The Info List - Syriac Alphabet


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Direction Right-to-left

ISO 15924 Syrc, 135

Syre, 138 (ʾEsṭrangēlā variant) Syrj, 137 (Western variant) Syrn, 136 (Eastern variant)




U+0700–U+074F Syriac U+0860-U+086F Syriac Supplement

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This article contains Syriac text, written from right to left in a cursive style with some letters joined. Without proper rendering support, you may see unjoined Syriac letters or other symbols instead of Syriac script.

The Syriac alphabet
Syriac alphabet
is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language
Syriac language
from the 1st century AD.[1] It is one of the Semitic abjads descending from the Aramaic alphabet
Aramaic alphabet
through the Palmyrene alphabet,[2] and it shares similarities with the Phoenician, Hebrew, Arabic
and the traditional Mongolian scripts. Syriac is written from right to left in horizontal lines. It is a cursive script, but not all letters connect within a word. Spaces separate individual words. All 22 letters are consonants, but there are optional diacritic marks to indicate vowels and other features. In addition to the sounds of the language, the letters of the Syriac alphabet
Syriac alphabet
can be used to represent numbers in a system similar to Hebrew and Greek numerals. When Arabic
began to be the dominant spoken language in the Fertile Crescent, texts were often written in Arabic
with the Syriac script
Syriac script
as knowledge of the Arabic
alphabet was not yet widespread. Malayalam
was also written with Syriac script
Syriac script
and was called Suriyani Malayalam. Such writings are usually called Karshuni or Garshuni
(ܓܪܫܘܢܝ). Garshuni
is often used today by Neo-Aramaic-speakers for written communication, such as letters and fliers.


1 Forms of alphabet

1.1 Classical ʾEsṭrangēlā 1.2 East Syriac Maḏnḥāyā

1.2.1 Vowels

1.3 West Syriac Serṭā

1.3.1 Vowels

2 Summary table 3 Contextual forms of letters

3.1 Ligatures

4 Letter alterations

4.1 Matres lectionis 4.2 Majlīyānā 4.3 Rūkkāḵā and qūššāyā 4.4 Syāmē

5 Unicode

5.1 Blocks 5.2 HTML code table

5.2.1 ʾĀlap̄ Bēṯ 5.2.2 Vowels and unique characters

6 Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
and romanization 7 See also 8 Footnotes 9 References 10 External links

Forms of alphabet[edit]

11th century book in Syriac Serṭā.

There are three major variants of the Syriac alphabet: ʾEsṭrangēlā, Maḏnḥāyā, and Serṭā. Classical ʾEsṭrangēlā[edit]

Yəšūʿ or ʾĪšōʿ, the Syriac name of Jesus.

The oldest and classical form of the alphabet is ʾEsṭrangēlā (ܐܣܛܪܢܓܠܐ‬; the name is thought to derive from the Greek adjective στρογγύλη [strongylē, 'rounded'],[3] though it has also been suggested to derive from ܣܪܛܐ ܐܘܢܓܠܝܐ‬ [serṭā ʾewwangēlāyā, 'gospel character'][4]). Although ʾEsṭrangēlā is no longer used as the main script for writing Syriac, it has received some revival since the 10th century. It is often used in scholarly publications (such as the Leiden University version of the Peshitta), in titles, and in inscriptions. In some older manuscripts and inscriptions, it is possible for any letter to join to the left, and older Aramaic letter forms (especially of Ḥeth and the lunate Mem) are found. Vowel marks are usually not used with ʾEsṭrangēlā. East Syriac Maḏnḥāyā[edit] The East Syriac dialect is usually written in the Maḏnḥāyā (ܡܲܕ݂ܢܚܵܝܵܐ‬, 'Eastern') form of the alphabet. Other names for the script include Swāḏāyā (ܣܘܵܕ݂ܵܝܵܐ‬, 'conversational', often translated as 'contemporary', reflecting its use in writing modern Neo-Aramaic), ʾĀṯūrāyā (ܐܵܬ݂ܘܼܪܵܝܵܐ‬, 'Assyrian', not to be confused with the traditional name for the Hebrew alphabet), Kaldāyā (ܟܲܠܕܵܝܵܐ‬, 'Chaldean'), and, inaccurately, "Nestorian" (a term that was originally used to refer to the Church of the East
Church of the East
in the Sasanian Empire). The Eastern script resembles ʾEsṭrangēlā somewhat more closely than the Western script. Vowels[edit] The Eastern script uses a system of dots above or below letters, based on an older system, to indicate vowel sounds not found in the script:

A dot above and a dot below a letter represent [a], transliterated as a or ă (called ܦܬ݂ܵܚܵܐ‬, Pṯāḥā), Two diagonally-placed dots above a letter represent [ɑ], transliterated as ā or â or å (called ܙܩܵܦ݂ܵܐ‬, Zqāp̄ā), Two horizontally-placed dots below a letter represent [ɛ], transliterated as e or ĕ (called ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ ܐܲܪܝܼܟ݂ܵܐ‬, Rḇāṣā ʾărīḵā or ܙܠܵܡܵܐ ܦܫܝܼܩܵܐ‬, Zlāmā pšīqā; often pronounced [ɪ] and transliterated as i in the East Syriac dialect), Two diagonally-placed dots below a letter represent [e], transliterated as ē (called ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ ܟܲܪܝܵܐ‬, Rḇāṣā karyā or ܙܠܵܡܵܐ ܩܲܫܝܵܐ‬, Zlāmā qašyā), The letter Waw with a dot below it represents [u], transliterated as ū or u (called ܥܨܵܨܵܐ ܐܲܠܝܼܨܵܐ‬, ʿṢāṣā ʾălīṣā or ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ‬, Rḇāṣā), The letter Waw with a dot above it represents [o], transliterated as ō or o (called ܥܨܵܨܵܐ ܪܘܝܼܚܵܐ‬, ʿṢāṣā rwīḥā or ܪܘܵܚܵܐ‬, Rwāḥā), The letter Yōḏ with a dot beneath it represents [i], transliterated as ī or i (called ܚܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ‬, Ḥḇāṣā), A combination of Rḇāṣā karyā (usually) followed by a letter Yōḏ represents [e] (possibly *[e̝] in Proto-Syriac), transliterated as ē or ê (called ܐܲܣܵܩܵܐ‬, ʾĂsāqā).

It is thought that the Eastern method for representing vowels influenced the development of the niqqud markings used for writing Hebrew. In addition to the above vowel marks, transliteration of Syriac sometimes includes ə, e̊ or superscript e (or often nothing at all) to represent an original Aramaic schwa that became lost later on at some point in the development of Syriac. Some transliteration schemes find its inclusion necessary for showing spirantization or for historical reasons. Whether because its distribution is mostly predictable (usually inside a syllable-initial two-consonant cluster) or because its pronunciation was lost, both the East and the West variants of the alphabet have no sign to represent the schwa.

The opening words of the Gospel of John
Gospel of John
written in Serṭā, Maḏnḥāyā and ʾEsṭrangēlā (top to bottom) — brēšiṯ iṯaw[hy]-[h]wā melṯā, 'in the beginning was the word'.

West Syriac Serṭā[edit] The West Syriac dialect is usually written in the Serṭā (ܣܶܪܛܳܐ‬, 'line') form of the alphabet, also known as the Pšīṭā (ܦܫܺܝܛܳܐ‬, 'simple'), 'Maronite', or the 'Jacobite' script (although the term Jacobite is considered derogatory). Most of the letters are clearly derived from ʾEsṭrangēlā, but are simplified, flowing lines. A cursive chancery hand is evidenced in the earliest Syriac manuscripts, but important works were written in ʾEsṭrangēlā. From the 8th century, the simpler Serṭā style came into fashion, perhaps because of its more economical use of parchment. The Nabataean alphabet, which gave rise to the Arabic
alphabet, was based on this form of Syriac handwriting. Vowels[edit] The Western script is usually vowel-pointed, with miniature Greek vowel letters above or below the letter which they follow:

Capital Alpha
(Α) represents [a], transliterated as a or ă (ܦܬ݂ܳܚܳܐ‬, Pṯāḥā), Lowercase Alpha
(α) represents [ɑ], transliterated as ā or â or å (ܙܩܳܦ݂ܳܐ‬, Zqāp̄ā; pronounced as [o] and transliterated as o in the West Syriac dialect), Lowercase Epsilon
(ε) represents both [ɛ], transliterated as e or ĕ, and [e], transliterated as ē (ܪܒ݂ܳܨܳܐ‬, Rḇāṣā), Capital Eta
(H) represents [i], transliterated as ī (ܚܒ݂ܳܨܳܐ‬, Ḥḇāṣā), A combined symbol of capital Upsilon
(Υ) and lowercase Omicron
(ο) represents [u], transliterated as ū or u (ܥܨܳܨܳܐ‬, ʿṢāṣā), Lowercase Omega
(ω), used only in the vocative interjection ʾō (ܐܘّ‬, 'O!').

Summary table[edit]

History of the alphabet

Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE

32 c. BCE

Demotic 7 c. BCE

Meroitic 3 c. BCE

Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE

Ugaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE

Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE

Phoenician 12 c. BCE

Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE

Samaritan 6 c. BCE

3 c. BCE


Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE

4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE

Brahmic family
Brahmic family

E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
13 c. CE

Canadian syllabics 1840

Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCE

Avestan 4 c. CE

Palmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCE

Nabataean 2 c. BCE

4 c. CE

N'Ko 1949 CE

Sogdian 2 c. BCE

Orkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CE

Old Hungarian c. 650 CE

Old Uyghur

Mongolian 1204 CE

Mandaic 2 c. CE

Greek 8 c. BCE

Etruscan 8 c. BCE

Latin 7 c. BCE

Cherokee (syllabary; letter forms only) c. 1820 CE

Runic 2 c. CE Ogham
(origin uncertain) 4 c. CE

Coptic 3 c. CE Gothic 3 c. CE Armenian 405 CE Georgian (origin uncertain) c. 430 CE Glagolitic 862 CE Cyrillic c. 940 CE

Old Permic 1372 CE

1443 (probably influenced by Tibetan) Thaana
18 c. CE (derived from Brahmi numerals)

v t e

The Syriac alphabet
Syriac alphabet
consists of the following letters, shown in their isolated (non-connected) forms. When isolated, the letters Kāp̄, Mīm, and Nūn are usually shown with their initial form connected to their final form (see below). The letters ʾĀlap̄, Dālaṯ, Hē, Waw, Zayn, Ṣāḏē, Rēš, and Taw (and, in early ʾEsṭrangēlā manuscripts, the letter Semkaṯ[5]) do not connect to a following letter within a word. These are marked with an asterisk (*).

Name Letter Sound Value Numerical Value Phoenician Equivalent Imperial Aramaic Equivalent Hebrew Equivalent

ʾEsṭrangēlā Maḏnḥāyā Serṭā Transliteration IPA

ʾĀlep̄ or ʾĀlap̄* (ܐܠܦ)

ʾ or nothing mater lectionis: ā [ʔ] or silent mater lectionis: [ɑ] 1 ‬ 𐡀 א

Bēṯ (ܒܝܬ)

hard: b soft: ḇ (also bh, v, β) hard: [b] soft: [v] or [w] 2 ‬ 𐡁 ב

Gāmal (ܓܡܠ)

hard: g soft: ḡ (also g̱, gh, ġ, γ) hard: [ɡ] soft: [ɣ] 3 ‬ 𐡂 ג

Dālaṯ* (ܕܠܬ)

hard: d soft: ḏ (also dh, ð, δ) hard: [d] soft: [ð] 4 ‬ 𐡃 ד

Hē* (ܗܐ)

h [h] 5 ‬ 𐡄 ה

Waw* (ܘܘ)

consonant: w mater lectionis: ū or ō (also u or o) consonant: [w] mater lectionis: [u] or [o] 6 ‬ 𐡅 ו

Zayn* (ܙܝܢ)

z [z] 7 ‬ 𐡆 ז

Ḥēṯ (ܚܝܬ)

ḥ [ħ], [x], or [χ] 8 ‬ 𐡇 ח

Ṭēṯ (ܛܝܬ)

ṭ [tˤ] 9 ‬ 𐡈 ט

Yōḏ (ܝܘܕ)

consonant: y mater lectionis: ī (also i) consonant: [j] mater lectionis: [i] or [e] 10 ‬ 𐡉 י

Kāp̄ (ܟܦ)

hard: k soft: ḵ (also kh, x) hard: [k] soft: [x] 20 ‬ 𐡊 כ ך

Lāmaḏ (ܠܡܕ)

l [l] 30 ‬ 𐡋 ל

Mīm (ܡܝܡ)

m [m] 40 ‬ 𐡌 מ ם

Nūn (ܢܘܢ)

n [n] 50 ‬ 𐡍 נ ן

Semkaṯ (ܣܡܟܬ)

s [s] 60 ‬ 𐡎 ס

ʿĒ (ܥܐ)

ʿ [ʕ]1 70 ‬ 𐡏 ע

Pē (ܦܐ)

hard: p soft: p̄ (also p̱, ᵽ, ph, f) hard: [p] soft: [f] 80 ‬ 𐡐 פ ף

Ṣāḏē* (ܨܕܐ)

ṣ [sˤ] 90 ‬ 𐡑 צ ץ

Qōp̄ (ܩܘܦ)

q [q] 100 ‬ 𐡒 ק

Rēš* (ܪܝܫ)

r [r] 200 ‬ 𐡓 ר

Šīn (ܫܝܢ)

š (also sh) [ʃ] 300 ‬ 𐡔 ש

Taw* (ܬܘ)

hard: t soft: ṯ (also th, θ) hard: [t] soft: [θ] 400 ‬ 𐡕 ת


^ Among most Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
speakers, the pharyngeal sound [ʕ] in ʿĒ is rendered as [ei], [ai] or [e],[citation needed] depending on the dialect.

Contextual forms of letters[edit]

Letter ʾEsṭrangēlā (classical) Maḏnḥāyā (eastern)

Normal form Final connected Final unconnected Normal form Final connected Final unconnected





























































1 In the final position following Dālaṯ or Rēš, ʾĀlap̄ takes the normal form rather than the final form. Ligatures[edit]

Name ʾEsṭrangēlā (classical) Maḏnḥāyā (eastern) Unicode character(s) Description

Normal form Final connected Final unconnected Normal form Final connected Final unconnected



    ܠܐ Lāmaḏ and ʾĀlap̄ combined at the end of a word



/ ܬܐ Taw and ʾĀlap̄ combined at the end of a word


  ܗܝ Hē and Yōḏ combined at the end of a word


  ܬܝ Taw and Yōḏ combined at the end of a word

Letter alterations[edit]

of the Syriac alphabet.

Matres lectionis[edit] Three letters act as matres lectionis: rather than being a consonant, they indicate a vowel. ʾĀlap̄ (ܐ), the first letter, represents a glottal stop, but it can also indicate a vowel, especially at the beginning or the end of a word. The letter Waw (ܘ) is the consonant w, but can also represent the vowels o and u. Likewise, the letter Yōḏ (ܝ) represents the consonant y, but it also stands for the vowels i and e. Majlīyānā[edit] In modern usage, some alterations can be made to represent phonemes not represented in classical phonology. A mark similar in appearance to a tilde (~), called majlīyānā (ܡܓ̰ܠܝܢܐ‬), is placed above or below a letter in the Maḏnḥāyā variant of the alphabet to change its phonetic value (see also: Geresh):

Added below Gāmal: [ɡ] to [d͡ʒ] (voiced palato-alveolar affricate) Added below Kāp̄: [k] to [t͡ʃ] (voiceless palato-alveolar affricate) Added above or below Zayn: [z] to [ʒ] (voiced palato-alveolar sibilant) Added above Šīn: [ʃ] to [ʒ]

Rūkkāḵā and qūššāyā[edit] In addition to foreign sounds, a marking system is used to distinguish qūššāyā (ܩܘܫܝܐ, 'hard' letters) from rūkkāḵā (ܪܘܟܟܐ, 'soft' letters). The letters Bēṯ, Gāmal, Dālaṯ, Kāp̄, Pē, and Taw, all stop consonants ('hard') are able to be 'spirantized' (lenited) into fricative consonants ('soft'). The system involves placing a single dot underneath the letter to give its 'soft' variant and a dot above the letter to give its 'hard' variant (though, in modern usage, no mark at all is usually used to indicate the 'hard' value):

Name Stop Translit. IPA Name Fricative Translit. IPA Notes

Bēṯ (qšīṯā) ܒ݁‬ b [b] Bēṯ rakkīḵtā ܒ݂‬ ḇ [v] or [w] [v] has become [w] in most modern dialects.

Gāmal (qšīṯā) ܓ݁‬ g [ɡ] Gāmal rakkīḵtā ܓ݂‬ ḡ [ɣ]

Dālaṯ (qšīṯā) ܕ݁‬ d [d] Dālaṯ rakkīḵtā ܕ݂‬ ḏ [ð] [d] is left unspirantized in some modern Eastern dialects.

Kāp̄ (qšīṯā) ܟ݁ܟ݁ ‬

k [k] Kāp̄ rakkīḵtā ܟ݂ܟ݂ ‬

ḵ [x]

Pē (qšīṯā) ܦ݁‬ p [p] Pē rakkīḵtā ܦ݂‬ or ܦ̮‬ p̄ [f] or [w] [f] is not found in most modern Eastern dialects. Instead, it either is left unspirantized or sometimes appears as [w]. Pē is the only letter in the Eastern variant of the alphabet that is spirantized by the addition of a semicircle instead of a single dot.

Taw (qšīṯā) ܬ݁‬ t [t] Taw rakkīḵtā ܬ݂‬ ṯ [θ] [t] is left unspirantized in some modern Eastern dialects.

The mnemonic bḡaḏkp̄āṯ (ܒܓܕܟܦܬ) is often used to remember the six letters that are able to be spirantized (see also: Begadkefat). In the East Syriac variant of the alphabet, spirantization marks are usually omitted when they interfere with vowel marks. The degree to which letters can be spirantized varies from dialect to dialect as some dialects have lost the ability for certain letters to be spirantized. For native words, spirantization depends on the letter's position within a word or syllable, location relative to other consonants and vowels, gemination, etymology, and other factors. Foreign words do not always follow the rules for spirantization. Syāmē[edit] Syriac uses two (usually) horizontal dots above a letter within a word, similar in appearance to diaeresis, called syāmē (ܣܝ̈ܡܐ, literally 'placings'), to indicate that the word is plural. These dots, having no sound value in themselves, arose before both eastern and western vowel systems as it became necessary to mark plural forms of words, which are indistinguishable from their singular counterparts in regularly inflected nouns. For instance, the word malkā (ܡܠܟܐ, 'king') is consonantally identical to its plural malkē ('kings'); the syāmē above the word (ܡܠܟ̈ܐ) clarifies its grammatical number. Irregular plurals also receive syāmē even though their forms are clearly plural: e.g. baytā (ܒܝܬܐ, 'house') and its irregular plural bāttē (ܒ̈ܬܐ, 'houses'). Because of redundancy, some modern usage forgoes syāmē points when vowel markings are present. There are no firm rules for which letter receives syāmē; the writer has full discretion to place them over any letter. Typically, if a word has at least one Rēš, then syāmē are placed over the Rēš that is nearest the end of a word (and also replace the single dot above it). Other letters that often receive syāmē are low-rising letters—such as Yōḏ and Nūn—or letters that appear near the middle or end of a word. Besides nouns, syāmē are also placed on:

plural adjectives, including participles (except masculine plural adjectives/participles in the absolute state); the cardinal numbers 'two' and the feminine forms of 11-19, though inconsistently; and certain feminine plural verbs.

Unicode[edit] The Syriac alphabet
Syriac alphabet
was added to the Unicode
Standard in September, 1999 with the release of version 3.0. Additional letters for Suriyani Malayalam
were added in June, 2017 with the release of version 10.0. Blocks[edit] Main articles: Syriac ( Unicode
block) and Syriac Supplement (Unicode block) The Unicode
block for Syriac is U+0700–U+074F:

Syriac[1][2] Official Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+070x ܀ ܁ ܂ ܃ ܄ ܅ ܆ ܇ ܈ ܉ ܊ ܋ ܌ ܍

܏  SAM 

U+071x ܐ ܑ ܒ ܓ ܔ ܕ ܖ ܗ ܘ ܙ ܚ ܛ ܜ ܝ ܞ ܟ

U+072x ܠ ܡ ܢ ܣ ܤ ܥ ܦ ܧ ܨ ܩ ܪ ܫ ܬ ܭ ܮ ܯ

U+073x ܰ ܱ ܲ ܳ ܴ ܵ ܶ ܷ ܸ ܹ ܺ ܻ ܼ ܽ ܾ ܿ

U+074x ݀ ݁ ݂ ݃ ݄ ݅ ݆ ݇ ݈ ݉ ݊

ݍ ݎ ݏ


1.^ As of Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

The Syriac Abbreviation (a type of overline) can be represented with a special control character called the Syriac Abbreviation Mark (U+070F). The Unicode
block for Suriyani Malayalam
specific letters is called the Syriac Supplement block and is U+0860–U+086F:

Syriac Supplement[1][2] Official Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+086x ࡠ ࡡ ࡢ ࡣ ࡤ ࡥ ࡦ ࡧ ࡨ ࡩ ࡪ


1.^ As of Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

HTML code table[edit] Note: HTML numeric character references can be in decimal format (&#DDDD;) or hexadecimal format (&#xHHHH;). For example, ܕ and ܕ (1813 in decimal) both represent U+0715 SYRIAC LETTER DALATH. ʾĀlap̄ Bēṯ[edit]

ܕ ܓ ܒ ܐ

ܕ ܓ ܒ ܐ

ܚ ܙ ܘ ܗ

ܚ ܙ ܘ ܗ

ܠ ܟܟ ܝ ܛ

ܠ ܟ ܝ ܛ

ܥ ܣ ܢܢ ܡܡ

ܥ ܤ ܢ ܡ

ܪ ܩ ܨ ܦ

ܪ ܩ ܨ ܦ

ܬ ܫ

ܬ ܫ

Vowels and unique characters[edit]

ܲ ܵ

ܲ ܵ

ܸ ܹ

ܸ ܹ

ܼ ܿ

ܼ ܿ

̈ ̰

̈ ̰

݁ ݂

݁ ݂

܀ ܂

܀ ܂

܄ ݇

܄ ݇

Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
and romanization[edit] In the 1930s, following the state policy for minority languages of the Soviet Union, a Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
for Syriac was developed with some material promulgated.[6] Although it did not supplant the Syriac script, the usage of the Latin script
Latin script
in the Syriac community has still become widespread because most of the Assyrian diaspora
Assyrian diaspora
is in Europe
and the Anglosphere, where the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is predominant. As a result of Westernisation, the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
has been used for Syriac writing.[7] See also[edit]

Abjad Alphabet Aramaic alphabet Aramaic language Mandaic language Mongolian script Sogdian alphabet Syriac language Syriac Malayalam Old Uyghur alphabet History of the alphabet List of writing systems


^ "Syriac alphabet". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved June 16, 2012.  ^ P. R. Ackroyd,C. F. Evans (1975). The Cambridge History of the Bible: Volume 1, From the Beginnings to Jerome. p. 26.  ^ Hatch, William (1946). An album of dated Syriac manuscripts. Boston: The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, reprinted in 2002 by Gorgias Press. p. 24. ISBN 1-931956-53-7. ^ Nestle, Eberhard (1888). Syrische Grammatik mit Litteratur, Chrestomathie und Glossar. Berlin: H. Reuther's Verlagsbuchhandlung. [translated to English as Syriac grammar with bibliography, chrestomathy and glossary, by R. S. Kennedy. London: Williams & Norgate 1889. p. 5]. ^ Coakley, J. F. (2002). Robinson's paradigms and exercises in Syriac grammar (5th ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-19-926129-1. ^ Moscati, Sabatino, et al. The Comparative Grammar of Semitic Languages. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, Germany, 1980. ^ S. P. Brock, "Three Thousand Years of Aramaic literature", in Aram,1:1 (1989)


Coakley, J. F. (2002). Robinson's Paradigms and Exercises in Syriac Grammar (5th ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-926129-1. Hatch, William (1946). An Album of Dated Syriac Manuscripts. Boston: The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, reprinted in 2002 by Gorgias Press. ISBN 1-931956-53-7. Michaelis, Ioannis Davidis (1784). Grammatica Syriaca. Nestle, Eberhard (1888). Syrische Grammatik mit Litteratur, Chrestomathie und Glossar. Berlin: H. Reuther's Verlagsbuchhandlung. [translated to English as Syriac grammar with bibliography, chrestomathy and glossary, by R. S. Kennedy. London: Williams & Norgate 1889]. Nöldeke, Theodor and Julius Euting (1880). Kurzgefasste syrische Grammatik. Leipzig: T.O. Weigel. [translated to English as Compendious Syriac Grammar, by James A. Crichton. London: Williams & Norgate 1904. 2003 edition: ISBN 1-57506-050-7]. Phillips, George (1866). A Syriac Grammar. Cambridge: Deighton, Bell, & Co.; London: Bell & Daldy. Robinson, Theodore Henry (1915). Paradigms and Exercises in Syriac Grammar. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-926129-6. Rudder, Joshua. Learn to Write Aramaic: A Step-by-Step Approach to the Historical & Modern Scripts. n.p.: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2011. 220 pp. ISBN 978-1461021421 Includes the Estrangela (pp. 59–113), Madnhaya (pp. 191–206), and the Western Serto (pp. 173–190) scripts. Thackston, Wheeler M. (1999). Introduction to Syriac. Bethesda, MD: Ibex Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-936347-98-8.

External links[edit]

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The Syriac alphabet
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at Omniglot.com The Syriac alphabet
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Entity Codes for the Syriac Script Download Syriac fonts How to write Aramaic – learn the Syriac cursive scripts Aramaic and Syriac handwriting ʾEsṭrangēlā (classical) Learn Assyrian (Syriac-Aramaic) OnLine Maḏnḥāyā (eastern) GNU FreeFont Unicode
font family with Syriac range in its sans-serif face. Learn Syriac Latin Alphabet
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The Northwest Semitic abjad




















1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 200 300 400

History Phoenician


Hebrew Aramaic Syriac

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Types of writing systems


History of writing Grapheme


Writing systems

undeciphered inventors constructed

Languages by writing system / by first written accounts






Arabic Pitman shorthand Hebrew

Ashuri Cursive Rashi Solitreo

Tifinagh Manichaean Nabataean Old North Arabian Pahlavi Pegon Phoenician


Proto-Sinaitic Psalter Punic Samaritan South Arabian

Zabur Musnad

Sogdian Syriac

ʾEsṭrangēlā Serṭā Maḏnḥāyā

Teeline Shorthand Ugaritic




Asamiya (Ôxômiya) Bānglā Bhaikshuki Bhujinmol Brāhmī Devanāgarī Dogri Gujarati Gupta Gurmukhī Kaithi Kalinga Khojki Khotanese Khudawadi Laṇḍā Lepcha Limbu Mahajani Meitei Mayek Modi Multani Nāgarī Nandinagari Odia 'Phags-pa Newar Ranjana Sharada Saurashtra Siddhaṃ Soyombo Sylheti Nagari Takri Tibetan

Uchen Umê

Tirhuta Tocharian Zanabazar Square Zhang-Zhung

Drusha Marchen Marchung Pungs-chen Pungs-chung


Ahom Balinese Batak Baybayin Bhattiprolu Buhid Burmese Chakma Cham Grantha Goykanadi Hanunó'o Javanese Kadamba Kannada Karen Kawi Khmer Kulitan Lanna Lao Leke Lontara Malayalam Maldivian

Dhives Akuru Eveyla Akuru Thaana

Mon Old Makassarese Old Sundanese Pallava Pyu Rejang Rencong Sinhala Sundanese Tagbanwa Tai Le Tai Tham Tai Viet Tamil Telugu Thai Tigalari Vatteluttu

Kolezhuthu Malayanma



Boyd's syllabic shorthand Canadian syllabics

Blackfoot Déné syllabics

Fox I Ge'ez Gunjala Gondi Japanese Braille Jenticha Kayah Li Kharosthi Mandombe Masaram Gondi Meroitic Miao Mwangwego Sorang Sompeng Pahawh Hmong Thomas Natural Shorthand



Abkhaz Adlam Armenian Avestan Avoiuli Bassa Vah Borama Carian Caucasian Albanian Coorgi–Cox alphabet Coptic Cyrillic Deseret Duployan shorthand

Chinook writing

Early Cyrillic Eclectic shorthand Elbasan Etruscan Evenki Fox II Fraser Gabelsberger shorthand Garay Georgian

Asomtavruli Nuskhuri Mkhedruli

Glagolitic Gothic Gregg shorthand Greek Greco-Iberian alphabet Hangul Hanifi IPA Kaddare Latin

Beneventan Blackletter Carolingian minuscule Fraktur Gaelic Insular Kurrent Merovingian Sigla Sütterlin Tironian notes Visigothic

Luo Lycian Lydian Manchu Mandaic Medefaidrin Molodtsov Mongolian Mru Neo-Tifinagh New Tai Lue N'Ko Ogham Oirat Ol Chiki Old Hungarian Old Italic Old Permic Orkhon Old Uyghur Osage Osmanya Pau Cin Hau Runic

Anglo-Saxon Cipher Dalecarlian Elder Futhark Younger Futhark Gothic Marcomannic Medieval Staveless

Sidetic Shavian Somali Tifinagh Vagindra Visible Speech Vithkuqi Wancho Zaghawa


Braille Maritime flags Morse code New York Point Semaphore line Flag semaphore Moon type


Adinkra Aztec Blissymbol Dongba Ersu Shaba Emoji IConji Isotype Kaidā Míkmaq Mixtec New Epoch Notation Painting Nsibidi Ojibwe Hieroglyphs Siglas poveiras Testerian Yerkish Zapotec


Chinese family of scripts

Chinese Characters

Simplified Traditional Oracle bone script Bronze Script Seal Script

large small bird-worm

Hanja Idu Kanji Chữ nôm Zhuang


Jurchen Khitan large script Sui Tangut


Akkadian Assyrian Elamite Hittite Luwian Sumerian

Other logo-syllabic

Anatolian Bagam Cretan Isthmian Maya Proto-Elamite Yi (Classical)


Demotic Hieratic Hieroglyphs


Hindu-Arabic Abjad Attic (Greek) Muisca Roman



Celtiberian Northeastern Iberian Southeastern Iberian Khom


Espanca Pahawh Hmong Khitan small script Southwest Paleohispanic Zhuyin fuhao


ASLwrite SignWriting si5s Stokoe Notation


Afaka Bamum Bété Byblos Cherokee Cypriot Cypro-Minoan Ditema tsa Dinoko Eskayan Geba Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics Iban Japanese

Hiragana Katakana Man'yōgana Hentaigana Sogana Jindai moji

Kikakui Kpelle Linear B Linear Elamite Lisu Loma Nüshu Nwagu Aneke script Old Persian Cuneiform Vai Woleai Yi (Modern) Yugtun

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1829 braille International uniformity ASCII braille Unicode
braille patterns


French-ordered scripts (see for more)

Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Azerbaijani Belarusian Bharati

(Hindi  / Marathi  / Nepali) Bengali Punjabi Sinhalese Tamil Urdu etc.

Bulgarian Burmese Cambodian Cantonese Catalan Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) Czech Dutch Dzongkha (Bhutanese) English (Unified English) Esperanto Estonian Faroese French Georgian German Ghanaian Greek Guarani Hawaiian Hebrew Hungarian Icelandic Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) Iñupiaq IPA Irish Italian Kazakh Kyrgyz Latvian Lithuanian Maltese Mongolian Māori Navajo Nigerian Northern Sami Persian Philippine Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Samoan Scandinavian Slovak South African Spanish Tatar Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) Thai & Lao (Japanese vowels) Tibetan Turkish Ukrainian Vietnamese Welsh Yugoslav

Reordered scripts

Algerian Braille

Frequency-based scripts

American Braille

Independent scripts

Japanese Korean Two-Cell Chinese

Eight-dot scripts

Luxembourgish Kanji Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)

Symbols in braille

music Canadian currency marks Computer Braille
Code Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8/GS6) International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) Nemeth braille code


e-book Braille
embosser Braille
translator Braille
watch Mountbatten Brailler Optical braille recognition Perforation Perkins Brailler Refreshable braille display Slate and stylus Braigo


Louis Braille Charles Barbier Valentin Haüy Thakur Vishva Narain Singh Sabriye Tenberken William Bell Wait


Institute of America Braille
Without Borders Japan Braille
Library National Braille
Association Blindness organizations Schools for the blind American Printing House for the Blind

Other tactile alphabets

Decapoint Moon type New York Point Night writing Vibratese

Related topics

Accessible publishing Braille
literacy RoboBraille

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Electronic writing systems

Emoticons Emoji iConji Leet Unicode

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Internet slang
Internet slang

3arabizi Alay (Indonesia) Denglisch Doge Fingilish (Persian) Greeklish Gyaru-moji (Japan) Jejemon (Philippines) Leet
("1337") Lolspeak / LOLspeak / Kitteh Martian language (Chinese) Miguxês (Portuguese) Padonkaffsky jargon
Padonkaffsky jargon
(Russian) Translit Volapuk

See also English internet slang (at Wiktionary)