SURREY /ˈsʌri/ is a county in the South East
England , and one of
the home counties . It borders
Kent to the east,
Sussex to the south,
Hampshire to the west,
Berkshire to the north-west and Greater London
to the north-east. The county town is
Council sits outside its jurisdiction in
Kingston upon Thames
Kingston upon Thames , part
Greater London since 1965. With a population of 1.1 million, Surrey
is the third-most-populous county in the South East.
Surrey is divided into eleven districts:
Epsom and Ewell
Mole Valley ,
Reigate and Banstead ,
Surrey Heath , Tandridge , Waverley , and
Services such as roads, mineral extraction licensing, education,
strategic waste and recycling infrastructure, birth, marriage, and
death registration, and social and children's services are
Surrey County Council . The
London boroughs of Lambeth
Southwark , Wandsworth , and parts of Lewisham and Bromley were in
Surrey until 1889. The boroughs of
Kingston upon Thames
Kingston upon Thames ,
Merton , Sutton and Richmond upon
Thames south of the River Thames
were part of
Surrey until 1965, when they too were absorbed into
Greater London, and the county extended north of the
Thames by the
Spelthorne , as a result of the dissolution of
Due to this expansion, modern
Surrey also borders on the London
boroughs of Hillingdon , Hounslow , Richmond upon
Thames , Kingston
Thames , Sutton ,
Croydon and Bromley .
Surrey is a wealthy county, due in large part to its proximity to
London and to Heathrow and
Gatwick airports, along with access to
major arterial road routes including the M25, M3 and M23 and frequent
rail services into Central London. It has the highest GDP per capita
of any English county and some of the highest property values outside
* 1 Geography
* 2 Settlements
* 3 History
* 3.1 The ancient British and Roman periods
* 3.2 The formation of
* 3.3 The West Saxon and English shire
* 3.3.1 Identified ealdormen of
* 3.4 Later Medieval
* 3.5 Early Modern
* 3.6 Modern history
* 4 Historic architecture and monuments
* 5 Literature
* 6 Arts and sciences
* 7 Popular music
* 8 Sport
Surrey Football Clubs
* 9 Local government
* 9.1 History
* 9.2 Today
* 10 Economy
* 11 Transport
* 11.1 Road
* 11.2 Rail
* 11.3 Long-distance national services
* 11.4 Air
* 12 Education
* 12.1 Higher education
* 13 Emergency services
* 14 Places of interest
Surrey in film and books
* 16 See also
* 17 Notes
* 18 References
* 19 Bibliography
* 20 External links
Box Hill Main article:
Geology of Surrey
Surrey is divided in two by the chalk ridge of the
North Downs ,
running east-west. The ridge is pierced by Surrey's principal rivers,
the Wey and the Mole , which are tributaries of the
Thames , the river
which formed the northern border of the county before modern local
government reorganisations. To the north of the Downs the land is
mostly flat, forming part of the basin of the Thames. The geology of
this area is dominated by
London Clay in the east,
Bagshot Sands in
the west and alluvial deposits along the rivers. To the south of the
Downs in the western part of the county are the sandstone
, while further east is the plain of the Low
Weald , rising in the
extreme south-east to the edge of the hills of the High Weald. The
Downs and the area to the south form part of a concentric pattern of
geological deposits which also extends across southern
Kent and most
of Sussex, predominantly composed of Wealden Clay , Lower Greensand
and the chalk of the Downs.
Surrey is in the
Metropolitan Green Belt
Metropolitan Green Belt . It contains a good
deal of mature woodland (reflected in the official logo of Surrey
County Council, a pair of interlocking oak leaves). Among its many
notable beauty spots are Box Hill ,
Leith Hill ,
Frensham Ponds ,
Newlands Corner and Puttenham ">
Leith Hill Tower
Agriculture not being intensive, there are many commons and access
lands, together with an extensive network of footpaths and bridleways
North Downs Way , a scenic long-distance path .
Surrey provides much in the way of rural leisure
activities, with a very large horse population.
The highest elevation in
Leith Hill near
Dorking . It is
294 m (965 ft) above sea level and is the second highest point in
Walbury Hill in West
Berkshire which is 297
m (974 ft) .
List of places in Surrey and List of settlements in Surrey
Surrey has a population of approximately 1.1 million people. Its
largest town is
Guildford , with a population of 66,773;
a close second with 62,796. They are followed by
Ewell with 39,994
Camberley with 30,155. Towns of between 25,000 and 30,000
inhabitants are Ashford ,
Staines and Redhill .
Guildford is the historic county town , although the county
administration was moved to Newington in 1791 and to Kingston upon
Thames in 1893. The county council's headquarters have been outside
the county's boundaries since 1 April 1965, when Kingston and other
areas were included within
Greater London by the
London Government Act
1963 . Recent plans to move the offices to a new site in
now been abandoned. Due to its proximity to
London there are many
commuter towns and villages in Surrey, the population density is high
and the area is one of the richest parts of the UK. Much of the north
of the county is an urban area contiguous to
Greater London . In the
west, there is a conurbation straddling the Hampshire/
THE ANCIENT BRITISH AND ROMAN PERIODS
The Roman Stane or Stone Street runs through
Before Roman times the area today known as
Surrey was probably
largely occupied by the
Atrebates tribe, centred at Calleva Atrebatum
Silchester ), in the modern county of
Hampshire , but eastern parts
of it may have been held by the
Cantiaci , based largely in
Kent . The
Atrebates are known to have controlled the southern bank of the Thames
from Roman texts describing the tribal relations between them and the
Catuvellauni on the north bank. In about AD 42 King
Cunobelinus (in Welsh legend Cynfelin ap Tegfan ) of the Catuvellauni
died and war broke out between his sons and King
Verica of the
Atrebates were defeated, their capital captured and
their lands made subject to
Togodumnus , king of the Catuvellauni,
Verica fled to
appealed for Roman aid. The
Atrebates were allied with Rome during
their invasion of Britain in AD 43.
During the Roman era, the only important settlement within the
historic area of
Surrey was the
London suburb of
Southwark (now part
Greater London ), but there were small towns at
Kingston upon Thames
Kingston upon Thames . Remains of Roman rural
temples have been excavated on
Farley Heath and near Wanborough and
Titsey , and possible temple sites at
Godstone . The area was traversed by Stane Street and other Roman
THE FORMATION OF SURREY
During the 5th and 6th centuries
Surrey was conquered and settled by
Saxons . The names of possible tribes inhabiting the area have been
conjectured on the basis of place names. These include the
Godalming ) and Woccingas (between
Wokingham in Berkshire). It has also been speculated that the entries
for the Nox gaga and Oht gaga peoples in the
Tribal Hidage may refer
to two groups living in the vicinity of Surrey. Together their lands
were assessed at a total of 7,000 hides , equal to the assessment for
Surrey may have formed part of a larger Middle Saxon
kingdom or confederacy, also including areas north of the Thames. The
Surrey is derived from Suthrige, meaning "southern region", and
this may originate in its status as the southern portion of the Middle
If it ever existed, the Middle Saxon kingdom had disappeared by the
7th century, and
Surrey became a frontier area disputed between the
Kent , Essex, Sussex,
Mercia , until its
permanent absorption by
Wessex in 825. Despite this fluctuating
situation it retained its identity as an enduring territorial unit.
During the 7th century
Surrey became Christian and initially formed
part of the East Saxon diocese of
London , indicating that it was
under East Saxon rule at that time, but was later transferred to the
West Saxon diocese of
Winchester . Its most important religious
institution throughout the
Anglo-Saxon period and beyond was Chertsey
Abbey , founded in 666. At this point
Surrey was evidently under
Kentish domination, as the abbey was founded under the patronage of
King Ecgberht of Kent. However, a few years later at least part of it
was subject to Mercia, since in 673-5 further lands were given to
Chertsey Abbey by Frithuwald , a local sub-king (subregulus) ruling
under the sovereignty of Wulfhere of
Mercia . A decade later Surrey
passed into the hands of King
Caedwalla of Wessex, who also conquered
Kent and Sussex, and founded a monastery at
Farnham in 686. The
region remained under the control of Caedwalla's successor Ine in the
early 8th century. Its political history for most of the 8th century
is unclear, although West Saxon control may have broken down around
722, but by 784–5 it had passed into the hands of King Offa of
Mercia. Mercian rule continued until 825, when following his victory
over the Mercians at the
Battle of Ellandun , King Egbert of Wessex
seized control of Surrey, along with Sussex,
Kent and Essex. It was
Wessex as a shire and continued thereafter under the
rule of the West Saxon kings, who eventually became kings of all of
IDENTIFIED SUB-KINGS OF SURREY
* Frithuwald (c.673–675)
* Frithuric? (c.675–c.686)
THE WEST SAXON AND ENGLISH SHIRE
A map showing the traditional boundaries of
and its constituent hundreds
In the 9th century
England was afflicted, along with the rest of
north-western Europe, by the attacks of Scandinavian
Surrey's inland position shielded it from coastal raiding, so that it
was not normally troubled except by the largest and most ambitious
Scandinavian armies. In 851 an exceptionally large invasion force of
Danes arrived at the mouth of the
Thames in a fleet of about 350
ships, which would have carried over 15,000 men. Having sacked
London and defeated King Beorhtwulf of
Danes crossed the
Thames into Surrey, but were slaughtered
by a West Saxon army led by King Æthelwulf in the
Battle of Aclea ,
bringing the invasion to an end. Two years later the men of Surrey
Kent to help their Kentish neighbours fight a raiding
Thanet , but suffered heavy losses including their ealdorman
, Huda. In 892
Surrey was the scene of another major battle when a
large Danish army, variously reported at 200, 250 and 350 ship-loads,
moved west from its encampment in
Kent and raided in
Berkshire. Withdrawing with their loot, the
Danes were intercepted and
Farnham by an army led by
Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great 's son Edward,
the future King
Edward the Elder
Edward the Elder , and fled across the
Surrey remained safe from attack for over a century thereafter, due
to its location and to the growing power of the West Saxon, later
English, kingdom. Kingston was the scene for the coronations of
Æthelstan in 924 and of
Æthelred the Unready in 978, and, according
to later tradition, also of other 10th-century Kings of England. The
renewed Danish attacks during the disastrous reign of Æthelred led to
the devastation of
Surrey by the army of
Thorkell the Tall , which
ravaged all of south-eastern
England in 1009–11. The climax of this
wave of attacks came in 1016, which saw prolonged fighting between the
forces of King
Edmund Ironside and the Danish king Cnut , including an
English victory over the
Danes somewhere in north-eastern Surrey, but
ended with the conquest of
England by Cnut.
Cnut's death in 1035 was followed by a period of political
uncertainty, as the succession was disputed between his sons. In 1036
Alfred , son of King Æthelred, returned from Normandy, where he had
been taken for safety as a child at the time of Cnut's conquest of
England. It is uncertain what his intentions were, but after landing
with a small retinue in
Sussex he was met by Godwin, Earl of
who escorted him in apparently friendly fashion to
Guildford . Having
taken lodgings there, Alfred's men were attacked as they slept and
killed, mutilated or enslaved by Godwin's followers, while the prince
himself was blinded and imprisoned, dying shortly afterwards. This
must have contributed to the antipathy between Godwin and Alfred's
Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor , who came to the throne in 1042, a
hostility which helped bring about the
Norman Conquest of
Domesday Book records that the largest landowners in
Surrey at the
end of Edward's reign were
Chertsey Abbey and
Harold Godwinson , Earl
Wessex and later king, followed by the estates of King Edward
himself. Apart from the abbey, most of whose lands were within the
Surrey was the not the principal focus of any major landowner's
holdings, a tendency which was to persist in later periods. Given the
vast and widespread landed interests and the national and
international preoccupations of the monarchy and the earldom of
Wessex, the Abbot of
Chertsey was therefore probably the most
important figure in the local elite.
Anglo-Saxon period saw the emergence of the shire's internal
division into 14 hundreds , which continued until Victorian times.
These were the hundreds of Blackheath , Brixton , Copthorne ,
Effingham Half-Hundred ,
Godalming , Godley ,
Reigate , Tandridge , Wallington ,
Woking and Wotton .
Identified ealdormen Of Surrey
* Wulfheard (c.823)
* Huda (?–853)
* Æðelweard (late 10th century)
* Æðelmær (?–1016)
LATER MEDIEVAL SURREY
Battle of Hastings
Battle of Hastings , the Norman army advanced through Kent
into Surrey, where they defeated an English force which attacked them
Southwark and then burned that suburb. Rather than try to attack
London across the river, the Normans continued west through Surrey,
Thames at Wallingford in
Berkshire and descended on London
from the north-west. As was the case across England, the native ruling
Surrey was virtually eliminated by Norman seizure of land.
Only one significant English landowner, the brother of the last
English Abbot of Chertsey, remained by the time the Domesday survey
was conducted in 1086. At that time the largest landholding in
Surrey, as in many other parts of the country, was the expanded royal
estate, while the next largest holding belonged to Richard fitz
Gilbert , founder of the de Clare family.
Runnymede , where the
Magna Carta was sealed
In 1088, King William II granted William de Warenne the title of Earl
Surrey as a reward for Warenne's loyalty during the rebellion that
followed the death of William I . When the male line of the Warennes
became extinct in the 14th century, the earldom was inherited by the
Earls of Arundel . The
Fitzalan line of Earls of
out in 1415, but after other short-lived revivals in the 15th century
the title was conferred in 1483 on the Howard family , who still hold
Surrey was not a major focus of any of these families'
Guildford Castle , one of many fortresses originally established by
the Normans to help them subdue the country, was rebuilt in stone and
developed as a royal palace in the 12th century.
Farnham Castle was
built during the 12th century as a residence for the Bishop of
Winchester , while other stone castles were constructed in the same
Bletchingley by the de Clares and at
Reigate by the
Warennes. During King John 's struggle with the barons , Magna Carta
was issued in June 1215 at
Egham . John's efforts to
reverse this concession reignited the war, and in 1216 the barons
invited Prince Louis of
France to take the throne. Having landed in
Kent and been welcomed in London, he advanced across
Surrey to attack
John, then at
Winchester , occupying
along the way.
Guildford Castle later became one of the favourite
residences of King Henry III , who considerably expanded the palace
there. During the baronial revolt against Henry, in 1264 the rebel
army of Simon de Montfort passed southwards through
Surrey on their
way to the
Battle of Lewes
Battle of Lewes in Sussex. Although the rebels were
victorious, soon after the battle royal forces captured and destroyed
Bletchingley Castle, whose owner Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Hertford
and Gloucester , was de Montfort's most powerful ally.
By the 14th century, castles were of dwindling military importance,
but remained a mark of social prestige, leading to the construction of
castles at Starborough near Lingfield by Lord Cobham , and at
Betchworth by John
Fitzalan , whose father had recently inherited the
Earldom of Surrey. Though
Bletchingley remained modest
settlements, the role of their castles as local centres for the two
leading aristocratic interests in
Surrey had enabled them to gain
borough status by the early 13th century. As a result, they gained
representation in Parliament when it became established towards the
end of that century, alongside the more substantial urban settlements
Guildford and Southwark. Surrey's third sizeable town, Kingston,
despite its size, borough status and historical association with the
monarchy, did not gain parliamentary representation until 1832.
Surrey had little political or economic significance in the Middle
Ages. It was not the main power-base of any important aristocratic
family, nor the seat of a bishopric. The
London suburb of Southwark
was a major urban settlement, and the proximity of the capital boosted
the wealth and population of the surrounding area, but urban
development elsewhere was sapped by the overshadowing predominance of
London and by the lack of direct access to the sea. Surrey's
agricultural wealth was limited by the infertility of most of its
soils. Population pressure in the 12th and 13th centuries initiated
the gradual clearing of the
Weald , the forest spanning the borders of
Sussex and Kent, which had hitherto been left undeveloped due
to the difficulty of farming on its heavy clay soil.
Surrey's most significant source of prosperity in the later Middle
Ages was the production of woollen cloth, which emerged during that
period as England's main export industry. The county was an early
centre of English textile manufacturing, benefiting from the presence
of deposits of fuller\'s earth , the rare mineral composite important
in the process of finishing cloth, around
Reigate and Nutfield . The
Surrey was focused on Guildford, which gave its name to a
variety of cloth, gilforte, which was exported widely across Europe
and the Middle East and imitated by manufacturers elsewhere in Europe.
However, as the English cloth industry expanded,
outstripped by other growing regions of production. Ruins of the
monks' dormitory at
Surrey was not the scene of serious fighting in the various
rebellions and civil wars of the period, armies from
Kent heading for
Southwark passed through what were then the extreme
north-eastern fringes of
Surrey during the Peasants\' Revolt of 1381
and Cade\'s Rebellion in 1450, and at various stages of the Wars of
the Roses in 1460, 1469 and 1471. The upheaval of 1381 also involved
widespread local unrest in Surrey, as was the case all across
In 1082 a
Cluniac abbey was founded at Bermondsey by Alwine, a
wealthy English citizen of London.
Waverley Abbey near Farnham,
founded in 1128, was the first
Cistercian monastery in England. Over
the next quarter-century monks spread out from here to found new
houses, creating a network of twelve monasteries descended from
Waverley across southern and central England. The 12th and early 13th
centuries also saw the establishment of Augustinian priories at Merton
, Newark , Tandridge ,
Southwark and Reigate. A Dominican friary was
Guildford by Henry III's widow
Eleanor of Provence
Eleanor of Provence , in
memory of her grandson who had died at
Guildford in 1274. In the 15th
Carthusian priory was founded by King Henry V at Sheen .
These would all perish, along with the still important Benedictine
Chertsey , in the 16th-century Dissolution of the Monasteries
Now fallen into disuse, some English counties had nicknames for those
raised there such as a \'tyke\' from
Yorkshire , or a \'yellowbelly\'
Lincolnshire . In the case of Surrey, the term was a 'Surrey
capon', from Surrey's role in the later Middle Ages as the county
where chickens were fattened up for the
London meat markets.
EARLY MODERN SURREY
Under the early Tudor kings, magnificent royal palaces were
constructed in north-eastern Surrey, conveniently close to London. At
Richmond an existing royal residence was rebuilt on a grand scale
under King Henry VII , who also founded a
Franciscan friary nearby in
1499. The still more spectacular palace of Nonsuch was later built for
Henry VIII near Ewell. The palace at
Guildford Castle had fallen out
of use long before, but a royal hunting lodge existed outside the
town. All these have since been demolished.
Cornish Rebellion of 1497 , the rebels heading for London
Guildford and fought a skirmish with a government
detachment on Guildown outside the town, before marching on to defeat
at Blackheath in Kent. The forces of Wyatt\'s Rebellion in 1554
passed through what was then north-eastern
Surrey on their way from
Kent to London, briefly occupying
Southwark and then crossing the
Thames at Kingston after failing to storm
Surrey's cloth industry declined in the 16th century and collapsed in
the 17th, harmed by falling standards and competition from more
effective producers in other parts of England. The iron industry in
the Weald, whose rich deposits had been exploited since prehistoric
times, expanded and spread from its base in
Surrey after 1550. New furnace technology stimulated further growth
in the early 17th century, but this hastened the extinction of the
business as the mines were worked out. However, this period also saw
the emergence of important new industries, centred on the valley of
the Tillingbourne , south-east of Guildford, which often adapted
watermills originally built for the now moribund cloth industry. The
production of brass goods and wire in this area was relatively
short-lived, but the manufacture of paper and gunpowder proved more
enduring. For a time in the mid-17th century the
Surrey mills were the
main producers of gunpowder in England. A glass industry also
developed in the 16th century on the south-western borders of Surrey.
The Wey Navigation , opened in 1653, was one of England's first canal
George Abbot , the son of a
Guildford clothworker, served as
Canterbury in 1611–33. In 1619 he founded Abbot\'s
Hospital , an almshouse in Guildford, which is still operating. He
also made unsuccessful efforts to revitalise the local cloth industry.
One of his brothers, Robert , became
Bishop of Salisbury
Bishop of Salisbury , while
another, Maurice , was a founding shareholder of the East India
Company who became the company's Governor and later Lord Mayor of
London . George Abbot
Bankside in Southwark, then part of Surrey, was the principal
entertainment district of early modern London. This was due to its
convenient location outside the jurisdiction of the government of the
London , since the social control exercised over this London
suburb by the local authorities of
Surrey was less effective and
Bankside was the scene of the golden age of Elizabethan
and Jacobean theatre , with the work of playwrights including William
Christopher Marlowe ,
Ben Jonson and John Webster
performed in its playhouses. The leading actor and impresario Edward
Alleyn founded a college in
Dulwich with an endowment including an art
collection, which was later expanded and opened to the public in 1817,
becoming Britain\'s first public art gallery .
Surrey almost entirely escaped the direct impact of fighting during
the main phase of the
English Civil War
English Civil War in 1642-6. The local
Parliamentarian gentry led by Sir Richard Onslow were able to secure
the county without difficulty on the outbreak of war.
was briefly occupied by the advancing Royalists in late 1642, but was
easily stormed by the Parliamentarians under Sir
William Waller . A
new Royalist offensive in late 1643 saw skirmishing around Farnham
between Waller's forces and
Ralph Hopton 's Royalists, but these brief
incursions into the western fringes of
Surrey marked the limits of
Royalist advances on the county. At the end of 1643
Sussex and Hamphire to form the South-
Eastern Association ,
a military federation modelled on Parliament's existing Eastern
Association . During a political crisis in summer 1647, Sir Thomas
New Model Army passed through
Surrey on their way to occupy
London, and subsequent billeting of troops in
considerable discontent. During the brief Second Civil War of 1648,
the Earl of Holland entered
Surrey in July, hoping to ignite a
Royalist revolt. He raised his standard at Kingston and advanced
south, but found little support. After confused manoeuvres between
Dorking as Parliamentary troops closed in, his force of
500 men fled northwards and was overtaken and routed at Kingston.
Surrey had a central role in the history of the radical political
movements unleashed by the civil war. In October 1647 the first
manifesto of the movement that became known as the
Levellers , The
Case of the Armie Truly Stated , was drafted at
Guildford by the
elected representatives of army regiments and civilian radicals from
London. This document combined specific grievances with wider demands
for constitutional change on the basis of popular sovereignty . It
formed the template for the more systematic and radical Agreement of
the People , drafted by the same men later that month. It also led to
Putney Debates shortly afterwards, in which its signatories met
Oliver Cromwell and other senior officers in the
Putney , where the army had established its headquarters, to argue
over the future political constitution of England. In 1649 the Diggers
, led by
Gerrard Winstanley , established their communal settlement at
St. George\'s Hill near
Weybridge to implement egalitarian ideals of
common ownership, but were eventually driven out by the local
landowners through violence and litigation. A smaller Digger commune
was then established near Cobham , but suffered the same fate in 1650.
Prior to the
Great Reform Act of 1832,
Surrey returned fourteen
Members of Parliament , two representing the county and two each from
the six boroughs of Bletchingley, Gatton , Guildford,
Reigate and Southwark. For two centuries before the Reform Act, the
dominant political network in
Surrey was that of the Onslows of
Clandon Park , a gentry family established in the county from the
early 17th century, who were raised to the peerage in 1716. Members of
the family won at least one of Surrey's two county seats in all but
three of the 30 general elections between 1628 and 1768, while they
took one or both of the seats for their local borough of
every election from 1660 to 1830, usually representing the Whig Party
after its emergence in the late 1670s. Successive heads of the family
held the post of
Lord Lieutenant of Surrey continuously from 1716 to
Until the modern era Surrey, apart from its north-eastern corner, was
sparsely populated in comparison with most parts of south-east
England, and remained somewhat rustic despite its proximity to the
capital. Communications began to improve, and the influence of London
to increase, with the development of turnpike roads and a stagecoach
system in the 18th century. A far more profound transformation
followed with the arrival of the railways, beginning in the late
1830s. The availability of rapid transport enabled prosperous London
workers to settle all across
Surrey and travel daily to work in the
capital. This phenomenon of commuting brought explosive growth to
Surrey's population and wealth, and tied its economy and society
inextricably to London. There was rapid expansion in existing towns
like Guildford, Farnham, and most spectacularly
Croydon , while new
towns such as
Woking and Redhill emerged beside the railway lines.
The huge numbers of incomers to the county and the transformation of
rural, farming communities into a "commuter belt " contributed to a
decline in the traditional local culture, including the gradual demise
of the distinctive
Surrey dialect . This may have survived among the
Surrey Men" into the late 19th Century, but is now extinct.
Britain's first crematorium, in the
Borough of Woking .
London itself spread swiftly across north-eastern Surrey.
In 1800 it extended only to
Vauxhall ; a century later the city's
growth had reached as far as
Streatham . This expansion was
reflected in the creation of the County of
London in 1889, detaching
the areas subsumed by the city from Surrey. The expansion of London
continued in the 20th century, engulfing Croydon, Kingston and many
smaller settlements. This led to a further contraction of
1965 with the creation of
Greater London , under the
Act 1963 ; however,
Staines and Sunbury-on-
Thames , previously in
Middlesex, were transferred to Surrey, extending the county across the
Thames. Surrey's boundaries were altered again in 1974 when Gatwick
Airport was transferred to West
Brookwood Cemetery was established near
Woking to serve the
population of London, connected to the capital by its own railway
service . It soon developed into the largest burial ground in the
Woking was also the site of Britain's first crematorium , which
opened in 1878, and its first mosque , founded in 1889. In 1881
Godalming became the first town in the world with a public electricity
The eastern part of
Surrey was transferred from the Diocese of
Winchester to that of Rochester in 1877. In 1905 this area was
separated to form a new Diocese of
Southwark . The rest of the county,
together with part of eastern Hampshire, was separated from Winchester
in 1927 to become the Diocese of
Guildford , whose cathedral was
consecrated in 1961.
Guildford Cathedral , designed by Edward
During the later 19th century
Surrey became important in the
development of architecture in Britain and the wider world. Its
traditional building forms made a significant contribution to the
vernacular revival architecture associated with the Arts and Crafts
Movement , and would exert a lasting influence. The prominence of
Surrey peaked in the 1890s, when it was the focus for globally
important developments in domestic architecture, in particular the
early work of
Edwin Lutyens , who grew up in the county and was
greatly influenced by its traditional styles and materials.
Dennis Sabre fire engine
The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw the demise of Surrey's
long-standing industries manufacturing paper and gunpowder. Most of
the county's paper mills closed in the years after 1870, and the last
survivor shut in 1928. Gunpowder production fell victim to the First
World War , which brought about a huge expansion of the British
munitions industry, followed by sharp contraction and consolidation
when the war ended, leading to the closure of the
Surrey powder mills.
New industrial developments included the establishment of the vehicle
manufacturers Dennis Brothers in
Guildford in 1895. Beginning as a
maker of bicycles and then of cars, the firm soon shifted into the
production of commercial and utility vehicles, becoming
internationally important as a manufacturer of fire engines and buses.
Though much reduced in size and despite multiple changes of ownership,
this business continues to operate in Guildford. Kingston and nearby
Ham became a centre of aircraft manufacturing, with the establishment
in 1912 of the
Sopwith Aviation Company and in 1920 of its successor
H.G. Hawker Engineering, which later became
Hawker Aviation and then
Hawker Siddeley .
Second World War
Second World War a section of the GHQ Stop Line , a system
of pillboxes , gun emplacements, anti-tank obstacles and other
fortifications, was constructed along the North Downs. This line,
Yorkshire , was intended as the principal
fixed defence of
London and the industrial core of
England against the
threat of invasion. German invasion plans envisaged that the main
thrust of their advance inland would cross the
North Downs at the gap
in the ridge formed by the Wey valley, thus colliding with the defence
line around Guildford.
Between the two world wars
Croydon Airport , opened in 1920, served
as the main airport for London, but it was superseded after the Second
World War by Heathrow , and closed in 1959.
Gatwick Airport , where
commercial flights began in 1933, expanded greatly in the 1950s and
1960s, but the area occupied by the airport was transferred from
Surrey to West
Sussex in 1974.
HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE AND MONUMENTS
The gate of Abbot\'s Hospital ,
Few traces of the ancient British and Roman periods survive in
Surrey. There are a number of round barrows and bell barrows in
various locations, mostly dating to the
Bronze Age . Remains of Iron
Age hillforts exist at
Holmbury Hill ,
Hascombe Hill , Anstiebury
(near Capel ), Dry Hill (near Lingfield ), St Ann\'s Hill (
and St George\'s Hill (
Weybridge ). Most of these sites were created
in the 1st century BC and many were re-occupied during the middle of
the 1st century AD. Only fragments of Stane Street and Ermine Street
Roman roads which crossed the county, remain.
Anglo-Saxon elements survive in a number of
Surrey churches, notably
Guildford (St Mary),
Godalming (St Peter
prominently in his
Rural Rides .
Thomas Love Peacock (1785–1866) lived in
Lower Halliford , then
part of Middlesex, now in Surrey.
Benjamin Disraeli (1804–81) wrote
Conningsby while living in
* Alfred Tennyson (1809–92) spent the latter part of his life, and
Charles Dickens (1812–70) wrote part of
The Pickwick Papers in
Dorking, and refers to the town in the novel.
Robert Browning (1812–89) was born in
Camberwell , then part of
George Eliot (1819–80) wrote most of
Middlemarch while living in
Matthew Arnold (1822–88) lived in
Laleham , then part of
Middlesex, now in Surrey.
George Meredith (1828–1909) lived at Box Hill.
Lewis Carroll (1832–98) spent much of his time at his sisters'
home in Guildford, where he wrote
Through the Looking Glass ; he died
there and is buried in the town.
George Bernard Shaw
George Bernard Shaw (1856–1950) lived in
Woking and later in
Hindhead , where he wrote Caesar and Cleopatra .
Arthur Conan Doyle (1859–1930) lived and wrote many of his books
Hindhead and served as deputy lieutenant of Surrey; the county
forms a setting for several of the
Sherlock Holmes stories.
J. M. Barrie (1860–1937) lived in
Tilford , and based The Boy
Castaways, which later evolved into
Peter Pan , in the nearby
H. G. Wells (1866–1946) wrote
The War of the Worlds while living
in Woking; much of northern
Surrey is laid waste in the course of the
John Galsworthy (1867–1933) was born in Kingston and the Forsyte
Saga is partly set in the area.
E. M. Forster (1879–1970) lived and wrote in
Abinger Hammer .
P. G. Wodehouse (1881–1975) was born in
Guildford and baptised
there in St Nicolas\' Church .
Aldous Huxley (1894–1963) was born and raised in
his ashes are interred at Compton; the end of
Brave New World is set
Rosemary Sutcliff (1920–1992) was born in
East Clandon .
Kazuo Ishiguro (born 1954) grew up in Guildford.
ARTS AND SCIENCES
William of Ockham (c.1288-c.1348), scholastic philosopher, most
famous for "Occam\'s Razor ", came from Ockham .
Thomas Malthus (1766–1834), pioneer of demography , was born and
grew up in Westcott , and later lived in Albury.
Ada Lovelace (1815–52), mathematician, lived at
East Horsley .
Eadweard Muybridge (1830–1904), photographer, was born and grew
up in Kingston, then part of Surrey.
Gertrude Jekyll (1843–1932), garden designer, lived for much of
her life at Munstead near Godalming, created significant gardens in
Surrey and is buried in
Edwin Lutyens (1869–1944), architect, grew up in
Thursley ; many
of his early works were built in Surrey, including collaborations with
Ralph Vaughan Williams
Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872–1958), composer, grew up at Leith
Hill and later lived in Dorking.
Laurence Olivier (1907–89), actor, was born in Dorking.
Alan Turing (1912–54), mathematician and pioneer of computer
science , lived for much of his early life in Guildford.
Alex Kingston (born 1963), actress, was born and raised in
Tracey Emin (born 1963), artist, was born in Croydon, then part of
Surrey Delta" produced many of the musicians in 60s British
blues movements. The Rolling Stones developed their music at the
Crawdaddy Club in Richmond .
Jimmy Page (born 1944) spent much of his early life in
Jeff Beck (born 1944) was born in Wallington , then part of
Eric Clapton (born 1945) was born and grew up in Ripley .
Peter Gabriel (born 1950) was born in
Chobham and grew up in
Surrey. His band Genesis were formed at the
Charterhouse School in
The Stranglers were formed in
Paul Weller (born 1958) was born and grew up in Woking, which
inspired the song
Town Called Malice
Town Called Malice .
The Jam were formed at
Sheerwater Secondary School in the town.
* Norman Cook, aka Fatboy Slim (born 1963) grew up in Reigate.
Richard Archer , Ross Phillips, and Kai Stephens
are from Staines-upon-Thames.
Justin Hawkins , lead singer of rock band The Darkness , was born
* Disclosure members Guy and Howard Lawrence are from Reigate.
Epsom is famous for the
Epsom Downs Racecourse which hosts the
Epsom Derby; painting by
James Pollard , c. 1835
Cricket makes its first appearance in history in Surrey, in a
reference to the game being played at the Royal Grammar School,
Guildford in the 16th century (see History of English cricket to 1696
Cricket Club , formed in 1685 and the oldest documented
club in the game's history, was within Surrey's borders until 1965.
Cricket Club , founded in 1845, represents the
historic county of Surrey, although its main ground,
The Oval in
Kennington , is now in
Greater London . The club also uses Whitgift
School , South
Woodbridge Road ,
Guildford for some games.
It was one of the original participants in the
County Championship and
has won the competition 18 times, more than any other county except
Epsom Downs Racecourse is the venue for the most prestigious event
in British flat horse-racing, the Derby , which has been held there
annually since 1780.
Lingfield Park Racecourse
Lingfield Park Racecourse , Kempton Park
Sandown Park Racecourse are also in Surrey.
Weybridge was the world's first
purpose-built motorsport race circuit, opened in 1907 (partly now
Mercedes-Benz World ). Currently
Woking plays host to the headquarters
Formula One team, giving
Surrey the rarity of having a
local F1 team.
James Hunt , the 1976 Formula 1 World Driver's Champion
was born in Belmont, Sutton, then part of Surrey, in 1947.
* The All
England Lawn Tennis Club , venue for the Wimbledon
Championships , and the headquarters of the Lawn Tennis Association
Surrey until 1965.
* Surrey's leading rugby club,
Esher , currently compete in the
National League 1 , the third tier of English rugby.
Surrey is one of a handful of English counties with no teams in
the top 92 football teams, the
Football League . Its leading team is
Woking , currently playing in the fifth-tier National League .
Surrey is home to the ice hockey team the
Guildford Flames , who
compete in the top-tier
Elite Ice Hockey League .
* The basketball team
Surrey Scorchers , based in Guildford, play in
the top tier of British basketball, the British
Basketball League .
* The netball team
Surrey Storm , based in
Guildford play in the
Netball Superleague . They are the franchise for the Greater London
area and the South East.
* Rowing clubs include Molesey (with an elite development programme
hosting several leading
British Rowing crews), Walton , (one of the
UK's top clubs in the junior category),
Weybridge Mariners, Burway ,
Guildford whose top female
quad boat won Henley Women\'s in 2012.
Volleyball teams include BA ,
Friends Provident and Guildford
Volleyball Club (whose elite men's team has won the 1st
of the 4 National Divisions ), while twelve clubs in
Surrey and three
Greater London compete in the
SURREY FOOTBALL CLUBS
The county has numerous football teams. In the Combined Counties
League can be found the likes of Ash United , Badshot Lea , Banstead
Camberley Town , Chessington & Hook United , Cobham ,
Epsom Ashford Town ,
Chertsey Town ,
Godalming Town and
Guildford City play higher in the Southern League ; equally
Merstham , Redhill , South Park ,
Staines Town , Walton
Casuals and Walton and Hersham are in the Isthmian ;
Woking play in
the National League .
Chelsea F.C. practice at the
Cobham Training Centre located in the
village of Stoke d\'Abernon near the village of
Cobham, Surrey . The
training ground was built in 2004 and officially opened in 2007.
• SUCCEEDED BY
Kingston upon Thames
Kingston upon Thames from 1893
Local Government Act 1888 reorganised county-level local
England and Wales. Accordingly, the
administrative county of
Surrey was formed in 1889 when the
Surrey County Council first met, consisting of 19 aldermen
and 57 councillors . The county council assumed the administrative
responsibilities previously exercised by the county's justices in
quarter sessions . The county had revised boundaries, with the north
east of the historic county bordering the City of
London becoming part
of a new County of
London . These areas now form the
of Lambeth ,
Southwark and Wandsworth , and the Penge area of the
London Borough of Bromley . At the same time, the borough of Croydon
became a county borough , outside the jurisdiction of the county
For purposes other than local government the administrative county of
Surrey and county borough of
Croydon continued to form a "county of
Surrey" to which a
Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum (chief
magistrate ) and a High Sheriff were appointed.
Surrey had been administered from Newington since the 1790s, and the
county council was initially based in the sessions house there. As
Newington was included in the County of London, it lay outside the
area administered by the council, and a site for a new county hall
within the administrative county was sought. By 1890 six towns were
being considered: Epsom, Guildford, Kingston, Redhill,
Wimbledon. In 1891 it was decided to build the new County Hall at
Kingston, and the building opened in 1893, but this site was also
overtaken by the growing
London conurbation, and by the 1930s most of
the north of the county had been built over, becoming outer suburbs of
London , although continuing to form part of
In 1960 the report of the Herbert Commission recommended that much of
Surrey (including Kingston and Croydon) be included in a new
Greater London ". These recommendations were enacted in highly
modified form in 1965 by the
London Government Act 1963 . The areas
that now form the
London Boroughs of
Croydon , Kingston , Merton , and
Sutton and that part of Richmond south of the
River Thames , were
Surrey to Greater London. At the same time part of
the county of
Middlesex , which had been abolished by the legislation,
was added to Surrey. This area now forms the borough of
Further local government reform under the Local Government Act 1972
took place in 1974. The 1972 Act abolished administrative counties and
introduced non-metropolitan counties in their place. The boundaries of
the non-metropolitan county of
Surrey were similar to those of the
administrative county with the exception of
Gatwick Airport and some
surrounding land which was transferred to West
Sussex . It was
originally proposed that the parishes of
become part of West Sussex; however this met fierce local opposition
and it was reversed by the
Horley Act 1974 .
After the elections of May 2013 the County Councillors' party
affiliations are as follows:
United Kingdom Independence Party
As of 3 May 2012, the Conservative local councillors control of 10
out of 11 councils in Surrey, with
Epsom and Ewell
Epsom and Ewell in Residents
Association control. The Conservatives hold all 11 Parliamentary
constituencies within the county borders.
Export House in Woking, one of Surrey's tallest buildings
Surrey has the highest GDP per capita in the UK and the highest cost
of living in the UK outside of the capital. The county is said to have
the highest proportion of millionaires in the UK. The average wage in
Surrey is bolstered by the high proportion of residents who work in
Surrey has more organisation and company headquarters than any other
county in the UK. Electronics manufacturers
Nikon , Whirlpool , Canon
Philips are housed here, as are distributors
Future Electronics .
Kia Motors and
Toyota UK, the medico-pharma
Sanofi-Aventis and oil giant
Esso . Some of the
largest fast-moving consumer goods multinationals in the world have
their UK and/or European headquarters here, including
Procter & Gamble ,
SC Johnson , Kimberly-Clark
Colgate-Palmolive . NGOs including WWF UK it bypasses Leatherhead
* The A31 trunk road west from
Bere Regis via Farnham
and is connected to the M3 near
Winchester and via the A331 near
Aldershot . It is dual carriageway along the Hog's Back from the A3 to
Farnham . It is one of the ancient routes from
see Pilgrims\' Way .
* The short A331 connects the A31 to the M3. It runs along the
Hampshire border, bypassing
Surrey lies within the
London commuter belt with regular
services into Central
London . South Western Railway is the sole train
operator in Elmbridge, Runnymede, Spelthorne,
Waverley, and the main train operator in the Borough of Guildford,
running regular services into
London Waterloo and regional services
towards the south coast and South west. Southern is the main train
operator in Mole Valley,
Epsom and Ewell
Epsom and Ewell and
Reigate and Banstead and
the sole train operator in Tandridge, providing services into London
London Victoria .
There are a number of national rail routes: in anti-clockwise order,
Waterloo to Reading Line ,
South Western Main Line , Portsmouth
Direct Line , Sutton and
Mole Valley Lines (from
Horsham , West Sussex
itself on the
Arun Valley Line from
Littlehampton ) and the Brighton
Main Line .
Waterloo to Reading Line from Reading , selected stations of
Bracknell , Ascot , Sunningdale , and into
Surrey and calls at
unskipped stops of VIRGINIA WATER , EGHAM , STAINES and several other
Greater London before terminating at Waterloo. The South
Western Main Line runs from Weymouth , Southampton, the significant
technology towns of Basingstoke and Farnborough , then normally calls
at WOKING , up to six other
Surrey stops including WALTON-ON-THAMES ,
and then for fast services Clapham Junction and Waterloo only. The
Portsmouth Direct Line is significant in linking HASLEMERE , GODALMING
AND GUILDFORD to the
South Western Main Line at Woking. The Sutton and
Mole Valley Lines link DORKING , LEATHERHEAD , ASHTEAD , EPSOM and
then towards Waterloo via EWELL WEST or via EWELL EAST to London
Victoria and also have spurs to the SWML northbound and New Guildford
Line southbound. The
Brighton Main Line calls at mostly unskipped
stops HORLEY and REDHILL before reaching either
London Bridge or
London Victoria . REIGATE is the only town terminus one stop off this
main line network, with its station west of Redhill station one stop
London and is on the east-west
North Downs Line .
Consequently, the towns
Reigate /Redhill , statistically
the largest examples, are established rapid-transit commuter towns
for Central London. The above routes have had a stimulative effect.
The relative development of
Surrey at the time of the Beeching cuts
led to today's retention of numerous other commuter routes except the
Cranleigh Line , all with direct services to London, including:
Chertsey Line linking the first two of the above national routes
via CHERTSEY and ADDLESTONE
Guildford Line via CLAYGATE and EFFINGHAM JUNCTION from
Hampton Court Branch Line to HAMPTON COURT via THAMRES DITTON from
* SHEPPERTON Branch Line via SUNBURY
* Ascot to
Guildford Line from GUILDFORD via WANBOROUGH , ASH , into
Aldershot , back to
Surrey FRIMLEY , CAMBERLEY AND
BAGSHOT before crossing into
Berkshire to Ascot
Alton Line that calls at the far southwest
Surrey outcrop in
Hampshire with a change to steam at Alton for Alresford
via the seasonal and off-peak hours heritage
Watercress Line . This
line used to run to
Epsom Downs Branch from Sutton and then Belmont in Greater London
to BANSTEAD and EPSOM DOWNS only.
* Tattenham Corner Branch Line from Purley,
London via CHIPSTEAD ,
KINGSWOOD AND TADWORTH
Oxted Line via East
Croydon that calls at OXTED and HURST GREEN
and into East Grinstead with a change for the
Bluebell Railway for
services to Sheffield Park , or to Uckfield , which was truncated
Beeching Axe , having previously run to Lewes .
* REDHILL to Tonbridge Line via GODSTONE and Tonbridge connections
to Ashford International .
The only diesel route is the east-west route in Surrey, the North
Downs Line , which runs from Reading in
Berkshire via Farnborough
Dorking Deepdene ,
Reigate , Redhill and into West
Gatwick Airport .
London Waterloo are run by
South West Trains , trains to
London Victoria and
London Bridge are operated by extremely poorly
Southern (train operating company) , and services on the North
Downs Line are operated by Great Western Railway . Southeastern
previously ran the Redhill to Tonbridge . Redhill with a Class
166 service to Reading on the
North Downs Line .
Major stations in the county include
Guildford (8.0 million
Woking (7.4 million passengers),
Epsom (3.6 million
passengers), Redhill (3.6 million passengers) and
LONG-DISTANCE NATIONAL SERVICES
Guildford a daily service with
CrossCountry runs to Newcastle
via Reading .
Gatwick Airport , in addition to the
Gatwick Express , the
north-south Thameslink route connects 50 stations:
London Bridge ,
London Blackfriars , Farringdon ,
London St Pancras , Kentish Town ,
St Albans ,
Luton Airport Parkway , Luton and Bedford ; the Thameslink
Programme is under way to extend the line by 2018 to Peterborough ,
Cambridge and east to Ashford .
Both Heathrow (in the
London Borough of Hillingdon ) and
Crawley Borough, West
Sussex ) have a perimeter road in Surrey. A
National Express coach from
Heathrow Airport and
early-until-late buses to nearby
Surrey towns operate.
Fairoaks Airport on the edge of
Chobham and Ottershaw is 2.3 miles
(3.7 km) from
Woking town centre and operates as a private airfield
with two training schools and is home to other aviation businesses.
Redhill Aerodrome is also in Surrey.
List of schools in Surrey
The UK has a comprehensive , state-funded education system,
Surrey has 37 state secondary schools, 17 Academies , 7
sixth form colleges and 55 state primaries. The county has 41
independent schools, including Charterhouse (one of the nine
independent schools mentioned in the
Public Schools Act 1868 ) and the
Royal Grammar School,
Guildford . More than half the state secondary
Surrey have sixth forms.
Brooklands (twinned with a site in
Ashford, Surrey), Reigate, Esher, Egham,
Woking and Waverley host
sixth-form equivalent colleges each with technical specialisations and
standard sixth-form study courses.
Brooklands College offers aerospace
and automotive design, engineering and allied study courses reflecting
the aviation and motor industry leading UK research and maintenance
See also: Category:Education in
University of Surrey is based in
Guildford and the University
for the Creative Arts (UCA) has campuses in
* Royal Holloway, University of
London is based in
The University of Law has a campus in Guildford
Surrey is served by these emergency services.
Surrey Police , with 12 police stations in Surrey.
South East Coast Ambulance Service
South East Coast Ambulance Service as of 1 July 2006. Previously
Surrey Ambulance Service covered Surrey; on 1 July 2006, it merged
Sussex Ambulance Service and
Kent Ambulance Service to form the
South East Coast Ambulance Service.
Surrey has 21 ambulance stations.
Surrey Fire & Rescue Service , with 24 fire stations in Surrey.
Surrey Search the Devil\'s Punch Bowl at
Leith Hill south west of
Dorking in the Greensand
Ridge is the second highest point in south-east England.
Thursley Common are expansive areas of ancient heathland south of
Godalming run by the National Trust and Ministry of Defence . The
Surrey Hills are an area of outstanding natural beauty (
RHS Garden, Wisley
More manicured landscapes can be seen at
Claremont Landscape Garden ,
Esher (dating from 1715). There is also Winkworth Arboretum
south east of
Windlesham Arboretum near Lightwater
created in the 20th century.
Wisley is home to the Royal Horticultural
Society gardens .
Kew , historically part of
Surrey but now in Greater
London, features the Royal Botanic Gardens,
Kew , as well as The
National Archives for
England "> Statue of a tripod from The War of
the Worlds in Woking, hometown of science fiction author
H. G. Wells .
The book is a seminal depiction of a conflict between mankind and an
H. G. Wells 's 1898 novel
The War of the Worlds is set in
Surrey with many specific towns and villages identified. The Martians
first land on Horsell Common on the north side of
Woking , outside the
Bleak House pub, now called Sands. The narrator flees in the direction
of London, first passing
Byfleet and then
Weybridge before travelling
east along the north bank of the
Thames . Jane Austen's novel Emma is
Surrey and the famous picnic where Emma embarrasses Miss Bates
takes place on Box Hill.
The character Ford Prefect from The Hitchhiker\'s Guide to the Galaxy
claimed to be from
Guildford in Surrey, but in actuality he was from a
small planet somewhere in the vicinity of
Betelgeuse . Thomas Paine
Kydd, the hero of the Kydd series of naval adventure novels written by
Julian Stockwin , starts off as a young wig-maker from
is pressed into service and thus begins a life at sea. Atonement is
set in Surrey. The late Poet Laureate
Sir John Betjeman mentions
Camberley in his poem "A Subaltern's Lovesong", while
the literary backdrop to many of the poems by
James Farrar . In J.K.
Harry Potter series, the home of Harry\'s pernicious
relatives, the Dursleys , is set in the fictional town of Little
Whinging, Surrey. They lived at Number Four Privet Drive, Little
The county has also been used as a film location. Part of the movie
The Holiday was filmed in
Godalming and Shere:
Kate Winslet 's
character Iris lived in a cottage in Shere and
Cameron Diaz 's
character Amanda switched houses with her as part of a home exchange.
The final scene of Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason uses the village
church, also in Shere, as does the movie
The Wedding Date . In the
1976 film The Omen , the scenes at the cathedral were filmed at
Guildford Cathedral . The film I Want Candy follows two hopeful lads
Leatherhead trying to break into the movies, and was partly
Brooklands College (
represented Germany in the opening scene of Gladiator , starring
Russell Crowe ; it was filmed at the Bourne Woods near
Surrey. Scenes for the 2009 BBC production of Emma by
Jane Austen ,
Romola Garai and
Michael Gambon , were filmed at St Mary the
Virgin Church Send near
Guildford and at
Loseley House .
* List of Lord Lieutenants of
* List of High Sheriffs of
Custos Rotulorum of Surrey —Keepers of the Rolls
Surrey (UK Parliament constituency) —Historical list of MPs for
Healthcare in Surrey
Surrey Police and Crime Commissioner
Domesday Book valued the
Surrey estates of
Chertsey Abbey in
1066 at £189 a year, the abbey's only other holdings being £11 worth
in Berkshire. Harold's lands in
Surrey were valued at £175 a year,
while another £15 worth were still entered under the name of his late
father Earl Godwin. The revenues of King Edward's
totalled £117, Queen Edith's £76, the Archbishopric of Canterbury's
£66 and the Bishopric of Winchester's £55, all fractions of vast
national holdings. The earl with jurisdiction over Surrey, Harold's
brother Leofwine, held only £17 there, from a national total of
£290, whose greatest concentrations were in
Kent and Sussex, while
his mother, Godwin's widow Gytha, held £16 from a total of £590,
chiefly clustered in Devon,
Wiltshire and Sussex. The other great
Surrey estates were the thegns Ætsere, Ægelnoð and
Osward. Ætsere held £61 in Surrey, from a total of £271 including
£163 in Sussex, Ægelnoð held £40, from a total of £260 including
£71 in Kent, £58 in
Sussex and £50 in Oxfordshire, and Osward held
£26, from a total of £109 including £65 in Kent, where he was also
sheriff. Donald Henson, The English Elite in 1066: Gone but not
forgotten (Hockwold-cum-Wilton 2001), pp. 20-23, 26-27, 32-34, 39,
49-50, 64-65, 70, 73, 85, 179-181.
* ^ This was Oswald, whose brother Wulfwold, Abbot of
Bath, died in 1084. Oswald was one of the small number of English
landowners who managed to increase their holdings in the wake of the
conquest: his estates, centred on Effingham, were valued at £18 a
year in 1066, but the acquisition of additional manors raised this to
£35 by 1086. His descendants, the de La Leigh family, relinquished
the majority of their
Surrey lands in the 12th century, but remained
landowners in the county until the early 14th century. One of them,
William de La Leigh, served as Sheriff of
Surrey in 1267.
* ^ Besides the castles built or rebuilt in stone, remains of
Norman castles of earth and timber have been identified at Abinger,
Cranleigh, Thunderfield and Walton-on-the-Hill. Brandon and Short, The
South East from AD 1000, pp. 46-47.
* ^ "
Surrey 2017/2018". Hidgh Sheriffs' Association. Retrieved 11
* ^ "surrey Definition of surrey in English by Oxford
Dictionaries". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
* ^ "Medieval Guildford—"Henry III confirmed Guildford\'s status
as the county town of
Surrey in 1257"".
Guildford Borough Council.
Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 30 October
* ^ "Surrey\'s woodlands".
Surrey County Council. Retrieved 16
* ^ Ordnance Survey Landranger Map 187,
Dorking & Reigate
* ^ "2008 mid-year estimates of population".
Surrey City Council.
Archived from the original on 4 April 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
* ^ "2001 Census: Town/villages in
Surrey with population more than
Surrey County Council. Archived from the original (PDF)
on 25 October 2007. Retrieved 16 October 2007.
* ^ "Relationships / unit history of Surrey". Vision of Britain.
Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 16 October
Surrey County Council press release 17 January 2006
* ^ Bird, Roman Surrey, pp. 21-24, 30-31.
* ^ Bird, Roman Surrey, pp. 49-72.
* ^ Bird, Roman Surrey, pp. 151-168.
* ^ Bird, Roman Surrey, pp. 37-48.
* ^ A Dictionary of British History, ed. by John Cannon, rev. ed.
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* ^ Brandon, A History of Surrey, pp. 51-55, 60-61.
* ^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, p. 189.
* ^ Brandon, A History of Surrey, pp. 57-58.
* ^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, p. 190.
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