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The Info List - Syrian Civil War



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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Allied groups

* al-Abbas Brigade * Arab Nationalist Guard * Army of Monotheists * Fatemiyoun Brigade * PFLP-GC * Sootoro * Syrian Resistance

Iran
Iran

* IRCG

Hezbollah Russia
Russia
(from 2015) Support:

* China
China

SYRIAN OPPOSITION

* Free Syrian Army (Southern Front )

Turkey
Turkey
(from 2016)

* Syrian National Army

Support:

* Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
* Qatar
Qatar
* France
France
* United States
United States
(2011–17) * Libya
Libya
(2011–13)

-------------------------

AHRAR AL-SHAM

* Islamic Front / SIF (2012–15)

Jaysh al-Islam Support:

* Qatar
Qatar
* Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
* Turkey
Turkey

-------------------------

TAHRIR AL-SHAM

* Al-Nusra Front
Al-Nusra Front
(2012–17)

Turkistan Islamic Party Support:

* Al-Qaeda

ISLAMIC STATE OF IRAQ AND THE LEVANT (from 2013)

* Military of ISIL * Khalid ibn al-Walid Army
Khalid ibn al-Walid Army
* Islamic State of Iraq (2011–13)

Support:

* Al-Qaeda (2011–14)

ROJAVA (SDF ) (from 2012)

* YPG
YPG
* YPJ * JaT * MFS

* IFB

Support:

* United States
United States
(from 2014) * Russia
Russia
(from 2015) * France
France
(from 2016) * PKK

* Iraqi Kurdistan
Iraqi Kurdistan

* PUK (from 2013) * KDP (2013–15)

-------------------------

CJTF–OIR (from 2014) United States
United States
France
France
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Netherlands
Netherlands
Jordan
Jordan
Germany
Germany
Norway
Norway
Former participants:

* Until 2015 Canada
Canada
* Until 2016 Bahrain
Bahrain
* Denmark
Denmark
* Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
* UAE * Qatar
Qatar
* Morocco
Morocco

* Until 2017 Belgium
Belgium
* Australia
Australia

COMMANDERS AND LEADERS

* Bashar al-Assad (President of Syria
Syria
) * Fahd Jassem al-Freij (Minister of Defense ) * Ali Abdullah Ayyoub (Chief of Staff of the Army ) * Issam Hallaq (Chief of Staff of the Air Force ) * Suheil al-Hassan (Commander of Tiger Forces ) * Issam Zahreddine (Major General of the Republican Guard ) * Ali Mamlouk (Director of the National Security Bureau ) * Rafiq Shahadah (Head of the Military Intelligence Directorate ) * Hassan Nasrallah
Hassan Nasrallah
(Secretary General of Hezbollah ) * Ali Khamenei
Ali Khamenei
(Supreme Leader of Iran
Iran
) * Qasem Soleimani (Commander of Quds Force ) * Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(President of Russia
Russia
)

KIA:

* Assef Shawkat † (Deputy Minister of Defense) * Dawoud Rajiha
Dawoud Rajiha
† (Minister of Defense)

* Rustum Ghazaleh † (Head of Syrian National Intelligence) * Hilal al-Assad † (Head of National Defence Forces ) * Hossein Hamadani † ( IRGC Major General) * Hassan Shateri † (Senior Commander of IRGC ) * Samir Kuntar † (Senior Commander of Hezbollah ) * Mustafa Badreddine † (Military Leader of Hezbollah ) * Mohamad Issa † ( Hezbollah Chief of Operations in Syria) * Jihad Mughniyah † ( Hezbollah Head of Security) * Ali Reza Tavassoli † (Leader of Liwa Fatemiyoun )

* Bashar al-Zoubi (Commander of the Southern Front ) * Jamal Maarouf (former commander of the SRF ; 2012–14)

Lt. Gen. Zekai Aksakallı (Operations chief commander) KIA:

* Zahran Alloush † (Islamic Front Military Chief) * Abdul Qader Saleh
Abdul Qader Saleh
† (Founder of al-Tawhid Brigade )

-------------------------

* Abu Yahia al-Hamawi (Leader of Ahrar al-Sham
Ahrar al-Sham
) * Ahmed Issa al-Sheikh (Leader of the Islamic Front ; 2012–15)

KIA:

* Hassan Aboud † (Leader of Ahrar al-Sham
Ahrar al-Sham
) * Abu Khalid al-Suri † (senior al-Qaeda Commander, founding member of Ahrar al-Sham
Ahrar al-Sham
)

-------------------------

* Abu Jaber Shaykh
Abu Jaber Shaykh
(Emir of Tahrir al-Sham ) * Abu Mohammad al-Julani
Abu Mohammad al-Julani
(Military commander of Tahrir al-Sham )

KIA:

* Abu Humam al-Shami † (Military Chief of al-Nusra Front) * Abu Firas al-Suri † (Spokesperson of al-Nusra Front) * Abu Hajer al-Homsi † (al-Nusra Front military chief)

* Muhsin al-Fadhli † (Leader of Khorasan )

* Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi (Leader of ISIL
ISIL
) * Gulmurod Khalimov (Minister of War) * Abu Fatima al-Jaheishi (Deputy Leader) * Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi (2016–present) (Leader of the Khalid ibn al-Walid Army )

KIA:

* Haji Bakr † (Former Deputy leader of ISIL
ISIL
and Head of Military Council) * Abu Ayman al-Iraqi † (Former Head of Military Council) * Abu Ali al-Anbari † (Deputy, Syria)

* Abu Omar al-Shishani † ( War
War
Minister) * Abu Umar al-Tunisi † (Senior Leader) * Abu Sayyaf † (Oil Minister) * Abu Muslim al-Turkmani † (Deputy Leader) * Abu Abdulrahman al-Bilawi † (Head of Military Council)

* Muhammad al-Baridi † (Founder of Yarmouk Martyrs Brigade )

* Riad Darar (Co-chairperson of the MSD ) * Îlham Ehmed (Co-chairperson of the MSD ) * Salih Muhammad (Co-President of the PYD ) * Asya Abdullah (Co-President of the PYD ) * Sipan Hemo (Commander of the YPG
YPG
)

------------------------- Stephen J. Townsend (Commander of CJTF-OIR)

STRENGTH

Syrian Armed Forces : 180,000 General Security Directorate : 8,000 National Defense Force: 80,000 Hezbollah: 6,000–8,000 Ba'ath Brigades: 7,000 Russia: 4,000 troops and 1,000 contractors Iran: 3,000–5,000 Other allied groups: 15,500+

FSA: 40,000–50,000 (2013) Islamic Front: 40,000–70,000 (2014) Other groups: 12,500 (2015)

-------------------------

Ahrar al-Sham: 18,000–20,000+ (March 2017) -------------------------

Tahrir al-Sham: 31,000 Allied groups: 8,500+ 15,000–20,000 (U.S. claim, late 2016)

SDF: 50,000+

* YPG
YPG
and YPJ: 57,000–60,000 (most, not all, part of the SDF) * Syriac Military Council: 2,000 * Army of Revolutionaries: 3,000

CASUALTIES AND LOSSES

SYRIAN GOVERNMENT: 61,808–96,808 soldiers killed 46,447–60,447 militiamen killed 4,700 soldiers and militiamen and 2,000 supporters captured HEZBOLLAH: 1,480–1,700 killed RUSSIA: 34 soldiers and 43 contractors killed OTHER NON-SYRIAN FIGHTERS: 7,039 killed (1,260 Iranian-led)

115,307–151,307 fighters killed 979 protesters killed ------------------------- TURKEY: 71 soldiers killed (2016–17 ground incursion ) 11,522+ killed (per SOHR) 20,711+ killed (per YPG
YPG
and SAA)

ROJAVA: 3,834 killed ------------------------- CJTF–OIR : 5 killed

96,073 –103,648 (3,284 foreign ; mostly Palestinian) civilian deaths documented by opposition 88 other foreign soldiers killed ( 48, 16, 17, 7) -------------------------

TOTAL KILLED: 331,765–475,000 (July 2017 SOHR estimate) 470,000 (February 2016 SCPR estimate) -------------------------

OVER 7,600,000 internally displaced (July 2015 UNHCR
UNHCR
estimate) OVER 5,116,097 refugees (July 2017 registered by _ UNHCR
UNHCR
_) -------------------------

a The Free Syrian Army acted as a centralized organization from 2011 until early 2013. Since then, the use of the Free Syrian Army name by armed groups has been arbitrary. In August 2016, Turkey's military intervention introduced the Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army . b Turkey
Turkey
has provided arms support to the Syrian opposition since 2011. From August 2016 to March 2017, Turkey
Turkey
fought alongside a rebel contingent in Aleppo governorate against the SDF and ISIL
ISIL
but not against the Syrian government. c From September to November 2016, the U.S. fought alongside a rebel contingent in Aleppo governorate solely against ISIL, but not against the Syrian government or the SDF. In 2017, the U.S. intentionally attacked the Syrian government six times. The U.S. also accidentally hit a Syrian base in Deir ez-Zor in September 2016, killing over 100 SAA soldiers. The Syrian government maintains that this was an intentional attack. d Tahrir al-Sham 's predecessor, the Al-Nusra Front
Al-Nusra Front
, and ISIL
ISIL
's predecessor, Islamic State of Iraq , were allied al-Qaeda franchises until April 2013 when a merger of the two groups was proposed by Islamic State of Iraq as the " Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant". The Al-Nusra Front
Al-Nusra Front
rejected this proposal and al-Qaeda cut all affiliation with ISIL
ISIL
in February 2014. e Ahrar al-Sham
Ahrar al-Sham
and Tahrir al-Sham 's predecessor, the Al-Nusra Front , were allied under the Army of Conquest from March 2015 to January 2017. f Number includes Kurdish and ISIL
ISIL
fighters, whose deaths are also listed in their separate columns.

The SYRIAN CIVIL WAR (Arabic : الحرب الأهلية السورية‎‎, _Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah_) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria
Syria
fought primarily between the government of President Bashar al-Assad , along with its allies, and various forces opposing the government.

The unrest in Syria, part of a wider wave of 2011 Arab
Arab
Spring protests, grew out of discontent with the Assad government and escalated to an armed conflict after protests calling for his removal were violently suppressed. The war is being fought by several factions: the Syrian government and its allies, a loose alliance of Sunni
Sunni
Arab
Arab
rebel groups (including the Free Syrian Army ), the majority-Kurdish Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), Salafi jihadist groups (including al-Nusra Front ) and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
Levant
(ISIL), with a number of countries in the region and beyond being either directly involved , or rendering support to one or another faction.

Syrian opposition groups formed the Free Syrian Army (FSA) and seized control of the area surrounding Aleppo
Aleppo
and parts of southern Syria. Over time, some factions of the Syrian opposition split from their original moderate position to pursue an Islamist vision for Syria, joining groups such as al-Nusra Front and ISIL. In 2015, the People\'s Protection Units (YPG) joined forces with Arab, Assyrian, Armenian and some Turkmen groups, to form the Syrian Democratic Forces , while most Turkmen groups remained with the FSA.

Russia
Russia
and Hezbollah support the Syrian government militarily, while beginning in 2014, a coalition of NATO
NATO
countries began launching airstrikes against ISIL.

International organizations have accused the Syrian government, ISIL and rebel groups of severe human rights violations and of many massacres . The conflict has caused a major refugee crisis . Over the course of the war a number of peace initiatives have been launched, including the March 2017 Geneva peace talks on Syria
Syria
led by the United Nations , but fighting continues.

* v * t * e

Syrian Civil War
War

Timeline

*

* Jan–Apr 2011 * May–Aug 2011 * Sep–Dec 2011 * Jan–Apr 2012 * May–Aug 2012 * Sep–Dec 2012 * Jan–Apr 2013 * May–Dec 2013 * Jan–July 2014 * Aug–Dec 2014 * Jan–July 2015 * Aug–Dec 2015 * Jan–Apr 2016 * May–Aug 2016 * Sep–Dec 2016 * Jan–Apr 2017 * May–Aug 2017

-------------------------

* _Casualties _ * _Cities _ * _Bombings _ * _Massacres _

* v * t * e

Civil uprising in Syria
Syria
(March–August 2011)

* Daraa * Baniyas * Homs
Homs
(May–August 2011) * Talkalakh * Rastan and Talbiseh * 1st Jisr ash-Shugur * 1st Jabal al-Zawiya * Hama
Hama
* Latakia

* v * t * e

Start of insurgency (September 2011 – April 2012)

* Homs
Homs
(2011–14)

* Homs
Homs
offensive

* 1st Idlib Gov.

* Syrian–Turkish border * Jabal al-Zawiya * 1st Idlib City * Saraqeb

* 1st Rastan * Hama
Hama
Gov. * Shayrat ">

* v * t * e

UN Cease-fire and escalation (May 2012 – December 2013)

* 3rd Rastan * Houla * Al-Haffah * Al-Qubeir * Al-Tremseh * 3rd Idlib Gov.

* 1st Damascus
Damascus

* Bombing

* Aleppo
Aleppo

* Anadan * Menagh Air Base * Base 46 * Khan al-Assal * 1st Aleppo
Aleppo
offensive * 2nd Aleppo
Aleppo
offensive

* _ Syrian Kurdistan _

* Hasaka campaign

* Ras al-Ayn * al-Yaarubiyah

* Tell Abyad * _Kurdish– Islamist conflict _

* Nubl & Al-Zahraa * 2nd Rif Dimashq (1st Darayya ) * Abu al-Duhur Airbase * Quneitra Gov.

* 3rd Rif Dimashq

* 1st Yarmouk camp * 2nd Darayya

* Darayya ">

* v * t * e

Rise of the Islamists (January–September 2014)

* _Inter-rebel conflict _

* Northern Aleppo
Aleppo
* Markada * 1st Deir ez-Zor offensive

* al-Otaiba ambush * Maan * Hosn * Morek * 2nd Daraa offensive * 2nd Latakia offensive * 4th Idlib Gov. * Al-Malihah * 2nd Wadi Deif

* 2nd Qalamoun

* Arsal

* _ Deir ez-Zor (2014–2017) _ * 1st Shaer gas field

* Eastern Syria
Syria

* Tabqa Air base

* 3rd Hama
Hama
offensive * 6th Rif Dimashq * 1st Quneitra * Kobanî

* v * t * e

United States-led intervention (September 2014 – September 2015)

* _U.S.-led intervention _ * 3rd Daraa offensive * 2nd Safira * 2014 Idlib city raid * Nusra–FSA conflict * 2nd Shaer gas field * 1st Al-Shaykh Maskin * 2nd Deir ez-Zor offensive * 3rd Aleppo
Aleppo
offensive * An-26 crash * 4th Daraa offensive * Southern Syria
Syria
* Eastern al-Hasakah offensive * 1st Sarrin * Hama/ Homs
Homs
offensive * Bosra

* 5th Idlib Gov

* 2nd Idlib city

* _Al-Fu\'ah- Kafriya _ * Nasib * 2nd Yarmouk camp * 1st Northwestern Syria
Syria
* 3rd Qalamoun * 1st Palmyra
Palmyra
* Western al-Hasakah offensive * 1st Al-Hasakah city * Tell Abyad * Daraa/As-Suwayda * 2nd Quneitra * 2nd Sarrin * 5th Daraa * 2nd Al-Hasakah city * 2nd Kobanî * 4th Aleppo
Aleppo
offensive * 2nd Zabadani * 2nd Palmyra
Palmyra
* Al-Ghab * 1st Al-Qaryatayn * Douma market * 7th Rif Dimashq * Kuweires offensive

* v * t * e

Russian intervention (September 2015 – March 2016)

* _Russian intervention _ * 3rd Quneitra * 2nd Northwestern Syria
Syria

* 3rd Latakia offensive

* Su-24 shootdown

* 5th Aleppo
Aleppo
offensive * Al-Hawl * Homs
Homs
offensive * 6th Aleppo
Aleppo
offensive * 4th Hama
Hama
offensive * Tell Tamer * Tishrin Dam * 2nd Al-Shaykh Maskin * al-Qamishli bombings * Orontes River * 3rd Deir ez-Zor offensive * 1st Sayyidah Zaynab * 7th Aleppo
Aleppo
offensive * 1st Ithriyah- Raqqa * Al-Shaddadi * Homs
Homs
bombings * 2nd Sayyidah Zaynab * Khanasir * 2nd Tel Abyad * 2nd Al-Qaryatayn * 3rd Palmyra
Palmyra
* 2nd Maarat al-Nu\'man

* v * t * e

Aleppo
Aleppo
escalation and Turkish intervention (March–December 2016)

* 8th Aleppo
Aleppo
offensive * 6th Daraa * 9th–11th Aleppo
Aleppo
offensives * Al-Dumayr * 1st East Ghouta inter-rebel conflict * Al-Qamishli clashes * Aleppo
Aleppo
bombings * 8th Rif Dimashq * 3rd Shaer gas field * Northern Raqqa * Jableh ">

* v * t * e

Post- Aleppo
Aleppo
and decline of ISIL
ISIL
(December 2016–present)

* Wadi Barada * 1st Syrian Desert * Azaz bombings * 5th Palmyra
Palmyra
* 4th Deir ez-Zor offensive * 18th Aleppo
Aleppo
offensive * 2nd Idlib inter-rebel conflict * 7th Daraa * Qaboun * 8th Daraa * Eastern Homs
Homs
offensive * al-Jina mosque * 6th Hama
Hama
offensive * Tabqa * Khan Shaykhun * US Shayrat strike * Aleppo
Aleppo
bus bombing * Post-intervention Turkish airstrikes * 2nd East Ghouta inter-rebel conflict * 2nd Syrian Desert * Maskanah * East Hama
Hama
* _2nd Raqqa _ * 9th Daraa * Southern Raqqa * Iranian Deir ez-Zor strike * _Jobar _ * 5th Quneitra * _Central Syria
Syria
_ * 3rd Idlib inter-rebel conflict * _4th Qalamoun _

* v * t * e

Syrian War
War
spillover and international incidents

* Lebanon
Lebanon
spillover

* Lebanese–Syrian border * Sidon * Iranian embassy bombing * North Lebanon
Lebanon
clashes

-------------------------

* Turkish involvement in the Syrian Civil War
War

* Syrian–Turkish border incidents * Turkish F4 shootdown * Reyhanlı bombings * Kurdish riots * Turkish military intervention in Syria
Syria

-------------------------

* Russo-Turkish confrontation

* Russian Su-24 shootdown * Assassination of Andrei Karlov

-------------------------

* Jordanian–Syrian border incidents

-------------------------

* Israeli–Syrian ceasefire line

* Mazraat Amal

-------------------------

* Iraqi–Syrian border incidents

* Akashat * al-Shabah * Western Nineveh

-------------------------

* Islamic terror in Europe

-------------------------

* Iranian involvement in the Syrian Civil War
War

* 2017 Tehran attacks * 2017 Deir ez-Zor missile strike

* v * t * e

Foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War
War

* Turkish involvement

* Turkey–ISIL conflict * Relocation of the Tomb of Suleyman Shah * 2015-16 military intervention * 2017 airstrikes

* Russian involvement

* military intervention * medical facility targeting

* Iranian involvement (2017 missile strike )

* Hezbollah involvement

* Iran-Israel conflict

* U.S.-led Intervention

* Timeline of raids * 2014 rescue operation * May 2015 raid * 2017 missile strikes

* Dutch involvement * German intervention * French intervention * Australian intervention * UK intervention

* Jordanian intervention

* Operation Martyr Muath

* Qatari support * Saudi support * Foreign rebel fighters

Part of a series on

BA\\'ATHISM

Organisations

ARAB BA\\'ATH 1940–1947

ARAB BA\\'ATH MOVEMENT 1940–1947

BA\\'ATH PARTY 1947–1966

BA\\'ATH PARTY (PRO-IRAQI) 1968–2003

BA\\'ATH PARTY (PRO-SYRIAN) 1966–present

People

* Zaki al-Arsuzi * Michel Aflaq
Michel Aflaq
* Salah al-Din al-Bitar * Abdullah Rimawi * Wahib al-Ghanim * Fuad al-Rikabi * Salah Jadid * Hafez al-Assad * Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
* Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
* Bashar al-Assad * Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri

Literature

* On the Way of Resurrection * The Battle for One Destiny * The Genius of Arabic in Its Tongue

History

* BA\\'ATHIST IRAQ Ramadan Revolution
Ramadan Revolution
* November 1963 coup d\'état * 17 July Revolution * Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War
War
* Gulf War
War
* UN sanctions * Iraq
Iraq
War
War
* De-Ba\'athification

* BA\\'ATHIST SYRIA Syrian Committee to Help
Help
Iraq
Iraq
* 1963 / 1966 coup d\'états

* Corrective Revolution * Civil War

Regional organisations

ALGERIA

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

BAHRAIN

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

EGYPT

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

IRAQ

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

JORDAN

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

KUWAIT

* pro- Iraq
Iraq

LEBANON

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

LIBYA

* pro- Iraq
Iraq

MAURITANIA

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

PALESTINE

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

SUDAN

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

SYRIA

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

TUNISIA

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

YEMEN

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

Splinter groups

ARAB SOCIALIST REVOLUTIONARY BA\\'ATH PARTY 1960–1962/63

SOCIALIST LEBANON 1965–1970

ARAB REVOLUTIONARY WORKERS PARTY 1966–present

DEMOCRATIC SOCIALIST ARAB BA\\'ATH PARTY 1970–present

SUDANESE BA\\'ATH PARTY 2002–present

Related topics

* Arab
Arab
nationalism * Arab
Arab
socialism * Nasserism * Pan-Arabism * Strasserism

* Politics portal * Socialism portal

* v * t * e

CONTENTS

* 1 Background

* 1.1 Assad government * 1.2 Demographics * 1.3 Socioeconomic background * 1.4 Drought
Drought
* 1.5 Human rights

* 2 Timeline

* 2.1 Civil uprising (March–July 2011) * 2.2 Early armed insurgency (July 2011–April 2012) * 2.3 Ceasefire and escalation (April 2012–December 2013) * 2.4 Fighting between ISIL
ISIL
and other rebel groups (January–March 2014) * 2.5 Government offensives and Presidential election (March–June 2014) * 2.6 Civil war spill over to Iraq
Iraq
and U.S. airstrikes (June 2014 – January 2015) * 2.7 The Southern Front (October 2014 – February 2015) * 2.8 Northern Al-Nusra Front
Al-Nusra Front
and Islamist takeover (October 2014 – March 2015) * 2.9 Army of Conquest advances in Idlib (April 2015 – June 2015) * 2.10 Resurgent ISIL
ISIL
advance (May 2015 – September 2015) * 2.11 Russian intervention and government offensive (30 September 2015–February 2016) * 2.12 Partial ceasefire (from 26 February–July 2016) * 2.13 SDF advances and Turkish military intervention (August 2016–October 2016) * 2.14 Russian/Iranian/Turkish backed ceasefire (December 2016 – April 2017) * 2.15 U.S. strikes over Khan Shaykhun chemical attack; and renewed fighting (April 2017 – June 2017) * 2.16 Ceasefire; CIA
CIA
arms cutoff (July 2017 - present)

* 3 Advanced weaponry and tactics

* 3.1 Chemical weapons * 3.2 Cluster bombs * 3.3 Thermobaric weapons * 3.4 Anti-tank missiles * 3.5 Ballistic missiles

* 4 Belligerents

* 4.1 Ba\'athist Syria
Syria
and allies

* 4.1.1 Syrian Armed Forces * 4.1.2 National Defense Force * 4.1.3 Shabiha * 4.1.4 Christian militias * 4.1.5 Hezbollah * 4.1.6 Iran
Iran
* 4.1.7 Foreign Shia militias * 4.1.8 Russia
Russia

* 4.2 Syrian Opposition and allies

* 4.2.1 Free Syrian Army * 4.2.2 Islamic Front * 4.2.3 United States
United States

* 4.3 Salafist factions

* 4.3.1 Al-Nusra Front
Al-Nusra Front

* 4.4 Syrian Democratic Forces * 4.5 Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
(ISIL) * 4.6 U.S.-led coalition against ISIL
ISIL
* 4.7 Foreign involvement

* 5 Political opposition

* 5.1 Syrian National Coalition * 5.2 Syrian National Council * 5.3 National Coordination Committee for Democratic Change * 5.4 Syrian Democratic Council
Syrian Democratic Council

* 6 Reporting, censoring and propaganda * 7 International reactions * 8 Humanitarian aid

* 9 Impact

* 9.1 Deaths * 9.2 Disease * 9.3 Refugee migration * 9.4 Human rights violations * 9.5 Sectarian threats * 9.6 Crime wave * 9.7 Cultural heritage

* 10 Spillover * 11 Peace efforts

* 12 Depictions

* 12.1 Films

* 12.1.1 Documentaries

* 12.2 Video games

* 13 See also * 14 References * 15 Further reading * 16 External links

BACKGROUND

Main article: Modern history of Syria
Syria

ASSAD GOVERNMENT

See also: Al-Assad family

Syria
Syria
became an independent republic in 1946 following years of French rule after World War
War
II , although democratic rule ended with a U.S.–backed coup in March 1949 , followed by two more coups the same year. A popular uprising against military rule in 1954 saw the army transfer power to civilians. From 1958 to 1961, a brief union with Egypt replaced Syria's parliamentary system with a centralized presidential government . The secular Ba\'ath Syrian Regional Branch government came to power through a successful coup d\'état in 1963 . For the next several years Syria
Syria
went through additional coups and changes in leadership.

In March 1971, Hafez al-Assad , an Alawite
Alawite
, declared himself President , a position that he held until his death in 2000. Since 1970, the secular Syrian Regional Branch has remained the dominant political authority in what had been a one-party state until the first multi-party election to the People\'s Council of Syria
Syria
was held in 2012. On 31 January 1973, Hafez al-Assad implemented a new constitution, which led to a national crisis. Unlike previous constitutions, this one did not require that the President of Syria
Syria
be a Muslim
Muslim
, leading to fierce demonstrations in Hama
Hama
, Homs
Homs
and Aleppo organized by the Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood and the _ulama _. They labelled Assad the "enemy of Allah
Allah
" and called for a _jihad _ against his rule. The government survived a series of armed revolts by Islamists , mainly members of the Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood, from 1976 until 1982.

Upon Hafez al-Assad's death in 2000, his son Bashar al-Assad was elected as President of Syria. Bashar al-Assad and his wife Asma , a Sunni
Sunni
Muslim
Muslim
born and educated in Britain, initially inspired hopes for democratic reforms. The Damascus Spring , a period of social and political debate, took place between July 2000 and August 2001. The Damascus Spring largely ended in August 2001 with the arrest and imprisonment of ten leading activists who had called for democratic elections and a campaign of civil disobedience. In the opinion of his critics, Bashar al-Assad had failed to deliver on promised reforms. President Bashar Al-Assad maintains that no 'moderate opposition' to his rule exists, and that all opposition forces are jihadists intent on destroying his secular leadership . In an April 2017 interview with Croatian newspaper Vecernji List he reasserted his view that terrorist groups operating in Syria
Syria
are 'linked to the agendas of foreign countries'.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Syrian Arabs , together with some 600,000 Palestinian Arabs, make up roughly 74 percent of the population (if Syriac Christians are excluded). Syria's Muslims are 74 percent Sunnis (including Sufis ), and 13 percent Shias (including 8-12 percent Alawites from which about 2 percent are Mershdis ), 3 percent are Druze
Druze
, while the remaining 10 percent are Christians. Not all of Syria's Sunnis are Arabs. The Assad family is mixed. Bashar is married to a Sunni, with whom he has several children. He is affiliated with the sect that his parents belong to: the minority Alawite
Alawite
sect. Alawites control Syria's security apparatus.

The majority of Syria's Christians belonged to the Eastern Christian churches , such as the branches of the Eastern Catholic Churches , Syriac Orthodox Church
Syriac Orthodox Church
, Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch , Assyrian Church of the East , and Armenian Orthodox Church , which have existed in the region since the first century AD.

Syrian Kurds , an ethnic minority making up approximately 9 percent of the population, have endured ethnic discrimination and the denial of their cultural and linguistic rights, as well as the frequent denial of their citizenship, for the history of the Syrian state.

Assyrians , an indigenous Eastern Aramaic -speaking Christian Semitic people , numbering approximately 500,000, are found mainly in northeast Syria. A larger population lives over the border in northern Iraq
Iraq
. Other ethnic groups include Armenians , Circassians , Turkmens , Greeks , Mhallami , Kawliya , Yezidi
Yezidi
, Shabaks , and Mandeans .

SOCIOECONOMIC BACKGROUND

Socioeconomic inequality increased significantly after free market policies were initiated by Hafez al-Assad in his later years, and it accelerated after Bashar al-Assad came to power. With an emphasis on the service sector , these policies benefited a minority of the nation's population, mostly people who had connections with the government, and members of the Sunni
Sunni
merchant class of Damascus
Damascus
and Aleppo.

The country also faced particularly high youth unemployment rates. At the start of the war, discontent against the government was said to be the strongest in Syria's poor areas, predominantly among conservative Sunnis. These included cities with high poverty rates, such as Daraa and Homs
Homs
and the poorer districts of large cities.

DROUGHT

This coincided with the most intense drought ever recorded in Syria, which lasted from 2006 to 2011 and resulted in widespread crop failure, an increase in food prices and a mass migration of farming families to urban centers. This migration strained infrastructure already burdened by the influx of some 1.5 million refugees from the Iraq
Iraq
War
War
. The drought has been linked to anthropogenic global warming . Adequate water supply continues to be an issue in the ongoing civil war and it is frequently the target of military action.

HUMAN RIGHTS

Main article: Human rights in Syria
Syria

The human rights situation in Syria
Syria
has long been the subject of harsh critique from global organizations. The rights of free expression , association and assembly were strictly controlled in Syria
Syria
even before the uprising. The country was under emergency rule from 1963 until 2011 and public gatherings of more than five people were banned. Security forces had sweeping powers of arrest and detention.

Authorities have harassed and imprisoned human rights activists and other critics of the government, who were often detained indefinitely and tortured while under prison-like conditions. Women and ethnic minorities faced discrimination in the public sector. Thousands of Syrian Kurds were denied citizenship in 1962 and their descendants were labeled "foreigners". A number of riots in 2004 prompted increased tension in Syrian Kurdistan , and there have been occasional clashes between Kurdish protesters and security forces ever since.

Despite hopes for democratic change with the 2000 Damascus Spring , Bashar al-Assad was widely regarded as having failed to implement any improvements. A Human Rights Watch report issued just before the beginning of the 2011 uprising stated that he had failed to substantially improve the state of human rights since taking power.

TIMELINE

See also: Course of events of the Syrian Civil War
War
, Timeline of the Syrian Civil War
War
, and Cities and towns during the Syrian Civil War Anti-Assad protests in Baniyas, April 2011

CIVIL UPRISING (MARCH–JULY 2011)

Main article: Civil uprising phase of the Syrian Civil War
War
See also: Arab Spring

The protests began on 15 March 2011, when protesters marched in the capital of Damascus
Damascus
, demanding democratic reforms and the release of political prisoners. Security forces retaliated by opening fire on the protesters, and according to witnesses who spoke to the BBC
BBC
, the government forces detained six. The protest was triggered by the arrest of a boy and his friends by the government for writing in graffiti , "The people want the fall of the government", in the city of Daraa . A 13-year-old boy, Hamza al-Khateeb , was tortured and killed. Writer and analyst Louai al-Hussein, referencing the Arab Spring ongoing at that time, wrote that " Syria
Syria
is now on the map of countries in the region with an uprising". On 20 March, the protesters burned down a Ba\'ath Party headquarters and "other buildings". The ensuing clashes claimed the lives of seven police officers and 15 protesters. Ten days later in a speech, President Bashar al-Assad blamed "foreign conspirators" pushing Israeli propaganda for the protests. Protests in Douma

Until 7 April, the protesters predominantly demanded democratic reforms, release of political prisoners, an increase in freedoms, abolition of the emergency law and an end to corruption. After 8 April, the emphasis in demonstration slogans shifted slowly towards a call to overthrow the Assad government. Protests spread. On Friday 8 April, they occurred simultaneously in ten cities. By Friday 22 April, protests occurred in twenty cities. By the end of May 2011, 1,000 civilians and 150 soldiers and policemen had been killed and thousands detained; among the arrested were many students, liberal activists and human rights advocates.

Significant armed resistance against the state security took place on 4 June 2011 in Jisr al-Shugur . Unverified reports claim that a portion of the security forces in Jisr defected after secret police and intelligence officers executed soldiers who had refused to fire on civilians. Later, more protesters in Syria
Syria
took up arms, and more soldiers defected to protect protesters.

EARLY ARMED INSURGENCY (JULY 2011–APRIL 2012)

Main article: Early insurgency phase of the Syrian Civil War
War
See also: List of Syrian defectors

The Early insurgency phase of the Syrian Civil War
War
lasted from late July 2011 to April 2012, and was associated with the rise of armed oppositional militias across Syria
Syria
and the beginning of armed rebellion against the authorities of the Syrian Arab Republic . The beginning of the insurgency is typically marked by formation of the Free Syrian Army (FSA) on 29 July 2011, when a group of defected officers declared the establishment of the first organized oppositional military force. Composed of defected Syrian Armed Forces personnel, the rebel army aimed to remove Bashar al-Assad and his government from power.

This period of the war saw the initial civil uprising take on many of the characteristics of a civil war, according to several outside observers, including the United Nations
United Nations
Commission on Human Rights , as armed elements became better organized and began carrying out successful attacks in retaliation for the crackdown by the Syrian government on demonstrators and defectors.

The Arab
Arab
League monitoring mission , initiated in December 2011, ended in failure by February 2012, as Syrian Ba'athist troops and oppositional militants continued to do battle across the country and the Syrian Ba\'athist government prevented foreign observers from touring active battlefields, including besieged oppositional strongholds.

In early 2012, Kofi Annan
Kofi Annan
acted as the UN– Arab
Arab
League Joint Special Representative for Syria. His peace plan provided for a ceasefire, but even as the negotiations for it were being conducted, the rebels and the Syrian army continued fighting even after the peace plan. :11 The United Nations
United Nations
-backed ceasefire was brokered by special envoy Kofi Annan and declared in mid-April 2012.

CEASEFIRE AND ESCALATION (APRIL 2012–DECEMBER 2013)

The 2012–13 escalation of the Syrian Civil War
War
was the third phase of the Syrian Civil War, which gradually escalated from a UN-mediated cease fire attempt during April–May 2012, but deteriorated into radical violence, escalating the conflict level to a full-fledged civil war.

Following the Houla massacre
Houla massacre
of 25 May 2012, in which 108 people were summarily executed, and the subsequent FSA ultimatum to the Syrian Ba'athist government, the ceasefire practically collapsed, as the FSA began nationwide offensives against government troops. On 1 June 2012, President Assad vowed to crush the anti-government uprising. On 12 June 2012, the UN for the first time officially proclaimed Syria
Syria
to be in a state of civil war. The conflict began moving into the two largest cities, Damascus
Damascus
and Aleppo.

Following October 2012 cease-fire failure, during winter of 2012–13 and early spring of 2013, the rebels continued advances on all fronts. In mid-December 2012, American officials said that the Syrian military began firing Scud ballistic missiles at rebel fighters inside Syria. On 11 January 2013, Islamist groups, including al-Nusra Front, took full control of the Taftanaz air base in the Idlib Governorate, after weeks of fighting. In mid-January 2013, as clashes re-erupted between rebels and Kurdish forces in Ras al-Ayn, YPG
YPG
forces moved to expel government forces from oil-rich areas in Hassakeh Province. By 6 March 2013, the rebels had captured the city of Raqqa, effectively making it the first provincial capital to be lost by the Assad government.

The advances of rebels were finally arrested in April 2013, as Syrian Arab
Arab
Army could reorganize and initiate offensives. On 17 April 2013, Ba'athist government forces breached a six-month rebel blockade in Wadi al-Deif, near Idlib. Heavy fighting was reported around the town of Babuleen after government troops attempt to secure control of a main highway leading to Aleppo. The break in the siege also allowed Ba'athist forces to resupply two major military bases in the region which had been relying on sporadic airdrops. In April 2013, government and Hezbollah forces, who have increasingly become involved in the fighting, launched an offensive to capture areas near al-Qusayr. On 21 April, pro-Assad forces captured the towns of Burhaniya, Saqraja and al-Radwaniya near the Lebanese border.

From July 2013, however the situation became a stalemate, with fighting continuing on all fronts between various factions with numerous casualties, but without major territorial changes. On 28 June 2013, rebel forces captured a major military checkpoint in the city of Daraa. Shortly after, Syrian opposition factions declared war on the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
which turned increasingly dominant throughout the war zone with indiscriminate killing of all – whether loyalist Assad or rebels. A major advance took place on 6 August 2013, as rebels captured Menagh Military Airbase after a 10-month siege. On 21 August a chemical attack took place in the Ghouta region of the Damascus
Damascus
countryside, leading to thousands of casualties and several hundred dead in the opposition-held stronghold. The attack was followed by a military offensive by government forces into the area, which had been hotbeds of the opposition. The attack, largely attributed to Assad forces caused the international community to seek disarmanent of the Syrian Arab
Arab
Army from chemical weapons.

In late 2013, the period was marked by increased initiative of the Syrian Arab
Arab
Army, which led offensives against opposition fighters on several fronts. The Syrian Arab
Arab
Army along with its allies, Hezbollah and the al-Abas brigade , launched an offensive on Damascus
Damascus
and Aleppo in November. Fighting between Kurdish forces, rebels and al-Nusra front continued in other locations.

FIGHTING BETWEEN ISIL
ISIL
AND OTHER REBEL GROUPS (JANUARY–MARCH 2014)

Main article: Syrian opposition– Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
Levant
conflict

Tension between moderate rebel forces and ISIS
ISIS
had been high since ISIS
ISIS
captured the border town of Azaz from FSA forces on 18 September 2013. Conflict was renewed over Azaz in early October and in late November ISIS
ISIS
captured the border town of Atme from an FSA brigade. On 3 January 2014, the Army of the Mujahideen, the Free Syrian Army and the Islamic Front launched an offensive against ISIS
ISIS
in Aleppo
Aleppo
and Idlib governorates. A spokesman for the rebels said that rebels attacked ISIS
ISIS
in up to 80% of all ISIS
ISIS
held villages in Idlib and 65% of those in Aleppo.

By 6 January, opposition rebels managed to expel ISIS
ISIS
forces from the city of Raqqa, ISIS's largest stronghold and capital of the Raqqa Governorate. On 8 January, opposition rebels expelled most ISIS forces from the city of Aleppo, however ISIS
ISIS
reinforcements from the Deir ez-Zor Governorate managed to retake several neighborhoods of the city of Raqqa. By mid January ISIS
ISIS
retook the entire city of Raqqa, while rebels expelled ISIS
ISIS
fighters fully from Aleppo
Aleppo
city and the villages west of it.

On 29 January, Turkish aircraft near the border fired on an ISIS convoy inside the Aleppo
Aleppo
province of Syria, killing 11 ISIS
ISIS
fighters and 1 ISIS
ISIS
emir. In late January it was confirmed that rebels had assassinated ISIS's second in command, Haji Bakr , who was al-Qaeda's military council head and a former military officer in Saddam Hussein's army. By mid-February, the al-Nusra Front joined the battle in support of rebel forces, and expelled ISIS
ISIS
from the Deir Ezzor Governorate. By March, the ISIS
ISIS
forces fully retreated from the Idlib Governorate. On 4 March, ISIS
ISIS
retreated from the border town of Azaz and other nearby villages, choosing instead to consolidate around Raqqa in an anticipation of an escalation of fighting with al-Nusra.

GOVERNMENT OFFENSIVES AND PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION (MARCH–JUNE 2014)

Further information: Syrian presidential election, 2014

On 4 March, the Syrian Army
Syrian Army
took control of Sahel in the Qalamoun region. On 8 March, government forces took over Zara, in Homs Governorate, further blocking rebel supply routes from Lebanon. On 11 March, Government forces and Hezbollah took control of the Rima Farms region, directly facing Yabrud. On 16 March, Hezbollah and government forces captured Yabrud , after Free Syrian Army fighters made an unexpected withdrawal, leaving the al-Nusra Front to fight in the city on its own. On 18 March, Israel used artillery against a Syrian Army base, after four of its soldiers had been wounded by a roadside bomb while patrolling Golan Heights.

On 19 March, the Syrian Army
Syrian Army
captured Ras al-Ain near Yabrud , after two days of fighting and al-Husn in Homs
Homs
Governorate, while rebels in the Daraa Governorate captured Daraa prison, and freed hundreds of detainees. On 20 March, the Syrian Army
Syrian Army
took control of the Krak des Chevaliers in al-Husn. On 29 March, Syrian Army
Syrian Army
took control of the villages of Flitah and Ras Maara near the border with Lebanon.

On 22 March, rebels took control of the Kesab border post in the Latakia Governorate. By 23 March, rebels had taken most of Khan Sheikhoun in Hama. During clashes near the rebel-controlled Kesab border post in Latakia, Hilal Al Assad, NDF leader in Latakia and one of Bashar Al Assad 's cousins was killed by rebel fighters. On 4 April, rebels captured the town of Babulin, Idlib. On 9 April, the Syrian Army
Syrian Army
took control of Rankous in the Qalamoun region. On 12 April, rebels in Aleppo
Aleppo
stormed the government-held Ramouseh industrial district in an attempt to cut the Army supply route between the airport and a large Army base. The rebels also took the Rashidin neighbourhood and parts of the Jamiat al-Zahra district. On 26 April, the Syrian Army
Syrian Army
took control of Al-Zabadani . According to SOHR, rebels took control of Tell Ahrmar, Quneitra. Rebels in Daraa also took over Brigade 61 Base and the 74th battalion.

On 26 April, the FSA announced they had begun an offensive against ISIS
ISIS
in the Raqqa Governorate, and had seized five towns west of Raqqa city. On 29 April, activists said that the Syrian Army
Syrian Army
captured Tal Buraq near the town of Mashara in Quneitra without any clashes. On 7 May, a truce went into effect in the city of Homs, SOHR reported. The terms of the agreement include safe evacuation of Islamist fighters from the city, which would then fall under government control, in exchange for release of prisoners and safe passage of humanitarian aid for Nubul and Zahraa, two Shiite enclaves besieged by the rebels. On 18 May, the head of Syria's Air Defense, General Hussein Ishaq , died of wounds sustained during a rebel attack on an air defense base near Mleiha the previous day. In Hama
Hama
Governorate, rebel forces took control of the town of Tel Malah, killing 34 pro-Assad fighters at an army post near the town. Its seizure marked the third time rebels have taken control of the town.

Syria
Syria
held a presidential election in government-held areas on 3 June 2014. For the first time in the history of Syria
Syria
more than one person was allowed to stand as a presidential candidate. More than 9,000 polling stations were set up in government-held areas. According to the Supreme Constitutional Court of Syria
Syria
, 11.63 million Syrians voted (the turnout was 73.42%). President Bashar al-Assad won the election with 88.7% of the votes. As for Assad's challengers, Hassan al-Nouri received 4.3% of the votes and Maher Hajjar received 3.2%. Allies of Assad from more than 30 countries were invited by the Syrian government to follow the presidential election, including Bolivia, Brazil, Cuba, Ecuador, India, Iran, Iraq, Nicaragua, Russia, South Africa and Venezuela. The Iranian official Alaeddin Boroujerdi read a statement by the group saying the election was "free, fair and transparent". The Gulf Cooperation Council , the European Union
European Union
and the United States
United States
all dismissed the election as illegitimate and a farce.

State employees were told to vote or face interrogation. On the ground there were no independent monitors stationed at the polling stations. It is claimed in an opinion piece that as few as 6 million eligible voters remained in Syria. Due to rebel, Kurdish and ISIS
ISIS
control of Syrian territories
Syrian territories
there was no voting in roughly 60% of the country.

CIVIL WAR SPILL OVER TO IRAQ AND U.S. AIRSTRIKES (JUNE 2014 – JANUARY 2015)

Further information: Iraqi Civil War
War
(2014-present) See also: Timeline of Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
events in 2014 , Timeline of the Syrian Civil War
War
(August 2014–present) , and 2014 American intervention in Syria
Syria

Starting on 5 June 2014, ISIL
ISIL
seized swathes of territory in Iraq
Iraq
in addition to heavy weapons and equipment from the Iraqi Army
Iraqi Army
, some of which they brought into Syria. Government airstrikes targeted ISIL bases in Raqqa and Al-Hasakah in coordination with an Iraqi Army counteroffensive. On 14 June, government forces retook the town of Kessab in northern Latakia Governorate , while rebels took over Tall al-Gomo near the town of Nawa in the Daraa Governorate , as well as reentering the Qalamoun area . According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights , on 17 July 2014 ISIL
ISIL
took control of the Shaar oil field, killing 90 pro-government forces while losing 21 fighters. In addition, 270 guards and government-aligned fighters were missing. About 30 government persons managed to escape to the nearby Hajjar field. On 20 July, the Syrian Army
Syrian Army
secured the field, although fighting continued in its outskirts. On 25 July, the Islamic State took control of the Division 17 base near Raqqa.

On 7 August 2014, ISIL
ISIL
took the Brigade 93 base in Raqqa using weapons captured from their offensive in Iraq. Multiple suicide bombs also went off before the base was stormed. On 13 August, ISIL
ISIL
forces took the towns of Akhtarin and Turkmanbareh from rebels in Aleppo
Aleppo
. ISIL
ISIL
forces also took a handful of nearby villages. The other towns seized include Masoudiyeh, Dabiq and Ghouz. On 14 August, after being captured by the Al Nusra Front, the Free Syrian Army commander Sharif As-Safouri admitted to working with Israel and receiving anti-tank weapons from Israel and FSA soldiers also received medical treatment. It is possible this confession was obtained under duress. On 14 August, the Syrian Army
Syrian Army
as well as Hezbollah militias retook the town of Mleiha in Rif Dimashq Governorate . The Supreme Military Council of the FSA denied claims of Mleiha's seizure, rather the rebels have redeployed from recent advances to other defensive lines. Mleiha has been held by the Islamic Front . Rebels had used the town to fire mortars on government held areas inside Damascus.

Meanwhile, ISIL
ISIL
forces in Raqqa were launching a siege on Tabqa airbase , the Syrian government's last military base in Raqqa. Kuwaires airbase in Aleppo
Aleppo
also came under fierce attack by ISIL. On 16 August 2014, there were reports that 22 people were killed in the village of Daraa by a car bomb outside a mosque. The bomb was thought to be detonated by ISIS. Also on 16 August, the Islamic State seized the village of Beden in Aleppo
Aleppo
Governorate from rebels.

On 17 August 2014, SOHR said that in the past two weeks ISIL jihadists had killed over 700 tribal members in oil-rich Deir ez-Zor Governorate . On 19 August, Abu Abdullah al-Iraqi, a senior figure in ISIL
ISIL
who had helped prepare and plan car and suicide bombs across Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq
Iraq
was killed. Some reports said that he was killed by Hezbollah fighters. There were also several reports that he was killed by the Syrian Army
Syrian Army
in the Qalamoun region, near the border with Lebanon. On 19 August, American journalist James Foley was executed by ISIL, who claimed it was in retaliation for the United States operations in Iraq. Foley was kidnapped in Syria
Syria
in November 2012 by Shabiha militia. ISIL
ISIL
also threatened to execute Steven Sotloff , who was kidnapped at the Syrian-Turkish border in August 2013. There were reports ISIS
ISIS
captured a Japanese national, two Italian nationals, and a Danish national as well. At least 70 journalists have been killed covering the Syrian war, and more than 80 kidnapped, according to the Committee to Protect Journalists .

On 22 August 2014, the al-Nusra Front released a video of captured Lebanese soldiers and demanded Hezbollah withdraw from Syria
Syria
under threat of their execution. In Raqqa, the Syrian Army
Syrian Army
took control of the town of Al-Ejeil. ISIL
ISIL
reportedly sent reinforcements from Iraq to the governorate of Raqqa. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least 400 ISIL
ISIL
fighters had also been wounded in the previous five days in clashes with the Syrian Army
Syrian Army
and National Defense Force in Raqqa alone. At the same time, several senior UK and US figures urged Turkey
Turkey
to stop allowing ISIL
ISIL
to cross the border to Syria
Syria
and Iraq. It was around this time that the Americans realized that the Turks had no intention of sealing their side of the border, and so Washington decided to work with the Syrian Kurds to close off the border on the Syrian side. A year later, with the Kurds in control of most of the Turkey– Syria
Syria
border, and the Syrian army advancing under Russian air support to seal the remainder, the situation was causing great ructions in Ankara.

On the following day, the Islamic State seized Tabqa airbase from government forces. The battle left 346 ISIL
ISIL
fighters and 195 soldiers dead. Prisoners taken by ISIL
ISIL
forces were executed and a video of the mass killing was posted on YouTube. The death toll varied from 120 to 250.

On 26 August 2014, the Syrian Air Force carried out airstrikes against ISIL
ISIL
in the Governorate of Deir ez-Zor. This was the first time the Syrian Army
Syrian Army
attacked them in Deir ez-Zor as the Syrian Army pulled out of Raqqa and shifted to Deir ez-Zor for its oil and natural gas resources as well as strategically splitting ISIL
ISIL
territories. American jets began bombing ISIL
ISIL
in Syria
Syria
on 23 September 2014, raising U.S. involvement in the country. At least 20 targets in and around Raqqa were hit, the opposition group Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said. Foreign partners participating in the strikes with the United States
United States
were Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar
Qatar
and Jordan. The U.S. and "partner nation forces" began striking ISIL
ISIL
using fighters, bombers and Tomahawk missiles, Pentagon spokesman Rear Adm. John Kirby said.

U.S. aircraft include B-1 bombers , F-16s , F-18s and Predator drones , with F-18s flying missions off the USS _George H.W. Bush_ (CVN-77) in the Persian Gulf. Tomahawk missiles
Tomahawk missiles
were fired from the destroyer USS _Arleigh Burke_ (DDG-51) in the Red Sea
Red Sea
. Syria's Foreign Ministry told the Associated Press that the U.S. informed Syria's envoy to the U.N. that "strikes will be launched against the terrorist group in Raqqa". The United States
United States
informed the Free Syrian Army beforehand of the impending airstrikes, and the rebels said that weapons transfers to the Free Syrian Army had begun. The United States
United States
also attacked a specific faction of al-Nusra called the Khorasan Group , who according to the United States
United States
had training camps and plans for attacking the United States
United States
in the future. For its part, Turkey
Turkey
launched an official request to the U.N. for a no-fly zone over Syria. The same day, Israel shot down a Syrian warplane after it entered the Golan area from Quneitra.

By 3 October 2014, ISIL
ISIL
forces were heavily shelling the city of Kobanî and were within a kilometer of the town. Within 36 hours from 21 October, the Syrian air force carried out over 200 airstrikes on rebel-held areas across Syria
Syria
and US and Arab
Arab
jets attacked IS positions around Kobanî. Syrian Information Minister Omran al-Zoubi said the YPG
YPG
forces in Kobanî had been provided with military and logistical support. Syria
Syria
reported its air force had destroyed two fighter jets operated by IS. By 26 January, the Kurdish YPG
YPG
forced ISIL
ISIL
to retreat from Kobanî, thus fully recapturing the city. The U.S. later confirmed that the city had been cleared of ISIL
ISIL
forces, and ISIL
ISIL
admitted defeat in Kobanî city three days later, although they vowed to return.

THE SOUTHERN FRONT (OCTOBER 2014 – FEBRUARY 2015)

In February 2014, the Southern Front of the Free Syrian Army formed in southern Syria. Six months later, they started a string of victories in Daraa and Quneitra during the 2014 Quneitra offensive , the Daraa offensive , the Battle of Al-Shaykh Maskin , the Battle of Bosra (2015) and the Battle of Nasib Border Crossing . A government counter-offensive (the 2015 Southern Syria
Syria
offensive ) during this period, that included the IRGC and Hezbollah , recaptured 15 towns, villages and hills, but the operation slowed soon after and stalled.

Since early 2015, opposition military operations rooms based in Jordan
Jordan
and Turkey
Turkey
began increasing cooperation, with Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and Qatar
Qatar
also reportedly agreeing upon the necessity to unite opposition factions against the Syrian government.

NORTHERN AL-NUSRA FRONT AND ISLAMIST TAKEOVER (OCTOBER 2014 – MARCH 2015)

In late October 2014, a conflict erupted between the al-Nusra Front on one side and the western-backed SRF and Hazzm Movement on the other ( Al-Nusra Front–SRF/Hazzm Movement conflict ). ISIL
ISIL
reportedly reinforced al-Nusra. By the end of February 2015 al-Nusra had defeated both groups, captured the entire Zawiya Mountain region in Idlib province and several towns and military bases in other governorates, and seized weapons supplied by the CIA
CIA
to the two moderate groups. The significant amount of weapons seized included a small number of BGM-71 anti-tank missiles similar to weapons systems al-Nusra Front had previously captured from government stockpiles such as French MILANs , Chinese HJ-8s and Russian 9K111 Fagots . Reuters
Reuters
reported that this represented al-Nusra crushing pro-Western rebels in the north of the country. According to FSA commanders in northern Syria, however, the elimination of Harakat Hazm and the SRF was a welcome development due to the leaders of those factions allegedly involved in corruption. The Western-backed 30th Division of the FSA remained active elsewhere in Idlib.

By 24 March 2015 the al-Nusra Front dominated most of Idlib province, except for the government-held provincial capital, Idlib , which they had encircled on three sides along with its Islamist allies. On 28 March a joint coalition of Islamist forces, the Army of Conquest , captured Idlib. This left the north largely taken over by Ahrar ash-Sham , al-Nusra Front and other Islamist rebels, with the south of the country becoming the last significant foothold for the mainstream, non-jihadist opposition fighters.

ARMY OF CONQUEST ADVANCES IN IDLIB (APRIL 2015 – JUNE 2015)

Main articles: Northwestern Syria
Syria
offensive (April–June 2015) and Second Battle of Idlib

On 22 April, a new rebel offensive was launched in the north-west of Syria
Syria
and by 25 April, the rebel coalition Army of Conquest had captured the city of Jisr al-Shughur . At the end of the following month, the rebels also seized the Al-Mastumah military base, and Ariha , leaving government forces in control of tiny pockets of Idlib, including the Abu Dhuhur military airport. In addition, according to Charles Lister (Brookings Doha
Doha
Center), the Army of Conquest coalition was a broad opposition effort to ensure that the Al-Qaeda-affiliated al-Nusra Front was contained, with the rearguard involvement of Western-backed factions being regarded as crucial. Still, according to some, the FSA in northern Syria
Syria
had by this point all but dissipated. Many of the moderate fighters joined more extremist organizations, such as Ahrar ash-Sham , the largest faction in the Army of Conquest, which led to the subsequent rise of the Islamist Army of Conquest coalition.

Rebel advances led to government and Hezbollah morale plunging dramatically. In north-west Syria
Syria
these losses were countered by a Hezbollah-led offensive in the Qalamoun mountains north of Damascus, on the border with Lebanon, that gave Hezbollah effective control of the entire area.

RESURGENT ISIL
ISIL
ADVANCE (MAY 2015 – SEPTEMBER 2015)

Main articles: Palmyra offensive (May 2015) and Palmyra
Palmyra
offensive (July–August 2015)

On 21 May, ISIL
ISIL
took control of Palmyra
Palmyra
, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, after eight days of fighting. The jihadists also captured the nearby towns of Al-Sukhnah and Amiriya, as well as several oil fields. Following the capture of Palmyra, ISIL
ISIL
conducted mass executions in the area, killing an estimated 217–329 government civilian supporters and soldiers, according to opposition activists. Government sources put the number of killed at 400–450. By early June, ISIL
ISIL
reached the town of Hassia, which lies on the main road from Damascus
Damascus
to Homs
Homs
and Latakia, and reportedly took up positions to the west of it, creating a potential disaster for the government and raising the threat of Lebanon
Lebanon
being sucked further into the war.

On 25 June, ISIL
ISIL
launched two offensives. One was a surprise diversionary attack on Kobanî, while the second targeted government-held parts of Al-Hasakah city. The ISIL
ISIL
offensive on Al-Hasakah displaced 60,000 people, with the UN estimating a total of 200,000 would be displaced. In July 2015, a raid by U.S. special forces on a compound housing the Islamic State's "chief financial officer", Abu Sayyaf , produced evidence that Turkish officials directly dealt with ranking ISIS
ISIS
members.

ISIS
ISIS
captured Qaryatayn city from the government on 5 August 2015. Australia
Australia
joined the bombing of ISIL
ISIL
in Syria
Syria
in mid September, an extension of their efforts in Iraq
Iraq
for the last year. On August 2, U.S. officials informed Reuters
Reuters
that the United States
United States
had decided to "allow air strikes to help defend against any attack on the U.S.-trained Syrian rebels, even if the attackers come from forces loyal to Syrian President Bashar al-Assad." The following day the Pentagon announced that it would begin flying its first unmanned, armed drone missions in Syria.

RUSSIAN INTERVENTION AND GOVERNMENT OFFENSIVE (30 SEPTEMBER 2015–FEBRUARY 2016)

RUSSIAN MILITARY FACILITIES INVOLVED IN THE WAR IN SYRIA

Caspian Flotilla Russian Navy
Russian Navy
( Astrakhan
Astrakhan
) Caspian Flotilla Russian Navy
Russian Navy
( Makhachkala ) Caspian Flotilla Russian Navy
Russian Navy
( Kaspiysk
Kaspiysk
) Aircraft group (ru) ASF RF 720th PL of the Russian Navy
Russian Navy

Russian Navy
Russian Navy
Russian Aerospace Forces Group Special
Special
forces (ru)

See also: Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War
War
, Northwestern Syria
Syria
offensive (October 2015) , and Aleppo
Aleppo
offensive (October–December 2015)

On 30 September 2015, at an official request by the Syrian government headed by President Bashar al-Assad, the Russian Aerospace Forces began a sustained campaign of air strikes against both ISIL
ISIL
and the anti-Assad FSA. Initially, the raids were conducted solely by Russian aircraft stationed in the Khmeimim base in Syria. Shortly after the start of the Russian operation, U.S. president Barack Obama was reported to have authorized the resupply of Syrian Kurds and the Arab-Syrian opposition, Obama reportedly emphasizing to his team that the U.S. would continue to support the Syrian opposition now that Russia
Russia
had joined the conflict.

On 7 October 2015, Russian officials said the ships of the Caspian Flotilla had earlier that day fired 26 sea-based cruise missiles at 11 ISIL
ISIL
targets in Syria
Syria
destroying those and causing no civilian casualties. On the same day, the Syrian government's ground forces launched a ground offensive that in the following few days succeeded in recapturing some territory in northern Hama
Hama
Governorate , close to the government's coastal heartland in the west of the country.

On 8 October 2015, the U.S. officially announced the end of the Pentagon’s $500 million program to train and equip Syrian rebels in an acknowledgment that the program had failed (other covert and significantly larger CIA
CIA
programs to arm anti-government fighters in Syria
Syria
continue ). The foreign ministers of Russia, the U.S., Saudi Arabia, and Turkey
Turkey
in Vienna
Vienna
, before a four-way discussion focused on Syria, 29 October 2015

Two weeks after the start of the Russian campaign in Syria, _The New York Times _ opined that with anti-government commanders receiving for the first time bountiful supplies of U.S.-made anti-tank missiles and with Russia
Russia
raising the number of airstrikes against the government’s opponents that had raised morale in both camps, broadening war objectives and hardening political positions, the conflict was turning into an all-out proxy war between the U.S. and Russia. Despite multiple top-ranking casualties incurred by the Iranian forces advising fighters in Syria, in mid-October the Russian-Syrian-Iranian- Hezbollah offensive targeting rebels in Aleppo went ahead.

At the end of October 2015, the U.S. Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter signalled a shift in the strategy of the U.S.-led campaign saying there will be more air strikes and ruling in the use of direct ground raids, the fight in Syria
Syria
concentrating mostly on Raqqa. On 30 October and two weeks later, Syria
Syria
peace talks were held in Vienna, initiated by the United States, Russia, Turkey
Turkey
and Saudi Arabia, in which on 30 October Iran
Iran
participated for the first time in negotiations on Syrian settlement. The participants disagreed on the future of Bashar Assad.

On 10 November 2015, the Syrian government forces completed the operation to break through the Islamic State insurgents' blockade of the Kweires air base in Aleppo
Aleppo
Province, where government forces had been under siege since April 2013. In mid-November 2015, in the wake of the Russian plane bombing over Sinai and the Paris attacks , both Russia
Russia
and France
France
significantly intensified their strikes in Syria, France
France
closely coordinating with the U.S. military. On 17 November, Putin said he had issued orders for the cruiser _Moskva_ that had been in eastern Mediterranean since the start of the Russian operations to "work as with an ally", with the French naval group led by flagship _Charles De Gaulle_ that had been on her way to eastern Mediterranean since early November. Shortly afterwards, a Russian foreign ministry official criticised France's stridently anti-Assad stance as well as France's air strikes at oil and gas installations in Syria
Syria
as apparently designed to prevent those from returning under the Syrian government's control; the Russian official pointed out that such strikes by France
France
could not be justified as they were carried out without the Syrian government's consent. In his remarks to a French delegation that included French parliamentarians, on 14 November, President Bashar Assad sharply criticised France's as well as other Western States' actions against the Syrian government suggesting that French support for Syrian opposition forces had led to the Islamic State-claimed attacks in Paris.

On 19 November 2015, U.S. President Barack Obama, speaking of the Vienna
Vienna
process, said he was unable to "foresee a situation in which we can end the civil war in Syria
Syria
while Assad remains in power"; he urged Russia
Russia
and Iran
Iran
to stop supporting the Syrian government. On 20 November 2015, the UN Security Council, while failing to invoke the UN's Chapter VII , which gives specific legal authorisation for the use of force, unanimously passed Resolution 2249 that urged UN members to "redouble and coordinate their efforts to prevent and suppress terrorist acts committed specifically by ISIL
ISIL
also known as Da’esh as well as ANF, and all other individuals, groups, undertakings, and entities associated with Al-Qaida, and other terrorist groups, as designated by the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council, and as may further be agreed by the International Syria Support Group (ISSG) and endorsed by the UN Security Council". The adopted resolution was drafted by France
France
and co-sponsored by the UK the following day after Russia
Russia
introduced an updated version of its previously submitted draft resolution that was blocked by the Western powers as seeking to legitimise Assad’s authority.

On 24 November 2015, Turkey
Turkey
shot down a Russian warplane that allegedly violated Turkish airspace and crashed in northwestern Syria, leading to the Russian pilot's death. Following the crash, it was reported that Syrian Turkmen rebels from Syrian Turkmen Brigades attacked and shot down a Russian rescue helicopter, killing a Russian naval infantryman. A few days after, Russian aircraft were reported to have struck targets in the Syrian town of Ariha in Idlib province that was controlled by the Army of Conquest causing multiple casualties on the ground. On 2 December 2015, the Parliament of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
voted to expand Operation Shader into Syria
Syria
with a majority of 397-223. That day, two British Tornado aircraft took off from RAF Akrotiri immediately at 22:30, each carrying three Paveway bombs. Two further aircraft were deployed at 00:30 on 3 December, and all aircraft returned by 06:30 without their bombs. Defense Secretary Michael Fallon said that the strikes hit the Omar oil fields in eastern Syria, and that eight more jets (two Tornados and six Typhoons ) were being sent to RAF Akrotiri to join the eight already there.

On 7 December 2015, the government of Syria
Syria
announced that US-led coalition warplanes had fired nine missiles at its army camp near Ayyash, Deir al-Zour province , on the evening prior, killing three soldiers and wounding 13 others; three armoured vehicles, four military vehicles, heavy machine-guns and an arms and ammunition depot were also destroyed. The government condemned the strikes, the first time the government forces would be struck by the coalition, as an act of "flagrant aggression"; the coalition spokesman denied it was responsible. Anonymous Pentagon officials alleged later in the day that the Pentagon was "certain" that a Russian warplane (presumably a TU-22 bomber ) had carried out the attack. The claim was denied by the Russian military spokesman. On 14 December 2015, Russia's government news media reported that the Syrian government forces retook a Marj al-Sultan military airbase east of Damascus
Damascus
that had been held by Jaysh al-Islam .

The UN resolution 2254 of 18 December 2015 that endorsed the ISSG 's transitional plan but did not clarify who would represent the Syrian opposition, while condemning terrorist groups like ISIL
ISIL
and al-Qaeda; it made no mention of the future role of Syrian President Bashar Assad.

On 12 January 2016, the Syria
Syria
government announced that its army and allied forces had established "full control" of the strategically situated town of Salma , whose pre-war population was predominantly Sunni, in the northwestern province of Latakia, and continued to advance north. On 16 January 2016, ISIL
ISIL
militants launched raid on government-held areas in the city of Deir ez-Zor and killed up to 300 people. Counter-strikes by Russian Air Force
Russian Air Force
fighter jets, in support of Syrian army forces, were reported to take back the areas.

On 21 January 2016, Russia's activity presumably aimed at setting up a new base in the government-controlled Kamishly Airport was first reported; the northeastern town of Qamishli in the Al-Hasakah Governorate had been largely under the Syrian Kurds' control since the start of the Syrian Kurdish– Islamist conflict in the governorate of Al-Hasakah in July 2013. Similar activity by the U.S. forces was suspected in the Rmeilan Airbase in the same province, 50 kilometres (31 miles) away from the Kamishly Airport; the area is likewise controlled by the US-backed Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG). On 24 January 2016, the Syrian government announced its forces, carrying on with their Latakia offensive , had seized the predominantly Sunni-populated town of Rabia , the last major town held by rebels in western Latakia province; Russian forces were said to have played an important role in the recapture. The capture of Rabia was said to threaten rebel supply lines from Turkey. By 26 January 2016, the Syrian government established "full control" over the town of Al-Shaykh Maskin in the Daraa Governorate , thus completing the operation that had begun in late December 2015. The town's capture by the Syrian government was remarked as a "turning of the tide in the Syrian war" by Al-Jazeera .

PARTIAL CEASEFIRE (FROM 26 FEBRUARY–JULY 2016)

Main article: Syria
Syria
ceasefire Defense ministers of Russia, Iran and Syria
Syria
in a tripartite meeting in Tehran

On 26 February 2016, the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2268 that endorsed a previously brokered U.S.-Russian deal on a "cessation of hostilities ". The cease-fire started on 27 February 2016 at 00:00 ( Damascus
Damascus
time). The ceasefire does not include attacks on UN-designated terrorist organizations. At the close of February 2016, despite individual clashes, the truce was reported to hold. By the end of March, the Syrian government forces with support from Russia
Russia
and Iran
Iran
successfully captured Palmyra from the ISIL.

By early July 2016, the truce was said to have mostly unraveled, violence again escalated, and the fighting between all the major parties to the conflict continued. At the end of July 2016, the fighting between the government and Islamist rebels in and around Aleppo
Aleppo
intensified .

SDF ADVANCES AND TURKISH MILITARY INTERVENTION (AUGUST 2016–OCTOBER 2016)

On 12 August 2016, the Syrian Democratic Forces fully captured Manbij from ISIL. Some days later the SDF announced a new offensive towards Al-Bab , which could eventually connect the Kurdish regions in Northern Syria.

A few days after, the battle of al- Hasakah
Hasakah
began. On 22 August, the Kurdish YPG, having captured Ghwairan, the only major Arab neighborhood in Hasaka that had been in government hands, launched a major assault to seize the last government-controlled areas of the northeastern Syrian city of Hasaka, after a Russian mediation team failed to mend the rift between the two sides; the next day the capture of the city was completed. A few days prior, the Pentagon admonished the Syrian government against "interfering with coalition forces or our partners" in that region, adding that the U.S. had the right to defend its troops.

On 24 August 2016, Turkey's armed forces invaded Syria
Syria
in the Jarablus area controlled by ISIL
ISIL
starting what the Turkish president called the Operation Euphrates
Euphrates
Shield , aimed against, according to his statement, both the IS and Kurdish "terror groups that threaten our country in northern Syria". The Syrian government denounced the intervention as a "blatant violation of its sovereignty" and said that "fighting terrorism isn’t done by ousting ISIS
ISIS
and replacing it with other terrorist organizations backed directly by Turkey". The PYD leader Salih Muslim
Muslim
said that Turkey
Turkey
was now in the "Syrian quagmire" and would be defeated like IS. Speaking in Ankara the same day, US vice president Joe Biden
Joe Biden
indirectly endorsed Turkey's move and said that the U.S. had made it clear to the Syrian Kurdish forces that they should move back east across the Euphrates, or lose US support.

As Turkish troops and the Turkish-aligned Syrian rebels took control of Jarablus and moved further south towards the Syrian town of Manbij, they clashed with the Kurdish YPG, which led the U.S. officials to voice concern and issue a warning to both sides. On 29 August, U.S. Defense Secretary Ash Carter specified that the U.S. did not support Turkey's advance south of Jarablus. The warning as well as an announcement made by the U.S. of a tentative ceasefire between the Turkish forces and the Kurds in the area of Jarablus were promptly and angrily dismissed by Turkey's officials. However, combat between the Turkish forces and the SDF died down, and instead Turkish forces moved West to confront IS. In the meantime the SDF, including Western volunteers, continued to reinforce Manbij.

At sunset on 12 September 2016, a U.S.-Russian brokered cease-fire came into effect. Five days later, the U.S. and other coalition members' jets bombed Syrian Army
Syrian Army
positions near Deir ez-Zor—purportedly by accident, but with Russia
Russia
contending that it was intentional—killing at least 62 Syrian troops that were fighting ISIL
ISIL
militants. Shortly after, the ceasefire broke down, and on 19 September the Syrian Army
Syrian Army
declared to no longer observe the truce. Also on 19 September, an aid convoy in Aleppo
Aleppo
was attacked with the U.S. coalition blaming the Russian and Syrian governments for the attack and these same governments denying these accusation and instead blaming terrorists for the attack.

On 22 September, the Syrian army declared a new offensive in Aleppo
Aleppo
. The offensive succeeded on 14 December, when the final Rebel stronghold in Aleppo
Aleppo
was recaptured by the Syrian government followed by a ceasefire agreement.

On 26 October 2016 US Defense Secretary Ash Carter said that an offensive to retake Raqqa from IS will begin within weeks. The SDF proceeded with this effort, in operation Wrath of Euphrates . This operation utilised up to 30,000 Arab, Christian and Kurdish troops, with support from the Western Coalition. By December 2016 it had captured many villages and land west of Raqqa, previously controlled by IS. By January 2017, much of the land west of Raqqa had been seized, and the second phase of the operation was complete.

RUSSIAN/IRANIAN/TURKISH BACKED CEASEFIRE (DECEMBER 2016 – APRIL 2017)

In December 2016, Syrian government forces completely recaptured all of rebel-held parts of Aleppo
Aleppo
, ending the 4-year battle in the city. On 15 December, as it was reported government forces were on the brink of retaking all of Aleppo—a "turning point" in the civil war, Assad celebrated the "liberation" of the city, and stated, "History is being written by every Syrian citizen." On December 29, 2016 Russian President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
announced a new ceasefire deal had been reached between the Syrian Government and opposition groups, with Russia
Russia
and Turkey
Turkey
acting as guarantors, and Iran
Iran
as a signatory to a trilateral agreement. The ceasefire came into effect at 00:00 Syrian time (02:00 UTC) on December 30. It does not include UN-designated terrorist groups, such as ISIL
ISIL
and Jabhat Fateh al-Sham. Syrian High Negotiations Committee representatives in Turkey
Turkey
confirmed that they were involved in the deal. Talks were scheduled to be held between the groups in Astana, the capital of Kazakhstan, on January 15.

Early reports indicated that despite sporadic fighting incidents, the ceasefire appeared to be holding, with no civilian deaths. Also late on December 29, the United Nations
United Nations
Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs reported that four million people in Damascus
Damascus
and surrounding areas were without reliable access to water after major supply infrastructure was subject to deliberate targeting on December 22. They said that although the government had initiated a program of rationing, they were concerned that safe water may not be accessible to everyone and called on parties to reach peaceful agreements to guarantee basic services.

On January 2, 2017, rebel groups said that they would disengage from planned talks after alleged ceasefire violations by Government forces in the Wadi Barada valley near Damascus. The government says the region is excluded from the ceasefire because of the presence of Fatah al-Sham, but some local activists deny that they have a presence there. At the end of January, government forces managed to capture Wadi Barada and the water supply of Damascus
Damascus
was restored.

On 14 February 2017, the cease-fire between Assad forces and rebels collapsed throughout the country, leading to fresh clashes in various locations and a fresh rebel offensive in Daraa . A new peace conference in Geneva was held on 23 February.

On 23 February, Turkish forces captured Al-Bab from ISIL
ISIL
north-east of Aleppo. Syrian government forces started an offensive east of Aleppo
Aleppo
to conquer Dayr Hafir from ISIL
ISIL
and prevent further Turkish advances.

On March 17, Syrian military fired S-200 missiles at Israeli jets over Golan Heights. The Israeli military claimed that the Arrow anti-ballistic system intercepted one missile, while the Syrian military claimed that they had downed an Israeli jet. The Russian Foreign Ministry summoned the Israeli ambassador to clarify the situation.

The Syrian Arab
Arab
Army entered Dayr Hafir, the last stronghold held by the Islamic State in East Aleppo, on March 23, and secured it by March 23. This opened up an opportunity to push south into the Ar-Raqqa governate where the Islamic State's de facto capital resides; however on March 23, a Syrian Democratic Forces contingent landed on a peninsula west of Raqqa via boats and helicopters, in an effort to cut off the Syrian Arab
Arab
Army from entering the Islamic State's de facto capital, Raqqa. On 28 March, an agreement was reportedly brokered by Qatar
Qatar
and Iran
Iran
for the evacuation for four besieged towns in Syria, where around 60,000 people live. The deal involved evacuating the residents of al-Fu\'ah and Kafriya , two towns in the Idlib Governorate besieged by rebel forces, in exchange for the evacuation of residents and rebels in Zabadani and Madaya , two towns under siege by government forces in the Rif Dimashq Governorate.

U.S. STRIKES OVER KHAN SHAYKHUN CHEMICAL ATTACK; AND RENEWED FIGHTING (APRIL 2017 – JUNE 2017)

Main articles: Khan Shaykhun chemical attack , 2017 Shayrat missile strike , and 2017 Hama offensive
2017 Hama offensive

On 7 April, in what was the U.S.' first deliberate direct attack on Syrian forces in the six years of the conflict, U.S. warships launched fifty-nine Tomahawk missiles
Tomahawk missiles
on the Syrian government's Shayrat Air Base , which was said to be the source of the chemical attack on Khan Shaykhun that occurred three days prior to the airstrikes. As the U.S. strike was conducted without authorization from either the United States
United States
Congress or United Nations
United Nations
Security Council , it raised questions about its legality under the U.S. law as well as international law . An emergency meeting of the UN Security Council was held, having been requested by Bolivia
Bolivia
and supported by Russia; the U.S. representative said that ″the moral stain of the Assad regime could no longer go unanswered.″ Russian president′s spokesman said Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
viewed the U.S. attack as ″an act of aggression against a sovereign country violating the norms of international law, and under a trumped-up pretext at that″.

Meanwhile, intense fighting between government forces and rebel groups that began north of Hama
Hama
on 21 March, continued, with the government forces making major advances in mid-April that included retaking the town of Halfaya .

On 12 April, the agreement to exchange the inhabitants of the rebel-held towns of Zabadani and Madaya with the inhabitants of the pro-government towns of Al-Fu\'ah and Kafraya began to be implemented. On 15 April, a convoy of buses carrying evacuees from Al-Fu\'ah and Kafriya was attacked by a suicide bomber in Aleppo, killing more than 126 people.

On 24 April, the Turkish Air Force conducted several airstrikes on YPG
YPG
and YPJ positions near al-Malikiyah , killing at least 20 of their fighters. The attacks were condemned by the US.

On 4 May 2017, Russia, Iran, and Turkey
Turkey
signed an agreement in Astana to create four "de-escalation zones" in Syria. The four zones include the Idlib Governorate , the northern rebel-controlled parts of the Homs
Homs
Governorate , the rebel-controlled eastern Ghouta , and the Jordan– Syria
Syria
border . The agreement was rejected by some rebel groups, and the Democratic Union Party also denounced the deal, saying that the ceasefire zones are "dividing Syria
Syria
up on a sectarian basis". The ceasefire came into effect on 6 May.

On 18 May 2017, in what was said to have marked the most direct clash between the U.S.-led forces with the government of Syria, U.S.-led coalition fighter jets struck a convoy of pro-Syrian government forces advancing towards the U.S. coalition base at the border town of al-Tanf , where U.S. military operated and trained anti-government rebels. Nevertheless, the Syrian government′s desert offensive continued and on 9 June the government forces set up positions around 70 kilometres (40 miles) northeast of al-Tanf , thus securing a part of Syrian-Iraqi border for the first time since 2015.

CEASEFIRE; CIA
CIA
ARMS CUTOFF (JULY 2017 - PRESENT)

On 7 July 2017, the U.S., Russia, and Jordan
Jordan
agreed to a ceasefire in part of southwestern Syria. Russia
Russia
gave assurances that Assad would abide by the agreement.

On 19 July 2017, it was reported that the Donald Trump administration had decided to halt the CIA
CIA
program to equip and train anti-government rebel groups , a move sought by Russia.

ADVANCED WEAPONRY AND TACTICS

See also: Equipment of the Syrian Army
Syrian Army
and List of military equipment used by Syrian opposition forces

CHEMICAL WEAPONS

Main articles: Syria
Syria
and weapons of mass destruction and Use of chemical weapons in the Syrian Civil War
War
See also: Syria
Syria
chemical weapons program and Destruction of Syria\'s chemical weapons

Sarin , mustard agent and chlorine gas have been used during the conflict. Numerous casualties led to an international reaction, especially the 2013 Ghouta attacks . A UN fact-finding mission was requested to investigate alleged chemical weapons attacks. In four cases the UN inspectors confirmed use of sarin gas. The initial reports did not accuse any party of using chemical weapons. In August 2016, a confidential report by the United Nations
United Nations
and the OPCW explicitly blamed the Syrian military of Bashar al-Assad for dropping chemical weapons (chlorine bombs) on the towns of Talmenes in April 2014 and Sarmin in March 2015 and ISIS
ISIS
for using sulfur mustard on the town of Marea in August 2015.

The United States
United States
and the European Union
European Union
have accused the Syrian government of conducting several chemical attacks. Following the 2013 Ghouta attacks and international pressure, the destruction of Syria\'s chemical weapons began. In 2015 the UN mission disclosed previously undeclared traces of sarin compounds in a "military research site". After the April 2017 Khan Shaykhun chemical attack , the United States launched its first attack against Syrian government forces.

CLUSTER BOMBS

Many nations including but not limited to Syria, the United States, Russia, China, Israel and India are not parties to the Convention on Cluster Munitions , and do not recognize the ban on the use of cluster bombs . The Syrian Army
Syrian Army
began using cluster bombs in September 2012. Steve Goose, director of the Arms Division at Human Rights Watch said " Syria
Syria
is expanding its relentless use of cluster munitions, a banned weapon, and civilians are paying the price with their lives and limbs", "The initial toll is only the beginning because cluster munitions often leave unexploded bomblets that kill and maim long afterward."

THERMOBARIC WEAPONS

Russian thermobaric weapons , also known as "fuel-air bombs", have been used by the government side during the war. One Buratino thermobaric rocket launcher "can obliterate a roughly 200 by 400 metres (660 by 1,310 feet) area with a single salvo". Since 2012, rebels have said that the Syrian Air Force (government forces) is using thermobaric weapons against residential areas occupied by the rebel fighters, such as during the Battle of Aleppo
Aleppo
and also in Kafr Batna . A panel of United Nations
United Nations
human rights investigators reported that the Syrian government used thermobaric bombs against the strategic town of Qusayr in March 2013. In August 2013, the BBC reported on the use of napalm-like incendiary bombs on a school in northern Syria. On 2 December 2015, _ The National Interest _ reported that Russia
Russia
was deploying the TOS-1
TOS-1
Buratino multiple rocket launch system to Syria, which is "designed to launch massive thermobaric charges against infantry in confined spaces such as urban areas."

ANTI-TANK MISSILES

Several types of anti-tank missiles are in use in Syria. Russia
Russia
has sent 9M133 Kornet
9M133 Kornet
, third-generation anti-tank guided missiles to the Syrian Government whose forces have used them extensively against armour and other ground targets to fight Jihadists and rebels. U.S.-made BGM-71 TOW missiles are one of the primary weapons of rebel groups and have been primarily provided by the United States
United States
and Saudi Arabia. The U.S. has also supplied many Eastern European sourced 9K111 Fagot launchers and warheads to Syrian rebel groups under its Timber Sycamore program. These have been sourced from Eastern European 9K111 Fagot

BALLISTIC MISSILES

Main article: 2017 Deir ez-Zor missile strike

In June 2017, Iran
Iran
attacked ISIL
ISIL
targets in the Deir Ezzor area in eastern Syria
Syria
with Zolfaghar ballistic missiles fired from western Iran, in the first use of mid-range missiles by Iran
Iran
in 30 years. According to Jane\'s Defence Weekly , the missiles travelled 650-700 kilometres.

BELLIGERENTS

Main article: List of armed groups in the Syrian Civil War See also: Foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War
War

_ It has been suggested that portions of this section be split out and merged into the article titled List of armed groups in the Syrian Civil War
War
_, which already exists. (Discuss ) _(March 2017)_

Illustration of the main factions involved in the Syrian Civil War
War
and affiliations by 2016

BA\'ATHIST SYRIA AND ALLIES

Main articles: Arab
Arab
Socialist Ba\'ath Party – Syria
Syria
Region and Syrian Arab Republic

A number of sources have emphasized that as of at least late 2015/early 2016 the Syrian government was dependent on a mix of volunteers and militias rather than the Syrian Armed Forces.

Syrian Armed Forces

Main article: Syrian Armed Forces Two destroyed Syrian Army tanks in Azaz, August 2012. The funeral procession of Syrian General Mohammed al-Awwad who was assassinated in Damascus
Damascus
in 2012

Before the uprising and war broke out, the Syrian Armed Forces were estimated at 325,000 regular troops and 280,000–300,000 reservists. Of the regular troops, 220,000 were 'army troops' and the rest in the navy, air force and air defense force. Following defections as early as June 2011, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights estimated that by July 2012, tens of thousands of soldiers had defected, and a Turkish official estimated 60,000. According to a poll organised by British ORB International, up to 73% of the population in government-controlled areas support the government effort.

National Defense Force

Main article: National Defence Forces (Syria)

The Syrian NDF was formed out of pro-government militias. They receive their salaries and military equipment from the government, and number around 100,000 troops. The force acts in an infantry role, directly fighting against rebels on the ground and running counter-insurgency operations in coordination with the army, who provides them with logistical and artillery support. The force has a 500-strong women's wing called "_Lionesses of National Defense_" which operates checkpoints. NDF members, like regular army soldiers, are allowed to loot the battlefields (but only if they participate in raids with the army), and can sell the loot for extra money.

Shabiha

Main article: Shabiha

The _Shabiha_ are unofficial pro-government militias drawn largely from Syria's Alawite
Alawite
minority group. Since the uprising, the Syrian government has been accused of using _shabiha_ to break up protests and enforce laws in restive neighborhoods. As the protests escalated into an armed conflict, the opposition started using the term _shabiha_ to describe civilians they suspected of supporting Bashar al-Assad and the Syrian government and clashing with pro-opposition demonstrators. The opposition blames the _shabiha_ for the many violent excesses committed against anti-government protesters and opposition sympathizers, as well as looting and destruction. In December 2012, the _shabiha_ were designated a terrorist organization by the United States.

Bassel al-Assad is reported to have created the _shabiha_ in the 1980s for government use in times of crisis. _Shabiha_ have been described as "a notorious Alawite
Alawite
paramilitary, who are accused of acting as unofficial enforcers for Assad's government"; "gunmen loyal to Assad", and, according to the Qatar-based Arab
Arab
Center for Research and Policy Studies, "semi-criminal gangs comprised of thugs close to the government". Despite the group's image as an Alawite
Alawite
militia, some _shabiha_ operating in Aleppo
Aleppo
have been reported to be Sunnis. In 2012, the Assad government created a more organized official militia known as the Jaysh al-Sha\'bi , allegedly with help from Iran and Hezbollah. As with the _shabiha_, the vast majority of Jaysh al-Sha'bi members are Alawite
Alawite
and Shi'ite volunteers.

Christian Militias

Main article: Christian Militias in Syria
Syria

The Christian militias in Syria
Syria
(and northern Iraq) are largely made up of ethnic Assyrians , Syriac - Arameans , and Armenians . Sensing that they depend on the largely secular government, the militias of Syrian Christians fight both on the Syrian government's side and with Kurdish forces. According to the WorldTribune.com, "The sources said thousands of Christians were joining the Syrian Army
Syrian Army
as well as such government militias as National Defense Forces and the Popular Committees. They said NDF helped organize Christian units to protect communities, particularly in the Assyrian regions of north eastern Syria. A major unit has been called the Christian Resistance, said to operate in the Homs
Homs
province."

The Eastern Aramaic speaking Assyrians in north eastern Syria
Syria
and northern Iraq
Iraq
have formed various militias (including the Assyrian Defense Force , Dwekh Nawsha and Sootoro ) in order to defend their ancient towns, villages and farmsteads from ISIS. They often but not always fight in conjunction with Kurdish and Armenian groups. Assyrian fighters from Sootoro have also clashed militarily with the Kurdish dominated YPG
YPG
, accusing them of attempting to appropriate Assyrian lands for the Kurds. _The Female Protection Forces of the Land Between the Two Rivers_ is an all-female force of Assyrian fighters in north east Syria
Syria
and northern Iraq
Iraq
fighting ISIS
ISIS
alongside other Assyrian and Kurdish units.

In Lebanon, Maronite Christian militias fight incursions of ISIS
ISIS
and other Sunni
Sunni
Islamist groups.

Hezbollah

Main article: Hezbollah involvement in the Syrian Civil War
War

In February 2013, former secretary general of Hezbollah, Sheikh Subhi al-Tufayli , confirmed that Hezbollah was fighting for the Syrian Army, which in October 2012, General Secretary Hassan Nasrallah
Hassan Nasrallah
had still denied was happening on a large scale, except to admit that Hezbollah fighters helped the Syrian government "retain control of some 23 strategically located villages inhabited by Shiites of Lebanese citizenship". Nasrallah said that Hezbollah fighters have died in Syria
Syria
doing their "jihadist duties".

In 2012 and 2013, Hezbollah was active in gaining control of territory in the Al-Qusayr District of Syria, by May 2013 publicly collaborating with the Syrian Army
Syrian Army
and taking 60 percent of the city by the end of 14 May. In Lebanon, there have been "a recent increase in the funerals of Hezbollah fighters" and "Syrian rebels have shelled Hezbollah-controlled areas." As of 14 May 2013, Hezbollah fighters were reported to be fighting alongside the Syrian Army, particularly in the Homs
Homs
Governorate . Hassan Nasrallah
Hassan Nasrallah
has called on Shiites and Hezbollah to protect the shrine of Sayida Zeinab. President Bashar al-Assad denied in May 2013 that there were foreign fighters, Arab
Arab
or otherwise, fighting for the government in Syria.

On 25 May 2013, Nasrallah announced that Hezbollah was fighting in Syria
Syria
against Islamic extremists and "pledged that his group will not allow Syrian militants to control areas that border Lebanon". In the televised address, he said, "If Syria
Syria
falls in the hands of America, Israel and the takfiris , the people of our region will go into a dark period." According to independent analysts, by the beginning of 2014, approximately 500 Hezbollah fighters had died in the Syrian conflict. On 7 February 2016, 50 Hezbollah fighters were killed in a clash by the Jaysh al-Islam near Damascus. These fighters were embedded in the SAA formation called Army Division 39.

Iran

Main article: Iranian involvement in the Syrian Civil War
War
Bodies of Iranian casualties return to Kermanshah
Kermanshah
, August 2016

Iran
Iran
continues to officially deny the presence of its combat troops in Syria, maintaining that it provides military advice to Assad's forces in their fight against terrorist groups. Since the civil uprising phase of the Syrian civil war , Iran
Iran
has provided the Syrian government with financial, technical, and military support, including training and some combat troops. Iran
Iran
and Syria
Syria
are close strategic allies . Iran
Iran
sees the survival of the Syrian government as being crucial to its regional interests. Iran's supreme leader , Ali Khamenei , was reported to be vocally in favor of the Syrian government.

By December 2013 Iran
Iran
was thought to have approximately 10,000 operatives in Syria. But according to Jubin Goodarzi, assistant professor and researcher at Webster University , Iran
Iran
aided the Syrian government with a limited number of deployed units and personnel, "at most in the hundreds ... and not in the thousands as opposition sources claimed". Lebanese Hezbollah fighters backed by Tehran have taken direct combat roles since 2012. In the summer of 2013, Iran and Hezbollah provided important battlefield support for Syrian forces, allowing them to make advances on the opposition. In 2014, coinciding with the peace talks at Geneva II , Iran
Iran
has stepped up support for Syrian President Assad. The Syrian Minister of Finance and Economy stated more than 15 billion dollars had come from the Iranian government. Iranian Revolutionary Guards Corps Quds Force commander Qasem Suleimani is in charge of Syrian President Assad's security portfolio and has overseen the arming and training of thousands of pro-government Shi'ite fighters.

328 IRGC troops, including several commanders, have reportedly been killed in the Syrian civil war since it began.

Foreign Shia Militias

Shia fighters from Afghanistan and Pakistan are "far more numerous" than Sunni
Sunni
non-Syrian fighters, though they have received "noticeably less attention" from the media. The number of Afghans fighting in Syria
Syria
on behalf of the Syrian government has been estimated at "between 10,000 and 12,000", the number of Pakistanis is not known (approximately 15% of Pakistan's population is Shia). The main forces are the _liwa’ fatimiyun_ (Fatimiyun Brigade) -- which is composed exclusively of Afghans and fights "under the auspices" of Hezbollah Afghanistan —and the Pakistani _liwa’ zaynabiyun_ (Zaynabiyun Brigade) formed in November 2015. Many or most of the fighters are refugees, and Iran
Iran
has been accused of taking advantage of their inability to "obtain work permits or establish legal residency in Iran", and using threats of deportation for those who hesitate to volunteer. The fighters are also paid a relatively high salary, and some have told journalists, that “the Islamic State is a common enemy of Iran
Iran
and Afghanistan … this is a holy war,” and that they wish to protect the Shia pilgrimage site of Sayyida Zaynab , from Sunni
Sunni
jihadis.

Russia

Main article: Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War
War
See also: Russian naval facility in Tartus

On 30 September 2015, Russia's Federation Council unanimously granted the request by President of Russia
Russia
Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
to permit the use of the Russian Armed Forces in

* Syrian Armed Forces * Syrian Resistance * PFLP-GC * Jerusalem Brigade * Palestine Liberation Army * Smaller groups

SUPPORT FOR THE GOVERNMENT

* Hezbollah involvement

* Iranian involvement

* Liwa Fatemiyoun

* Russia\'s involvement

* medical facility targeting * military intervention

* Russia–Syria–Iran– Iraq
Iraq
coalition * Popular Mobilization Forces (Iraq)

Syrian opposition , Al-Qaeda affiliates and allies

NCSR GOVERNMENT

* National Coalition

* Local Co-ordination Committees

* Syrian National Council * Supreme Council of the Syrian Revolution * National Coordination Committee for Democratic Change * Syrian Revolution General Commission * Syrian Support Group * Adopt a Revolution * Syrian Patriotic Group

OPPOSITION MILITIAS

* Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army

* Hawar Kilis Operations Room

* Ahrar al-Sham
Ahrar al-Sham
* Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement * Abu Amara Battalions Covert Special
Special
Tasks Force * Jaysh al-Izza * Elite Army * 2nd Army * Jaysh al-Nasr * Martyrs of Islam Brigade * National Liberation Movement * Central Division * 1st Coastal Division * Free Idlib Army * 23rd Division * Jaysh al-Islam * al-Rahman Legion * 1st Brigade of Damascus * Southern Front * National Front for the Liberation of Syria
Syria
* Army of Free Tribes * Alwiya al-Furqan

* National Front for the Liberation of Syria
Syria

* Jabhat Ansar al-Islam

* Saraya Ahl al-Sham * Authenticity and Development Front * Al-Qaratayn Martyrs Brigade * Badia Forces * Revolutionary Commando Army * Elite Division * Smaller groups

AL-QAEDA AFFILIATES AND ALLIES

* Tahrir al-Sham * Turkistan Islamic Party in Syria
Syria
* Caucasus Emirate * Ajnad al-Kavkaz * Junud al Makhdi * Malhama Tactical * Ansar al-Islam splinter faction * Smaller groups

ALLIED GROUPS (TO THE OPPOSITION MILITIAS)

* Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood of Syria
Syria
* Grey Wolves * Smaller groups

SUPPORT FOR THE OPPOSITION

* American-led intervention

* American rescue mission

* Jordanian intervention * Qatari support * Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
* Turkey
Turkey

ROJAVA (SDF)

ROJAVA GOVERNMENT

* Democratic Union Party * Kurdish National Council * Smaller political parties

SDF GROUPS

* People\'s Protection Units * Women\'s Protection Units * Anti-Terror Units * Al-Sanadid Forces * Army of Revolutionaries * Elite Forces * SDF Military Councils * Syriac Military Council (Bethnahrain Women\'s Protection Forces * Jabhat Thuwar al- Raqqa * Raqqa Hawks Brigade * Northern Democratic Brigade * Free Officers Union * Liberation Brigade faction * Shahba Forces * Liwa Owais al-Qorani remnants * Martyr Amara Arab
Arab
Women's Battalion * Battalion of Karachok Martyrs * Khabour Guards * Nattoreh * Smaller groups

ALLIED GROUPS

* Patriotic Union of Kurdistan * Kurdistan Workers\' Party * International Freedom Battalion
International Freedom Battalion
* Sinjar Resistance Units * Smaller groups

ISIL

Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant
Levant

* Military of ISIL * Dokumacılar * Khalid ibn al-Walid Army
Khalid ibn al-Walid Army
* Liwa al-Aqsa * Group of the One and Only * Liwa Dawud

PEOPLE

* Ammar Abdulhamid * Ali al-Abdallah * Adnan al-Aroor

* al-Assad family

* Bashar * Maher * Rifaat * Rami Makhlouf * Hafez Makhlouf

* Riad al-Asaad * Anwar al-Bunni * Fahd Jassem al-Freij * Haitham al-Maleh * Moaz al-Khatib * Kamal al-Labwani * Hamza al-Khateeb * Tal al-Mallohi * Fida al-Sayed * Riad al-Turk * Khaled Khoja * Ammar al-Qurabi * Suheir Atassi * Ali Sadreddine Al-Bayanouni * Aref Dalila * Farid Ghadry * Burhan Ghalioun * Razan Ghazzawi * Ghassan Hitto * Salim Idris * Randa Kassis * Abdul Halim Khaddam * Michel Kilo * Bassma Kodmani * Ali Habib Mahmud * Ali Mahmoud Othman * Ibrahim Qashoush * Dawoud Rajiha
Dawoud Rajiha
* Yassin al-Haj Saleh * Bouthaina Shaaban * Adib Shishakly * Abdulbaset Sieda * Riad Seif * Fadwa Soliman * Mohamad Anas Haitham Soueid * Yaser Tabbara * Razan Zaitouneh * Rami Jarrah * Abdurrahman Mustafa

* Issues * Peace process * Related topics * Elections

ISSUES

* Casualties * Chemical weapons * Cities and towns * Damaged heritage sites * Foreign involvement * Human rights violations * Humanitarian aid * International reactions * International demonstrations and protests * Massacres * Refugees ( European migrant crisis
European migrant crisis
) * Sectarianism and minorities * Spillover into Lebanon
Lebanon
* Syrian reactions

PEACE PROCESS

* Arab
Arab
League monitors * Friends of Syria
Syria
Group

* Kofi Annan
Kofi Annan
peace plan

* UN Supervision Mission

* Lakhdar Brahimi peace plan * U.S.– Russia
Russia
peace proposals on Syria
Syria
* 39th G8 summit * UN Security Council Resolution 2118 * Geneva II Conference * 2015 Zabadani cease-fire agreement * 2015 Vienna
Vienna
talks * 2016 Geneva talks

RELATED TOPICS

* 2014 Syrian detainee report * Exclusive mandate * Fourth Extraordinary Session of the Islamic Summit Conference * International recognition of the Syrian National Council * Syria
Syria
Files * Syrian media coverage * _The Return to Homs
Homs
_ * _Silvered Water, Syria
Syria
Self-Portrait _ * Sunnistan * Syrian presidential election, 2014

Elections and referendums held during the civil war

* Syrian local elections, 2011 * Syrian constitutional referendum, 2012 * Syrian presidential election, 2014 * Rojava local elections, 2015 * Syrian parliamentary election, 2016

* References

* ^ "FSA Launches a New Battle against IS Group in the Desert of #Syrian". _en.eldorar.com_. * ^ "Syrian Rebellion Obs on Twitter". * ^ "Syrian Rebellion Obs on Twitter". * ^ Shaam.org. ""جيش سوريا الجديد " بحلة جديدة .. “مغاوير الثورة” تشكيل بدعم أمريكي لمحاربة تنظيم الدولة في حمص".

* Category
Category

* v * t * e

Iran– Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
relations

DIPLOMATIC POSTS

* Ambassadors of Iran
Iran
to Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
* Embassy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Tehran

CONFLICTS

* Conflict in Najran, Jizan and Asir

* Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict

* Iraqi insurgency * Syrian Civil War * Yemeni Civil War
War
* Saudi-led intervention in Bahrain
Bahrain
* Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen * Iranian intervention in Iraq
Iraq

INCIDENTS

* 1987 Mecca incident * Bahraini protests of 2011 * 2011 Iran
Iran
assassination plot * 2011–12 Saudi Arabian protests * 2015 Mina stampede * Execution of Nimr al-Nimr
Nimr al-Nimr
* 2016 attack on the Saudi diplomatic missions in Iran
Iran

RELATIONS WITH GCC MEMBER STATES

* Iran– Bahrain
Bahrain
relations * Iran– Qatar
Qatar
relations * Iran–Oman relations * Iran–Kuwait relations * Iran– United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
relations

SEE ALSO

* Arab
Arab
League– Iran
Iran
relations * Iran– Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
football rivalry * Shia– Sunni
Sunni
relations * 2017 Qatar
Qatar
diplomatic crisis

Category
Category

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