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DIRECTION Right-to-left

ISO 15924 Syrc, 135

* Syre, 138 (ʾEsṭrangēlā variant) * Syrj, 137 (Western variant) * Syrn, 136 (Eastern variant)

UNICODE ALIAS Syriac

UNICODE RANGE

* U+0700–U+074F Syriac * U+0860-U+086F Syriac Supplement

THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS SYRIAC TEXT, WRITTEN FROM RIGHT TO LEFT IN A CURSIVE STYLE WITH SOME LETTERS JOINED. Without proper rendering support , you may see unjoined Syriac letters or other symbols instead of Syriac script .

The SYRIAC ALPHABET is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language from the 1st century AD. It is one of the Semitic abjads descending from the Aramaic alphabet through the Palmyrene alphabet , and it shares similarities with the Phoenician , Hebrew , Arabic and the traditional Mongolian scripts .

Syriac is written from right to left in horizontal lines. It is a cursive script, but not all letters connect within a word. Spaces separate individual words.

All 22 letters are consonants, but there are optional diacritic marks to indicate vowels and other features. In addition to the sounds of the language, the letters of the Syriac alphabet can be used to represent numbers in a system similar to Hebrew and Greek numerals .

When Arabic began to be the dominant spoken language in the Fertile Crescent , texts were often written in Arabic with the Syriac script as knowledge of the Arabic alphabet was not yet widespread. Malayalam was also written with Syriac script and was called Suriyani Malayalam . Such writings are usually called _Karshuni_ or _ Garshuni _ (ܓܪܫܘܢܝ). Garshuni is often used today by Neo-Aramaic-speakers for written communication, such as letters and fliers.

CONTENTS

* 1 Forms of alphabet

* 1.1 Classical _ʾEsṭrangēlā_

* 1.2 East Syriac _Maḏnḥāyā_

* 1.2.1 Vowels

* 1.3 West Syriac _Serṭā_

* 1.3.1 Vowels

* 2 Summary table

* 3 Contextual forms of letters

* 3.1 Ligatures

* 4 Letter alterations

* 4.1 Matres lectionis * 4.2 _Majlīyānā_ * 4.3 _Rūkkāḵā_ and _qūššāyā_ * 4.4 _Syāmē_

* 5 Unicode

* 5.1 Blocks

* 5.2 HTML code table

* 5.2.1 _ʾĀlap̄ Bēṯ_ * 5.2.2 Vowels and unique characters

* 6 Latin alphabet and romanization * 7 See also * 8 Footnotes * 9 References * 10 External links

FORMS OF ALPHABET

11th century book in Syriac Serṭā.

There are three major variants of the Syriac alphabet: _ʾEsṭrangēlā_, _Maḏnḥāyā_, and _Serṭā_.

CLASSICAL _ʾESṭRANGēLā_

_ Yəšūʿ_ or _ʾĪšōʿ_, the Syriac name of Jesus .

The oldest and classical form of the alphabet is _ʾEsṭrangēlā_ (ܐܣܛܪܢܓܠܐ‎; the name is thought to derive from the Greek adjective στρογγύλη , though it has also been suggested to derive from ܣܪܛܐ ܐܘܢܓܠܝܐ‎ ). Although ʾEsṭrangēlā is no longer used as the main script for writing Syriac, it has received some revival since the 10th century. It is often used in scholarly publications (such as the Leiden University version of the Peshitta ), in titles, and in inscriptions . In some older manuscripts and inscriptions, it is possible for any letter to join to the left, and older Aramaic letter forms (especially of Ḥeth and the lunate Mem ) are found. Vowel marks are usually not used with ʾEsṭrangēlā.

EAST SYRIAC _MAḏNḥāYā_

The East Syriac dialect is usually written in the _Maḏnḥāyā_ (ܡܲܕ݂ܢܚܵܝܵܐ‎, 'Eastern') form of the alphabet. Other names for the script include _Swāḏāyā_ (ܣܘܵܕ݂ܵܝܵܐ‎, 'conversational', often translated as 'contemporary', reflecting its use in writing modern Neo-Aramaic), _ʾĀṯūrāyā_ (ܐܵܬ݂ܘܼܪܵܝܵܐ‎, 'Assyrian', not to be confused with the traditional name for the Hebrew alphabet ), _Kaldāyā_ (ܟܲܠܕܵܝܵܐ‎, 'Chaldean'), and, inaccurately, "Nestorian " (a term that was originally used to refer to the Church of the East in the Sasanian Empire ). The Eastern script resembles ʾEsṭrangēlā somewhat more closely than the Western script.

Vowels

The Eastern script uses a system of dots above or below letters, based on an older system, to indicate vowel sounds not found in the script:

* A dot above and a dot below a letter represent , transliterated as _a_ or _ă_ (called ܦܬ݂ܵܚܵܐ‎, _Pṯāḥā_), * Two diagonally-placed dots above a letter represent , transliterated as _ā_ or _â_ or _å_ (called ܙܩܵܦ݂ܵܐ‎, _Zqāp̄ā_), * Two horizontally-placed dots below a letter represent , transliterated as _e_ or _ĕ_ (called ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ ܐܲܪܝܼܟ݂ܵܐ‎, _Rḇāṣā ʾărīḵā_ or ܙܠܵܡܵܐ ܦܫܝܼܩܵܐ‎, _Zlāmā pšīqā_; often pronounced and transliterated as _i_ in the East Syriac dialect), * Two diagonally-placed dots below a letter represent , transliterated as _ē_ (called ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ ܟܲܪܝܵܐ‎, _Rḇāṣā karyā_ or ܙܠܵܡܵܐ ܩܲܫܝܵܐ‎, _Zlāmā qašyā_), * The letter _Waw_ with a dot below it represents , transliterated as _ū_ or _u_ (called ܥܨܵܨܵܐ ܐܲܠܝܼܨܵܐ‎, _ʿṢāṣā ʾălīṣā_ or ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ‎, _Rḇāṣā_), * The letter _Waw_ with a dot above it represents , transliterated as _ō_ or _o_ (called ܥܨܵܨܵܐ ܪܘܝܼܚܵܐ‎, _ʿṢāṣā rwīḥā_ or ܪܘܵܚܵܐ‎, _Rwāḥā_), * The letter _Yōḏ_ with a dot beneath it represents , transliterated as _ī_ or _i_ (called ܚܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ‎, _Ḥḇāṣā_), * A combination of _Rḇāṣā karyā_ (usually) followed by a letter _Yōḏ_ represents (possibly * in Proto-Syriac), transliterated as _ē_ or _ê_ (called ܐܲܣܵܩܵܐ‎, _ʾĂsāqā_).

It is thought that the Eastern method for representing vowels influenced the development of the _niqqud _ markings used for writing Hebrew.

In addition to the above vowel marks, transliteration of Syriac sometimes includes _ə_, _e̊_ or superscript _e_ (often nothing at all) to represent an original Aramaic schwa that became lost later on at some point in the development of Syriac. Some transliteration schemes find its inclusion necessary for showing spirantization or for historical reasons. Whether because its distribution is mostly predictable (usually inside a syllable-initial two-consonant cluster) or because its pronunciation was lost, the East and the West variants of the alphabet have no sign to represent the schwa. The opening words of the Gospel of John written in Serṭā, Maḏnḥāyā and ʾEsṭrangēlā (top to bottom) — brēšiṯ iṯaw-wā melṯā, 'in the beginning was the word'.

WEST SYRIAC _SERṭā_

The West Syriac dialect is usually written in the _Serṭā_ (ܣܶܪܛܳܐ‎, 'line') form of the alphabet, also known as the _Pšīṭā_ (ܦܫܺܝܛܳܐ‎, 'simple'), 'Maronite', or the 'Jacobite' script (although the term _Jacobite_ is considered derogatory). Most of the letters are clearly derived from ʾEsṭrangēlā, but are simplified, flowing lines. A cursive chancery hand is evidenced in the earliest Syriac manuscripts, but important works were written in ʾEsṭrangēlā. From the 8th century, the simpler Serṭā style came into fashion, perhaps because of its more economical use of parchment . The Nabataean alphabet , which gave rise to the Arabic alphabet , was based on this form of Syriac handwriting.

Vowels

The Western script is usually vowel-pointed, with miniature Greek vowel letters above or below the letter which they follow:

* Capital Alpha (Α) represents , transliterated as _a_ or _ă_ (ܦܬ݂ܳܚܳܐ‎, _Pṯāḥā_), * Lowercase Alpha (α) represents , transliterated as _ā_ or _â_ or _å_ (ܙܩܳܦ݂ܳܐ‎, _Zqāp̄ā_; pronounced as and transliterated as _o_ in the West Syriac dialect), * Lowercase Epsilon (ε) represents both , transliterated as _e_ or _ĕ_, and , transliterated as _ē_ (ܪܒ݂ܳܨܳܐ‎, _Rḇāṣā_), * Capital Eta (H) represents , transliterated as _ī_ (ܚܒ݂ܳܨܳܐ‎, _Ḥḇāṣā_), * A combined symbol of capital Upsilon (Υ) and lowercase Omicron (ο) represents , transliterated as _ū_ or _u_ (ܥܨܳܨܳܐ‎, _ʿṢāṣā_), * Lowercase Omega (ω), used only in the vocative interjection _ʾō_ (ܐܘّ‎, 'O!').

SUMMARY TABLE

History of the alphabet -------------------------

_ Egyptian hieroglyphs _ 32 c. BCE

* _ Hieratic _ 32 c. BCE

* _Demotic _ 7 c. BCE

* _Meroitic _ 3 c. BCE

* _Proto-Sinaitic _ 19 c. BCE

* _Ugaritic _ 15 c. BCE

* _Epigraphic South Arabian _ 9 c. BCE

* Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE

* _Phoenician _ 12 c. BCE

* _Paleo-Hebrew _ 10 c. BCE

* Samaritan 6 c. BCE

* _ Libyco-Berber 3 c. BCE_

* Tifinagh

* _Paleohispanic _ (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE

* Aramaic 8 c. BCE

* _ Kharoṣṭhī _ 4 c. BCE

* _Brāhmī _ 4 c. BCE

* Brahmic family _(see)_

* E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE

* Hangul (core letters only) 1443

* Devanagari 13 c. CE

* Canadian syllabics 1840

* Hebrew 3 c. BCE

* _Pahlavi _ 3 c. BCE

* _Avestan _ 4 c. CE

* _Palmyrene _ 2 c. BCE

* Syriac 2 c. BCE

* _Nabataean _ 2 c. BCE

* Arabic 4 c. CE

* N\'Ko 1949 CE

* _Sogdian _ 2 c. BCE

* _Orkhon (old Turkic)_ 6 c. CE

* _Old Hungarian _ c. 650 CE

* _Old Uyghur _

* Mongolian 1204 CE

* Mandaic 2 c. CE

* Greek 8 c. BCE

* _Etruscan _ 8 c. BCE

* Latin 7 c. BCE

* Cherokee (syllabary; letter forms only) c. 1820 CE

* _Runic _ 2 c. CE * _ Ogham _ (origin uncertain) 4 c. CE

* _Coptic _ 3 c. CE * _Gothic _ 3 c. CE * Armenian 405 CE * Georgian (origin uncertain) c. 430 CE * _Glagolitic _ 862 CE

* Cyrillic c. 940 CE

* _Old Permic _ 1372 CE

Thaana 18 c. CE (derived from Brahmi numerals )

* v * t * e

The Syriac alphabet consists of the following letters, shown in their isolated (non-connected) forms. When isolated, the letters _Kāp̄_, _Mīm_, and _Nūn_ are usually shown with their initial form connected to their final form (see below ). The letters _ʾĀlap̄_, _Dālaṯ_, _Hē_, _Waw_, _Zayn_, _Ṣāḏē_, _Rēš_, and _Taw_ (and, in early ʾEsṭrangēlā manuscripts, the letter _Semkaṯ_ ) do not connect to a following letter within a word. These are marked with an asterisk (*).

NAME LETTER SOUND VALUE Numerical Value Phoenician Equivalent Hebrew Equivalent Arabic Equivalent

ʾESṭRANGēLā MAḏNḥāYā SERṭā TRANSLITERATION IPA

_ʾĀlap̄ _* (ܐܠܦ) _

ʾ_ or nothing mater lectionis: _ā_ or silent mater lectionis: 1 _ א ا

Bēṯ _ (ܒܝܬ) _

hard: b_ soft: _ḇ_ (also _bh_, _v_, _β_) hard: soft: or 2 _ ב ب

Gāmal _ (ܓܡܠ) _

hard: g_ soft: _ḡ_ (also _g̱_, _gh_, _ġ_, _γ_) hard: soft: 3 _ ג ج

Dālaṯ _* (ܕܠܬ) _

hard: d_ soft: _ḏ_ (also _dh_, _ð_, _δ_) hard: soft: 4 _ ד د, ذ

Hē _* (ܗܐ) _

h_

5 _ ה ه

Waw _* (ܘܘ) _

consonant: w_ mater lectionis: _ū_ or _ō_ (also _u_ or _o_) consonant: mater lectionis: or 6 _ ו و

Zayn _* (ܙܝܢ) _

z_

7 _ ז ز

Ḥēṯ _ (ܚܝܬ) _

ḥ_ , , or 8 _ ח ح, خ

Ṭēṯ _ (ܛܝܬ) _

ṭ_

9 _ ט ط, ظ

Yōḏ _ (ܝܘܕ) _

consonant: y_ mater lectionis: _ī_ (also _i_) consonant: mater lectionis: or 10 _ י ي

Kāp̄ _ (ܟܦ) _

hard: k_ soft: _ḵ_ (also _kh_, _x_) hard: soft: 20 _ כ ך ك

Lāmaḏ _ (ܠܡܕ) _

l_

30 _ ל ل

Mīm _ (ܡܝܡ) _

m_

40 _ מ ם م

Nūn _ (ܢܘܢ) _

n_

50 _ נ ן ن

Semkaṯ _ (ܣܡܟܬ) _

s_

60 _ ס —

ʿĒ _ (ܥܐ) _

ʿ_

70 _ ע ع, غ

Pē _ (ܦܐ) _

hard: p_ soft: _p̄_ (also _p̱_, _ᵽ_, _ph_, _f_) hard: soft: 80 _ פ ף ف

Ṣāḏē _* (ܨܕܐ) _

ṣ_

90 _ צ ץ ص, ض

Qōp̄ _ (ܩܘܦ) _

q_

100 _ ק ق

Rēš _* (ܪܝܫ) _

r_

200 _ ר ر

Šīn _ (ܫܝܢ) _

š_ (also _sh_)

300 _ ש س, ش

Taw _* (ܬܘ) _

hard: t_ soft: _ṯ_ (also _th_, _θ_) hard: soft: 400 _ ת ت, ث

* Since the pharyngeal sound in Ayn_ is dropped among most Assyrian Neo-Aramaic speakers, the letter would mostly make an /ei /, /ai/ or /e/ sound, depending on the speaker's dialect.

CONTEXTUAL FORMS OF LETTERS

LETTER ʾESṭRANGēLā (CLASSICAL) MAḏNḥāYā (EASTERN)

Normal form Final connected Final unconnected Normal form Final connected Final unconnected

ʾĀlap̄

1

Bēṯ

Gāmal

Dālaṯ

Waw

Zayn

Ḥēṯ

Ṭēṯ

Yōḏ

Kāp̄

Lāmaḏ

Mīm

Nūn

Semkaṯ

/

ʿĒ

Ṣāḏē

Qōp̄

Rēš

Šīn

Taw

1 In the final position following _Dālaṯ_ or _Rēš_, _ʾĀlap̄_ takes the normal form rather than the final form.

LIGATURES

NAME ʾESṭRANGēLā (CLASSICAL) MAḏNḥāYā (EASTERN) Unicode character(s) DESCRIPTION

Normal form Final connected Final unconnected Normal form Final connected Final unconnected

Lāmaḏ-ʾĀlap̄

ܠܐ Lāmaḏ and ʾĀlap̄ combined at the end of a word

Taw-ʾĀlap̄

/ ܬܐ Taw and ʾĀlap̄ combined at the end of a word

Hē-Yōḏ

ܗܝ Hē and Yōḏ combined at the end of a word

Taw-Yōḏ

ܬܝ Taw and Yōḏ combined at the end of a word

LETTER ALTERATIONS

Transliteration of the Syriac alphabet.

MATRES LECTIONIS

Three letters act as matres lectionis : rather than being a consonant, they indicate a vowel. _ʾĀlap̄ _ (ܐ), the first letter, represents a glottal stop , but it can also indicate a vowel, especially at the beginning or the end of a word. The letter _Waw _ (ܘ) is the consonant _w_, but can also represent the vowels _o_ and _u_. Likewise, the letter _Yōḏ _ (ܝ) represents the consonant _y_, but it also stands for the vowels _i_ and _e_.

_MAJLīYāNā_

In modern usage, some alterations can be made to represent phonemes not represented in classical phonology. A mark similar in appearance to a tilde (~), called _majlīyānā_ (ܡܓ̰ܠܝܢܐ‎), is placed above or below a letter in the _Maḏnḥāyā_ variant of the alphabet to change its phonetic value (see also: _ Geresh _):

* Added below _Gāmal_: to (voiced palato-alveolar affricate ) * Added below _Kāp̄_: to (voiceless palato-alveolar affricate ) * Added above or below _Zayn_: to (voiced palato-alveolar sibilant ) * Added above _Šīn_: to

_RūKKāḵā_ AND _QūššāYā_

In addition to foreign sounds, a marking system is used to distinguish _qūššāyā_ (ܩܘܫܝܐ, 'hard' letters) from _rūkkāḵā_ (ܪܘܟܟܐ, 'soft' letters). The letters _Bēṯ_, _Gāmal_, _Dālaṯ_, _Kāp̄_, _Pē_, and _Taw_, all stop consonants ('hard') are able to be 'spirantized' (lenited ) into fricative consonants ('soft'). The system involves placing a single dot underneath the letter to give its 'soft' variant and a dot above the letter to give its 'hard' variant (though, in modern usage, no mark at all is usually used to indicate the 'hard' value):

NAME STOP TRANSLIT. IPA NAME FRICATIVE TRANSLIT. IPA NOTES

_Bēṯ (qšīṯā)_ ܒ݁‎ _b_

_Bēṯ rakkīḵtā_ ܒ݂‎ _ḇ_ or has become in most modern dialects.

_Gāmal (qšīṯā)_ ܓ݁‎ _g_

_Gāmal rakkīḵtā_ ܓ݂‎ _ḡ_

_Dālaṯ (qšīṯā)_ ܕ݁‎ _d_

_Dālaṯ rakkīḵtā_ ܕ݂‎ _ḏ_

is left unspirantized in some modern Eastern dialects.

_Kāp̄ (qšīṯā)_ ܟ݁ܟ݁

‎ _k_

_Kāp̄ rakkīḵtā_ ܟ݂ܟ݂

‎ _ḵ_

_Pē (qšīṯā)_ ܦ݁‎ _p_

_Pē rakkīḵtā_ ܦ݂‎ or ܦ̮‎ _p̄_ or is not found in most modern Eastern dialects. Instead, it either is left unspirantized or sometimes appears as . _Pē_ is the only letter in the Eastern variant of the alphabet that is spirantized by the addition of a semicircle instead of a single dot.

_ Taw (qšīṯā)_ ܬ݁‎ _t_

_ Taw rakkīḵtā_ ܬ݂‎ _ṯ_

is left unspirantized in some modern Eastern dialects.

The mnemonic _bḡaḏkp̄āṯ_ (ܒܓܕܟܦܬ) is often used to remember the six letters that are able to be spirantized (see also: _ Begadkefat _).

In the East Syriac variant of the alphabet, spirantization marks are usually omitted when they interfere with vowel marks. The degree to which letters can be spirantized varies from dialect to dialect as some dialects have lost the ability for certain letters to be spirantized. For native words, spirantization depends on the letter's position within a word or syllable, location relative to other consonants and vowels, gemination , etymology , and other factors. Foreign words do not always follow the rules for spirantization.

_SYāMē_

Syriac uses two (usually) horizontal dots above a letter within a word, similar in appearance to diaeresis , called _syāmē_ (ܣܝ̈ܡܐ, literally 'placings'), to indicate that the word is plural. These dots, having no sound value in themselves, arose before both eastern and western vowel systems as it became necessary to mark plural forms of words, which are indistinguishable from their singular counterparts in regularly inflected nouns. For instance, the word _malkā_ (ܡܠܟܐ, 'king') is consonantally identical to its plural _malkē_ ('kings'); the _syāmē_ above the word (ܡܠܟ̈ܐ) clarifies its grammatical number. Irregular plurals also receive _syāmē_ even though their forms are clearly plural: e.g. _baytā_ (ܒܝܬܐ, 'house') and its irregular plural _bāttē_ (ܒ̈ܬܐ, 'houses'). Because of redundancy, some modern usage forgoes _syāmē_ points when vowel markings are present.

There are no firm rules for which letter receives _syāmē_; the writer has full discretion to place them over any letter. Typically, if a word has at least one _Rēš_, then _syāmē_ are placed over the _Rēš_ that is nearest the end of a word (and also replace the single dot above it). Other letters that often receive _syāmē_ are low-rising letters—such as _Yōḏ_ and _Nūn_—or letters that appear near the middle or end of a word.

Besides nouns, _syāmē_ are also placed on:

* plural adjectives, including participles (except masculine plural adjectives/participles in the absolute state); * the cardinal numbers 'two' and the feminine forms of 11-19, though inconsistently; * and certain feminine plural verbs.

UNICODE

The Syriac alphabet was added to the Unicode Standard in September, 1999 with the release of version 3.0. Additional letters for Suriyani Malayalam were added in June, 2017 with the release of version 10.0.

BLOCKS

Main articles: Syriac ( Unicode block) and Syriac Supplement (Unicode block)

The Unicode block for Syriac is U+0700–U+074F:

SYRIAC Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+070x ܀ ܁ ܂ ܃ ܄ ܅ ܆ ܇ ܈ ܉ ܊ ܋ ܌ ܍

܏ SAM

U+071x ܐ ܑ ܒ ܓ ܔ ܕ ܖ ܗ ܘ ܙ ܚ ܛ ܜ ܝ ܞ ܟ

U+072x ܠ ܡ ܢ ܣ ܤ ܥ ܦ ܧ ܨ ܩ ܪ ܫ ܬ ܭ ܮ ܯ

U+073x ܰ ܱ ܲ ܳ ܴ ܵ ܶ ܷ ܸ ܹ ܺ ܻ ܼ ܽ ܾ ܿ

U+074x ݀ ݁ ݂ ݃ ݄ ݅ ݆ ݇ ݈ ݉ ݊

ݍ ݎ ݏ

NOTES 1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

The Syriac Abbreviation (a type of overline ) can be represented with a special control character called the Syriac Abbreviation Mark (U+070F).

The Unicode block for Suriyani Malayalam specific letters is called the Syriac Supplement block and is U+0860–U+086F:

SYRIAC SUPPLEMENT Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+086x ࡠ ࡡ ࡢ ࡣ ࡤ ࡥ ࡦ ࡧ ࡨ ࡩ ࡪ

NOTES 1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

HTML CODE TABLE

NOTE: HTML numeric character references can be in decimal format () or hexadecimal format (). For example, and (1813 in decimal) both represent U+0715 SYRIAC LETTER DALATH.

_ʾĀlap̄ Bēṯ_

ܕ ܓ ܒ ܐ

ܚ ܙ ܘ ܗ

ܠ ܟܟ ܝ ܛ

ܥ ܣ ܢܢ ܡܡ

ܪ ܩ ܨ ܦ

ܬ ܫ

Vowels And Unique Characters

ܲ ܵ

ܸ ܹ

ܼ ܿ

̈ ̰

݁ ݂

܀ ܂

܄ ݇

LATIN ALPHABET AND ROMANIZATION

In the 1930s, following the state policy for minority languages of the Soviet Union , a Latin alphabet for Syriac was developed with some material promulgated. Although it did not supplant the Syriac script, the usage of the Latin script in the Syriac community has still become widespread because most of the Assyrian diaspora is in Europe and the Anglosphere , where the Latin alphabet is predominant. As a result of Westernisation , the Latin alphabet has been used for Syriac writing.

SEE ALSO

* Abjad * Alphabet * Aramaic alphabet * Aramaic language * Mandaic language * Mongolian script * Sogdian alphabet * Syriac language * Syriac Malayalam * Old Uyghur alphabet * History of the alphabet * List of writing systems

FOOTNOTES

* ^ "Syriac alphabet". _Encyclopædia Britannica Online_. Retrieved June 16, 2012. * ^ P. R. Ackroyd,C. F. Evans (1975). _The Cambridge History of the Bible: Volume 1, From the Beginnings to Jerome_. p. 26. * ^ Hatch, William (1946). _An album of dated Syriac manuscripts_. Boston: The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, reprinted in 2002 by Gorgias Press. p. 24. ISBN 1-931956-53-7 . * ^ Nestle, Eberhard (1888). _Syrische Grammatik mit Litteratur, Chrestomathie und Glossar_. Berlin: H. Reuther's Verlagsbuchhandlung. . * ^ Coakley, J. F. (2002). _Robinson's paradigms and exercises in Syriac grammar_ (5th ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-19-926129-1 . * ^ Moscati, Sabatino, et al. The Comparative Grammar of Semitic Languages. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, Germany, 1980. * ^ S. P. Brock, "Three Thousand Years of Aramaic literature", in Aram,1:1 (1989)

REFERENCES

* Coakley, J. F. (2002). _Robinson's Paradigms and Exercises in Syriac Grammar_ (5th ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-926129-1 . * Hatch, William (1946). _An Album of Dated Syriac Manuscripts_. Boston: The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, reprinted in 2002 by Gorgias Press. ISBN 1-931956-53-7 . * Michaelis, Ioannis Davidis (1784). _Grammatica Syriaca_. * Nestle, Eberhard (1888). _Syrische Grammatik mit Litteratur, Chrestomathie und Glossar_. Berlin: H. Reuther's Verlagsbuchhandlung. . * Nöldeke, Theodor and Julius Euting (1880). _Kurzgefasste syrische Grammatik_. Leipzig: T.O. Weigel. . * Phillips, George (1866). _A Syriac Grammar_. Cambridge: Deighton, Bell, London: Bell & Daldy. * Robinson, Theodore Henry (1915). _Paradigms and Exercises in Syriac Grammar_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-926129-6 . * Rudder, Joshua. _Learn to Write Aramaic: A Step-by-Step Approach to the Historical text-decoration: none">ʾEsṭrangēlā (classical) * Learn Assyrian (Syriac-Aramaic) OnLine Maḏnḥāyā (eastern) * GNU FreeFont Unicode font family with Syriac range in its sans-serif face. * Learn Syriac Latin Alphabet on Wikiversity

* v * t * e

The Northwest Semitic abjad

ʾ

b

g

d

h

w

z

y

k

l

m

n

s

ʿ

p

q

r

š

t

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 200 300 400

* History

* Phoenician

* Paleo-Hebrew

* Hebrew * Aramaic * Syriac

* v * t * e

Types of writing systems

OVERVIEW

* History of writing * Grapheme

LISTS

* Writing systems

* undeciphered * inventors * constructed

* Languages by writing system / by first written accounts

TYPES

ABJADS

* _Numerals _

* Aramaic

* Hatran

* Arabic * Pitman shorthand

* Hebrew

* Ashuri * Cursive * Rashi * Solitreo

* Libyco-Berber * Manichaean * Nabataean * Old North Arabian * Pahlavi * Pegon

* Phoenician

* Paleo-Hebrew

* Proto-Sinaitic * Psalter * Punic * Samaritan

* South Arabian

* Zabur * Musnad

* Sogdian

* Syriac

* ʾEsṭrangēlā * Serṭā * Maḏnḥāyā

* Teeline Shorthand * Ugaritic

ABUGIDAS

BRAHMIC

NORTHERN

* Asamiya (Ôxômiya) * Bānglā * Bhaikshuki * Bhujinmol * Brāhmī * Devanāgarī * Dogra * Gujarati * Gupta * Gurmukhī * Kaithi * Kalinga * Khojki * Khotanese * Khudawadi * Laṇḍā * Lepcha * Limbu * Mahajani * Marchen * Marchung * Meitei Mayek * Modi * Multani * Nāgarī * Nandinagari * Odia * \'Phags-pa * Newar * Pungs-chen * Pungs-chung * Ranjana * Sharada * Saurashtra * Siddhaṃ * Soyombo * Sylheti Nagari * Takri

* Tibetan

* Uchen * Umê

* Tirhuta * Tocharian * Zanabazar Square

SOUTHERN

* Ahom * Balinese * Batak * Baybayin * Bhattiprolu * Buhid * Burmese * Chakma * Cham * Grantha * Goykanadi * Hanunó\'o * Javanese * Kadamba * Kannada * Kawi * Khmer * Kulitan * Lanna * Lao * Leke * Lontara * Malayalam

* Maldivian

* Dhives Akuru * Eveyla Akuru * Thaana

* Mon * Old Sundanese * Pallava * Pyu * Rejang * Rencong * Sinhala * Sundanese * Tagbanwa * Tai Le * Tai Tham * Tai Viet * Tamil * Telugu * Thai * Tigalari

* Vatteluttu

* Kolezhuthu * Malayanma

* Visayan

OTHERS

* Boyd\'s syllabic shorthand

* Canadian syllabics

* Blackfoot * Déné syllabics

* Fox I * Ge\'ez * Gunjala Gondi * Japanese Braille * Jenticha * Kayah Li * Kharosthi * Mandombe * Masaram Gondi * Meroitic * Miao * Mwangwego * Sorang Sompeng * Pahawh Hmong * Thomas Natural Shorthand

ALPHABETS

LINEAR

* Abkhaz * Adlam * Armenian * Avestan * Avoiuli * Bassa Vah * Borama * Carian * Caucasian Albanian * Coorgi–Cox alphabet * Coptic * Cyrillic * Deseret

* Duployan shorthand

* Chinook writing

* Early Cyrillic * Eclectic shorthand * Elbasan * Etruscan * Evenki * Fox II * Fraser * Gabelsberger shorthand * Garay

* Georgian

* Asomtavruli * Nuskhuri * Mkhedruli

* Glagolitic * Gothic * Gregg shorthand * Greek * Greco-Iberian alphabet * Hangul * IPA * Kaddare

* Latin

* Beneventan * Blackletter * Carolingian minuscule * Fraktur * Gaelic * Insular * Kurrent * Merovingian * Sigla * Sütterlin * Tironian notes * Visigothic

* Luo * Lycian * Lydian * Manchu * Mandaic * Molodtsov * Mongolian * Mru * Neo- Tifinagh * New Tai Lue * N\'Ko * Ogham * Oirat * Ol Chiki * Old Hungarian * Old Italic * Old Permic * Orkhon * Old Uyghur * Osage * Osmanya * Pau Cin Hau * Rohingya Hanifi

* Runic

* Anglo-Saxon * Cipher * Dalecarlian * Elder Futhark * Younger Futhark * Gothic * Marcomannic * Medieval * Staveless

* Sidetic * Shavian * Somali * Tifinagh * Vagindra * Visible Speech * Vithkuqi * Zaghawa

NON-LINEAR

* Braille * Maritime flags * Morse code * New York Point * Semaphore line * Flag semaphore * Moon type

IDEOGRAMS /PICTOGRAMS

* Adinkra * Aztec * Blissymbol * Dongba * Ersu Shaba * Emoji * IConji * Isotype * Kaidā * Míkmaq * Mixtec * New Epoch Notation Painting * Nsibidi * Ojibwe Hieroglyphs * Siglas poveiras * Testerian * Yerkish * Zapotec

LOGOGRAMS

CHINESE FAMILY OF SCRIPTS

CHINESE CHARACTERS

* Simplified * Traditional * Oracle bone script * Bronze Script

* Seal Script

* large * small * bird-worm

* Hanja * Idu * Kanji * Chữ nôm * Zhuang

CHINESE-INFLUENCED

* Jurchen * Khitan large script * Sui * Tangut

CUNEIFORM

* Akkadian * Assyrian * Elamite * Hittite * Luwian * Sumerian

OTHER LOGO-SYLLABIC

* Anatolian * Bagam * Cretan * Isthmian * Maya * Proto-Elamite * Yi (Classical)

LOGO-CONSONANTAL

* Demotic * Hieratic * Hieroglyphs

NUMERALS

* Hindu- Arabic * Abjad * Attic (Greek) * Muisca * Roman

SEMI-SYLLABARIES

FULL

* Celtiberian * Northeastern Iberian * Southeastern Iberian * Khom

REDUNDANT

* Espanca * Pahawh Hmong * Khitan small script * Southwest Paleohispanic * Zhùyīn fúhào

SOMACHEIROGRAMS

* ASLwrite * SignWriting * si5s * Stokoe Notation

SYLLABARIES

* Afaka * Bamum * Bété * Byblos * Cherokee * Cypriot * Cypro-Minoan * Eskayan * Geba * Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics * Iban

* Japanese

* Hiragana * Katakana * Man\'yōgana * Hentaigana * Sogana * Jindai moji

* Kikakui * Kpelle * Linear B * Linear Elamite * Lisu * Loma * Nüshu * Nwagu Aneke script * Old Persian Cuneiform * Vai * Woleai * Yi (Modern) * Yugtun

* v * t * e

Braille ⠃⠗⠁⠊⠇⠇⠑

BRAILLE CELL

* 1829 braille * International uniformity * ASCII braille * Unicode braille patterns

BRAILLE SCRIPTS

French-ordered scripts (see for more)

* Albanian * Amharic * Arabic * Armenian * Azerbaijani * Belarusian

* Bharati

* Devanagari (Hindi / Marathi / Nepali) * Bengali * Punjabi * Sinhalese * Tamil * Urdu * _etc. _

* Bulgarian * Burmese * Cambodian * Cantonese * Catalan * Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) * Czech * Dutch * Dzongkha (Bhutanese) * English (Unified English ) * Esperanto * Estonian * Faroese * French * Georgian * German * Ghanaian * Greek * Guarani * Hawaiian * Hebrew * Hungarian * Icelandic * Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) * Iñupiaq * IPA * Irish * Italian * Kazakh * Kyrgyz * Latvian * Lithuanian * Maltese * Mongolian * Māori * Nigerian * Northern Sami * Persian * Philippine * Polish * Portuguese * Romanian * Russian * Samoan * Scandinavian * Slovak * South African * Spanish * Tatar * Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) * Thai border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Algerian Braille (obsolete)

FREQUENCY-BASED SCRIPTS

* American Braille (obsolete)

INDEPENDENT SCRIPTS

* Japanese * Korean * Two-Cell Chinese

EIGHT-DOT SCRIPTS

* Luxembourgish * Kanji * Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)

SYMBOLS IN BRAILLE

* Braille music * Canadian currency marks * Computer Braille Code * Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8/GS6) * International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) * Nemeth braille code

BRAILLE TECHNOLOGY

* Braille e-book * Braille embosser * Braille translator * Braille watch * Mountbatten Brailler * Optical braille recognition * Perforation * Perkins Brailler * Refreshable braille display * Slate and stylus * Braigo

PERSONS

* Louis Braille * Charles Barbier * Valentin Haüy * Thakur Vishva Narain Singh * Sabriye Tenberken * William Bell Wait

ORGANISATIONS

* Braille Institute of America * Braille Without Borders * Japan