The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language from the 1st century AD.[1] It is one of the Semitic abjads descending from the Aramaic alphabet through the Palmyrene alphabet,[2] and it shares similarities with the Phoenician, Hebrew, Arabic and the traditional Mongolian scripts.

Syriac is written from right to left in horizontal lines. It is a cursive script, but not all letters connect within a word. Spaces separate individual words.

All 22 letters are consonants, but there are optional diacritic marks to indicate vowels and other features. In addition to the sounds of the language, the letters of the Syriac alphabet can be used to represent numbers in a system similar to Hebrew and Greek numerals.

When Arabic began to be the dominant spoken language in the Fertile Crescent, texts were often written in Arabic with the Syriac script as knowledge of the Arabic alphabet was not yet widespread. Malayalam was also written with Syriac script and was called Suriyani Malayalam. Such writings are usually called Karshuni or Garshuni (ܓܪܫܘܢܝ). Garshuni is often used today by Neo-Aramaic-speakers for written communication, such as letters and fliers.

Forms of alphabet

11th century book in Syriac Serṭā.

There are three major variants of the Syriac alphabet: ʾEsṭrangēlā, Maḏnḥāyā, and Serṭā.

Classical ʾEsṭrangēlā

Yəšūʿ or ʾĪšōʿ, the Syriac name of Jesus.

The oldest and classical form of the alphabet is ʾEsṭrangēlā (ܐܣܛܪܢܓܠܐ; the name is thought to derive from the Greek adjective στρογγύλη [strongylē, 'rounded'],[3] though it has also been suggested to derive from ܣܪܛܐ ܐܘܢܓܠܝܐ [serṭā ʾewwangēlāyā, 'gospel character'][4]). Although ʾEsṭrangēlā is no longer used as the main script for writing Syriac, it has received some revival since the 10th century. It is often used in scholarly publications (such as the Leiden University version of the Peshitta), in titles, and in inscriptions. In some older manuscripts and inscriptions, it is possible for any letter to join to the left, and older Aramaic letter forms (especially of Ḥeth and the lunate Mem) are found. Vowel marks are usually not used with ʾEsṭrangēlā.

East Syriac Maḏnḥāyā

The East Syriac dialect is usually written in the Maḏnḥāyā (ܡܲܕ݂ܢܚܵܝܵܐ‬, 'Eastern') form of the alphabet. Other names for the script include Swāḏāyā (ܣܘܵܕ݂ܵܝܵܐ‬, 'conversational', often translated as 'contemporary', reflecting its use in writing modern Neo-Aramaic), ʾĀṯūrāyā (ܐܵܬ݂ܘܼܪܵܝܵܐ‬, 'Assyrian', not to be confused with the traditional name for the Hebrew alphabet), Kaldāyā (ܟܲܠܕܵܝܵܐ‬, 'Chaldean'), and, inaccurately, "Nestorian" (a term that was originally used to refer to the Church of the East in the Sasanian Empire). The Eastern script resembles ʾEsṭrangēlā somewhat more closely than the Western script.


The Eastern script uses a system of dots above or below letters, based on an older system, to indicate vowel sounds not found in the script:

  • A dot above and a dot below a letter represent [a], transliterated as a or ă (called ܦܬ݂ܵܚܵܐ‬, Pṯāḥā),
  • Two diagonally-placed dots above a letter represent [ɑ], transliterated as ā or â or å (called ܙܩܵܦ݂ܵܐ‬, Zqāp̄ā),
  • Two horizontally-placed dots below a letter represent [ɛ], transliterated as e or ĕ (called ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ ܐܲܪܝܼܟ݂ܵܐ‬, Rḇāṣā ʾărīḵā or ܙܠܵܡܵܐ ܦܫܝܼܩܵܐ‬, Zlāmā pšīqā; often pronounced [ɪ] and transliterated as i in the East Syriac dialect),
  • Two diagonally-placed dots below a letter represent [e], transliterated as ē (called ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ ܟܲܪܝܵܐ‬, Rḇāṣā karyā or ܙܠܵܡܵܐ ܩܲܫܝܵܐ‬, Zlāmā qašyā),
  • The letter Waw with a dot below it represents [u], transliterated as ū or u (called ܥܨܵܨܵܐ ܐܲܠܝܼܨܵܐ‬, ʿṢāṣā ʾălīṣā or ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ‬, Rḇāṣā),
  • The letter Waw with a dot above it represents [o], transliterated as ō or o (called ܥܨܵܨܵܐ ܪܘܝܼܚܵܐ‬, ʿṢāṣā rwīḥā or ܪܘܵܚܵܐ‬, Rwāḥā),
  • The letter Yōḏ with a dot beneath it represents [i], transliterated as ī or i (called ܚܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ‬, Ḥḇāṣā),
  • A combination of Rḇāṣā karyā (usually) followed by a letter Yōḏ represents [e] (possibly *[e̝] in Proto-Syriac), transliterated as ē or ê (called ܐܲܣܵܩܵܐ‬, ʾĂsāqā).

It is thought that the Eastern method for representing vowels influenced the development of the niqqud markings used for writing Hebrew.

In addition to the above vowel marks, transliteration of Syriac sometimes includes ə, or superscript e (or often nothing at all) to represent an original Aramaic schwa that became lost later on at some point in the development of Syriac. Some transliteration schemes find its inclusion necessary for showing spirantization or for historical reasons. Whether because its distribution is mostly predictable (usually inside a syllable-initial two-consonant cluster) or because its pronunciation was lost, both the East and the West variants of the alphabet have no sign to represent the schwa.

The opening words of the Gospel of John written in Serṭā, Maḏnḥāyā and ʾEsṭrangēlā (top to bottom) — brēšiṯ iṯaw[hy]-[h]wā melṯā, 'in the beginning was the word'.

West Syriac Serṭā

The West Syriac dialect is usually written in the Serṭā (ܣܶܪܛܳܐ‬, 'line') form of the alphabet, also known as the Pšīṭā (ܦܫܺܝܛܳܐ‬, 'simple'), 'Maronite', or the 'Jacobite' script (although the term Jacobite is considered derogatory). Most of the letters are clearly derived from ʾEsṭrangēlā, but are simplified, flowing lines. A cursive chancery hand is evidenced in the earliest Syriac manuscripts, but important works were written in ʾEsṭrangēlā. From the 8th century, the simpler Serṭā style came into fashion, perhaps because of its more economical use of parchment. The Nabataean alphabet, which gave rise to the Arabic alphabet, was based on this form of Syriac handwriting.


The Western script is usually vowel-pointed, with miniature Greek vowel letters above or below the letter which they follow:

  • Capital Alpha (Α) represents [a], transliterated as a or ă (ܦܬ݂ܳܚܳܐ‬, Pṯāḥā),
  • Lowercase Alpha (α) represents [ɑ], transliterated as ā or â or å (ܙܩܳܦ݂ܳܐ‬, Zqāp̄ā; pronounced as [o] and transliterated as o in the West Syriac dialect),
  • Lowercase Epsilon (ε) represents both [ɛ], transliterated as e or ĕ, and [e], transliterated as ē (ܪܒ݂ܳܨܳܐ‬, Rḇāṣā),
  • Capital Eta (H) represents [i], transliterated as ī (ܚܒ݂ܳܨܳܐ‬, Ḥḇāṣā),
  • A combined symbol of capital Upsilon (Υ) and lowercase Omicron (ο) represents [u], transliterated as ū or u (ܥܨܳܨܳܐ‬, ʿṢāṣā),
  • Lowercase Omega (ω), used only in the vocative interjection ʾō (ܐܘّ‬, 'O!').

Summary table

The Syriac alphabet consists of the following letters, shown in their isolated (non-connected) forms. When isolated, the letters Kāp̄, Mīm, and Nūn are usually shown with their initial form connected to their final form (see below). The letters ʾĀlap̄, Dālaṯ, , Waw, Zayn, Ṣāḏē, Rēš, and Taw (and, in early ʾEsṭrangēlā manuscripts, the letter Semkaṯ[5]) do not connect to a following letter within a word. These are marked with an asterisk (*).

Name Letter Sound Value Numerical
Imperial Aramaic
ʾEsṭrangēlā Maḏnḥāyā Serṭā Transliteration IPA
ʾĀlep̄ or ʾĀlap̄* (ܐܠܦ) Syriac Estrangela alap.svg Syriac Eastern alap.svg Syriac Serta alap.svg ʾ or nothing
mater lectionis: ā
[ʔ] or silent
mater lectionis: [ɑ]
1 Phoenician aleph.svg 𐡀 א
Bēṯ (ܒܝܬ) Syriac Estrangela bet.svg Syriac Eastern bet.svg Syriac Serta bet.svg hard: b
soft: (also bh, v, β)
hard: [b]
soft: [v] or [w]
2 Phoenician beth.svg 𐡁 ב
Gāmal (ܓܡܠ) Syriac Estrangela gamal.svg Syriac Eastern gamal.svg Syriac Serta gamal.svg hard: g
soft: (also , gh, ġ, γ)
hard: [ɡ]
soft: [ɣ]
3 Phoenician gimel.svg 𐡂 ג
Dālaṯ* (ܕܠܬ) Syriac Estrangela dalat.svg Syriac Eastern dalat.svg Syriac Serta dalat.svg hard: d
soft: (also dh, ð, δ)
hard: [d]
soft: [ð]
4 Phoenician daleth.svg 𐡃 ד
* (ܗܐ) Syriac Estrangela he.svg Syriac Eastern he.svg Syriac Serta he.svg h [h] 5 Phoenician he.svg 𐡄 ה
Waw* (ܘܘ) Syriac Estrangela waw.svg Syriac Eastern waw.svg Syriac Serta waw.svg consonant: w
mater lectionis: ū or ō
(also u or o)
consonant: [w]
mater lectionis: [u] or [o]
6 Phoenician waw.svg 𐡅 ו
Zayn* (ܙܝܢ) Syriac Estrangela zayn.svg Syriac Eastern zayn.svg Syriac Serta zayn.svg z [z] 7 Phoenician zayin.svg 𐡆 ז
Ḥēṯ (ܚܝܬ) Syriac Estrangela het.svg Syriac Eastern het.svg Syriac Serta het.svg [ħ], [x], or [χ] 8 Phoenician heth.svg 𐡇 ח
Ṭēṯ (ܛܝܬ) Syriac Estrangela tet.svg Syriac Eastern tet.svg Syriac Serta tet.svg [] 9 Phoenician teth.svg 𐡈 ט
Yōḏ (ܝܘܕ) Syriac Estrangela yod.svg Syriac Eastern yod.svg Syriac Serta yod.svg consonant: y
mater lectionis: ī (also i)
consonant: [j]
mater lectionis: [i] or [e]
10 Phoenician yodh.svg 𐡉 י
Kāp̄ (ܟܦ) Syriac Estrangela kap.svg Syriac Eastern kap.svg Syriac Serta kap.svg hard: k
soft: (also kh, x)
hard: [k]
soft: [x]
20 Phoenician kaph.svg 𐡊 כ ך
Lāmaḏ (ܠܡܕ) Syriac Estrangela lamad.svg Syriac Eastern lamad.svg Syriac Serta lamad.svg l [l] 30 Phoenician lamedh.svg 𐡋 ל
Mīm (ܡܝܡ) Syriac Estrangela mim.svg Syriac Eastern mim.svg Syriac Serta mim.svg m [m] 40 Phoenician mem.svg 𐡌 מ ם
Nūn (ܢܘܢ) Syriac Estrangela nun.svg Syriac Eastern nun.svg Syriac Serta nun.svg n [n] 50 Phoenician nun.svg 𐡍 נ ן
Semkaṯ (ܣܡܟܬ) Syriac Estrangela semkat.svg Syriac Eastern semkat.svg Syriac Serta semkat.svg s [s] 60 Phoenician samekh.svg 𐡎 ס
ʿĒ (ܥܐ) Syriac Estrangela 'e.svg Syriac Eastern 'e.svg Syriac Serta 'e.svg ʿ [ʕ]1 70 Phoenician ayin.svg 𐡏 ע
(ܦܐ) Syriac Estrangela pe.svg Syriac Eastern pe.svg Syriac Serta pe.svg hard: p
soft: (also , , ph, f)
hard: [p]
soft: [f]
80 Phoenician pe.svg 𐡐 פ ף
Ṣāḏē* (ܨܕܐ) Syriac Estrangela sade.svg Syriac Eastern sade.svg Syriac Serta sade.svg [] 90 Phoenician sade.svg 𐡑 צ ץ
Qōp̄ (ܩܘܦ) Syriac Estrangela qop.svg Syriac Eastern qop.svg Syriac Serta qop.svg q [q] 100 Phoenician qoph.svg 𐡒 ק
Rēš* (ܪܝܫ) Syriac Estrangela res.svg Syriac Eastern res.svg Syriac Serta res.svg r [r] 200 Phoenician res.svg 𐡓 ר
Šīn (ܫܝܢ) Syriac Estrangela sin.svg Syriac Eastern sin.svg Syriac Serta sin.svg š (also sh) [ʃ] 300 Phoenician sin.svg 𐡔 ש
Taw* (ܬܘ) Syriac Estrangela taw.svg Syriac Eastern taw.svg Syriac Serta taw.svg hard: t
soft: (also th, θ)
hard: [t]
soft: [θ]
400 Phoenician taw.svg 𐡕 ת


  1. ^ Among most Assyrian Neo-Aramaic speakers, the pharyngeal sound [ʕ] in ʿĒ is rendered as [ei], [ai] or [e],[citation needed] depending on the dialect.

Contextual forms of letters

Letter ʾEsṭrangēlā (classical) Maḏnḥāyā (eastern)
ʾĀlap̄ Aramaic alap.png     SyriacAlaph.png SyriacAlaph2.png 1  
Bēṯ Aramaic beth.png Aramaic beth c.png   SyriacBeth.png SyriacBeth2.png  
Gāmal Aramaic gamal.png Aramaic gamal c.png   SyriacGamal.png SyriacGamal2.png  
Dālaṯ Aramaic daleth.png     SyriacDalath.png    
Aramaic heh.png     SyriacHe.png    
Waw Aramaic waw.png     SyriacWaw.png    
Zayn Aramaic zain.png     SyriacZayn.png    
Ḥēṯ Aramaic kheth.png Aramaic kheth c.png   SyriacKheth.png SyriacKheth2.png  
Ṭēṯ Aramaic teth.png Aramaic teth c.png   SyriacTeth.png SyriacTeth2.png  
Yōḏ Aramaic yodh.png Aramaic yodh c.png   SyriacYodh.png SyriacYodh2.png  
Kāp̄ Aramaic kap.png Aramaic kap c.png Aramaic kap f.png SyriacKaph.png SyriacKaph2.png SyriacKaph3.png
Lāmaḏ Aramaic lamadh.png Aramaic lamadh c.png   SyriacLamadh.png SyriacLamadh2.png  
Mīm Aramaic meem.png Aramaic meem c.png   SyriacMeem.png SyriacMeem2.png  
Nūn Aramaic noon.png Aramaic noon c.png Aramaic noon f.png SyriacNun.png SyriacNun2.png SyriacNun3.png
Semkaṯ Aramaic simkath.png Aramaic simkath c.png   SyriacSimkath.png SyriacSimkath2.png / SyriacSimkath3.png  
ʿĒ Aramaic ain.png Aramaic ain c.png   Syriac'E.png Syriac'E2.png  
Aramaic payin.png Aramaic payin c.png   SyriacPe.png SyriacPe2.png  
Ṣāḏē Aramaic tsade.png     SyriacSadhe.png    
Qōp̄ Aramaic qoph.png Aramaic qoph c.png   SyriacQop.png SyriacQop2.png  
Rēš Aramaic resh.png     SyriacResh.png    
Šīn Aramaic sheen.png Aramaic sheen c.png   SyriacSheen.png SyriacSheen2.png  
Taw Aramaic taw.png     SyriacTaw.png    

1 In the final position following Dālaṯ or Rēš, ʾĀlap̄ takes the normal form rather than the final form.


Name ʾEsṭrangēlā (classical) Maḏnḥāyā (eastern) Unicode
Lāmaḏ-ʾĀlap̄ Aramaic lamadh alap.png     Lamadh-alaph.svg     ܠܐ Lāmaḏ and ʾĀlap̄ combined
at the end of a word
Taw-ʾĀlap̄ Aramaic taw alap.png     SyriacAlaph.png SyriacTaw.png SyriacTawAlaph.png SyriacTawAlaph2.png / SyriacTawAlaph3.png ܬܐ Taw and ʾĀlap̄ combined
at the end of a word
Hē-Yōḏ         SyriacHeYodh.png   ܗܝ and Yōḏ combined
at the end of a word
Taw-Yōḏ         Tawyodh.svg   ܬܝ Taw and Yōḏ combined
at the end of a word

Letter alterations

Transliteration of the Syriac alphabet.

Matres lectionis

Three letters act as matres lectionis: rather than being a consonant, they indicate a vowel. ʾĀlap̄ (ܐ), the first letter, represents a glottal stop, but it can also indicate a vowel, especially at the beginning or the end of a word. The letter Waw (ܘ) is the consonant w, but can also represent the vowels o and u. Likewise, the letter Yōḏ (ܝ) represents the consonant y, but it also stands for the vowels i and e.


In modern usage, some alterations can be made to represent phonemes not represented in classical phonology. A mark similar in appearance to a tilde (~), called majlīyānā (ܡܓ̰ܠܝܢܐ‬), is placed above or below a letter in the Maḏnḥāyā variant of the alphabet to change its phonetic value (see also: Geresh):

Rūkkāḵā and qūššāyā

In addition to foreign sounds, a marking system is used to distinguish qūššāyā (ܩܘܫܝܐ, 'hard' letters) from rūkkāḵā (ܪܘܟܟܐ, 'soft' letters). The letters Bēṯ, Gāmal, Dālaṯ, Kāp̄, , and Taw, all stop consonants ('hard') are able to be 'spirantized' (lenited) into fricative consonants ('soft'). The system involves placing a single dot underneath the letter to give its 'soft' variant and a dot above the letter to give its 'hard' variant (though, in modern usage, no mark at all is usually used to indicate the 'hard' value):

Name Stop Translit. IPA Name Fricative Translit. IPA Notes
Bēṯ (qšīṯā) ܒ݁ b [b] Bēṯ rakkīḵtā ܒ݂ [v] or [w] [v] has become [w] in most modern dialects.
Gāmal (qšīṯā) ܓ݁ g [ɡ] Gāmal rakkīḵtā ܓ݂ [ɣ]
Dālaṯ (qšīṯā) ܕ݁ d [d] Dālaṯ rakkīḵtā ܕ݂ [ð] [d] is left unspirantized in some modern Eastern dialects.
Kāp̄ (qšīṯā) ܟ݁ܟ݁

k [k] Kāp̄ rakkīḵtā ܟ݂ܟ݂

Pē (qšīṯā) ܦ݁ p [p] Pē rakkīḵtā ܦ݂‬ or ܦ̮ [f] or [w] [f] is not found in most modern Eastern dialects. Instead, it either is left unspirantized or sometimes appears as [w]. is the only letter in the Eastern variant of the alphabet that is spirantized by the addition of a semicircle instead of a single dot.
Taw (qšīṯā) ܬ݁ t [t] Taw rakkīḵtā ܬ݂ [θ] [t] is left unspirantized in some modern Eastern dialects.

The mnemonic bḡaḏkp̄āṯ (ܒܓܕܟܦܬ) is often used to remember the six letters that are able to be spirantized (see also: Begadkefat).

In the East Syriac variant of the alphabet, spirantization marks are usually omitted when they interfere with vowel marks. The degree to which letters can be spirantized varies from dialect to dialect as some dialects have lost the ability for certain letters to be spirantized. For native words, spirantization depends on the letter's position within a word or syllable, location relative to other consonants and vowels, gemination, etymology, and other factors. Foreign words do not always follow the rules for spirantization.


Syriac uses two (usually) horizontal dots above a letter within a word, similar in appearance to diaeresis, called syāmē (ܣܝ̈ܡܐ, literally 'placings'), to indicate that the word is plural. These dots, having no sound value in themselves, arose before both eastern and western vowel systems as it became necessary to mark plural forms of words, which are indistinguishable from their singular counterparts in regularly inflected nouns. For instance, the word malkā (ܡܠܟܐ, 'king') is consonantally identical to its plural malkē ('kings'); the syāmē above the word (ܡܠܟ̈ܐ) clarifies its grammatical number. Irregular plurals also receive syāmē even though their forms are clearly plural: e.g. baytā (ܒܝܬܐ, 'house') and its irregular plural bāttē (ܒ̈ܬܐ, 'houses'). Because of redundancy, some modern usage forgoes syāmē points when vowel markings are present.

There are no firm rules for which letter receives syāmē; the writer has full discretion to place them over any letter. Typically, if a word has at least one Rēš, then syāmē are placed over the Rēš that is nearest the end of a word (and also replace the single dot above it). Other letters that often receive syāmē are low-rising letters—such as Yōḏ and Nūn—or letters that appear near the middle or end of a word.

Besides nouns, syāmē are also placed on:

  • plural adjectives, including participles (except masculine plural adjectives/participles in the absolute state);
  • the cardinal numbers 'two' and the feminine forms of 11-19, though inconsistently;
  • and certain feminine plural verbs.


The Syriac alphabet was added to the Unicode Standard in September, 1999 with the release of version 3.0. Additional letters for Suriyani Malayalam were added in June, 2017 with the release of version 10.0.


The Unicode block for Syriac is U+0700–U+074F:

Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+070x ܀ ܁ ܂ ܃ ܄ ܅ ܆ ܇ ܈ ܉ ܊ ܋ ܌ ܍ ܏
U+071x ܐ ܑ ܒ ܓ ܔ ܕ ܖ ܗ ܘ ܙ ܚ ܛ ܜ ܝ ܞ ܟ
U+072x ܠ ܡ ܢ ܣ ܤ ܥ ܦ ܧ ܨ ܩ ܪ ܫ ܬ ܭ ܮ ܯ
U+073x ܰ ܱ ܲ ܳ ܴ ܵ ܶ ܷ ܸ ܹ ܺ ܻ ܼ ܽ ܾ ܿ
U+074x ݀ ݁ ݂ ݃ ݄ ݅ ݆ ݇ ݈ ݉ ݊ ݍ ݎ ݏ
1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

The Syriac Abbreviation (a type of overline) can be represented with a special control character called the Syriac Abbreviation Mark (U+070F).

The Unicode block for Suriyani Malayalam specific letters is called the Syriac Supplement block and is U+0860–U+086F:

Syriac Supplement[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

HTML code table

Note: HTML numeric character references can be in decimal format (&#DDDD;) or hexadecimal format (&#xHHHH;). For example, ܕ and ܕ (1813 in decimal) both represent U+0715 SYRIAC LETTER DALATH.

ʾĀlap̄ Bēṯ

ܕ ܓ ܒ ܐ
ܕ ܓ ܒ ܐ
ܚ ܙ ܘ ܗ
ܚ ܙ ܘ ܗ
ܠ ܟܟ ܝ ܛ
ܠ ܟ ܝ ܛ
ܥ ܣ ܢܢ ܡܡ
ܥ ܤ ܢ ܡ
ܪ ܩ ܨ ܦ
ܪ ܩ ܨ ܦ
ܬ ܫ
ܬ ܫ

Vowels and unique characters

ܲ ܵ
ܲ ܵ
ܸ ܹ
ܸ ܹ
ܼ ܿ
ܼ ܿ
̈ ̰
̈ ̰
݁ ݂
݁ ݂
܀ ܂
܀ ܂
܄ ݇
܄ ݇

Latin alphabet and romanization

In the 1930s, following the state policy for minority languages of the Soviet Union, a Latin alphabet for Syriac was developed with some material promulgated.[6] Although it did not supplant the Syriac script, the usage of the Latin script in the Syriac community has still become widespread because most of the Assyrian diaspora is in Europe and the Anglosphere, where the Latin alphabet is predominant. As a result of Westernisation, the Latin alphabet has been used for Syriac writing.[7]

See also


  1. ^ "Syriac alphabet". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved June 16, 2012. 
  2. ^ P. R. Ackroyd,C. F. Evans (1975). The Cambridge History of the Bible: Volume 1, From the Beginnings to Jerome. p. 26. 
  3. ^ Hatch, William (1946). An album of dated Syriac manuscripts. Boston: The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, reprinted in 2002 by Gorgias Press. p. 24. ISBN 1-931956-53-7.
  4. ^ Nestle, Eberhard (1888). Syrische Grammatik mit Litteratur, Chrestomathie und Glossar. Berlin: H. Reuther's Verlagsbuchhandlung. [translated to English as Syriac grammar with bibliography, chrestomathy and glossary, by R. S. Kennedy. London: Williams & Norgate 1889. p. 5].
  5. ^ Coakley, J. F. (2002). Robinson's paradigms and exercises in Syriac grammar (5th ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-19-926129-1.
  6. ^ Moscati, Sabatino, et al. The Comparative Grammar of Semitic Languages. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, Germany, 1980.
  7. ^ S. P. Brock, "Three Thousand Years of Aramaic literature", in Aram,1:1 (1989)


  • Coakley, J. F. (2002). Robinson's Paradigms and Exercises in Syriac Grammar (5th ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-926129-1.
  • Hatch, William (1946). An Album of Dated Syriac Manuscripts. Boston: The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, reprinted in 2002 by Gorgias Press. ISBN 1-931956-53-7.
  • Michaelis, Ioannis Davidis (1784). Grammatica Syriaca.
  • Nestle, Eberhard (1888). Syrische Grammatik mit Litteratur, Chrestomathie und Glossar. Berlin: H. Reuther's Verlagsbuchhandlung. [translated to English as Syriac grammar with bibliography, chrestomathy and glossary, by R. S. Kennedy. London: Williams & Norgate 1889].
  • Nöldeke, Theodor and Julius Euting (1880). Kurzgefasste syrische Grammatik. Leipzig: T.O. Weigel. [translated to English as Compendious Syriac Grammar, by James A. Crichton. London: Williams & Norgate 1904. 2003 edition: ISBN 1-57506-050-7].
  • Phillips, George (1866). A Syriac Grammar. Cambridge: Deighton, Bell, & Co.; London: Bell & Daldy.
  • Robinson, Theodore Henry (1915). Paradigms and Exercises in Syriac Grammar. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-926129-6.
  • Rudder, Joshua. Learn to Write Aramaic: A Step-by-Step Approach to the Historical & Modern Scripts. n.p.: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2011. 220 pp. ISBN 978-1461021421 Includes the Estrangela (pp. 59–113), Madnhaya (pp. 191–206), and the Western Serto (pp. 173–190) scripts.
  • Thackston, Wheeler M. (1999). Introduction to Syriac. Bethesda, MD: Ibex Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-936347-98-8.

External links