive

After the September advance through Romania and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
in October 1944, The Red Army, together with Yugoslav forces, took Belgrade (central communication node of the Balkans
Balkans
) in the Belgrade
Belgrade
Offensive . Due to Yugoslav partisan activity, the Yugoslav-Allied Operation Ratweek , and pressure from the Bulgarian Army, the Germans failed to prevent this while they awaited the redeployment of Army Group E troops from Greece. The Red Army
Red Army
decided to exploit this delay and continued to advance with the 3rd Ukrainian Front
3rd Ukrainian Front
from Belgrade
Belgrade
to south-west Hungary
Hungary
. The aim of the advance was to separate and protect their main attack in Hungary
Hungary
from attacks on the flank by Army Group E from the south.

From September 1944 to January 1945, Army Group E pushed its way through Macedonia , Kosovo
Kosovo
, Sanjak , and Bosnia
Bosnia
, and soon their sole available escape route was in a line between Sarajevo
Sarajevo
and Slavonski Brod . For this reason, it was of vital significance for the Germans to defend the zone around Slavonski Brod, which was threatened by the Soviet-Yugoslav advance through Syrmia. To prevent Army Group E from being cut off, the German South-East command prepared seven successive fortified defense lines between the Danube
Danube
and Sava
Sava
river from Ruma
Ruma
to Vinkovci
Vinkovci
. The Syrmian Front
Syrmian Front
campaign consisted of Yugoslavian attempts to break through these lines of defense.

OPERATIONS

In the trenches of the Syrmian Front, December 1944.

The Syrmian Front
Syrmian Front
saw some of the most difficult fighting in Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in World War II
World War II
. It lasted for almost six months. As the bulk of the Red Army
Red Army
involved in the Belgrade
Belgrade
operation continued their offensive in Hungary
Hungary
, the Yugoslav Army, accustomed to guerrilla warfare in the mountainous terrain of the Dinaric Alps
Dinaric Alps
, remained to fight the entrenched front line heavily contested by the Axis on the flat ground of the Pannonian plain
Pannonian plain
. Young men from Vojvodina
Vojvodina
and Central Serbia
Central Serbia
, many from freshly liberated regions, were drafted en masse and sent to the front, and the amount of training they received and their casualty levels remain in dispute.

Although mostly stationary, the front moved several times, generally westward, as the Axis forces were pushed back. The fighting started east of Ruma
Ruma
and stabilized in January 1945 west of Šid after the town changed hands due to Axis counterattacks. In late March and early April 1945, Yugoslav Army
Yugoslav Army
units mounted a general offensive on all fronts. The Yugoslav First Army , commanded by Peko Dapčević
Peko Dapčević
, broke through German XXXIV Corps defenses in Syrmia
Syrmia
on 12 April, quickly capturing the cities of Vukovar
Vukovar
, Vinkovci
Vinkovci
, and Županja , and enabling further advances through Slavonia
Slavonia
toward Slavonski Brod
Slavonski Brod
and Zagreb
Zagreb
in the last month of the war.

The campaign can be divided into four distinct phases:

* The first phase lasted from October 24 to the end of December 1944, and was characterized by slow but steady advancement of Yugoslav and Soviet forces through the seven German fortified lines of defense through fierce battles and heavy losses on both sides. * In the second phase, from 3 January to 26 January 1945, the Germans performed a successful counterattack with the newly arrived forces of XXXIV Army Corps of Army Group E, and succeeded in winning back to the Nibelung Line, the main line of defense in Syrmia, while inflicting heavy losses to the Yugoslav Army. * The third phase was a stalemate period from 26 January to 12 April 1945. In this period both sides only performed limited reconnaissance activities. * The fourth phase began when Yugoslav forces broke through the German defense lines on 12 April, with heavy German losses and fierce battles and Army Group E retreating.

Syrmian Front
Syrmian Front
memorial

REFERENCES

* ^ 62nd Anniversary announcement, B92
B92
, 2007. * ^ A B Stratište srpske mladosti, Vlada Arsić, 2008. (in Serbian) * ^ »Sremski front 1944–1945«, n. f. str. 42, 166, 200 i 285. * ^ Report of the Commander in Chief of the South-East to Army Headquarters, 20. September 1944, NAW T311, roll 191, frames 637–642 * ^ Đilas 1977 , p. 440. * ^ Pavlowitch 2008 , p. 258. * ^ Ljubivoje Pajović, Dušan Uzelac, Milovan Dželebdžić: Sremski Front 1944–1945, BIGZ, Belgrade
Belgrade
1979, chapter II – Uspostavljanje Sremskog fronta i borbe u Sremu do kraja 1944. (in Serbian) * ^ Ljubivoje Pajović, Dušan Uzelac, Milovan Dželebdžić: Sremski Front 1944–1945, chapter V – Nemačke ofanzivne operacije na Sremskom frontu u januaru 1945. (in Serbian) * ^ Ljubivoje Pajović, Dušan Uzelac, Milovan Dželebdžić: Sremski Front 1944–1945, chapter VII – Period zatišja i priprema za prolećne ofanzivne operacije (in Serbian) * ^ Ljubivoje Pajović, Dušan Uzelac, Milovan Dželebdžić: Sremski Front 1944–1945, chapter XI – Plan proboja Sremske utvrđene zone, chapter XII – Prva armija u proboju utvrđene zone and chapter XIV – Od Srema do Austrije (in Serbian)

SOURCES

* Đilas, Milovan (1977). Wartime. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 0-15-694712-9 . * Ljubivoje Pajović, Dušan Uzelac, Milovan Dželebdžić: Sremski Front 1944–1945, BIGZ, Belgrade
Belgrade
1979 (in Serbian) * Pavlowitch, S.K. (2008). Hitler's New Disorder: the Second World War in Yugoslavia. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-70050-4 .

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Wars and battles involving Croatia
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(1683–1699)

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European 17th/18th- century wars

THIRTY YEARS\\' WAR

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Battle of Lützen (1632)
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Battle of Nördlingen (1634)

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* Battle of Lobositz
Battle of Lobositz
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Battle of Kolín
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Battle of Castiglione
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Battle of Bassano
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Sarajevo
(1878) * Battle of Livno (1878)

20TH-CENTURY WARS

WORLD WAR I

* Serbian Campaign * Adriatic Campaign * Battle of Galicia * Battle of Soča * Battle of Caporetto
Battle of Caporetto
* Bombardment of Ancona
Bombardment of Ancona
* Second Battle of the Piave River * Battle of Vittorio Veneto
Battle of Vittorio Veneto

WORLD WAR II

* Invasion of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
* Battle of Kozara * Battle of Livno * Battle of Stalingrad
Battle of Stalingrad
* Battle of Neretva
Battle of Neretva
* Operation Otto * Battle of the Sutjeska * Raid on Drvar * Syrmian Front * Battle of Knin
Battle of Knin
* Battle of Mostar * Battle of Lijevče Field
Battle of Lijevče Field
* Battle of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
(1945)

Croatian War of Independence
Croatian War of Independence
(1991–1995)

* Pakrac clash
Pakrac clash
* Plitvice Lakes incident * Borovo Selo killings * Operation Stinger * 1991 Yugoslav campaign in Croatia
Croatia
* Dalj massacre
Dalj massacre
* Battle of Osijek
Battle of Osijek
* Battle of Vukovar
Vukovar
* Vukovar
Vukovar
massacre * Battle of Gospić * Battle of Šibenik
Battle of Šibenik
* Battle of Zadar
Battle of Zadar
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Battle of Kusonje
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Battle of the Barracks
* Siege of Varaždin Barracks
Siege of Varaždin Barracks
* Siege of Bjelovar Barracks
Siege of Bjelovar Barracks
* Battle of the Dalmatian Channels
Battle of the Dalmatian Channels
* Gospić massacre
Gospić massacre
* Siege of Dubrovnik
Siege of Dubrovnik
* Operation Otkos 10
Operation Otkos 10
* Operation Orkan 91
Operation Orkan 91
* Operation Whirlwind * Operation Baranja
Baranja
* Operation Jackal
Operation Jackal
* Battle of the Miljevci Plateau * Operation Tiger * Operation Maslenica
Operation Maslenica
* Operation Medak Pocket
Operation Medak Pocket
* Operation Winter \'94 * Operation Flash
Operation Flash
* Operation Summer \'95 * Operation Storm
Operation Storm

War in Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina (1992–1995)

* Battle of Kupres (1992)
Battle of Kupres (1992)
* Siege of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
* Siege of Bihać
Siege of Bihać
* Operation Vrbas \'92 * Operation Koridor * Battle of Žepče
Battle of Žepče
* Siege of Mostar
Siege of Mostar
* Operation Neretva \'93 * Operation Tvigi 94 * Battle of Kupres (Operation Cincar) * Battle of Orašje
Battle of Orašje
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Operation Una
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21st-century conflicts

War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

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International Security Assistance Force
(ISAF) (2003–2014) * Resolute Support Mission Force (RS) (2015–present)

Golan Heights
Golan Heights
ceasefire after Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War

* United Nations Disengagement Observer Force
United Nations Disengagement Observer Force
(UNDOF) (2008–2013)

Category
Category

* v * t * e

World War II in Yugoslavia
World War II in Yugoslavia

1941

* Invasion of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia

* Uprising in Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina

* May 1941 Sanski Most revolt * June uprising in eastern Herzegovina * Siege of Rogatica * Olovo

* Uprising in Serbia

* Battle of Loznica * Battle of Banja Koviljača * Operation Uzice (First Enemy Offensive) * Operation Mihailovic * Novi Pazar * Sjenica

* Uprising in Montenegro

* Battle of Pljevlja

1942

* Operations Southeast Croatia
Croatia
and Ozren (Second Enemy Offensive) * Operation Trio (Third Enemy Offensive) * Kozara Offensive * Operation Alfa

1943

* Case White (Fourth Enemy Offensive) * Case Black
Case Black
(Fifth Enemy Offensive)

1944

* Operations Kugelblitz and Schneesturm (Sixth Enemy Offensive) * Operation Rösselsprung (Seventh Enemy Offensive) * Belgrade Offensive
Belgrade Offensive
* Kosovo
Kosovo
Operation

1945

* Syrmian Front * Battle of Lijevče Field
Battle of Lijevče Field
* Bar massacre * Battle of Poljana * Battle of Odžak
Battle of Odžak

MACEDONIA

* World War II
World War II
in Yugoslav Macedonia

SLOVENIA

* Slovene Lands in World War II
World War II

STRATEGIC BOMBING

* Belgrade
Belgrade
* Podgorica * Zadar * Zagreb
Zagreb

see also FACTIONS IN THE YUGOSLAV FRONT PEOPLE OF THE YUGOSLAV FRONT

* v * t * e

World War II
World War II

* Asia and the Pacific

* China * South-East Asia * North and Central Pacific * South-West Pacific

* Europe

* Western * Eastern

* Mediterranean and Middle East

* North Africa * East Africa * Italy
Italy

* West Africa * Atlantic * North America * South America

* Casualties * Military engagements * Conferences * Commanders

PARTICIPANTS

Allies (leaders )

* Australia * Belgium * Brazil * Canada * China * Cuba * Czechoslovakia * Denmark * Ethiopia * France * Free France (from June 1940) * Greece * India * Italy
Italy
(from September 1943) * Luxembourg * Mexico * Netherlands * New Zealand * Norway * Philippines (Commonwealth) * Poland * South Africa * Southern Rhodesia * Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* United Kingdom

* United States

* Puerto Rico

* Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia

Axis and Axis-aligned (leaders )

* Albania * Bulgaria
Bulgaria
* Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China * Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia
* Finland * Germany * Hungary
Hungary
* Free India * Iraq * Italy
Italy
(until September 1943) * Italian Social Republic
Italian Social Republic
* Japan * Manchukuo
Manchukuo
* Philippines (Second Republic) * Romania * Slovakia

* Thailand

* Vichy France
Vichy France

* Armed neutrality

RESISTANCE

* Albania * Austria * Belgium * Bulgaria
Bulgaria
* Czech lands * Denmark * Estonia * Ethiopia * France * Germany * Greece * Hong Kong * Italy
Italy
* Japan * Jewish * Korea * Latvia * Lithuania * Luxembourg * Malaya * Netherlands * Northeast China * Norway * Philippines

* Poland

* Anti-communist

* Romania * Thailand * Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Slovakia * Western Ukraine * Vietnam

* Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia

* Monarchists

TIMELINE

PRELUDE

* Africa * Asia * Europe

1939

* Poland * Phoney War
Phoney War
* Winter War
Winter War
* Atlantic * Changsha * China

1940

* Weserübung * Netherlands * Belgium

* France

* Armistice of 22 June 1940
Armistice of 22 June 1940

* Britain * North Africa * West Africa * British Somaliland * North China * Baltic States * Moldova * Indochina * Greece * Compass

1941

* East Africa * Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
* Shanggao * Greece * Crete * Iraq * Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Barbarossa) * Finland * Lithuania * Syria and Lebanon * Kiev * Iran * Leningrad * Gorky * Moscow * Sevastopol

* Pearl Harbor

* The outbreak of the Pacific War
Pacific War

* Hong Kong * Philippines * Changsha * Malaya * Borneo (1941–42)

1942

* Burma * Changsha * Java Sea * Coral Sea * Gazala * Dutch Harbor * Attu (occupation) * Kiska * Zhejiang-Jiangxi * Midway * Rzhev * Blue * Stalingrad * Singapore * Dieppe * El Alamein * Guadalcanal * Torch

1943

* Tunisia * Kursk * Smolensk * Gorky * Solomon Islands * Attu * Sicily * Cottage * Lower Dnieper

* Italy
Italy

* Armistice of Cassibile
Armistice of Cassibile

* Gilbert and Marshall Islands * Burma * Northern Burma and Western Yunnan * Changde

1944

* Monte Cassino / Shingle * Narva * Korsun–Cherkassy * Tempest * Ichi-Go * Overlord * Neptune * Normandy * Mariana and Palau * Bagration * Western Ukraine * Tannenberg Line * Warsaw * Eastern Romania * Belgrade
Belgrade
* Paris * Dragoon * Gothic Line
Gothic Line
* Market Garden * Estonia * Crossbow * Pointblank * Lapland * Hungary
Hungary
* Leyte

* Ardennes

* Bodenplatte

* Philippines (1944–1945) * Burma (1944–45)

1945

* Vistula–Oder * Iwo Jima * Western invasion of Germany * Okinawa * Italy
Italy
(Spring 1945) * Borneo * Syrmian Front * Berlin * Czechoslovakia * Budapest * West Hunan * Guangxi * Surrender of Germany * Project Hula
Project Hula
* Manchuria * Manila * Borneo * Taipei

* Atomic bombings

* Debate

* Kuril Islands

* Shumshu

* Surrender of Japan
Surrender of Japan

* End of World War II
World War II
in Asia

ASPECTS

GENERAL

FAMINES

* Bengal famine of 1943
Bengal famine of 1943
* Chinese famine of 1942–43 * Greek Famine of 1941-1944 * Dutch famine of 1944–45
Dutch famine of 1944–45
* Vietnamese Famine of 1945

* Air warfare of World War II
World War II
* Blitzkrieg
Blitzkrieg
* Comparative military ranks * Cryptography * Diplomacy

* Home front

* United States * Australian * United Kingdom

* Lend-Lease
Lend-Lease
* Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
* Military awards * Military equipment * Military production * Nazi plunder * Opposition

* Technology

* Allied cooperation

* Total war * Strategic bombing * Puppet states * Women * Art and World War II
World War II

AFTERMATH

* Expulsion of Germans * Operation Paperclip
Operation Paperclip
* Operation Osoaviakhim * Operation Keelhaul * Occupation of Germany * Territorial changes of Germany

* Soviet occupations

* Romania * Poland * Hungary
Hungary
* Baltic States

* Occupation of Japan * First Indochina War
First Indochina War
* Indonesian National Revolution
Indonesian National Revolution
* Cold War
Cold War
* Decolonization
Decolonization
* Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany
Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany
* Popular culture

WAR CRIMES

* Allied war crimes

* Soviet war crimes * British war crimes * United States war crimes

* German (Forced labour ) / Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
war crimes

* Holocaust * Aftermath * Response * Prosecution

* Italian war crimes
Italian war crimes

* Japanese war crimes
Japanese war crimes

* Unit 731
Unit 731
* Prosecution

* Croatian war crimes

* against the Serbs * against the Jews

* Romanian war crimes

Wartime sexual violence

* German military brothels * Camp brothels * Rape during the occupation of Japan
Rape during the occupation of Japan
* Sook Ching
Sook Ching
* Comfort women
Comfort women
* Rape of Nanking * Rape of Manila
Rape of Manila
* Rape during the occupation of Germany * Rape during the liberation of France * Rape during the liberation of Poland

PRISONERS

* Finnish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* German prisoners of war in the United States * Italian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Japanese prisoners of war in World War II
World War II
* German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war
German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war
* Polish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Romanian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union

* Bibliography * Category
Category

.