The SUTLEJ RIVER (alternatively spelled as Satluj River) (
सतलुज, Punjabi : ਸਤਲੁਜ,
शतद्रुम (shatadrum) Urdu : درياۓ ستلُج ) is
the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic
crossroads region of Punjab in northern
Pakistan . The
Sutlej River is also known as SATADREE. It is the easternmost
tributary of the
Indus River .
The waters of the
Sutlej are allocated to
India under the Indus
Waters Treaty between
India and Pakistan, and are mostly diverted to
irrigation canals in India. There are several major hydroelectric
projects on the Sutlej, including the 1,000 MW
Bhakra Dam , the 1,000
Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Plant , and the 1,530 MW Nathpa
Jhakri Dam .
* 1 History
* 2 Sources
* 3 Geology
* 5 Gallery
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 8 External links
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Sutlej Valley, called
Langqên Zangbo in
Tibet , was once
known as the
Garuda Valley by the
Zhangzhung , the ancient
civilization of western
Tibet . The
Garuda Valley was the centre of
their empire, which stretched many miles into the nearby
Zhangzhung built a towering palace in the Upper
Kyunglung , the ruins of which still exist today near the
Moincêr , southwest of
Mount Kailash (Mount Ti-se).
Zhangzhung were conquered by the
Tibetan Empire .
The boundaries of
Greater Nepal extended westward to beyond Satluj
River until the tide turned in 1809 and Kangra king repulsed Gorkha
army eastward with help from Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
Sutlej Valley is inhabited by nomadic descendants of the
Zhangzhung, who live in tiny villages of yak herders.
Sutlej was the main medium of transportation for the kings of
that time. In the early 18th century, it was used to transport devdar
woods for Bilaspur district , Hamirpur district , and other places
along the Sutlej's banks.
Of four rivers (
Indus , Sutlej,
Brahmaputra and Karnali /
mythically flowing out of holy
Lake Manasarovar , the
actually connected by channels that are dry most of the time.
The source of the
Sutlej is west of
Lake Rakshastal in
Tibet , as
springs in an ephemeral stream channel descending from this lake.
Rakshastal in turn is ephemerally connected by
Ganga Chhu to sacred
Lake Manasarovar about 4 KM further east. The nascent river flows at
first west-northwest for about 260 kilometres (160 mi) under the
Langqên Zangbo (Elephant River or Elephant Spring) to
Shipki La pass, entering
Himachal Pradesh state. It then
turns slightly, heading west-southwest for about 360 kilometres (220
mi) to meet the
Beas River near
Firozpur district , Punjab
state. North western part of
Panchkula district in
Haryana state is
located in the
Sutlej river basin. Thus
Haryana is also a riparian
Indus river basin.
Continuing west-southwest, the
Pakistan about 15
kilometres (9.3 mi) east of
Bhedian Kalan ,
Kasur District , Punjab
province, continuing southwest to water the ancient and historical
Bahawalpur princely state .
About 17 kilometres (11 mi) north of
Uch Sharif , the
Chenab River , forming the
Panjnad River , which finally
flows into the
Indus river about 100 kilometres (62 mi) west of the
Bahawalpur . The area to the southeast on the Pakistani side
of the Indian border is called the
Cholistan Desert and, on the Indian
Thar Desert .
Indus then flows through a gorge near
Sukkur and the fertile
plains region of
Sindh , forming a large delta region between the
India and Pakistan, finally terminating in the
Arabian Sea near the port city of
Karachi , Pakistan. During floods,
Indus river water flows in to Indian part of
Great Rann of Kutch .
Gujarat state of
India is also a riparian state of
Indus river as
Rann of Kutch
Rann of Kutch area lying west of
Kori Creek in the state is part of
Indus River Delta .
The Sutlej, along with all of the Punjab rivers, is thought to have
drained east into the
Ganges prior to 5 mya .
There is substantial geologic evidence to indicate that prior to 1700
BC, and perhaps much earlier, the
Sutlej was an important tributary of
Ghaggar-Hakra River (thought to be the legendary
Sarasvati River )
rather than the Indus, with various authors putting the redirection
from 2500 to 2000 BC, from 5000 to 3000 BC, or before 8000 BC.
Geologists believe that tectonic activity created elevation changes
which redirected the flow of
Sutlej from the southeast to the
southwest. If the diversion of the river occurred recently (about
4000 years ago), it may have been responsible for the Ghaggar-Hakra
(Saraswati) drying up, causing desertification of
Cholistan and the
eastern part of the modern state of
Sindh , and the abandonment of
Harappan settlements along the Ghaggar. However, the
Sutlej may have
already been captured by the
Indus thousands of years earlier.
There is some evidence that the high rate of erosion caused by the
Sutlej River has influenced the local faulting and rapidly
exhumed rocks above Rampur . This would be similar to, but on a much
smaller scale than, the exhumation of rocks by the
Indus River in
Nanga Parbat , Pakistan. The
Sutlej River also exposes a doubled
inverted metamorphic gradient .
There has been a proposal to build a 214-kilometre (133 mi) long
heavy freight and irrigation canal, to be known as the Sutlej-Yamuna
Link (SYL) to connect the
Yamuna rivers. The project is
intended to connect the Ganges, which flows to the east coast of the
subcontinent, with points west, via Pakistan. When completed, the SYL
would enable inland shipping from India's east coast to its west coast
(on the Arabian sea) without having to round the southern tip of India
by sea, vastly shortening shipping distances, alleviating pressures on
seaports, avoiding sea hazards, creating business opportunities along
the route, raising real estate values, raising tax revenue, and
establishing important commercial links and providing jobs for
north-central India's large population. However, the proposal has met
with obstacles and has been referred to the Supreme Court of
Sutlej Valley from Rampur c. 1857
Using inflated animal skins to cross the
Sutlej River, c. 1905
Sutlej River in
Kinnaur Valley, Himachal Pradesh,
Cattle grazing on the banks of the river in
Satluj River near Shahkot, Punjab
* List of rivers of
* List of rivers of
* ^ "
Sutlej valley". The Free Dictionary.
* ^ Asiatic Society of Bengal. Journal of the Asiatic Society of
Bengal, Volume 17, Part 1. p. 210, paragraph two.
* ^ Archived 31 August 2005 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ "Nathpa Jhakri Hydroelectric Power Project, India".
power-technology.com. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
* ^ "Wet lands of
Haryana state (page 27)" (pdf). GoI. Retrieved 27
* ^ "Evolution of the Delta, the LBOD outfall system and the Badin
dhands - chapters 3 ">(PDF). Retrieved 22 December 2015.
* ^ Clift, Peter D.; Blusztajn, Jerzy (15 December 2005).
"Reorganization of the western Himalayan river system after five
million years ago". Nature. 438 (7070): 1001–1003. PMID 16355221 .
doi :10.1038/nature04379 .
* ^ Mughal, M. R. Ancient Cholistan. Archaeology and Architecture.
Rawalpindi-Lahore-Karachi: Ferozsons 1997, 2004
* ^ Valdiya, K. S., in Dynamic Geology, Educational monographs
published by J. N. Centre for Advanced Studies, Bangalore, University
Press (Hyderabad), 1998.
* ^ *Clift et al. 2012. "U-Pb zircon dating evidence for a
Sarasvati River and capture of the
Yamuna River." Geology,
* ^ K.S. Valdiya. 2013. "The River Saraswati was a Himalayan-born
river". Current Science 104 (01).
* ^ Thiede, Rasmus; Arrowsmith, J. Ramón; Bookhagen, Bodo;
McWilliams, Michael O.; Sobel, Edward R.; Strecker, Manfred R. (August
2005). "From tectonically to erosionally controlled development of the
Himalayan orogen". Geology. 33 (8): 689–692. doi :10.1130/G21483AR.1
* ^ Grasemann, Bernhard; Fritz, Harry; Vannay, Jean-Claude (July
1999). "Quantitative kinematic flow analysis from the Main Central
Thrust Zone)NW-Himalaya, India: implications for a decelerating strain
path and the extrustion of orogenic wedges". Journal of Structural
Geology. 21 (7): 837–853. doi :10.1016/S0191-8141(99)00077-2 .
* ^ http://india.gov.in/sectors/water_resources/sutlej_link.php
* Media related to
Sutlej River at