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SWINDON (/ˈswɪndən/ ( listen )) is a large town, in the ceremonial county of Wiltshire
Wiltshire
, South West England
South West England
, midway between Bristol
Bristol
, 35 miles (56 kilometres) to the west and Reading , 35 miles (56 km) to the east. London
London
is 78 miles (126 km) to the east, and Cardiff
Cardiff
is 78 miles (126 km) to the west. At the 2011 census , it had a population of 182,441.

Swindon
Swindon
became an Expanded Town under the Town Development Act 1952 and this led to a major increase in its population. Swindon
Swindon
railway station is on the line from London
London
Paddington
Paddington
to Bristol. Swindon Borough Council is a unitary authority , independent of Wiltshire Council since 1997. Residents of Swindon
Swindon
are known as Swindonians . Swindon
Swindon
is home to the Bodleian Library\'s book depository, which contains 153 miles (246 km) of bookshelves and also has the English Heritage National Monument Record Centre and the headquarters of the National Trust , on the site of the former Great Western Railway works. The town and wider borough also has the headquarters of the Nationwide Building Society
Nationwide Building Society
and a Honda car manufacturing plant.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Early history * 1.2 Railway town * 1.3 Modern period

* 2 Governance

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Climate

* 4 Demographics

* 4.1 Places of worship * 4.2 Polish community

* 5 Economy * 6 Transport

* 7 Tourism and recreation

* 7.1 Events * 7.2 Shopping * 7.3 Green spaces * 7.4 Other

* 8 Media

* 8.1 Online * 8.2 Print * 8.3 Radio * 8.4 Television

* 9 Education

* 9.1 Secondary schools * 9.2 Further education * 9.3 Higher education

* 10 Museums and cultural institutions

* 11 Sports

* 11.1 Football * 11.2 Ice hockey * 11.3 Motor sports

* 12 In popular culture * 13 See also * 14 References * 15 Further reading * 16 External links

HISTORY

The Wilts and Berks Canal near Rushey Platt Main article: History of Swindon

EARLY HISTORY

The original Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
settlement of Swindon
Swindon
sat in a defensible position atop a limestone hill. It is referred to in the Domesday Book as Suindune, believed to be derived from the Old English words "swine" and "dun" meaning "pig hill" or possibly Sweyn's hill, where Sweyn is a personal name.

Swindon
Swindon
was a small market town , mainly for barter trade , until roughly 1848. This original market area is on top of the hill in central Swindon, now known as Old Town.

The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
was responsible for an acceleration of Swindon's growth. It started with the construction of the Wilts and Berks Canal
Canal
in 1810 and the North Wilts Canal in 1819. The canals brought trade to the area and Swindon's population started to grow.

RAILWAY TOWN

Swindon
Swindon
Community Centre - Railway Village

Between 1841 and 1842, Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Isambard Kingdom Brunel
's Swindon Works was built for the repair and maintenance of locomotives on the Great Western Railway (GWR). The GWR built a small railway village to house some of its workers. The Steam Railway Museum and English Heritage
English Heritage
, including the English Heritage
English Heritage
Archive , now occupy part of the old works. In the village were the GWR Medical Fund Clinic at Park House and its hospital, both on Faringdon Road, and the 1892 health centre in Milton Road – which housed clinics, a pharmacy, laundries, baths, Turkish baths and swimming pools – was almost opposite.

From 1871, GWR workers had a small amount deducted from their weekly pay and put into a healthcare fund – its doctors could prescribe them or their family members free medicines or send them for medical treatment. In 1878 the fund began providing artificial limbs made by craftsmen from the carriage and wagon works, and nine years later opened its first dental surgery. In his first few months in post the dentist extracted more than 2000 teeth. From the opening in 1892 of the Health Centre, a doctor could also prescribe a haircut or even a bath. The cradle-to-grave extent of this service was later used as a blueprint for the NHS .

The Mechanics' Institute, formed in 1844, moved into a building looking rather like a church and included a covered market, on 1 May 1855. The New Swindon
Swindon
Improvement Company, a co-operative , raised the funds for this path self-improvement and paid the GWR £40 a year for its new home on a site at the heart of the railway village. It was a groundbreaking organisation that transformed the railway's workforce into some of the country's best-educated manual workers.

It had the UK's first lending library , and a range of improving lectures, access to a theatre and a range of activities from ambulance classes to xylophone lessons. A former Institute secretary formed the New Swindon
Swindon
Co-operative
Co-operative
Society in 1853 which, after a schism in the society's membership, spawned the New Swindon
Swindon
Industrial Society that ran a retail business from a stall in the market at the Institute. The Institute also nurtured pioneering trades unionists and encouraged local democracy.

When tuberculosis hit the new town, the Mechanics' Institute persuaded the industrial pioneers of North Wiltshire
Wiltshire
to agree that the railway's former employees should continue to receive medical attention from the doctors of GWR Medical Society Fund, which the Institute had played a role in establishing and funding.

Swindon's 'other' railway, the Swindon, Marlborough and Andover Railway , merged with the Swindon and Cheltenham Extension Railway to form the Midland & South Western Junction Railway
Midland & South Western Junction Railway
, which set out to join the London
London
& South Western Railway with the Midland Railway
Midland Railway
at Cheltenham
Cheltenham
. The Swindon, Marlborough & Andover had planned to tunnel under the hill on which Swindon's Old Town stands but the money ran out and the railway ran into Swindon Town railway station , off Devizes
Devizes
Road in the Old Town, skirting the new town to the west, intersecting with the GWR at Rushey Platt and heading north for Cirencester
Cirencester
, Cheltenham
Cheltenham
and the LMS , whose 'Midland Red' livery the M&SWJR adopted.

During the second half of the 19th century, Swindon
Swindon
New Town grew around the main line between London
London
and Bristol
Bristol
. In 1900, the original market town, Old Swindon, merged with its new neighbour at the bottom of the hill to become a single town.

On 1 July 1923, the GWR took over the largely single-track M&SWJR and the line northwards from Swindon
Swindon
Town was diverted to Swindon
Swindon
Junction station, leaving the Town station with only the line south to Andover and Salisbury. The last passenger trains on what had been the SM"> Swindon
Swindon
in 1933 Swindon
Swindon
in 1959. Grid squares are 1km.

David Murray John , Swindon's town clerk from 1938 to 1974, is seen as a pioneering figure in Swindon's post-war regeneration; his last act before retirement was to sign the contract for Swindon's tallest building, which is now named after him. His successor was David Maxwell Kent, appointed by the Swindon/ Highworth Joint Committee in 1973. He had worked closely with David Murray John and continued similar policies for a further twenty years. The Greater London Council withdrew from the Town Development Agreement and the local council continued the development on its own.

There was the problem of the Western Development and of Lydiard Park being in the new North Wiltshire
Wiltshire
district, but this was resolved by a boundary change to take in part of North Wiltshire. Another factor limiting local decision-taking was the continuing role of Wiltshire County Council in the administration of Swindon. Together with like-minded councils, a campaign was launched to bring an updated form of county borough status to Swindon. This was successful in 1997, and Wiltshire
Wiltshire
is now divided into two Unitary Councils, both of equal status. One is Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Council , succeeding the former Wiltshire County Council and the Wiltshire
Wiltshire
district councils other than Thamesdown , while the other is Swindon
Swindon
Borough Council, covering the area of the former Thamesdown and the former Highworth Rural District Council.

The closure of the railway works (which had been in decline for many years) was a major blow to Swindon.

Because of this and the major growth in population diversification was continued at a rapid pace and the town now has all the features of a successful urban/rural council in the Outer South East Zone.

In February 2008 The Times
The Times
named Swindon
Swindon
as one of "The 20 best places to buy a property in Britain". Only Warrington
Warrington
had a lower ratio of house prices to household income in 2007, with the average household income in Swindon
Swindon
among the highest in the country.

In October 2008 Swindon
Swindon
made a controversial move to ban fixed point speed cameras . The move was branded as reckless by some but by November 2008 Portsmouth
Portsmouth
, Walsall
Walsall
, and Birmingham
Birmingham
councils were also considering the move.

In 2001 construction began on Priory Vale , the third and final instalment in Swindon's 'Northern Expansion' project, which began with Abbey Meads and continued at St Andrew's Ridge. In 2002 the New Swindon
Swindon
Company was formed with the remit of regenerating the town centre, to improve Swindon's regional status. The main areas targeted are Union Square, The Promenade, The Hub, Swindon
Swindon
Central, North Star Village, The Campus and the Public Realm.

Swindon
Swindon
hosted Radio 1\'s Big Weekend in May 2009 at Lydiard Park
Lydiard Park
. Building on the work of Radio 1, Swindon
Swindon
Borough Council organised the Big Arts Day in 2010. Aiming to be an annual event celebrating the arts it was held at Lydiard Park
Lydiard Park
in July for three consecutive years before being cancelled due to lack of funding.

2016 saw the resurrection of the Children's Fete at GWR Park Faringdon Road on what would have been the event's 150th anniversary.

GOVERNANCE

Swindon Town Hall
Swindon Town Hall
, now a dance theatre Further information: History of government in Swindon

The local council was created in 1974 as the Borough of Thamesdown, out of the areas of Swindon
Swindon
Borough and Highworth Rural District. It was not initially called Swindon, because the borough covers a larger area than the town. It was renamed as the Borough of Swindon
Borough of Swindon
in 1997. The borough became a unitary authority on 1 April 1997, following a review by the Local Government Commission for England
England
. The town is therefore no longer under the auspices of Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Council.

The borough consists of parished and non-parished areas. The non-parished areas include the former pre-1974 municipal borough of Swindon, and West Swindon
Swindon
which is a large town expansion area developed from the 1970s to the 1990s with land ceded from North Wiltshire
Wiltshire
district in the parishes of Lydiard Tregoze and Lydiard Millicent . Parished areas include Bishopstone (with Hinton Parva ), Blunsdon St Andrew , Castle Eaton , Chiseldon , Covingham , Hannington , Haydon Wick
Haydon Wick
, Highworth , Inglesham , Liddington , South Marston , Stanton Fitzwarren , Stratton St Margaret
Stratton St Margaret
, Wanborough and Wroughton . In 2014 Nythe obtained independence from Stratton St Margaret, becoming a new parish in its own right with effect from 1 April 2015.

The executive comprises a leader and a cabinet, currently made up from the Conservative Group. The council as of the 2011 election has a majority of Conservative councillors.

Swindon
Swindon
is represented in the national parliament by two MPs. Robert Buckland (Conservative) was elected for the South Swindon seat in May 2010 with a 5.5% swing from Labour and Justin Tomlinson , also Conservative, represents North Swindon after a 10.1% swing at the same election. Both increased their majorities at the May 2015 election. Prior to 1997 there was a single seat for Swindon, although much of what is now in Swindon
Swindon
was then part of the Devizes
Devizes
seat.

GEOGRAPHY

See also: List of places in Swindon

The town has an area of about 40 square kilometres (15 sq mi).

The landscape is dominated by the chalk hills of the Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Downs to the south and east. The Old Town stands on a hill of Purbeck and Portland stone; this was quarried from Roman times until the 1950s. The area that was known as New Swindon
Swindon
is made up of mostly Kimmeridge clay with outcrops of Corrallian clay in the areas of Penhill and Pinehurst. Oxford clay makes up the rest of the borough. The River Ray rises at Wroughton and forms much of the borough's western boundary, joining the Thames
Thames
which defines the northern boundary, and the source of which is located in nearby Kemble, Gloucestershire . The River Cole and its tributaries flow northeastward from the town and form the northeastern boundary.

* Nearby towns: Chippenham , Royal Wootton Bassett , Cirencester
Cirencester
, Cricklade
Cricklade
, Devizes
Devizes
, Highworth , Marlborough , Malmesbury
Malmesbury
, Calne
Calne
* Nearby villages: Aldbourne , Badbury , Blunsdon , Broad Hinton , Chiseldon , Hook , Lambourn
Lambourn
, Liddington , Lydiard Millicent , Minety , Purton , Ramsbury
Ramsbury
, South Marston , Wanborough , Wroughton * Nearby places of interest: Avebury
Avebury
, Barbury Castle
Barbury Castle
, Crofton Pumping Station , Lydiard Country Park , Silbury Hill
Silbury Hill
, Stonehenge
Stonehenge
, Uffington White Horse * Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Swindon
Swindon
include Coate Water , Great Quarry , Haydon Meadow , Okus Quarry and Old Town Railway Cutting

CLIMATE

Swindon
Swindon
has a maritime climate type, like all of the British Isles, with comparatively mild winters and comparatively cool summers considering its latitude. The nearest official weather station is RAF Lyneham , about 10 miles (16 km) west south west of Swindon
Swindon
town centre. The weather station's elevation is 145 metres, compared to the typical 100 metres encountered around Swindon
Swindon
town centre, so is likely to be marginally cooler throughout the year.

The absolute maximum is 34.9C (94.8F) recorded during August 1990. In an average year the warmest day should reach 28.7C (83.7F) and 10.3 days should register a temperature of 25.1C (77.2F) or above

The absolute minimum is −16.0C (3.0F), recorded in January 1982, and in an average year 45.2 nights of air frost can be expected.

Sunshine, at 1565 hours a year, is typical for inland parts of Southern England, although significantly higher than most areas further north.

Annual rainfall averages slightly under 720 mm (28 in) per year, with 123 days reporting over 1 mm of rain.

CLIMATE DATA FOR LYNEHAM, ELEVATION 145M, 1971–2000, EXTREMES 1960–

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 13.7 (56.7) 16.6 (61.9) 20.0 (68) 25.3 (77.5) 26.6 (79.9) 32.7 (90.9) 34.4 (93.9) 34.9 (94.8) 28.8 (83.8) 26.5 (79.7) 16.5 (61.7) 14.4 (57.9) 34.9 (94.8)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 6.6 (43.9) 6.9 (44.4) 9.4 (48.9) 12.0 (53.6) 15.7 (60.3) 18.5 (65.3) 21.2 (70.2) 20.7 (69.3) 17.7 (63.9) 13.6 (56.5) 9.6 (49.3) 7.4 (45.3) 13.3 (55.9)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 1.2 (34.2) 1.0 (33.8) 2.6 (36.7) 3.7 (38.7) 6.7 (44.1) 9.7 (49.5) 11.9 (53.4) 11.8 (53.2) 9.8 (49.6) 6.8 (44.2) 3.7 (38.7) 2.1 (35.8) 6.0 (42.8)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −16 (3) −11.3 (11.7) −8 (18) −4.8 (23.4) −1.6 (29.1) 0.6 (33.1) 3.8 (38.8) 5.0 (41) 1.5 (34.7) −3.6 (25.5) −7.8 (18) −14 (7) −16 (3)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 70.1 (2.76) 50.6 (1.992) 58.3 (2.295) 47.7 (1.878) 51.8 (2.039) 58.5 (2.303) 47.2 (1.858) 56.1 (2.209) 63.9 (2.516) 70.4 (2.772) 66.9 (2.634) 77.4 (3.047) 719.0 (28.307)

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 55.2 72.3 108.5 156.9 196.2 194.1 212.4 197.5 144.6 107.3 71.7 48.4 1,565

Source #1: Met Office

Source #2: KNMI

DEMOGRAPHICS

Christ Church

The 2001 census shows there were 180,061 people and 75,154 occupied houses in the Swindon
Swindon
Unitary Authority. The average household size was 2.38 people. The population density was 780/km² (2020.19/mi²). 20.96% of the population were 0–15 years old, 72.80% 16–74 and the remaining 6.24% were 75 years old or over. For every 100 females there were 98.97 males. Approximately 300,000 people live within 20 minutes of Swindon
Swindon
town centre.

It is forecast that there will be a 70,000 (38.9%) increase in Swindon's population by 2026 from the current 180,000, to 250,000. The ethnic make-up of the town was 95.2% white, 1.3% Indian and 3.5% other. 92.4% were born in the UK, 2.7% in the EU and 4.9% elsewhere.

The majority of Swindonians (70.3%) identify themselves as Christians. This is followed by those of no religion (19.2%), Muslims (1.0%), Sikhs (0.6%), Hindus (0.6%), other (0.2%) and Judaism
Judaism
(0.1%). In addition, 8.0% of people chose not to answer this question in the 2001 census.

In May 2007, 65.3% of households in Swindon
Swindon
had broadband Internet access , the highest in the UK, up 5.5% from June 2006.

In 2015, Public Health England
England
found that 70.4% of the population was either overweight or obese with a BMI greater than 25.

In 2011 Swindon
Swindon
had a population of 182,441 compared with 209,156 for the surrounding borough. The borough includes the town of Highworth and the large village of Wroughton .

ETHNIC GROUPS 2011 SWINDON TOWN BOROUGH OF SWINDON

White British 83.3% 84.6%

Asian 7.0% 6.4%

Black 1.5% 1.4%

In 2011, 16.7% of the population of Swindon
Swindon
were non White British compared with 15.4% in the surrounding borough. There was also little difference between the percentages of black and Asian residents. Swindon
Swindon
is one of the most ethnically diverse towns in South West England
England
. 5.6% of the population registered themselves as 'Other White' and 2.6% of the population was either mixed race or of another ethnicity.

PLACES OF WORSHIP

St Mark's Church (Church of England) Christ Church (Church of England); it was designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott
George Gilbert Scott
and built in 1851

There are numerous places of worship in Swindon, some of which are listed buildings . Until 1845, the only church in Swindon
Swindon
was the Holy Rood Church, a Grade II listed building. That year, St Mark\'s Church was built. In 1851, Christ Church was built. Later in the year, the first Roman Catholic chapel was opened in the city and was also named Holy Rood . In 1866, Cambria Baptist Chapel was built. In the 1880s, Bath Road Methodist Chapel was built. In 1885, St Barnabas Church was built. In 1907, St Augustine\'s Church in Even Swindon was built. Various churches and places of worship were built in the town by other denominations and faiths.

POLISH COMMUNITY

After the end of World War II, Polish refugees were temporarily housed in barracks at Fairford RAF base about 25 km (16 mi) north. Around 1950, some settled in Scotland and others in Swindon
Swindon
rather than stay in the barracks or hostels they were offered.

The 2001 UK Census found that most of the Polish-born people had stayed or returned after serving with British forces during World War II. Swindon
Swindon
and Nottingham were parts of this settlement. Data from that census showed that 566 Swindonians were Poland-born. Notes to those data read: ‘The Polish Resettlement Act of 1947, which was designed to provide help and support to people who wished to settle here, covered about 190,000 people ... at the time Britain did not recognise many of the professional gained overseas ... many did find work after the war; some went down the mines, some worked on the land or in steel works. Housing was more of a problem and many Poles were forced to live in barracks previously used for POWs ... The first generation took pains to ensure that their children grew up with a strong sense of Polish identity.'

In 2004, NHS planners devising services for senior citizens estimated that 5 percent of Swindon's population were not 'ethnically British' and most of those were culturally Polish.

The town's Polish ex-servicemen's club, which had run a football team for 45 years, closed in 2012. Barman Jerzy Trojan blamed the decline of both club and team on the children and grandchildren of the original refugees losing their Polish identity.

ECONOMY

A Swindon-built locomotive (Hagley Hall) on display in the eating area of the McArthur Glen Designer Outlet, Swindon
Swindon
Retail in the centre of Swindon
Swindon

Major employers include the Honda car production plant at the former Vickers-Armstrongs Supermarine
Supermarine
aircraft factory on the former South Marston aerodrome, BMW
BMW
/ Mini
Mini
(formerly Pressed Steel Fisher) in Stratton, Dolby Labs
Dolby Labs
, international engineering consultancy firm Halcrow , and retailer W H Smith 's distribution centre and headquarters. The electronics company Intel
Intel
has its European head office on the south side of the town. Insurance and financial services companies such as Nationwide Building Society
Nationwide Building Society
and Zurich Financial Services , the energy companies RWE Generation UK plc and npower (a company of the Innogy group), the fuel card and fleet management company Arval, pharmaceutical companies such as Canada's Patheon and the United States-based Catalent Pharma Solutions and French medical supplies manufacturer Vygon (UK) Ltd have their UK divisions headquartered in the town. Swindon
Swindon
also has the head office of the National Trust .

Other employers include all of the national Research Councils , the British Computer Society , TE Connectivity , consumer goods supplier Reckitt Benckiser , Software Test Labs a dynamic test consultancy and managed testing services company and a branch of Becton Dickinson .

The town is currently the location of the UK Space Agency headquarters.

TRANSPORT

Swindon
Swindon
Magic Roundabout Main article: Transport in Swindon
Transport in Swindon

At the junction of two Roman roads, the town has developed into a transport hub over the centuries. It is on the historical GWR and on canals . It also has two junctions (15 and 16) on the M4 motorway
M4 motorway
.

Swindon railway station opened in 1842 as Swindon
Swindon
Junction, and until 1895 every train stopped for at least 10 minutes to change locomotives. As a result, the station hosted the first recorded railway refreshment rooms.

Swindon
Swindon
bus operators are Thamesdown and Stagecoach. The local council acknowledges the need for more car parking as part of its vision for 2010. Swindon
Swindon
is one of the locations for an innovative scheme called Car share. It was set up as a joint venture between Wiltshire
Wiltshire
County Council and a private organisation, and now has over 300,000 members registered. It is a car pool or ride-sharing rather than a car share scheme, seeking to link people willing to share transport.

The town contains a large roundabout called Magic Roundabout . There are five mini-roundabouts within this roundabout and at its centre is a contra-rotational hub. It is the junction of five roads: (clockwise from South) Drove Road, Fleming Way, County Road, Shrivenham Road and Queens Drive. It is built on the site of Swindon
Swindon
wharf on the abandoned Wilts "> to match its nickname.

TOURISM AND RECREATION

This section IS IN A LIST FORMAT THAT MAY BE BETTER PRESENTED USING PROSE . You can help by converting this section to prose, if appropriate . Editing help is available. (December 2009)

EVENTS

Swindon
Swindon
Mela in the Town Gardens

* Swindon
Swindon
hosts a number of festivals such as the Swindon
Swindon
Festival of Literature , the annual Swindon
Swindon
Mela (an all-day celebration of South Indian arts and culture) in the Town Gardens – an event which attracts up to 10,000 visitors each year. * The Summer Breeze Festival has been held annually in the town since 2007 with headliners ranging from Toploader
Toploader
to KT Tunstall . The family-friendly music event is run by volunteers on a non-profit basis with any funds raised going to charity. * An annual Gay Pride Parade called Swindon
Swindon
And Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Pride is held in the town. The parade has been held in the Town Gardens since 2007. Popular Swedish DJ Basshunter performed in the 2012 celebrations which c.8,000 people attended. * The town has a live music scene, venues such as Baila Coffee "> McArthur Glen Designer Outlet , a shopping complex built within the disused Swindon
Swindon
railway engine works

* The Brunel Centre and the Parade are shopping areas in the town centre, built along the line of the filled-in Wilts and Berks Canal (where a canal milepost can still be seen). * Swindon
Swindon
Tented Market located in the Town Centre, close to the Brunel Centre, was built in 1994. It reopened in October 2009, having been closed for two years. * Regent Circus, which opened in 2015 on the site of the former Swindon
Swindon
College building. It contains a Morrison's superstore, along with a Cineworld cinema and several restaurants. * Retail parks include Greenbridge (although not located within the township of Swindon
Swindon
but in the urban parish of Stratton St. Margaret , Mannington which is the location of a John Lewis at Home store, Bridgemead, West Swindon
Swindon
Shopping Centre and the Orbital Shopping Park in Haydon Wick
Haydon Wick
Parish * McArthur Glen Designer Outlet is an indoor shopping mall for reduced price goods (mainly clothing), using the buildings of the disused railway engine works. The outlet is adjacent to the Steam Museum and the National Trust headquarters. The Swindon
Swindon
Designer Outlet has around 100 shops and is the biggest covered designer outlet centre in Europe. * Craft shops within Studley Grange Craft Village, inside Blooms Garden Centre, just off junction 16 of the M4 motorway. * Small specialist shops within BSS House in Cheney Manor Industrial Park and Basepoint Business Centre.

GREEN SPACES

* Public parks include Lydiard Country Park , The Lawns , Stanton Park, Barbury Castle, Queens Park , Town Gardens, Pembroke Gardens and Coate Water
Coate Water
. * Shaw Country Park currently being developed in West Swindon.

OTHER

* The English Heritage
English Heritage
Archive is based in Swindon. The Science Museum has its large objects stored on the disused airfield at Wroughton as well as housing the Museum's Library and Archives.

MEDIA

ONLINE

Swindon
Swindon
has many online media outlets with the largest being the Swindon
Swindon
Advertiser . The Swindonian follow second in readership with Index Wiltshire, Swindon
Swindon
24 among the other sites available.

PRINT

King George V pulling the 'Bristolian' passenger train at the Swindon Steam Railway Museum .

Swindon
Swindon
has a daily newspaper , the Swindon
Swindon
Advertiser , with daily circulation of about 4,000 with an estimated readership of 21,000. Other newspapers covering the area include Bristol
Bristol
's daily Western Daily Press and the Swindon
Swindon
Advertisers weekly, the Gazette and Herald ; the Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Ocelot (a free listings magazine), Swindon
Swindon
Star, Hungry Monkeys (a comic), Stratton Outlook, Frequency (an arts and cultural magazine), Great Swindon
Swindon
Magazine, Swindon
Swindon
Business News, Swindon
Swindon
Link and Highworth Link.

RADIO

Local radio stations include Sam FM and Heart Wiltshire
Wiltshire
in the commercial sector, with BBC
BBC
Radio Wiltshire
Wiltshire
as a publicly funded alternative. The town has its own 24-hour community radio station, Swindon
Swindon
105.5 , which was given the Queen\'s Award for Voluntary Service in 2014, the highest award which can be given to a voluntary group.

TELEVISION

The Swindon
Swindon
area is in the overlap between two transmission regions, for the Thames
Thames
valley and the West of England. ITV regional news programmes come from ITV News Meridian (with offices at Abingdon) and ITV West
ITV West
(Bristol). On BBC One
BBC One
the area is served by both South Today (from Oxford) and Points West (Bristol).

Between 1973 and 1982, the town had its own cable television channel called Swindon
Swindon
Viewpoint . This was a community television project run mainly by enthusiasts from studios in Victoria Hill, and later by Media Arts at the Town Hall Studios. It was followed by the more commercial Swindon\'s Local Channel , which included pay-per-view films. NTL (later Virgin Media
Virgin Media
) took over the channel's parent company, ComTel, and closed the station.

EDUCATION

The borough of Swindon
Swindon
has many primary schools, 12 secondary schools and two purpose built sixth-form colleges. Two secondary schools also have sixth forms. There is one independent school, Maranatha Christian School at Sevenhampton .

SECONDARY SCHOOLS

* Churchfields Academy * Commonweal School * The Dorcan Academy * Highworth Warneford School * Isambard Community School * Kingsdown School * Lydiard Park
Lydiard Park
Academy * Nova Hreod Academy * The Ridgeway School & Sixth Form College * St. Joseph\'s Catholic College * Swindon
Swindon
Academy * UTC Swindon
Swindon
(from age 14)

FURTHER EDUCATION

New College and Swindon
Swindon
College cater for the town's further education and higher education requirements, mainly for 16- to 21-year-olds. Swindon
Swindon
College is one of the largest FE-HE colleges in southwestern England, situated at a purpose-built campus in North Star, Swindon.

Swindon
Swindon
also has a foundation learning programme called Include, which is situated in the Gorse Hill area. This is for 16- to 19-year-olds who are currently not in education or work.

HIGHER EDUCATION

Swindon
Swindon
is the UK's largest centre of population without its own university (by comparison, there are two universities in nearby Bath , which is half Swindon's size). In March 2008, a proposal was put forward by former Swindon
Swindon
MP, Anne Snelgrove , for a university-level institution to be established in the town within a decade, culminating in a future 'University of Swindon' (with some touting the future institution to be entitled 'The Murray John University, Swindon', after the town's most distinguished post-war civic leader). In October 2008, plans were announced for a possible University of Swindon
Swindon
campus to be built in east Swindon
Swindon
to the south of the town's Great Western Hospital, close to the M4-A419 interchange. However, these plans are currently mothballed.

Since 1999 Oxford Brookes University
Oxford Brookes University
has had its Ferndale Campus in north-central Swindon, offering degrees and diplomas in Adult Nursing. The main OBU campus is 35 miles (56 km) northeast of Swindon. The university also sponsors UTC Swindon, which opened in 2014.

Between 2000 and 2008 the University of Bath
University of Bath
had a campus in Walcot, east Swindon.

MUSEUMS AND CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS

This section IS IN A LIST FORMAT THAT MAY BE BETTER PRESENTED USING PROSE . You can help by converting this section to prose, if appropriate . Editing help is available. (December 2009)

* National Museum of Science "> * Swindon
Swindon
Museum and Swindon
Swindon
Art Gallery , next to each other. * The Museum of Computing the first computer museum in the UK.

SPORTS

The Stratton Bank

FOOTBALL

Swindon
Swindon
Town F.C. play at the County Ground near the town centre. They have been Football League
Football League
members since joining the then-new Third Division (southern section) in 1920, and won promotion to the Second Division for the first time in 1963. They won their only major trophy to date, the Football League
Football League
Cup , in 1969 beating Arsenal 3-1, and won the Anglo-Italian Cup the following year as the Football Association forbade Swindon
Swindon
from competing in the European Cup because they were in Division 3. They won promotion to the First Division in 1990, but stayed in the Second Division due to financial irregularities, and reached the top flight (by then the Premier League ) three years later. Their spell in the top flight lasted just one season, and then came a second successive relegation. A brief recovery saw them promoted at the first attempt as champions of the new Division Two, but they were relegated again four years later and in 2006 fell back into the fourth tier for the first time since 1986, although promotion was gained at the first attempt. They were relegated again four years later. Under the charismatic reign of manager Paolo Di Canio , Swindon
Swindon
became League Two champions in 2011–12 and played in League One, the third-highest tier until the season of 2016–17, when they were relegated to League Two after losing their penultimate game against Scunthorpe 2–1.

The town also has a non-league club Swindon
Swindon
Supermarine
Supermarine
F.C. , playing in Southern League Division One South and West. Nearby Highworth Town F.C. , based in Highworth , play in the Hellenic Football League
Football League
.

ICE HOCKEY

The Swindon
Swindon
Wildcats play in the second-tier English Premier Ice Hockey League . Since their inception in 1986, the Wildcats have played their home games at the 2,800-capacity Link Centre in West Swindon.

MOTOR SPORTS

Swindon
Swindon
Robins are a speedway team competing in the top national division, the SGB Premiership . The team has operated at the Abbey Stadium, Blunsdon since 1949. There was a speedway track in the Gorse Hill area of Swindon
Swindon
in the early days of the sport in the late 1920s and early 1930s.

Foxhill motocross circuit is 6 miles (9.7 km) south east of the town and has staged Grand Prix events.

IN POPULAR CULTURE

* The 2003 novel The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time is set in Swindon. * Thursday Next , a character in Jasper Fforde 's novels, was born in Swindon. * Post-punk band XTC was formed in Swindon
Swindon
in 1972. Three of the band's singles reached the UK top 20 and they gained a cult following .

SEE ALSO

* Swindon
Swindon
Civic Trust * List of twin towns in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* List of people from Swindon
Swindon
* Healthcare in Wiltshire
Wiltshire

REFERENCES

* ^ http://citypopulation.de/php/uk-england-southwestengland.php?cityid=E35001437 * ^ Great Britain Historical GIS Project. "Swindon: Total Population". A Vision of Britain through time. Retrieved 9 January 2007. * ^ "Vast bookstore opens as famed library runs out of space". BBC News. 6 October 2010. * ^ A B John Chandler, Swindon
Swindon
Decoded, The Hobnob Press 2005, ISBN 0-946418-37-3 . * ^ ‘’Background’’ – The Mechanics Institution Trust, Swindon. Retrieved on 23 July 2007. Reference updated 12 December 2013 * ^ 1850-1870 – The Mechanics Institution Trust, Swindon. Retrieved on 23 July 2007. Reference updated 12 December 2013 * ^ Background – The Mechanics Institution Trust, Swindon. Retrieved on 23 July 2007. Reference updated 12 December 2013 * ^ This is Our Heritage — 1996 lecture by Swindon
Swindon
labour movement historian Trevor Cockbill. Retrieved on 23 July 2007. Reference updated 12 December 2013 * ^ Background – The Mechanics Institution Trust, Swindon. Retrieved 23 July 2007. Reference updated 12 December 2013 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-23. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ Swindon\'s Other Railway — the Swindon, Marlborough & Andover Railway. Retrieved on 23 July 2007. * ^ The Midland & South Western Junction Railway, Railspot Reloaded.Retrieved on 23 July 2007. * ^ GWR Museum picture gallery. Retrieved on 23 July 2007 * ^ Leonard Clark, Alfred Williams – His Life and Work, David and Charles 1969 * ^ Alfred Williams, Life in a railway factory, first published 1915, 2007 edition published by Sutton Publishing ISBN 978-0-7509-4660-5 * ^ Evening Star — Steam Locomotive, BBC, 29 November 2006. Retrieved on 21 July 2007. * ^ "SwindonWeb – Brunel Tower David Murray John". swindonweb.com. Retrieved 27 March 2012. * ^ The 20 best places to buy a property in Britain, The Times
The Times
, Property pages, February 2008 * ^ More councils expected to ban speed cameras, The Times
The Times
, October 2008. * ^ Archived 18 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Weaver, Matthew (23 October 2008). "More councils expected to ban speed cameras". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 24 May 2010. * ^ New Swindon. * ^ Scott D'Arcy. "The curtain falls on town Big Arts Day". Swindon Advertiser. Retrieved 19 December 2012. * ^ "The Wiltshire
Wiltshire
(Borough of Thamesdown)(Structural Change) Order 1995". Opsi.gov.uk. 11 August 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2013. * ^ "Lydiard Millicent". Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Community History. Wiltshire Council. Retrieved 4 January 2016. * ^ "Community Governance Review" (PDF). Swindon
Swindon
Borough Council. 18 July 2013. Retrieved 24 June 2015. * ^ "Agenda - Nythe Shadow Parish Council" (PDF). Swindon
Swindon
Borough Council. 29 January 2015. Retrieved 24 June 2015. * ^ "" BBC
BBC
News – Election 2011" ( BBC
BBC
News)accessed 6 May 2011". Bbc.co.uk. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2013. * ^ Crittall, Elizabeth; Rogers, Kenneth; Shrimpton, Colin (1983). "Geology". A history of Swindon
Swindon
to 1965. Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Library & Museum Service. ISBN 0-86080-107-1 . * ^ "1990 August maximum". Retrieved 28 February 2011. * ^ "1971-00 Annual average warmest day". Retrieved 28 February 2011. * ^ "1971-00 >25c days". Retrieved 28 February 2011. * ^ "1982 minimum". Retrieved 28 February 2011. * ^ "Climate Normals 1971–2000". MetOffice. Retrieved 28 February 2011. * ^ "Climate Normals 1971–2000". KNMI. Retrieved 28 February 2011. * ^ " Swindon
Swindon
UA". Census 2001. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 9 January 2007. * ^ "Vision proposes 35,000 new homes". BBC
BBC
News. 28 July 2006. Retrieved 9 January 2007. * ^ "2011 Census". Statistics.gov.uk. 27 March 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2013. * ^ Swindon
Swindon
and Milton Keynes top the UK broadband league – Computer Weekly, London, 23 May 2007. Accessed:2007-08-21. * ^ "Revealed: the fattest towns and cities in England". BBC
BBC
. 4 Feb 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2015. * ^ http://citypopulation.de/php/uk-england-southwestengland.php?cityid=E35001437 * ^ http://www.ukcensusdata.com/swindon-e06000030#sthash.9Z5s4rfi.dpbs * ^ Cite error: The named reference nomisweb.co.uk was invoked but never defined (see the help page ). * ^ Swindon
Swindon
from British Listed Buildings, retrieved 9 January 2016 * ^ Swindon: Churches in A History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume 9 from British History Online (London: Victoria County History, 1970), 144-159. * ^ Places of Worship from Total Swindon, retrieved 9 January 2016 * ^ Community celebrates its golden anniversary, Swindon Advertiser, 31 May 2000.Retrieved on 23 July 2007. * ^ Polish club closes doors for last time – Swindon
Swindon
Advertiser, 1 April 2007. Retrieved on 24 July 2007 * ^ Born Abroad, BBC
BBC
News.Retrieved on 23 July 2007. * ^ – Polish Community Focus Multicultural Matters.Retrieved on 23 July 2007 * ^ Modernising Services for Older People in Swindon– Avon & Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Mental Health Partnership NHS Trust, Swindon
Swindon
Primary Care Trust and Swindon
Swindon
Borough Council.Retrieved on 24 July 2007. * ^ Polish club closes doors for last time – Swindon
Swindon
Advertiser, 1 April 2007. Retrieved on 2007-27-24. * ^ LTC Rolt, Isambard Kingdom Brumel, Penguin 1957. * ^ "Car Parking – General Information". Transport & Streets. Swindon
Swindon
Borough Council . Retrieved 17 January 2007. * ^ Aerial view from Google maps
Google maps
* ^ Swindon
Swindon
Mela. * ^ "Family fun at Summer Breeze festival". Swindon
Swindon
Advertiser. 3 July 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2012. * ^ " Toploader
Toploader
to headline Swindon\'s Summer Breeze festival". Swindon
Swindon
Advertiser. 3 May 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2012. * ^ "Catch the Breeze". Swindon
Swindon
Advertiser. 12 July 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2012. * ^ Richard Craven (26 July 2007). " Swindon
Swindon
Shuffle 2007 – A Retrospective". BBC
BBC
Wiltshire
Wiltshire
. Retrieved 26 July 2007. * ^ jtptrust.org * ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/wiltshire/8312009.stm BBC News * ^ Swindon
Swindon
Cable — Swindon
Swindon
View Point — The Local Channel, Swindoncable.co.uk. Retrieved on 21 July 2007. * ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas . " XTC biography". AllMusic . Retrieved 10 June 2017.

FURTHER READING

* Swindon, Mark Child, Breedon Books, 2002, hardcover, 159 pages, ISBN 1-85983-322-5 * Francis Frith's Swindon
Swindon
Living Memories (Photographic Memories S.), Francis Frith and Brian Bridgeman, The Frith Book Company Ltd, 2003, Paperback, 96 pages, ISBN 1-85937-656-8

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article SWINDON .

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