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SURREY /ˈsʌri/ is a county in the South East England
England
, and one of the home counties . It borders Kent
Kent
to the east, Sussex
Sussex
to the south, Hampshire to the west, Berkshire
Berkshire
to the north-west and Greater London to the north-east. The county town is Guildford
Guildford
. Surrey
Surrey
County Council sits outside its jurisdiction in Kingston upon Thames
Kingston upon Thames
, part of Greater London
Greater London
since 1965. With a population of 1.1 million, Surrey is the third-most-populous county in the South East.

Surrey
Surrey
is divided into eleven districts: Elmbridge
Elmbridge
, Epsom and Ewell , Guildford
Guildford
, Mole Valley , Reigate and Banstead , Runnymede
Runnymede
, Spelthorne , Surrey Heath , Tandridge , Waverley , and Woking
Woking
. Services such as roads, mineral extraction licensing, education, strategic waste and recycling infrastructure, birth, marriage, and death registration, and social and children's services are administered by Surrey County Council . The London boroughs of Lambeth , Southwark
Southwark
, Wandsworth , and parts of Lewisham and Bromley were in Surrey
Surrey
until 1889. The boroughs of Croydon
Croydon
, Kingston upon Thames
Kingston upon Thames
, Merton , Sutton and Richmond upon Thames
Thames
south of the River Thames were part of Surrey
Surrey
until 1965, when they too were absorbed into Greater London, and the county extended north of the Thames
Thames
by the addition of Spelthorne , as a result of the dissolution of Middlesex
Middlesex
. Due to this expansion, modern Surrey
Surrey
also borders on the London boroughs of Hillingdon , Hounslow , Richmond upon Thames
Thames
, Kingston upon Thames
Thames
, Sutton , Croydon
Croydon
and Bromley .

Surrey
Surrey
is a wealthy county, due in large part to its proximity to London
London
and to Heathrow and Gatwick
Gatwick
airports, along with access to major arterial road routes including the M25, M3 and M23 and frequent rail services into Central London. It has the highest GDP per capita of any English county and some of the highest property values outside Inner London
London
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography * 2 Settlements

* 3 History

* 3.1 The ancient British and Roman periods * 3.2 The formation of Surrey
Surrey

* 3.3 The West Saxon and English shire

* 3.3.1 Identified ealdormen of Surrey
Surrey

* 3.4 Later Medieval Surrey
Surrey
* 3.5 Early Modern Surrey
Surrey
* 3.6 Modern history

* 4 Historic architecture and monuments * 5 Literature * 6 Arts and sciences * 7 Popular music

* 8 Sport

* 8.1 Surrey
Surrey
Football Clubs

* 9 Local government

* 9.1 History * 9.2 Today

* 10 Economy

* 11 Transport

* 11.1 Road * 11.2 Rail * 11.3 Long-distance national services * 11.4 Air

* 12 Education

* 12.1 Higher education

* 13 Emergency services * 14 Places of interest * 15 Surrey
Surrey
in film and books * 16 See also * 17 Notes * 18 References * 19 Bibliography * 20 External links

GEOGRAPHY

Box Hill Main article: Geology of Surrey

Surrey
Surrey
is divided in two by the chalk ridge of the North Downs , running east-west. The ridge is pierced by Surrey's principal rivers, the Wey and the Mole , which are tributaries of the Thames
Thames
, the river which formed the northern border of the county before modern local government reorganisations. To the north of the Downs the land is mostly flat, forming part of the basin of the Thames. The geology of this area is dominated by London
London
Clay in the east, Bagshot Sands in the west and alluvial deposits along the rivers. To the south of the Downs in the western part of the county are the sandstone Surrey
Surrey
Hills , while further east is the plain of the Low Weald , rising in the extreme south-east to the edge of the hills of the High Weald. The Downs and the area to the south form part of a concentric pattern of geological deposits which also extends across southern Kent
Kent
and most of Sussex, predominantly composed of Wealden Clay , Lower Greensand and the chalk of the Downs.

Much of Surrey
Surrey
is in the Metropolitan Green Belt
Metropolitan Green Belt
. It contains a good deal of mature woodland (reflected in the official logo of Surrey County Council, a pair of interlocking oak leaves). Among its many notable beauty spots are Box Hill , Leith Hill , Frensham Ponds , Newlands Corner and Puttenham "> Leith Hill Tower

Agriculture not being intensive, there are many commons and access lands, together with an extensive network of footpaths and bridleways including the North Downs Way , a scenic long-distance path . Accordingly, Surrey
Surrey
provides much in the way of rural leisure activities, with a very large horse population.

The highest elevation in Surrey
Surrey
is Leith Hill near Dorking
Dorking
. It is 294 m (965 ft) above sea level and is the second highest point in southeastern England
England
after Walbury Hill in West Berkshire
Berkshire
which is 297 m (974 ft) .

SETTLEMENTS

See also: List of places in Surrey and List of settlements in Surrey by population

Surrey
Surrey
has a population of approximately 1.1 million people. Its largest town is Guildford
Guildford
, with a population of 66,773; Woking
Woking
comes a close second with 62,796. They are followed by Ewell with 39,994 people and Camberley
Camberley
with 30,155. Towns of between 25,000 and 30,000 inhabitants are Ashford , Epsom , Farnham , Staines and Redhill . Guildford
Guildford
is the historic county town , although the county administration was moved to Newington in 1791 and to Kingston upon Thames
Thames
in 1893. The county council's headquarters have been outside the county's boundaries since 1 April 1965, when Kingston and other areas were included within Greater London
Greater London
by the London
London
Government Act 1963 . Recent plans to move the offices to a new site in Woking
Woking
have now been abandoned. Due to its proximity to London
London
there are many commuter towns and villages in Surrey, the population density is high and the area is one of the richest parts of the UK. Much of the north of the county is an urban area contiguous to Greater London
Greater London
. In the west, there is a conurbation straddling the Hampshire/ Surrey
Surrey
border, including in Surrey
Surrey
Camberley
Camberley
and Farnham .

HISTORY

THE ANCIENT BRITISH AND ROMAN PERIODS

The Roman Stane or Stone Street runs through Surrey
Surrey

Before Roman times the area today known as Surrey
Surrey
was probably largely occupied by the Atrebates tribe, centred at Calleva Atrebatum ( Silchester
Silchester
), in the modern county of Hampshire , but eastern parts of it may have been held by the Cantiaci , based largely in Kent
Kent
. The Atrebates are known to have controlled the southern bank of the Thames from Roman texts describing the tribal relations between them and the powerful Catuvellauni on the north bank. In about AD 42 King Cunobelinus
Cunobelinus
(in Welsh legend Cynfelin ap Tegfan ) of the Catuvellauni died and war broke out between his sons and King Verica of the Atrebates. The Atrebates were defeated, their capital captured and their lands made subject to Togodumnus , king of the Catuvellauni, ruling from Camulodunum ( Colchester ). Verica fled to Gaul
Gaul
and appealed for Roman aid. The Atrebates were allied with Rome during their invasion of Britain in AD 43.

During the Roman era, the only important settlement within the historic area of Surrey
Surrey
was the London
London
suburb of Southwark
Southwark
(now part of Greater London
Greater London
), but there were small towns at Staines , Ewell , Dorking
Dorking
, Croydon
Croydon
and Kingston upon Thames
Kingston upon Thames
. Remains of Roman rural temples have been excavated on Farley Heath
Farley Heath
and near Wanborough and Titsey , and possible temple sites at Chiddingfold , Betchworth and Godstone . The area was traversed by Stane Street and other Roman roads.

THE FORMATION OF SURREY

During the 5th and 6th centuries Surrey
Surrey
was conquered and settled by Saxons
Saxons
. The names of possible tribes inhabiting the area have been conjectured on the basis of place names. These include the Godhelmingas (around Godalming ) and Woccingas (between Woking
Woking
and Wokingham
Wokingham
in Berkshire). It has also been speculated that the entries for the Nox gaga and Oht gaga peoples in the Tribal Hidage
Tribal Hidage
may refer to two groups living in the vicinity of Surrey. Together their lands were assessed at a total of 7,000 hides , equal to the assessment for Sussex
Sussex
or Essex
Essex
. Surrey
Surrey
may have formed part of a larger Middle Saxon kingdom or confederacy, also including areas north of the Thames. The name Surrey
Surrey
is derived from Suthrige, meaning "southern region", and this may originate in its status as the southern portion of the Middle Saxon territory.

If it ever existed, the Middle Saxon kingdom had disappeared by the 7th century, and Surrey
Surrey
became a frontier area disputed between the kingdoms of Kent
Kent
, Essex, Sussex, Wessex
Wessex
and Mercia , until its permanent absorption by Wessex
Wessex
in 825. Despite this fluctuating situation it retained its identity as an enduring territorial unit. During the 7th century Surrey
Surrey
became Christian and initially formed part of the East Saxon diocese of London
London
, indicating that it was under East Saxon rule at that time, but was later transferred to the West Saxon diocese of Winchester
Winchester
. Its most important religious institution throughout the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
period and beyond was Chertsey Abbey , founded in 666. At this point Surrey
Surrey
was evidently under Kentish domination, as the abbey was founded under the patronage of King Ecgberht of Kent. However, a few years later at least part of it was subject to Mercia, since in 673-5 further lands were given to Chertsey Abbey
Chertsey Abbey
by Frithuwald , a local sub-king (subregulus) ruling under the sovereignty of Wulfhere of Mercia . A decade later Surrey passed into the hands of King Caedwalla
Caedwalla
of Wessex, who also conquered Kent
Kent
and Sussex, and founded a monastery at Farnham in 686. The region remained under the control of Caedwalla's successor Ine in the early 8th century. Its political history for most of the 8th century is unclear, although West Saxon control may have broken down around 722, but by 784–5 it had passed into the hands of King Offa of Mercia. Mercian rule continued until 825, when following his victory over the Mercians at the Battle of Ellandun , King Egbert of Wessex seized control of Surrey, along with Sussex, Kent
Kent
and Essex. It was incorporated into Wessex
Wessex
as a shire and continued thereafter under the rule of the West Saxon kings, who eventually became kings of all of England.

IDENTIFIED SUB-KINGS OF SURREY

* Frithuwald (c.673–675) * Frithuric? (c.675–c.686)

THE WEST SAXON AND ENGLISH SHIRE

A map showing the traditional boundaries of Surrey
Surrey
(c.800-1899) and its constituent hundreds

In the 9th century England
England
was afflicted, along with the rest of north-western Europe, by the attacks of Scandinavian Vikings
Vikings
. Surrey's inland position shielded it from coastal raiding, so that it was not normally troubled except by the largest and most ambitious Scandinavian armies. In 851 an exceptionally large invasion force of Danes arrived at the mouth of the Thames
Thames
in a fleet of about 350 ships, which would have carried over 15,000 men. Having sacked Canterbury
Canterbury
and London
London
and defeated King Beorhtwulf of Mercia in battle, the Danes crossed the Thames
Thames
into Surrey, but were slaughtered by a West Saxon army led by King Æthelwulf in the Battle of Aclea , bringing the invasion to an end. Two years later the men of Surrey marched into Kent
Kent
to help their Kentish neighbours fight a raiding force at Thanet , but suffered heavy losses including their ealdorman , Huda. In 892 Surrey
Surrey
was the scene of another major battle when a large Danish army, variously reported at 200, 250 and 350 ship-loads, moved west from its encampment in Kent
Kent
and raided in Hampshire and Berkshire. Withdrawing with their loot, the Danes were intercepted and defeated at Farnham by an army led by Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
's son Edward, the future King Edward the Elder
Edward the Elder
, and fled across the Thames
Thames
towards Essex.

Surrey
Surrey
remained safe from attack for over a century thereafter, due to its location and to the growing power of the West Saxon, later English, kingdom. Kingston was the scene for the coronations of Æthelstan in 924 and of Æthelred the Unready in 978, and, according to later tradition, also of other 10th-century Kings of England. The renewed Danish attacks during the disastrous reign of Æthelred led to the devastation of Surrey
Surrey
by the army of Thorkell the Tall , which ravaged all of south-eastern England
England
in 1009–11. The climax of this wave of attacks came in 1016, which saw prolonged fighting between the forces of King Edmund Ironside
Edmund Ironside
and the Danish king Cnut , including an English victory over the Danes somewhere in north-eastern Surrey, but ended with the conquest of England
England
by Cnut.

Cnut's death in 1035 was followed by a period of political uncertainty, as the succession was disputed between his sons. In 1036 Alfred , son of King Æthelred, returned from Normandy, where he had been taken for safety as a child at the time of Cnut's conquest of England. It is uncertain what his intentions were, but after landing with a small retinue in Sussex
Sussex
he was met by Godwin, Earl of Wessex
Wessex
, who escorted him in apparently friendly fashion to Guildford
Guildford
. Having taken lodgings there, Alfred's men were attacked as they slept and killed, mutilated or enslaved by Godwin's followers, while the prince himself was blinded and imprisoned, dying shortly afterwards. This must have contributed to the antipathy between Godwin and Alfred's brother Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
, who came to the throne in 1042, a hostility which helped bring about the Norman Conquest of England
England
in 1066.

Domesday Book
Domesday Book
records that the largest landowners in Surrey
Surrey
at the end of Edward's reign were Chertsey Abbey
Chertsey Abbey
and Harold Godwinson
Harold Godwinson
, Earl of Wessex
Wessex
and later king, followed by the estates of King Edward himself. Apart from the abbey, most of whose lands were within the shire, Surrey
Surrey
was the not the principal focus of any major landowner's holdings, a tendency which was to persist in later periods. Given the vast and widespread landed interests and the national and international preoccupations of the monarchy and the earldom of Wessex, the Abbot of Chertsey
Chertsey
was therefore probably the most important figure in the local elite.

The Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
period saw the emergence of the shire's internal division into 14 hundreds , which continued until Victorian times. These were the hundreds of Blackheath , Brixton , Copthorne , Effingham Half-Hundred , Elmbridge
Elmbridge
, Farnham , Godalming , Godley , Kingston , Reigate , Tandridge , Wallington , Woking
Woking
and Wotton .

Identified ealdormen Of Surrey

* Wulfheard (c.823) * Huda (?–853) * Æðelweard (late 10th century) * Æðelmær (?–1016)

LATER MEDIEVAL SURREY

After the Battle of Hastings
Battle of Hastings
, the Norman army advanced through Kent into Surrey, where they defeated an English force which attacked them at Southwark
Southwark
and then burned that suburb. Rather than try to attack London
London
across the river, the Normans continued west through Surrey, crossed the Thames
Thames
at Wallingford in Berkshire
Berkshire
and descended on London from the north-west. As was the case across England, the native ruling class of Surrey
Surrey
was virtually eliminated by Norman seizure of land. Only one significant English landowner, the brother of the last English Abbot of Chertsey, remained by the time the Domesday survey was conducted in 1086. At that time the largest landholding in Surrey, as in many other parts of the country, was the expanded royal estate, while the next largest holding belonged to Richard fitz Gilbert , founder of the de Clare family. Runnymede
Runnymede
, where the Magna Carta
Magna Carta
was sealed

In 1088, King William II granted William de Warenne the title of Earl of Surrey
Surrey
as a reward for Warenne's loyalty during the rebellion that followed the death of William I . When the male line of the Warennes became extinct in the 14th century, the earldom was inherited by the Fitzalan Earls of Arundel . The Fitzalan line of Earls of Surrey
Surrey
died out in 1415, but after other short-lived revivals in the 15th century the title was conferred in 1483 on the Howard family , who still hold it. However, Surrey
Surrey
was not a major focus of any of these families' interests. Guildford
Guildford
Castle

Guildford
Guildford
Castle , one of many fortresses originally established by the Normans to help them subdue the country, was rebuilt in stone and developed as a royal palace in the 12th century. Farnham Castle was built during the 12th century as a residence for the Bishop of Winchester
Winchester
, while other stone castles were constructed in the same period at Bletchingley by the de Clares and at Reigate by the Warennes. During King John 's struggle with the barons , Magna Carta was issued in June 1215 at Runnymede
Runnymede
near Egham . John's efforts to reverse this concession reignited the war, and in 1216 the barons invited Prince Louis of France
France
to take the throne. Having landed in Kent
Kent
and been welcomed in London, he advanced across Surrey
Surrey
to attack John, then at Winchester
Winchester
, occupying Reigate and Guildford
Guildford
castles along the way. Guildford
Guildford
Castle later became one of the favourite residences of King Henry III , who considerably expanded the palace there. During the baronial revolt against Henry, in 1264 the rebel army of Simon de Montfort passed southwards through Surrey
Surrey
on their way to the Battle of Lewes
Battle of Lewes
in Sussex. Although the rebels were victorious, soon after the battle royal forces captured and destroyed Bletchingley Castle, whose owner Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester , was de Montfort's most powerful ally.

By the 14th century, castles were of dwindling military importance, but remained a mark of social prestige, leading to the construction of castles at Starborough near Lingfield by Lord Cobham , and at Betchworth by John Fitzalan , whose father had recently inherited the Earldom of Surrey. Though Reigate and Bletchingley remained modest settlements, the role of their castles as local centres for the two leading aristocratic interests in Surrey
Surrey
had enabled them to gain borough status by the early 13th century. As a result, they gained representation in Parliament when it became established towards the end of that century, alongside the more substantial urban settlements of Guildford
Guildford
and Southwark. Surrey's third sizeable town, Kingston, despite its size, borough status and historical association with the monarchy, did not gain parliamentary representation until 1832.

Surrey
Surrey
had little political or economic significance in the Middle Ages. It was not the main power-base of any important aristocratic family, nor the seat of a bishopric. The London
London
suburb of Southwark was a major urban settlement, and the proximity of the capital boosted the wealth and population of the surrounding area, but urban development elsewhere was sapped by the overshadowing predominance of London
London
and by the lack of direct access to the sea. Surrey's agricultural wealth was limited by the infertility of most of its soils. Population pressure in the 12th and 13th centuries initiated the gradual clearing of the Weald , the forest spanning the borders of Surrey, Sussex
Sussex
and Kent, which had hitherto been left undeveloped due to the difficulty of farming on its heavy clay soil.

Surrey's most significant source of prosperity in the later Middle Ages was the production of woollen cloth, which emerged during that period as England's main export industry. The county was an early centre of English textile manufacturing, benefiting from the presence of deposits of fuller\'s earth , the rare mineral composite important in the process of finishing cloth, around Reigate and Nutfield . The industry in Surrey
Surrey
was focused on Guildford, which gave its name to a variety of cloth, gilforte, which was exported widely across Europe and the Middle East and imitated by manufacturers elsewhere in Europe. However, as the English cloth industry expanded, Surrey
Surrey
was outstripped by other growing regions of production. Ruins of the monks' dormitory at Waverley Abbey

Though Surrey
Surrey
was not the scene of serious fighting in the various rebellions and civil wars of the period, armies from Kent
Kent
heading for London
London
via Southwark
Southwark
passed through what were then the extreme north-eastern fringes of Surrey
Surrey
during the Peasants\' Revolt of 1381 and Cade\'s Rebellion in 1450, and at various stages of the Wars of the Roses in 1460, 1469 and 1471. The upheaval of 1381 also involved widespread local unrest in Surrey, as was the case all across south-eastern England.

In 1082 a Cluniac abbey was founded at Bermondsey by Alwine, a wealthy English citizen of London. Waverley Abbey near Farnham, founded in 1128, was the first Cistercian monastery in England. Over the next quarter-century monks spread out from here to found new houses, creating a network of twelve monasteries descended from Waverley across southern and central England. The 12th and early 13th centuries also saw the establishment of Augustinian priories at Merton , Newark , Tandridge , Southwark
Southwark
and Reigate. A Dominican friary was established at Guildford
Guildford
by Henry III's widow Eleanor of Provence
Eleanor of Provence
, in memory of her grandson who had died at Guildford
Guildford
in 1274. In the 15th century a Carthusian
Carthusian
priory was founded by King Henry V at Sheen . These would all perish, along with the still important Benedictine abbey of Chertsey
Chertsey
, in the 16th-century Dissolution of the Monasteries .

Now fallen into disuse, some English counties had nicknames for those raised there such as a \'tyke\' from Yorkshire
Yorkshire
, or a \'yellowbelly\' from Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
. In the case of Surrey, the term was a 'Surrey capon', from Surrey's role in the later Middle Ages as the county where chickens were fattened up for the London
London
meat markets.

EARLY MODERN SURREY

Nonsuch Palace

Under the early Tudor kings, magnificent royal palaces were constructed in north-eastern Surrey, conveniently close to London. At Richmond an existing royal residence was rebuilt on a grand scale under King Henry VII , who also founded a Franciscan friary nearby in 1499. The still more spectacular palace of Nonsuch was later built for Henry VIII near Ewell. The palace at Guildford
Guildford
Castle had fallen out of use long before, but a royal hunting lodge existed outside the town. All these have since been demolished.

During the Cornish Rebellion of 1497 , the rebels heading for London briefly occupied Guildford
Guildford
and fought a skirmish with a government detachment on Guildown outside the town, before marching on to defeat at Blackheath in Kent. The forces of Wyatt\'s Rebellion in 1554 passed through what was then north-eastern Surrey
Surrey
on their way from Kent
Kent
to London, briefly occupying Southwark
Southwark
and then crossing the Thames
Thames
at Kingston after failing to storm London
London
Bridge.

Surrey's cloth industry declined in the 16th century and collapsed in the 17th, harmed by falling standards and competition from more effective producers in other parts of England. The iron industry in the Weald, whose rich deposits had been exploited since prehistoric times, expanded and spread from its base in Sussex
Sussex
into Kent
Kent
and Surrey
Surrey
after 1550. New furnace technology stimulated further growth in the early 17th century, but this hastened the extinction of the business as the mines were worked out. However, this period also saw the emergence of important new industries, centred on the valley of the Tillingbourne , south-east of Guildford, which often adapted watermills originally built for the now moribund cloth industry. The production of brass goods and wire in this area was relatively short-lived, but the manufacture of paper and gunpowder proved more enduring. For a time in the mid-17th century the Surrey
Surrey
mills were the main producers of gunpowder in England. A glass industry also developed in the 16th century on the south-western borders of Surrey. The Wey Navigation , opened in 1653, was one of England's first canal systems.

George Abbot , the son of a Guildford
Guildford
clothworker, served as Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
in 1611–33. In 1619 he founded Abbot\'s Hospital , an almshouse in Guildford, which is still operating. He also made unsuccessful efforts to revitalise the local cloth industry. One of his brothers, Robert , became Bishop of Salisbury
Bishop of Salisbury
, while another, Maurice , was a founding shareholder of the East India Company who became the company's Governor and later Lord Mayor of London
London
. George Abbot

Bankside
Bankside
in Southwark, then part of Surrey, was the principal entertainment district of early modern London. This was due to its convenient location outside the jurisdiction of the government of the City of London
London
, since the social control exercised over this London suburb by the local authorities of Surrey
Surrey
was less effective and restrictive. Bankside
Bankside
was the scene of the golden age of Elizabethan and Jacobean theatre , with the work of playwrights including William Shakespeare , Christopher Marlowe
Christopher Marlowe
, Ben Jonson
Ben Jonson
and John Webster performed in its playhouses. The leading actor and impresario Edward Alleyn founded a college in Dulwich
Dulwich
with an endowment including an art collection, which was later expanded and opened to the public in 1817, becoming Britain\'s first public art gallery .

Surrey
Surrey
almost entirely escaped the direct impact of fighting during the main phase of the English Civil War
English Civil War
in 1642-6. The local Parliamentarian gentry led by Sir Richard Onslow were able to secure the county without difficulty on the outbreak of war. Farnham Castle was briefly occupied by the advancing Royalists in late 1642, but was easily stormed by the Parliamentarians under Sir William Waller
William Waller
. A new Royalist offensive in late 1643 saw skirmishing around Farnham between Waller's forces and Ralph Hopton 's Royalists, but these brief incursions into the western fringes of Surrey
Surrey
marked the limits of Royalist advances on the county. At the end of 1643 Surrey
Surrey
combined with Kent, Sussex
Sussex
and Hamphire to form the South- Eastern Association , a military federation modelled on Parliament's existing Eastern Association . During a political crisis in summer 1647, Sir Thomas Fairfax 's New Model Army passed through Surrey
Surrey
on their way to occupy London, and subsequent billeting of troops in Surrey
Surrey
caused considerable discontent. During the brief Second Civil War of 1648, the Earl of Holland entered Surrey
Surrey
in July, hoping to ignite a Royalist revolt. He raised his standard at Kingston and advanced south, but found little support. After confused manoeuvres between Reigate and Dorking
Dorking
as Parliamentary troops closed in, his force of 500 men fled northwards and was overtaken and routed at Kingston.

Surrey
Surrey
had a central role in the history of the radical political movements unleashed by the civil war. In October 1647 the first manifesto of the movement that became known as the Levellers , The Case of the Armie Truly Stated , was drafted at Guildford
Guildford
by the elected representatives of army regiments and civilian radicals from London. This document combined specific grievances with wider demands for constitutional change on the basis of popular sovereignty . It formed the template for the more systematic and radical Agreement of the People , drafted by the same men later that month. It also led to the Putney Debates shortly afterwards, in which its signatories met with Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
and other senior officers in the Surrey
Surrey
village of Putney , where the army had established its headquarters, to argue over the future political constitution of England. In 1649 the Diggers , led by Gerrard Winstanley , established their communal settlement at St. George\'s Hill near Weybridge to implement egalitarian ideals of common ownership, but were eventually driven out by the local landowners through violence and litigation. A smaller Digger commune was then established near Cobham , but suffered the same fate in 1650.

MODERN HISTORY

Prior to the Great Reform Act of 1832, Surrey
Surrey
returned fourteen Members of Parliament , two representing the county and two each from the six boroughs of Bletchingley, Gatton , Guildford, Haslemere
Haslemere
, Reigate and Southwark. For two centuries before the Reform Act, the dominant political network in Surrey
Surrey
was that of the Onslows of Clandon Park , a gentry family established in the county from the early 17th century, who were raised to the peerage in 1716. Members of the family won at least one of Surrey's two county seats in all but three of the 30 general elections between 1628 and 1768, while they took one or both of the seats for their local borough of Guildford
Guildford
in every election from 1660 to 1830, usually representing the Whig Party after its emergence in the late 1670s. Successive heads of the family held the post of Lord Lieutenant of Surrey continuously from 1716 to 1814.

Until the modern era Surrey, apart from its north-eastern corner, was sparsely populated in comparison with most parts of south-east England, and remained somewhat rustic despite its proximity to the capital. Communications began to improve, and the influence of London to increase, with the development of turnpike roads and a stagecoach system in the 18th century. A far more profound transformation followed with the arrival of the railways, beginning in the late 1830s. The availability of rapid transport enabled prosperous London workers to settle all across Surrey
Surrey
and travel daily to work in the capital. This phenomenon of commuting brought explosive growth to Surrey's population and wealth, and tied its economy and society inextricably to London. There was rapid expansion in existing towns like Guildford, Farnham, and most spectacularly Croydon
Croydon
, while new towns such as Woking
Woking
and Redhill emerged beside the railway lines. The huge numbers of incomers to the county and the transformation of rural, farming communities into a "commuter belt " contributed to a decline in the traditional local culture, including the gradual demise of the distinctive Surrey dialect . This may have survived among the " Surrey
Surrey
Men" into the late 19th Century, but is now extinct. Britain's first crematorium, in the Borough of Woking .

Meanwhile, London
London
itself spread swiftly across north-eastern Surrey. In 1800 it extended only to Vauxhall
Vauxhall
; a century later the city's growth had reached as far as Putney and Streatham . This expansion was reflected in the creation of the County of London
London
in 1889, detaching the areas subsumed by the city from Surrey. The expansion of London continued in the 20th century, engulfing Croydon, Kingston and many smaller settlements. This led to a further contraction of Surrey
Surrey
in 1965 with the creation of Greater London
Greater London
, under the London
London
Government Act 1963 ; however, Staines and Sunbury-on- Thames
Thames
, previously in Middlesex, were transferred to Surrey, extending the county across the Thames. Surrey's boundaries were altered again in 1974 when Gatwick Airport was transferred to West Sussex
Sussex
.

In 1849 Brookwood Cemetery
Brookwood Cemetery
was established near Woking
Woking
to serve the population of London, connected to the capital by its own railway service . It soon developed into the largest burial ground in the world. Woking
Woking
was also the site of Britain's first crematorium , which opened in 1878, and its first mosque , founded in 1889. In 1881 Godalming became the first town in the world with a public electricity supply.

The eastern part of Surrey
Surrey
was transferred from the Diocese of Winchester
Winchester
to that of Rochester in 1877. In 1905 this area was separated to form a new Diocese of Southwark
Southwark
. The rest of the county, together with part of eastern Hampshire, was separated from Winchester in 1927 to become the Diocese of Guildford
Guildford
, whose cathedral was consecrated in 1961. Guildford
Guildford
Cathedral , designed by Edward Maufe .

During the later 19th century Surrey
Surrey
became important in the development of architecture in Britain and the wider world. Its traditional building forms made a significant contribution to the vernacular revival architecture associated with the Arts and Crafts Movement , and would exert a lasting influence. The prominence of Surrey
Surrey
peaked in the 1890s, when it was the focus for globally important developments in domestic architecture, in particular the early work of Edwin Lutyens , who grew up in the county and was greatly influenced by its traditional styles and materials. Dennis Sabre fire engine

The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw the demise of Surrey's long-standing industries manufacturing paper and gunpowder. Most of the county's paper mills closed in the years after 1870, and the last survivor shut in 1928. Gunpowder production fell victim to the First World War , which brought about a huge expansion of the British munitions industry, followed by sharp contraction and consolidation when the war ended, leading to the closure of the Surrey
Surrey
powder mills. New industrial developments included the establishment of the vehicle manufacturers Dennis Brothers in Guildford
Guildford
in 1895. Beginning as a maker of bicycles and then of cars, the firm soon shifted into the production of commercial and utility vehicles, becoming internationally important as a manufacturer of fire engines and buses. Though much reduced in size and despite multiple changes of ownership, this business continues to operate in Guildford. Kingston and nearby Ham became a centre of aircraft manufacturing, with the establishment in 1912 of the Sopwith Aviation Company and in 1920 of its successor H.G. Hawker Engineering, which later became Hawker Aviation and then Hawker Siddeley .

During the Second World War
Second World War
a section of the GHQ Stop Line , a system of pillboxes , gun emplacements, anti-tank obstacles and other fortifications, was constructed along the North Downs. This line, running from Somerset
Somerset
to Yorkshire
Yorkshire
, was intended as the principal fixed defence of London
London
and the industrial core of England
England
against the threat of invasion. German invasion plans envisaged that the main thrust of their advance inland would cross the North Downs at the gap in the ridge formed by the Wey valley, thus colliding with the defence line around Guildford.

Between the two world wars Croydon
Croydon
Airport , opened in 1920, served as the main airport for London, but it was superseded after the Second World War by Heathrow , and closed in 1959. Gatwick Airport
Gatwick Airport
, where commercial flights began in 1933, expanded greatly in the 1950s and 1960s, but the area occupied by the airport was transferred from Surrey
Surrey
to West Sussex
Sussex
in 1974.

HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE AND MONUMENTS

The gate of Abbot\'s Hospital , Guildford
Guildford

Few traces of the ancient British and Roman periods survive in Surrey. There are a number of round barrows and bell barrows in various locations, mostly dating to the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
. Remains of Iron Age hillforts exist at Holmbury Hill , Hascombe Hill
Hascombe Hill
, Anstiebury (near Capel ), Dry Hill (near Lingfield ), St Ann\'s Hill ( Chertsey
Chertsey
) and St George\'s Hill ( Weybridge ). Most of these sites were created in the 1st century BC and many were re-occupied during the middle of the 1st century AD. Only fragments of Stane Street and Ermine Street , the Roman roads which crossed the county, remain.

Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
elements survive in a number of Surrey
Surrey
churches, notably at Guildford
Guildford
(St Mary), Godalming (St Peter Surrey
Surrey
features prominently in his Rural Rides . * Thomas Love Peacock (1785–1866) lived in Lower Halliford , then part of Middlesex, now in Surrey. * Benjamin Disraeli (1804–81) wrote Conningsby while living in Dorking. * Alfred Tennyson (1809–92) spent the latter part of his life, and died, in Haslemere
Haslemere
. * Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
(1812–70) wrote part of The Pickwick Papers in Dorking, and refers to the town in the novel. * Robert Browning
Robert Browning
(1812–89) was born in Camberwell
Camberwell
, then part of Surrey. * George Eliot
George Eliot
(1819–80) wrote most of Middlemarch
Middlemarch
while living in Haslemere. * Matthew Arnold
Matthew Arnold
(1822–88) lived in Laleham , then part of Middlesex, now in Surrey. * George Meredith (1828–1909) lived at Box Hill. * Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
(1832–98) spent much of his time at his sisters' home in Guildford, where he wrote Through the Looking Glass ; he died there and is buried in the town. * George Bernard Shaw
George Bernard Shaw
(1856–1950) lived in Woking
Woking
and later in Hindhead , where he wrote Caesar and Cleopatra . * Arthur Conan Doyle (1859–1930) lived and wrote many of his books in Hindhead and served as deputy lieutenant of Surrey; the county forms a setting for several of the Sherlock Holmes
Sherlock Holmes
stories. * J. M. Barrie (1860–1937) lived in Tilford , and based The Boy Castaways, which later evolved into Peter Pan
Peter Pan
, in the nearby countryside. * H. G. Wells (1866–1946) wrote The War of the Worlds while living in Woking; much of northern Surrey
Surrey
is laid waste in the course of the story. * John Galsworthy
John Galsworthy
(1867–1933) was born in Kingston and the Forsyte Saga is partly set in the area. * E. M. Forster (1879–1970) lived and wrote in Weybridge and Abinger Hammer . * P. G. Wodehouse (1881–1975) was born in Guildford
Guildford
and baptised there in St Nicolas\' Church . * Aldous Huxley (1894–1963) was born and raised in Godalming and his ashes are interred at Compton; the end of Brave New World is set in Surrey. * Rosemary Sutcliff (1920–1992) was born in East Clandon . * Kazuo Ishiguro (born 1954) grew up in Guildford.

ARTS AND SCIENCES

* William of Ockham (c.1288-c.1348), scholastic philosopher, most famous for "Occam\'s Razor ", came from Ockham . * Thomas Malthus (1766–1834), pioneer of demography , was born and grew up in Westcott , and later lived in Albury. * Ada Lovelace
Ada Lovelace
(1815–52), mathematician, lived at East Horsley . * Eadweard Muybridge (1830–1904), photographer, was born and grew up in Kingston, then part of Surrey. * Gertrude Jekyll (1843–1932), garden designer, lived for much of her life at Munstead near Godalming, created significant gardens in Surrey
Surrey
and is buried in Busbridge . * Edwin Lutyens (1869–1944), architect, grew up in Thursley ; many of his early works were built in Surrey, including collaborations with Gertrude Jekyll. * Ralph Vaughan Williams
Ralph Vaughan Williams
(1872–1958), composer, grew up at Leith Hill and later lived in Dorking. * Laurence Olivier (1907–89), actor, was born in Dorking. * Alan Turing
Alan Turing
(1912–54), mathematician and pioneer of computer science , lived for much of his early life in Guildford. * Alex Kingston (born 1963), actress, was born and raised in Epsom . * Tracey Emin (born 1963), artist, was born in Croydon, then part of Surrey.

POPULAR MUSIC

The " Surrey
Surrey
Delta" produced many of the musicians in 60s British blues movements. The Rolling Stones developed their music at the Crawdaddy Club in Richmond .

* Jimmy Page (born 1944) spent much of his early life in Epsom . * Jeff Beck
Jeff Beck
(born 1944) was born in Wallington , then part of Surrey. * Eric Clapton
Eric Clapton
(born 1945) was born and grew up in Ripley . * Peter Gabriel (born 1950) was born in Chobham and grew up in Surrey. His band Genesis were formed at the Charterhouse School in Godalming. * The Stranglers were formed in Guildford
Guildford
. * Paul Weller (born 1958) was born and grew up in Woking, which inspired the song Town Called Malice
Town Called Malice
. The Jam
The Jam
were formed at Sheerwater Secondary School in the town. * Norman Cook, aka Fatboy Slim (born 1963) grew up in Reigate. * Hard-Fi
Hard-Fi
members Richard Archer , Ross Phillips, and Kai Stephens are from Staines-upon-Thames. * Justin Hawkins , lead singer of rock band The Darkness , was born in Surrey. * Disclosure members Guy and Howard Lawrence are from Reigate.

SPORT

Epsom is famous for the Epsom Downs Racecourse which hosts the Epsom Derby; painting by James Pollard
James Pollard
, c. 1835

* Cricket
Cricket
makes its first appearance in history in Surrey, in a reference to the game being played at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford
Guildford
in the 16th century (see History of English cricket to 1696 ). Mitcham Cricket
Cricket
Club , formed in 1685 and the oldest documented club in the game's history, was within Surrey's borders until 1965. The Surrey
Surrey
County Cricket
Cricket
Club , founded in 1845, represents the historic county of Surrey, although its main ground, The Oval
The Oval
in Kennington , is now in Greater London
Greater London
. The club also uses Whitgift School , South Croydon
Croydon
and Woodbridge Road , Guildford
Guildford
for some games. It was one of the original participants in the County Championship
County Championship
and has won the competition 18 times, more than any other county except Yorkshire
Yorkshire
. * Epsom Downs Racecourse is the venue for the most prestigious event in British flat horse-racing, the Derby , which has been held there annually since 1780. Lingfield Park Racecourse
Lingfield Park Racecourse
, Kempton Park Racecourse and Sandown Park Racecourse are also in Surrey. * Brooklands between Woking
Woking
and Weybridge was the world's first purpose-built motorsport race circuit, opened in 1907 (partly now Mercedes-Benz World ). Currently Woking
Woking
plays host to the headquarters of the McLaren Formula One
Formula One
team, giving Surrey
Surrey
the rarity of having a local F1 team. James Hunt , the 1976 Formula 1 World Driver's Champion was born in Belmont, Sutton, then part of Surrey, in 1947. * The All England
England
Lawn Tennis Club , venue for the Wimbledon Championships , and the headquarters of the Lawn Tennis Association were within Surrey
Surrey
until 1965. * Surrey's leading rugby club, Esher
Esher
, currently compete in the National League 1 , the third tier of English rugby. * Surrey
Surrey
is one of a handful of English counties with no teams in the top 92 football teams, the Football League . Its leading team is Woking
Woking
, currently playing in the fifth-tier National League . * Surrey
Surrey
is home to the ice hockey team the Guildford
Guildford
Flames , who compete in the top-tier Elite Ice Hockey League . * The basketball team Surrey Scorchers , based in Guildford, play in the top tier of British basketball, the British Basketball
Basketball
League . * The netball team Surrey Storm , based in Guildford
Guildford
play in the Netball
Netball
Superleague . They are the franchise for the Greater London area and the South East. * Rowing clubs include Molesey (with an elite development programme hosting several leading British Rowing
British Rowing
crews), Walton , (one of the UK's top clubs in the junior category), Weybridge , Weybridge Ladies, Weybridge Mariners, Burway , Staines and Guildford
Guildford
whose top female quad boat won Henley Women\'s in 2012. * Volleyball
Volleyball
teams include BA , Friends Provident and Guildford International Volleyball
Volleyball
Club (whose elite men's team has won the 1st of the 4 National Divisions ), while twelve clubs in Surrey
Surrey
and three in south-west Greater London
Greater London
compete in the Surrey
Surrey
Volleyball
Volleyball
League.

SURREY FOOTBALL CLUBS

The county has numerous football teams. In the Combined Counties League can be found the likes of Ash United , Badshot Lea , Banstead Athletic , Camberley
Camberley
Town , Chessington & Hook United , Cobham , Dorking
Dorking
, Epsom Ashford Town , Chertsey
Chertsey
Town , Godalming Town and Guildford
Guildford
City play higher in the Southern League ; equally Leatherhead , Merstham , Redhill , South Park , Staines Town , Walton Casuals and Walton and Hersham are in the Isthmian ; Woking
Woking
play in the National League .

Chelsea F.C.
Chelsea F.C.
practice at the Cobham Training Centre located in the village of Stoke d\'Abernon near the village of Cobham, Surrey . The training ground was built in 2004 and officially opened in 2007.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

HISTORY

SURREY

POPULATION

• 1891 452,218

• 1971 1,002,832

HISTORY

• CREATED c.825

• ABOLISHED N/A

• SUCCEEDED BY N/A

STATUS Administrative county
Administrative county

• HQ Newington 1889–1893 Kingston upon Thames
Kingston upon Thames
from 1893

The Local Government Act 1888 reorganised county-level local government throughout England
England
and Wales. Accordingly, the administrative county of Surrey
Surrey
was formed in 1889 when the Provisional Surrey County Council first met, consisting of 19 aldermen and 57 councillors . The county council assumed the administrative responsibilities previously exercised by the county's justices in quarter sessions . The county had revised boundaries, with the north east of the historic county bordering the City of London
London
becoming part of a new County of London
London
. These areas now form the London
London
Boroughs of Lambeth , Southwark
Southwark
and Wandsworth , and the Penge area of the London Borough of Bromley . At the same time, the borough of Croydon became a county borough , outside the jurisdiction of the county council.

For purposes other than local government the administrative county of Surrey
Surrey
and county borough of Croydon
Croydon
continued to form a "county of Surrey" to which a Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum (chief magistrate ) and a High Sheriff were appointed.

Surrey
Surrey
had been administered from Newington since the 1790s, and the county council was initially based in the sessions house there. As Newington was included in the County of London, it lay outside the area administered by the council, and a site for a new county hall within the administrative county was sought. By 1890 six towns were being considered: Epsom, Guildford, Kingston, Redhill, Surbiton and Wimbledon. In 1891 it was decided to build the new County Hall at Kingston, and the building opened in 1893, but this site was also overtaken by the growing London
London
conurbation, and by the 1930s most of the north of the county had been built over, becoming outer suburbs of London
London
, although continuing to form part of Surrey
Surrey
administratively.

In 1960 the report of the Herbert Commission recommended that much of north Surrey
Surrey
(including Kingston and Croydon) be included in a new " Greater London
Greater London
". These recommendations were enacted in highly modified form in 1965 by the London
London
Government Act 1963 . The areas that now form the London
London
Boroughs of Croydon
Croydon
, Kingston , Merton , and Sutton and that part of Richmond south of the River Thames
River Thames
, were transferred from Surrey
Surrey
to Greater London. At the same time part of the county of Middlesex
Middlesex
, which had been abolished by the legislation, was added to Surrey. This area now forms the borough of Spelthorne .

Further local government reform under the Local Government Act 1972 took place in 1974. The 1972 Act abolished administrative counties and introduced non-metropolitan counties in their place. The boundaries of the non-metropolitan county of Surrey
Surrey
were similar to those of the administrative county with the exception of Gatwick Airport
Gatwick Airport
and some surrounding land which was transferred to West Sussex
Sussex
. It was originally proposed that the parishes of Horley and Charlwood would become part of West Sussex; however this met fierce local opposition and it was reversed by the Charlwood and Horley Act 1974 .

TODAY

After the elections of May 2013 the County Councillors' party affiliations are as follows:

PARTY AFFILIATION NUMBER

Conservative 58

Liberal Democrats 9

Residents Association 9

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Independence Party 3

Labour 1

As of 3 May 2012, the Conservative local councillors control of 10 out of 11 councils in Surrey, with Epsom and Ewell
Epsom and Ewell
in Residents Association control. The Conservatives hold all 11 Parliamentary constituencies within the county borders.

ECONOMY

Export House in Woking, one of Surrey's tallest buildings

Surrey
Surrey
has the highest GDP per capita in the UK and the highest cost of living in the UK outside of the capital. The county is said to have the highest proportion of millionaires in the UK. The average wage in Surrey
Surrey
is bolstered by the high proportion of residents who work in financial services.

Surrey
Surrey
has more organisation and company headquarters than any other county in the UK. Electronics manufacturers Nikon
Nikon
, Whirlpool , Canon , Toshiba
Toshiba
, Samsung
Samsung
and Philips
Philips
are housed here, as are distributors Future Electronics . Kia Motors
Kia Motors
and Toyota
Toyota
UK, the medico-pharma companies Pfizer
Pfizer
and Sanofi-Aventis
Sanofi-Aventis
and oil giant Esso . Some of the largest fast-moving consumer goods multinationals in the world have their UK and/or European headquarters here, including Unilever
Unilever
, Procter & Gamble , Superdrug , Nestlé , SC Johnson
SC Johnson
, Kimberly-Clark and Colgate-Palmolive . NGOs including WWF UK it bypasses Leatherhead , Dorking
Dorking
and Horsham
Horsham
. * The A31 trunk road west from Guildford
Guildford
to Bere Regis via Farnham and is connected to the M3 near Winchester
Winchester
and via the A331 near Aldershot
Aldershot
. It is dual carriageway along the Hog's Back from the A3 to Farnham . It is one of the ancient routes from London
London
to Winchester
Winchester
, see Pilgrims\' Way . * The short A331 connects the A31 to the M3. It runs along the Surrey
Surrey
Hampshire border, bypassing Aldershot
Aldershot
, Frimley and Farnborough .

RAIL

Much of Surrey
Surrey
lies within the London
London
commuter belt with regular services into Central London
London
. South Western Railway is the sole train operator in Elmbridge, Runnymede, Spelthorne, Surrey
Surrey
Heath, Woking
Woking
and Waverley, and the main train operator in the Borough of Guildford, running regular services into London
London
Waterloo and regional services towards the south coast and South west. Southern is the main train operator in Mole Valley, Epsom and Ewell
Epsom and Ewell
and Reigate and Banstead and the sole train operator in Tandridge, providing services into London Bridge and London
London
Victoria .

There are a number of national rail routes: in anti-clockwise order, the Waterloo to Reading Line , South Western Main Line , Portsmouth Direct Line , Sutton and Mole Valley Lines (from Horsham
Horsham
, West Sussex itself on the Arun Valley Line from Littlehampton ) and the Brighton Main Line .

The Waterloo to Reading Line from Reading , selected stations of Bracknell , Ascot , Sunningdale , and into Surrey
Surrey
and calls at unskipped stops of VIRGINIA WATER , EGHAM , STAINES and several other stations in Greater London
Greater London
before terminating at Waterloo. The South Western Main Line runs from Weymouth , Southampton, the significant technology towns of Basingstoke and Farnborough , then normally calls at WOKING , up to six other Surrey
Surrey
stops including WALTON-ON-THAMES , and then for fast services Clapham Junction and Waterloo only. The Portsmouth
Portsmouth
Direct Line is significant in linking HASLEMERE , GODALMING AND GUILDFORD to the South Western Main Line at Woking. The Sutton and Mole Valley Lines link DORKING , LEATHERHEAD , ASHTEAD , EPSOM and then towards Waterloo via EWELL WEST or via EWELL EAST to London Victoria and also have spurs to the SWML northbound and New Guildford Line southbound. The Brighton
Brighton
Main Line calls at mostly unskipped stops HORLEY and REDHILL before reaching either London
London
Bridge or London
London
Victoria . REIGATE is the only town terminus one stop off this main line network, with its station west of Redhill station one stop further from London
London
and is on the east-west North Downs Line .

Consequently, the towns Staines , Woking
Woking
, Guildford
Guildford
, Walton-on- Thames
Thames
, Epsom / Ewell and Reigate /Redhill , statistically the largest examples, are established rapid-transit commuter towns for Central London. The above routes have had a stimulative effect. The relative development of Surrey
Surrey
at the time of the Beeching cuts led to today's retention of numerous other commuter routes except the Cranleigh Line , all with direct services to London, including:

* Chertsey
Chertsey
Line linking the first two of the above national routes via CHERTSEY and ADDLESTONE * New Guildford
Guildford
Line via CLAYGATE and EFFINGHAM JUNCTION from Surbiton * Hampton Court Branch Line to HAMPTON COURT via THAMRES DITTON from Surbiton * SHEPPERTON Branch Line via SUNBURY * Ascot to Guildford
Guildford
Line from GUILDFORD via WANBOROUGH , ASH , into Hampshire to Aldershot
Aldershot
, back to Surrey
Surrey
FRIMLEY , CAMBERLEY AND BAGSHOT before crossing into Berkshire
Berkshire
to Ascot * Alton Line that calls at the far southwest Surrey
Surrey
outcrop in FARNHAM into Hampshire with a change to steam at Alton for Alresford via the seasonal and off-peak hours heritage Watercress Line . This line used to run to Winchester
Winchester
. * Epsom Downs Branch from Sutton and then Belmont in Greater London to BANSTEAD and EPSOM DOWNS only. * Tattenham Corner Branch Line from Purley, London
London
via CHIPSTEAD , KINGSWOOD AND TADWORTH * Oxted Line via East Croydon
Croydon
that calls at OXTED and HURST GREEN and into East Grinstead with a change for the Bluebell Railway for services to Sheffield Park , or to Uckfield , which was truncated under the Beeching Axe
Beeching Axe
, having previously run to Lewes . * REDHILL to Tonbridge Line via GODSTONE and Tonbridge connections to Ashford International .

The only diesel route is the east-west route in Surrey, the North Downs Line , which runs from Reading in Berkshire
Berkshire
via Farnborough North , Guildford
Guildford
, Dorking
Dorking
Deepdene , Reigate , Redhill and into West Sussex
Sussex
to Gatwick Airport
Gatwick Airport
.

Trains to London
London
Waterloo are run by South West Trains , trains to London
London
Victoria and London
London
Bridge are operated by extremely poorly managed Southern (train operating company) , and services on the North Downs Line are operated by Great Western Railway . Southeastern previously ran the Redhill to Tonbridge . Redhill with a Class 166 service to Reading on the North Downs Line .

Major stations in the county include Guildford
Guildford
(8.0 million passengers), Woking
Woking
(7.4 million passengers), Epsom (3.6 million passengers), Redhill (3.6 million passengers) and Staines (2.9 million passengers).

LONG-DISTANCE NATIONAL SERVICES

* From Guildford
Guildford
a daily service with CrossCountry
CrossCountry
runs to Newcastle via Reading . * From Gatwick Airport
Gatwick Airport
, in addition to the Gatwick Express , the north-south Thameslink route connects 50 stations: London
London
Bridge , London
London
Blackfriars , Farringdon , London
London
St Pancras , Kentish Town , St Albans , Luton Airport
Luton Airport
Parkway , Luton and Bedford ; the Thameslink Programme is under way to extend the line by 2018 to Peterborough , Cambridge and east to Ashford .

AIR

Both Heathrow (in the London Borough of Hillingdon ) and Gatwick
Gatwick
(in Crawley
Crawley
Borough, West Sussex
Sussex
) have a perimeter road in Surrey. A National Express coach from Woking
Woking
to Heathrow Airport
Heathrow Airport
and early-until-late buses to nearby Surrey
Surrey
towns operate.

Fairoaks Airport on the edge of Chobham and Ottershaw is 2.3 miles (3.7 km) from Woking
Woking
town centre and operates as a private airfield with two training schools and is home to other aviation businesses.

Redhill Aerodrome is also in Surrey.

EDUCATION

See also: List of schools in Surrey

The UK has a comprehensive , state-funded education system, accordingly Surrey
Surrey
has 37 state secondary schools, 17 Academies , 7 sixth form colleges and 55 state primaries. The county has 41 independent schools, including Charterhouse (one of the nine independent schools mentioned in the Public Schools Act 1868 ) and the Royal Grammar School, Guildford
Guildford
. More than half the state secondary schools in Surrey
Surrey
have sixth forms. Brooklands (twinned with a site in Ashford, Surrey), Reigate, Esher, Egham, Woking
Woking
and Waverley host sixth-form equivalent colleges each with technical specialisations and standard sixth-form study courses. Brooklands College offers aerospace and automotive design, engineering and allied study courses reflecting the aviation and motor industry leading UK research and maintenance hubs nearby.

HIGHER EDUCATION

See also: Category:Education in Surrey
Surrey

* The University of Surrey is based in Guildford
Guildford
and the University for the Creative Arts (UCA) has campuses in Farnham and Epsom * Royal Holloway, University of London
London
is based in Egham * The University of Law has a campus in Guildford

EMERGENCY SERVICES

Surrey
Surrey
is served by these emergency services.

* Surrey Police
Surrey Police
, with 12 police stations in Surrey. * South East Coast Ambulance Service
South East Coast Ambulance Service
as of 1 July 2006. Previously Surrey Ambulance Service covered Surrey; on 1 July 2006, it merged with Sussex
Sussex
Ambulance Service and Kent
Kent
Ambulance Service to form the South East Coast Ambulance Service. Surrey
Surrey
has 21 ambulance stations. * Surrey Fire & Rescue Service , with 24 fire stations in Surrey. * SURSAR
SURSAR
, Surrey
Surrey
Search the Devil\'s Punch Bowl at Hindhead and Frensham Common. Leith Hill south west of Dorking
Dorking
in the Greensand Ridge is the second highest point in south-east England. Witley Common and Thursley Common are expansive areas of ancient heathland south of Godalming run by the National Trust and Ministry of Defence . The Surrey
Surrey
Hills are an area of outstanding natural beauty ( AONB ). Lawns at RHS Garden, Wisley

More manicured landscapes can be seen at Claremont Landscape Garden , south of Esher
Esher
(dating from 1715). There is also Winkworth Arboretum south east of Godalming and Windlesham Arboretum
Windlesham Arboretum
near Lightwater created in the 20th century. Wisley is home to the Royal Horticultural Society gardens . Kew
Kew
, historically part of Surrey
Surrey
but now in Greater London, features the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Kew
, as well as The National Archives for England
England
"> Statue of a tripod from The War of the Worlds in Woking, hometown of science fiction author H. G. Wells . The book is a seminal depiction of a conflict between mankind and an extraterrestrial race.

Much of H. G. Wells 's 1898 novel The War of the Worlds is set in Surrey
Surrey
with many specific towns and villages identified. The Martians first land on Horsell Common on the north side of Woking
Woking
, outside the Bleak House pub, now called Sands. The narrator flees in the direction of London, first passing Byfleet
Byfleet
and then Weybridge before travelling east along the north bank of the Thames
Thames
. Jane Austen's novel Emma is set in Surrey
Surrey
and the famous picnic where Emma embarrasses Miss Bates takes place on Box Hill.

The character Ford Prefect from The Hitchhiker\'s Guide to the Galaxy claimed to be from Guildford
Guildford
in Surrey, but in actuality he was from a small planet somewhere in the vicinity of Betelgeuse . Thomas Paine Kydd, the hero of the Kydd series of naval adventure novels written by Julian Stockwin , starts off as a young wig-maker from Guildford
Guildford
who is pressed into service and thus begins a life at sea. Atonement is set in Surrey. The late Poet Laureate Sir John Betjeman mentions Camberley
Camberley
in his poem "A Subaltern's Lovesong", while Carshalton
Carshalton
forms the literary backdrop to many of the poems by James Farrar . In J.K. Rowling\'s Harry Potter
Harry Potter
series, the home of Harry\'s pernicious relatives, the Dursleys , is set in the fictional town of Little Whinging, Surrey. They lived at Number Four Privet Drive, Little Whinging, Surrey.

The county has also been used as a film location. Part of the movie The Holiday was filmed in Godalming and Shere: Kate Winslet 's character Iris lived in a cottage in Shere and Cameron Diaz 's character Amanda switched houses with her as part of a home exchange. The final scene of Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason uses the village church, also in Shere, as does the movie The Wedding Date . In the 1976 film The Omen , the scenes at the cathedral were filmed at Guildford
Guildford
Cathedral . The film I Want Candy follows two hopeful lads from Leatherhead trying to break into the movies, and was partly filmed in Brooklands College ( Weybridge campus). Surrey
Surrey
woodland represented Germany in the opening scene of Gladiator , starring Russell Crowe
Russell Crowe
; it was filmed at the Bourne Woods near Farnham in Surrey. Scenes for the 2009 BBC production of Emma by Jane Austen
Jane Austen
, starring Romola Garai and Michael Gambon , were filmed at St Mary the Virgin Church Send near Guildford
Guildford
and at Loseley House .

SEE ALSO

* Surrey
Surrey
portal

* List of Lord Lieutenants of Surrey
Surrey
* List of High Sheriffs of Surrey
Surrey
* Custos Rotulorum of Surrey —Keepers of the Rolls * Surrey (UK Parliament constituency) —Historical list of MPs for Surrey
Surrey
constituency * Surrey (carriage) * Healthcare in Surrey * Surrey Police
Surrey Police
and Crime Commissioner

NOTES

* ^ Domesday Book
Domesday Book
valued the Surrey
Surrey
estates of Chertsey Abbey
Chertsey Abbey
in 1066 at £189 a year, the abbey's only other holdings being £11 worth in Berkshire. Harold's lands in Surrey
Surrey
were valued at £175 a year, while another £15 worth were still entered under the name of his late father Earl Godwin. The revenues of King Edward's Surrey
Surrey
estates totalled £117, Queen Edith's £76, the Archbishopric of Canterbury's £66 and the Bishopric of Winchester's £55, all fractions of vast national holdings. The earl with jurisdiction over Surrey, Harold's brother Leofwine, held only £17 there, from a national total of £290, whose greatest concentrations were in Kent
Kent
and Sussex, while his mother, Godwin's widow Gytha, held £16 from a total of £590, chiefly clustered in Devon, Wiltshire
Wiltshire
and Sussex. The other great landowners with Surrey
Surrey
estates were the thegns Ætsere, Ægelnoð and Osward. Ætsere held £61 in Surrey, from a total of £271 including £163 in Sussex, Ægelnoð held £40, from a total of £260 including £71 in Kent, £58 in Sussex
Sussex
and £50 in Oxfordshire, and Osward held £26, from a total of £109 including £65 in Kent, where he was also sheriff. Donald Henson, The English Elite in 1066: Gone but not forgotten (Hockwold-cum-Wilton 2001), pp. 20-23, 26-27, 32-34, 39, 49-50, 64-65, 70, 73, 85, 179-181. * ^ This was Oswald, whose brother Wulfwold, Abbot of Chertsey
Chertsey
and Bath, died in 1084. Oswald was one of the small number of English landowners who managed to increase their holdings in the wake of the conquest: his estates, centred on Effingham, were valued at £18 a year in 1066, but the acquisition of additional manors raised this to £35 by 1086. His descendants, the de La Leigh family, relinquished the majority of their Surrey
Surrey
lands in the 12th century, but remained landowners in the county until the early 14th century. One of them, William de La Leigh, served as Sheriff of Surrey
Surrey
in 1267. * ^ Besides the castles built or rebuilt in stone, remains of Norman castles of earth and timber have been identified at Abinger, Cranleigh, Thunderfield and Walton-on-the-Hill. Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, pp. 46-47.

REFERENCES

* ^ " Surrey
Surrey
2017/2018". Hidgh Sheriffs' Association. Retrieved 11 June 2017. * ^ "surrey Definition of surrey in English by Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 7 October 2017. * ^ "Medieval Guildford—"Henry III confirmed Guildford\'s status as the county town of Surrey
Surrey
in 1257"". Guildford
Guildford
Borough Council. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 30 October 2013. * ^ "Surrey\'s woodlands". Surrey
Surrey
County Council. Retrieved 16 October 2007. * ^ Ordnance Survey Landranger Map 187, Dorking
Dorking
& Reigate * ^ "2008 mid-year estimates of population". Surrey
Surrey
City Council. Archived from the original on 4 April 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2009.

* ^ "2001 Census: Town/villages in Surrey
Surrey
with population more than 1000" (PDF). Surrey
Surrey
County Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2007. Retrieved 16 October 2007. * ^ "Relationships / unit history of Surrey". Vision of Britain. Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 16 October 2007. * ^ Surrey County Council press release 17 January 2006 * ^ Bird, Roman Surrey, pp. 21-24, 30-31. * ^ Bird, Roman Surrey, pp. 49-72. * ^ Bird, Roman Surrey, pp. 151-168. * ^ Bird, Roman Surrey, pp. 37-48. * ^ A Dictionary of British History, ed. by John Cannon, rev. ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), p. 618 (s.v. Surrey) * ^ Drewett, Rudling and Gardiner, The South East to AD 1000, p. 275. * ^ Kirby, The Earliest English Kings, pp. 36, 83. * ^ Kirby, The Earliest English Kings, pp. 96–97. * ^ Kirby, The Earliest English Kings, pp. 102–103. * ^ Kirby, The Earliest English Kings, p. 105. * ^ Kirby, The Earliest English Kings, pp. 111–112, 139. * ^ Kirby, The Earliest English Kings, pp. 152, 155–156. * ^ Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
Chronicles, pp. 60–61 * ^ Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
Chronicles, pp. 64–65. * ^ Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
Chronicles, pp. 64–67. * ^ Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
Chronicles, pp. 84–85. * ^ Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
Chronicles, pp. 105 (and n. 10), 122–123. * ^ Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
Chronicles, pp. 139–141. * ^ Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
Chronicles, pp. 150–151. * ^ Vladimir Moss. "Martyr-Prince Alfred Of England". Archived from the original on 25 February 2007. Retrieved 16 October 2007. * ^ Anglo-Saxon
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Chronicles, pp. 158–160. * ^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, p. 48. * ^ " Bletchingley 1386–1421". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 15 April 2017. * ^ " Reigate 1386–1421". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 15 April 2017. * ^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, pp. 8-10, 62-64, 127-131. * ^ Brandon, A History of Surrey, pp. 15-18, 37-42. * ^ " Reigate 1386–1421". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 15 April 2017. * ^ " Guildford
Guildford
1386–1421". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 15 April 2017. * ^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, pp. 197-198. * ^ "The Day the Cornish Invaded Guildford". The Surrey
Surrey
Advertiser. 2 June 1989. Archived from the original on 21 June 2007. Retrieved 16 October 2007. * ^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, pp. 186-190. * ^ Brandon, A History of Surrey, pp. 55-57. * ^ Glenys and Alan Crocker, Damnable Inventions: Chilworth Gunpowder and the Paper Mills of the Tillingbourne (Guildford: Surrey Industrial History Group 2000), pp. 5-40. * ^ Brandon, A History of Surrey, pp. 51-55, 60-61. * ^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, p. 189. * ^ Brandon, A History of Surrey, pp. 57-58. * ^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, p. 190. * ^ Brandon, History of Surrey, p. 76. * ^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, p. 148. * ^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, p. 148. * ^ Brandon, A History of Surrey, pp. 84-88. * ^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, pp. 247-251. * ^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, pp. 290-291. * ^ Brandon, A History of Surrey, pp. 118-121, 130-131. * ^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, pp. 310-313. * ^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, pp. 274-290. * ^ Nairn, Pevsner and Cherry, The Buildings of England: Surrey, pp. 68-73 * ^ Brandon, A History of Surrey, pp. 104-107. * ^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, pp. 353-355. * ^ Drewett, Rudling and Gardiner, The South East to AD 1000, pp. 157–161. * ^ Dyer, James. Penguin Guide to Prehistoric England
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Surrey
Wildlife Trust reserves * ^ Sharp, Rob (4 June 2004). "Church fears return of Omen curse". The Observer. London. Archived from the original on 21 August 2007. Retrieved 31 August 2007.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* David Bird, Roman Surrey
Surrey
(Stroud: Tempus 2004). * Peter Brandon and Brian Short, The South East from AD 1000 (London and New York: Longman 1990). * Peter Brandon, A History of Surrey
Surrey
(Chichester: Phillimore 1998). * Peter Drewett, David Rudling and Mark Gardiner, The South East to AD 1000 ( London
London
and New York: Longman 1988). * Ian Nairn, Nikolaus Pevsner and Bridget Cherry, The Buildings of England: Surrey
Surrey
(London: Penguin 1962, 2nd ed. 1971). * Michael Swanton (ed. and tr.), The Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
Chronicles (London: Phoenix 2000).

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