Sweden–Finland (Finnish: Ruotsi-Suomi, Swedish: Sverige-Finland) is
a Finnish historiographical term referring to
Sweden from the Kalmar
Union to the Napoleonic wars, i.e. from the 14th to the early 19th
century. In 1809, the realm was split after the Finnish war. The
eastern half came to constitute the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland,
in personal union with Imperial Russia.
The term was coined by Finnish historians during the 1920s, but since
then there has been an effort to drop it from professional
historiography due to its perceived inaccuracy. However, it is
often still used in everyday Finnish speech and taught in schools.
Although the term has didactic merits, for instance when used in
conjunction with the term Denmark-Norway, it is misleading because
Finland was an integrated part of the realm since the 12th century,
Norway were two sovereign kingdoms, which were
united in 1380.
The eastern and western regions of the realm became united mainly due
to trade and settlements via the Åland Islands. A common
misconception is that Finland was conquered by
Sweden as a result of
crusades, which was a myth later used by Finnish nationalists to
strengthen the cohesion of Finland after the Finnish Civil War.
Crusades probably occurred, but had no decisive significance.
Until 1809 Finland was considered as one of four Swedish lands.
However, it was different from
Götaland and Svealand, but not all of
Norrland, in that Swedish was not the majority language in this part
of the kingdom, except for areas along the coastline and amongst the
nobility and the urban upper classes.
During the time of the
Sweden–Finland was identical
Sweden proper; other overseas possessions constituted the dominions
of Sweden. However, a conceptual distinction was sometimes made
Sweden and Finland already before 1809: for example, in
certain 16th century documents,
Gustav Vasa occasionally uses the
phrases the cities of
Sweden and Finland and the cities of Finland and
the cities of Sweden, thus implying that the two entities are not
identical.[original research?] In this context, however, "Finland"
usually referred to the provinces of Finland Proper and Satakunta, not
to Tavastia or Karelia.
History of Sweden
History of Finland
^ "Finland". World Statesmen. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
^ "Sweden". World Statesmen. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
^ a b Jussila, Osmo: Suomen historian suuret myytit. WSOY, Helsinki
^ Engman, Max: Ett långt farväl - Finland mellan Sverige och
Ryssland efter 1809. Atlantis, Sto