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The SUTLEJ RIVER (alternatively spelled as Satluj River) ( Hindi
Hindi
: सतलुज, Punjabi : ਸਤਲੁਜ, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: शतद्रुम (shatadrum) Urdu : درياۓ ستلُج‎ ) is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab in northern India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
. The Sutlej River is also known as SATADREE. It is the easternmost tributary of the Indus River
Indus River
.

The waters of the Sutlej
Sutlej
are allocated to India
India
under the Indus Waters Treaty between India
India
and Pakistan, and are mostly diverted to irrigation canals in India. There are several major hydroelectric projects on the Sutlej, including the 1,000 MW Bhakra Dam , the 1,000 MW Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Plant , and the 1,530 MW Nathpa Jhakri Dam .

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Sources * 3 Geology * 4 Sutlej-Yamuna Link * 5 Gallery * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links

HISTORY

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The Upper Sutlej
Sutlej
Valley, called Langqên Zangbo in Tibet
Tibet
, was once known as the Garuda
Garuda
Valley by the Zhangzhung , the ancient civilization of western Tibet
Tibet
. The Garuda
Garuda
Valley was the centre of their empire, which stretched many miles into the nearby Himalayas
Himalayas
. The Zhangzhung built a towering palace in the Upper Sutlej
Sutlej
Valley called Kyunglung , the ruins of which still exist today near the village of Moincêr , southwest of Mount Kailash (Mount Ti-se). Eventually, the Zhangzhung were conquered by the Tibetan Empire
Tibetan Empire
.

The boundaries of Greater Nepal extended westward to beyond Satluj River until the tide turned in 1809 and Kangra king repulsed Gorkha army eastward with help from Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Today, the Sutlej
Sutlej
Valley is inhabited by nomadic descendants of the Zhangzhung, who live in tiny villages of yak herders.

The Sutlej
Sutlej
was the main medium of transportation for the kings of that time. In the early 18th century, it was used to transport devdar woods for Bilaspur district , Hamirpur district , and other places along the Sutlej's banks.

Of four rivers ( Indus
Indus
, Sutlej, Brahmaputra and Karnali / Ganges
Ganges
) mythically flowing out of holy Lake Manasarovar
Lake Manasarovar
, the Sutlej
Sutlej
is actually connected by channels that are dry most of the time.

SOURCES

The source of the Sutlej
Sutlej
is west of Lake Rakshastal
Lake Rakshastal
in Tibet
Tibet
, as springs in an ephemeral stream channel descending from this lake. Rakshastal in turn is ephemerally connected by Ganga Chhu to sacred Lake Manasarovar
Lake Manasarovar
about 4 KM further east. The nascent river flows at first west-northwest for about 260 kilometres (160 mi) under the Tibetan name Langqên Zangbo (Elephant River or Elephant Spring) to the Shipki La pass, entering India
India
in Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
state. It then turns slightly, heading west-southwest for about 360 kilometres (220 mi) to meet the Beas River near Makhu , Firozpur district , Punjab state. North western part of Panchkula district in Haryana
Haryana
state is located in the Sutlej
Sutlej
river basin. Thus Haryana
Haryana
is also a riparian state of Indus
Indus
river basin.

Continuing west-southwest, the Sutlej
Sutlej
enters Pakistan
Pakistan
about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) east of Bhedian Kalan , Kasur District , Punjab province, continuing southwest to water the ancient and historical former Bahawalpur princely state .

About 17 kilometres (11 mi) north of Uch Sharif , the Sutlej
Sutlej
unites with the Chenab
Chenab
River , forming the Panjnad River , which finally flows into the Indus
Indus
river about 100 kilometres (62 mi) west of the city of Bahawalpur . The area to the southeast on the Pakistani side of the Indian border is called the Cholistan Desert and, on the Indian side, the Thar Desert .

The Indus
Indus
then flows through a gorge near Sukkur
Sukkur
and the fertile plains region of Sindh
Sindh
, forming a large delta region between the border of Gujarat
Gujarat
, India
India
and Pakistan, finally terminating in the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
near the port city of Karachi
Karachi
, Pakistan. During floods, Indus
Indus
river water flows in to Indian part of Great Rann of Kutch . Thus Gujarat
Gujarat
state of India
India
is also a riparian state of Indus
Indus
river as Rann of Kutch
Rann of Kutch
area lying west of Kori Creek in the state is part of the Indus River
Indus River
Delta .

GEOLOGY

See also: Ghaggar-Hakra River

The Sutlej, along with all of the Punjab rivers, is thought to have drained east into the Ganges
Ganges
prior to 5 mya .

There is substantial geologic evidence to indicate that prior to 1700 BC, and perhaps much earlier, the Sutlej
Sutlej
was an important tributary of the Ghaggar-Hakra River (thought to be the legendary Sarasvati River ) rather than the Indus, with various authors putting the redirection from 2500 to 2000 BC, from 5000 to 3000 BC, or before 8000 BC. Geologists believe that tectonic activity created elevation changes which redirected the flow of Sutlej
Sutlej
from the southeast to the southwest. If the diversion of the river occurred recently (about 4000 years ago), it may have been responsible for the Ghaggar-Hakra (Saraswati) drying up, causing desertification of Cholistan and the eastern part of the modern state of Sindh
Sindh
, and the abandonment of Harappan settlements along the Ghaggar. However, the Sutlej
Sutlej
may have already been captured by the Indus
Indus
thousands of years earlier.

There is some evidence that the high rate of erosion caused by the modern Sutlej River has influenced the local faulting and rapidly exhumed rocks above Rampur . This would be similar to, but on a much smaller scale than, the exhumation of rocks by the Indus River
Indus River
in Nanga Parbat , Pakistan. The Sutlej River also exposes a doubled inverted metamorphic gradient .

SUTLEJ-YAMUNA LINK

Main article: Ravi river
Ravi river

There has been a proposal to build a 214-kilometre (133 mi) long heavy freight and irrigation canal, to be known as the Sutlej-Yamuna Link (SYL) to connect the Sutlej
Sutlej
and Yamuna
Yamuna
rivers. The project is intended to connect the Ganges, which flows to the east coast of the subcontinent, with points west, via Pakistan. When completed, the SYL would enable inland shipping from India's east coast to its west coast (on the Arabian sea) without having to round the southern tip of India by sea, vastly shortening shipping distances, alleviating pressures on seaports, avoiding sea hazards, creating business opportunities along the route, raising real estate values, raising tax revenue, and establishing important commercial links and providing jobs for north-central India's large population. However, the proposal has met with obstacles and has been referred to the Supreme Court of India
India
.

GALLERY

*

Sutlej
Sutlej
Valley from Rampur c. 1857 *

Using inflated animal skins to cross the Sutlej
Sutlej
River, c. 1905 *

Sutlej River in Kinnaur
Kinnaur
Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India
India
*

Cattle grazing on the banks of the river in Rupnagar
Rupnagar
, Punjab, India
Punjab, India
*

Satluj River near Shahkot, Punjab India
India

SEE ALSO

* List of rivers of India
India
* List of rivers of Pakistan
Pakistan
* Cis-Sutlej states

REFERENCES

* ^ " Sutlej
Sutlej
valley". The Free Dictionary. * ^ Asiatic Society of Bengal. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 17, Part 1. p. 210, paragraph two. * ^ Archived 31 August 2005 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Nathpa Jhakri Hydroelectric Power Project, India". power-technology.com. Retrieved 14 May 2011. * ^ "Wet lands of Haryana
Haryana
state (page 27)" (pdf). GoI. Retrieved 27 November 2012. * ^ "Evolution of the Delta, the LBOD outfall system and the Badin dhands - chapters 3 ">(PDF). Retrieved 22 December 2015. * ^ Clift, Peter D.; Blusztajn, Jerzy (15 December 2005). "Reorganization of the western Himalayan river system after five million years ago". Nature. 438 (7070): 1001–1003. PMID 16355221 . doi :10.1038/nature04379 . * ^ Mughal, M. R. Ancient Cholistan. Archaeology and Architecture. Rawalpindi-Lahore-Karachi: Ferozsons 1997, 2004 * ^ Valdiya, K. S., in Dynamic Geology, Educational monographs published by J. N. Centre for Advanced Studies, Bangalore, University Press (Hyderabad), 1998. * ^ *Clift et al. 2012. "U-Pb zircon dating evidence for a Pleistocene Sarasvati River and capture of the Yamuna
Yamuna
River." Geology, v. 40. * ^ K.S. Valdiya. 2013. "The River Saraswati was a Himalayan-born river". Current Science 104 (01). * ^ Thiede, Rasmus; Arrowsmith, J. Ramón; Bookhagen, Bodo; McWilliams, Michael O.; Sobel, Edward R.; Strecker, Manfred R. (August 2005). "From tectonically to erosionally controlled development of the Himalayan orogen". Geology. 33 (8): 689–692. doi :10.1130/G21483AR.1 . * ^ Grasemann, Bernhard; Fritz, Harry; Vannay, Jean-Claude (July 1999). "Quantitative kinematic flow analysis from the Main Central Thrust Zone)NW-Himalaya, India: implications for a decelerating strain path and the extrustion of orogenic wedges". Journal of Structural Geology. 21 (7): 837–853. doi :10.1016/S0191-8141(99)00077-2 . * ^ http://india.gov.in/sectors/water_resources/sutlej_link.php Sutlej- Yamuna
Yamuna
Link

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Media related to Sutlej River at

.