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A supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions. Other descriptions for such courts include court of last resort, apex court, and highest (or final) court of appeal. Broadly speaking, the decisions of a supreme court are not subject to further review by any other court. Supreme courts typically function primarily as appellate courts, hearing appeals from decisions of lower trial courts, or from intermediate-level appellate courts.[1] However, not all highest courts are named as such. Civil law states tend not to have a single highest court. Additionally, the highest court in some jurisdictions is not named the "Supreme Court", for example, the High Court
Court
of Australia; this is because decisions by the High Court
Court
could formerly be appealed to the Privy Council. On the other hand, in some places the court named the "Supreme Court" is not in fact the highest court; examples include the New York Supreme Court, the Supreme Courts of several Canadian provinces/territories and the former Supreme Court
Court
of Judicature of England and Wales
England and Wales
and Supreme Court
Court
of Judicature of Northern Ireland, which are all subordinate to higher courts of appeal. Some countries have multiple "supreme courts" whose respective jurisdictions have different geographical extents, or which are restricted to particular areas of law. Some countries with a federal system of government may have both a federal supreme court (such as the Supreme Court
Court
of the United States), and supreme courts for each member state (such as the Supreme Court
Court
of Nevada), with the former having jurisdiction over the latter only to the extent that the federal constitution extends federal law over state law. However, other federations, such as Canada, may have a supreme court of general jurisdiction, able to decide any question of law. Jurisdictions with a civil law system often have a hierarchy of administrative courts separate from the ordinary courts, headed by a supreme administrative court as is the case in the Netherlands. A number of jurisdictions also maintain a separate constitutional court (first developed in the Czechoslovak Constitution
Constitution
of 1920), such as Austria, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Portugal, Russia, Spain
Spain
and South Africa. Within the former British Empire, the highest court within a colony was often called the "Supreme Court", even though appeals could be made from that court to the United Kingdom's Privy Council (based in London). A number of Commonwealth jurisdictions retain this system, but many others have reconstituted their own highest court as a court of last resort, with the right of appeal to the Privy Council being abolished. In jurisdictions using a common law system, the doctrine of stare decisis applies, whereby the principles applied by the supreme court in its decisions are binding upon all lower courts; this is intended to apply a uniform interpretation and implementation of the law. In civil law jurisdictions the doctrine of stare decisis is not generally considered to apply, so the decisions of the supreme court are not necessarily binding beyond the immediate case before it; however, in practice the decisions of the supreme court usually provide a very strong precedent, or jurisprudence constante, for both itself and all lower courts.

Contents

1 Common law
Common law
jurisdictions

1.1 Bangladesh 1.2 Canada 1.3 Hong Kong 1.4 India 1.5 Ireland 1.6 Israel 1.7 Nauru 1.8 New Zealand 1.9 Pakistan 1.10 United Kingdom 1.11 United States

2 Civil law jurisdictions

2.1 Austria 2.2 Brazil 2.3 Croatia 2.4 Denmark 2.5 France 2.6 Germany 2.7 Iceland 2.8 India 2.9 Italy 2.10 Japan 2.11 Luxembourg 2.12 Macau 2.13 Mexico 2.14 The Netherlands 2.15 Philippines 2.16 People's Republic of China 2.17 Portugal 2.18 Republic of China 2.19 Scotland 2.20 Spain 2.21 Sweden 2.22 Switzerland 2.23 Sri Lanka 2.24 South Africa 2.25 Thailand 2.26 United Arab Emirates 2.27 Other civil law jurisdictions

3 Mixed-system jurisdictions

3.1 Indonesia

4 Soviet-model jurisdictions 5 See also 6 Notes and references

Common law
Common law
jurisdictions[edit] Bangladesh[edit] Main article: Supreme Court
Court
of Bangladesh The Supreme Court
Court
of Bangladesh is created by the provisions of the Constitution
Constitution
of Bangladesh, 1972. There are two Divisions of the Supreme Court, i.e. (a) Appellate Division and (b) High Court Division. Appellate Division is the highest Court
Court
of Appeal
Appeal
and usually does not exercise the powers of a court of first instance. Whereas, the High Court
Court
Division is a Court
Court
of first instance in writ/judicial review, company and admiralty matters. Canada[edit] Main article: Supreme Court
Court
of Canada

Supreme Court
Court
of Canada

The Supreme Court
Court
of Canada was established in 1875 but only became the highest court in the country in 1949 when the right of appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council
was abolished. This court hears appeals from the courts of appeal from the provinces and territories, and also appeals from the Federal Court
Court
of Appeal. The Supreme Court
Court
is a "General Court
Court
of Appeal."[2] It can decide any question of law considered by the lower courts, including constitutional law, federal law, and provincial law. The court's decisions are final and binding on the federal courts and the courts from all provinces and territories. The title "Supreme" can be confusing because, for example, the Supreme Court
Court
of British Columbia does not have the final say and controversial cases heard there often get appealed in higher courts - it is in fact one of the lower courts in such a process. Hong Kong[edit] Main articles: High Court
Court
of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Court
Court
of Final Appeal
Appeal
(Hong Kong) In Hong Kong, the Supreme Court
Court
of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(now known as the High Court
Court
of Hong Kong) was the final court of appeal during its colonial times which ended with transfer of sovereignty in 1997. The final adjudication power, as in any other British Colonies, rested with the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council
(JCPC) in London, United Kingdom. Now the power of final adjudication is vested in the Court
Court
of Final Appeal
Appeal
created in 1997. Under the Basic Law, its constitution, the territory remains a common law jurisdiction. Consequently, judges from other common law jurisdictions (including England and Wales) can be recruited and continue to serve in the judiciary according to Article 92 of the Basic Law. On the other hand, the power of interpretation of the Basic Law itself is vested in the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC) in Beijing (without retroactive effect), and the courts are authorised to interpret the Basic Law when trying cases, in accordance with Article 158 of the Basic Law. This arrangement became controversial in light of the right of abode issue in 1999, raising concerns for judicial independence. India[edit]

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Main article: Supreme Court
Court
of India In India, the Supreme Court
Court
of India was created on January 28, 1950 after adoption of the Constitution. Article 141 of the Constitution
Constitution
of India states that the law declared by Supreme Court
Court
is to be binding on all Courts within the territory of India. It is the highest court in India and has ultimate judicial authority to interpret the Constitution
Constitution
and decide questions of national law (including local bylaws). The Supreme Court
Court
is also vested with the power of judicial review to ensure the application of the rule of law. Note that within the constitutional framework of India, Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) has a special status vis-a-vis the other states of India. Article 370 of the Constitution
Constitution
of India carves out certain exceptions for J&K. However, the Constitution
Constitution
(Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order 1954 makes Article 141 applicable to the state of J&K and hence law declared by the Supreme Court
Court
of India is equally applicable to all courts of J&K including the High Court. Ireland[edit] Main article: Supreme Court
Court
of Ireland The Supreme Court
Court
is the highest court in the Republic of Ireland. It has authority to interpret the constitution, and strike down laws and activities of the state that it finds to be unconstitutional. It is also the highest authority in the interpretation of the law. Constitutionally it must have authority to interpret the constitution but its further appellate jurisdiction from lower courts is defined by law. The Irish Supreme Court
Court
consists of its presiding member, the Chief Justice, and seven other judges. Judges of the Supreme Court
Court
are appointed by the President in accordance with the binding advice of the Government. The Supreme Court
Court
sits in the Four Courts
Four Courts
in Dublin. Israel[edit] Main article: Supreme Court
Court
of Israel Israel's Supreme Court
Court
is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel. It is the highest judicial instance. The Supreme Court
Court
sits in Jerusalem. The area of its jurisdiction is the entire State. A ruling of the Supreme Court
Court
is binding upon every court, other than the Supreme Court
Court
itself. The Israeli supreme court is both an appellate court and the high court of justice. As an appellate court, the Supreme Court
Court
considers cases on appeal (both criminal and civil) on judgments and other decisions of the District Courts. It also considers appeals on judicial and quasi-judicial decisions of various kinds, such as matters relating to the legality of Knesset elections and disciplinary rulings of the Bar Association. As the High Court
Court
of Justice (Hebrew: Beit Mishpat Gavoha Le'Zedek בית משפט גבוה לצדק; also known by its initials as Bagatz בג"ץ), the Supreme Court
Court
rules as a court of first instance, primarily in matters regarding the legality of decisions of State authorities: Government decisions, those of local authorities and other bodies and persons performing public functions under the law, and direct challenges to the constitutionality of laws enacted by the Knesset. The court has broad discretionary authority to rule on matters in which it considers it necessary to grant relief in the interests of justice, and which are not within the jurisdiction of another court or tribunal. The High Court
Court
of Justice grants relief through orders such as injunction, mandamus and Habeas Corpus, as well as through declaratory judgments. The Supreme Court
Court
can also sit at a further hearing on its own judgment. In a matter on which the Supreme Court
Court
has ruled - whether as a court of appeals or as the High Court
Court
of Justice - with a panel of three or more justices, it may rule at a further hearing with a panel of a larger number of justices. A further hearing may be held if the Supreme Court
Court
makes a ruling inconsistent with a previous ruling or if the Court
Court
deems that the importance, difficulty or novelty of a ruling of the Court
Court
justifies such hearing. The Supreme Court
Court
also holds the unique power of being able to order "trial de novo" (a retrial). Nauru[edit] Main article: Supreme Court
Court
of Nauru In Nauru, there is no single highest court for all types of cases. The Supreme Court
Court
has final jurisdiction on constitutional matters, but any other case may be appealed further to the Appellate Court. In addition, an agreement between Nauru and Australia
Australia
in 1976 provides for appeals from the Supreme Court
Court
of Nauru to the High Court
Court
of Australia
Australia
in both criminal and civil cases, with the notable exception of constitutional cases.[3][4] New Zealand[edit] Main articles: High Court
Court
of New Zealand and Supreme Court
Court
of New Zealand In New Zealand, the right of appeal to the Privy Council was abolished following the passing of the Supreme Court
Court
Act (2003). A right of appeal to the Privy Council remains for criminal cases which were decided before the Supreme Court
Court
was created, but it is likely that the successful appeal by Mark Lundy to the Privy Council in 2013 will be the last appeal to the Board from New Zealand. The new Supreme Court
Court
of New Zealand was officially established at the beginning of 2004, although it did not come into operation until July. The High Court
Court
of New Zealand was until 1980 known as the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court
Court
has a purely appellate jurisdiction and hears appeals from the Court
Court
of Appeal
Appeal
of New Zealand. In some cases, an appeal may be removed directly to the Supreme Court
Court
from the High Court. For certain cases, particularly cases which commenced in the District Court, a lower court (typically the High Court
Court
or the Court of Appeal) may be the court of final jurisdiction. Pakistan[edit] Main article: Supreme Court
Court
of Pakistan The Supreme Court
Court
has been the apex court for Pakistan
Pakistan
since the declaration of the republic in 1956 (previously the Privy Council had that function). The Supreme Court
Court
has the final say on matters of constitutional law, federal law or on matters of mixed federal and provincial competence. It can hear appeals on matters of provincial competence only if a matter of a constitutional nature is raised. With respect to Pakistan's territories (i.e. FATA, Azad Kashmir, Northern Areas and Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT)) the Supreme Court's jurisdiction is rather limited and varies from territory to territory; it can hear appeals only of a constitutional nature from FATA and Northern Areas, while ICT generally functions the same as provinces. Azad Kashmir has its own courts system and the constitution of Pakistan
Pakistan
does not apply to it as such; appeals from Azad Kashmir relate to its relationship with Pakistan. The provinces have their own courts system, with the High Court
Court
as the apex court, except insofar as where an appeal can go to the Supreme Court
Court
as mentioned above. United Kingdom[edit] Main article: Supreme Court
Court
of the United Kingdom The Supreme Court
Court
of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the ultimate court for criminal and civil matters in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and for civil matters in Scotland. (The supreme court for criminal matters in Scotland is the High Court
Court
of Justiciary.) The Supreme Court
Court
was established by the Constitutional Reform Act 2005
Constitutional Reform Act 2005
with effect from 1 October 2009, replacing and assuming the judicial functions of the House of Lords. Devolution
Devolution
issues under the Scotland Act 1998, Government of Wales Act and Northern Ireland Act were also transferred to the new Supreme Court
Court
by the Constitutional Reform Act, from the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. In respect of Community Law the Supreme Court
Court
is subject to the decisions of the European Court
Court
of Justice. Since there can be no appeal from the Supreme Court, there is an interlocutory procedure by which the Supreme Court
Court
may refer to the European Court
Court
questions of European law which arise in cases before it, and obtain a definitive ruling before the Supreme Court
Court
gives its judgment. The Supreme Court
Court
shares its members and accommodation at the Middlesex Guildhall
Middlesex Guildhall
in London with the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council which hears final appeals from certain smaller Commonwealth countries, admiralty cases, and certain appeals from the ecclesiastical courts and statutory private jurisdictions, such as professional and academic bodies. (The Constitutional Reform Act also renamed the Supreme Court
Court
of Judicature of Northern Ireland to the Court
Court
of Judicature, and the rarely cited Supreme Court
Court
of Judicature for England and Wales
England and Wales
as the Senior Courts of England and Wales). The Supreme Court
Court
was set up in 2009; until then the House of Lords was the ultimate court in addition to being a legislative body, and the Lord Chancellor, with legislative and executive functions, was also a senior judge in the House of Lords. United States[edit] Main article: Supreme Court
Court
of the United States The Supreme Court
Court
of the United States, established in 1789, is the highest federal court in the United States, with powers of judicial review first asserted in Calder v. Bull
Calder v. Bull
(1798) in Justice Iredell's dissenting opinion. The power was later given binding authority by Justice Marshall in Marbury v. Madison
Marbury v. Madison
(1803). There are currently nine seats on the US Supreme Court. Each U.S. state
U.S. state
has its own state supreme court, which is the highest authority interpreting that state's law and administering that state's judiciary. Two states, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and Texas, each have two separate highest courts that hear criminal and civil appellate matters, respectively. In Texas, the state's Court
Court
of Criminal Appeals hears criminal appeals and has sole authority to grant the writ of habeas corpus to a person who has been convicted of a felony, but the Texas
Texas
Supreme Court
Court
also hears appeals in juvenile delinquency matters in additional to civil cases as conventionally defined. Although juvenile cases fall under the Texas
Texas
Family Code and are classified as civil proceedings, they are "quasi-criminal" in nature. In re M.A.F., 966 S.W.2d 448, 450 (Tex. 1998); see In re L.D.C., 400 S.W.3d 572, 574 (Tex. Crim. App. 2013). Although Delaware
Delaware
has a specialized court, the Court
Court
of Chancery, which hears cases in equity and many disputes involving corporate governance because many corporations chose to incorporate in Delaware regardless of where in the United States
United States
their operations and head office may be located, it is not a supreme court because the Delaware Supreme Court
Court
has appellate jurisdiction over it.[5] The official names of state supreme courts vary, as do the titles of its members, which can cause confusion between jurisdictions because one state may use a name for its highest court that another uses for a lower court. In New York, Maryland, and the District of Columbia the highest court is called the Court
Court
of Appeals, a name used by many states for their intermediate appellate courts. Further, trial courts of general jurisdiction in New York are called the Supreme Court, and the intermediate appellate court is called the Supreme Court, Appellate Division. In West Virginia, the highest court of the state is the Supreme Court
Court
of Appeals. In Maine
Maine
and Massachusetts
Massachusetts
the highest court is styled the "Supreme Judicial Court"; the last is the oldest appellate court of continuous operation in the Western Hemisphere. Even within the same jurisdiction, the titles for judicial officeholders can cause confusion. In Texas
Texas
the members of the Supreme Court
Court
and of the 14 intermediate courts of appeals are Justices, while the members of the Court
Court
of Criminal Appeals carry the title Judge, which is also used generically. Judges at the lowest trial-court level are called Justices of the Peace or JPs. Civil law jurisdictions[edit] The Roman law
Roman law
and the Corpus Juris Civilis
Corpus Juris Civilis
are generally held to be the historical model for civil law. From the late 18th century onwards, civil law jurisdictions began to codify their laws, most of all in civil codes. Austria[edit] In Austria, the Austrian Constitution
Constitution
of 1920 (based on a draft by Hans Kelsen) introduced judicial review of legislative acts for their constitutionality. This function is performed by the Constitutional Court
Court
(Verfassungsgerichtshof), which is also charged with the review of administrative acts on whether they violate constitutionally guaranteed rights. Other than that, administrative acts are reviewed by the Administrative Court
Court
(Verwaltungsgerichtshof). The Supreme Court
Court
(Oberste Gerichtshof (OGH)), stands at the top of Austria's system of "ordinary courts" (ordentliche Gerichte) as the final instance in issues of private law and criminal law. Brazil[edit] In Brazil, the Supreme Federal Tribunal
Supreme Federal Tribunal
(Supremo Tribunal Federal) is the highest court. It is both the constitutional court and the court of last resort in Brazilian law. It only reviews cases that may be unconstitutional or final habeas corpus pleads for criminal cases. It also judges, in original jurisdiction, cases involving members of congress, senators, ministers of state, members of the high courts and the President and Vice-President of the Republic. The Superior Court of Justice (Tribunal Superior de Justiça) reviews State and Federal Circuit courts decisions for civil law and criminal law cases, when dealing with federal law or conflicting rulings. The Superior Labour Tribunal (Tribunal Superior do Trabalho) reviews cases involving labour law. The Superior Electoral Tribunal (Tribunal Superior Eleitoral) is the court of last resort of electoral law, and also oversees general elections. The Superior Military Tribunal (Tribunal Superior Militar) is the highest court in matters of federal military law. Croatia[edit] In Croatia, the supreme jurisdiction is given to the Supreme Court, which secures a uniform application of laws. The Constitutional Court exists to verify constitutionality of laws and regulations, as well as decide on individual complaints on decisions on governmental bodies. It also decides on jurisdictional disputes between the legislative, executive and judicial branches. Denmark[edit] In Denmark, all ordinary courts have original jurisdiction to hear all types of cases, including cases of a constitutional or administrative nature. As a result, there exists no special constitutional court, and therefore final jurisdiction is vested with the Danish Supreme Court (Højesteret) which was established 14 February 1661 by king Frederik III. France[edit] In France, supreme appellate jurisdiction is divided among three judicial bodies:

for judicial cases, i.e., civil or criminal matters: Court
Court
of Cassation (Cour de cassation) for administrative cases: Council of State (Conseil d'État) constitutional challenges of statutory laws: Constitutional Council (Conseil constitutionnel)

When there is jurisdictional dispute between judicial and administrative courts: the Court
Court
of Arbitration (Tribunal des conflits), which is empanelled half from the Court
Court
of Cassation and half from the Council of State and presided over by the Minister of Justice, is called together to settle the dispute or hand down a final decision. The High Court
Court
(Haute Cour) exists only to impeach the President of the French Republic in case of "breach of his duties patently incompatible with his continuing in office". Since a constitutional amendment of 2007, the French Constitution
Constitution
states that the High Court is composed of all members of both Houses of Parliament. As of 2012, it has never been convened. Germany[edit] In Germany, there is no de jure single supreme court. Instead, cases are handled by numerous federal courts, depending on their nature. Final interpretation of the German Constitution, the Grundgesetz, is the task of the Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court), which is the de facto highest German court, as it can declare both federal and state legislation ineffective, and has the power to overrule decisions of all other federal courts, despite not being a regular court of appeals on itself in the German court system. It is also the only court possessing the power and authority to outlaw political parties, if it is deemed that these parties have repeatedly violated articles of the Constitution. When it comes to civil and criminal cases, the Bundesgerichtshof (Federal Court
Court
of Justice) is at the top of the hierarchy of courts. The other branches of the German judicial system each have their own appellate systems, each topped by a high court; these are the Bundessozialgericht (Federal Social Court) for matters of social security, the Bundesarbeitsgericht (Federal Labour Court) for employment and labour, the Bundesfinanzhof (Federal Fiscal Court) for taxation and financial issues, and the Bundesverwaltungsgericht (Federal Administrative Court) for administrative law. The so-called Gemeinsamer Senat der Obersten Gerichtshöfe (Joint Senate of the Supreme Courts) is not a supreme court in itself, but an ad-hoc body that is convened in only when one supreme court intends to diverge from another supreme court's legal opinion or when a certain case exceeds the authority of one court. As the courts have well-defined areas of responsibility, situations like these are rather rare and so, the Joint Senate gathers very infrequently, and only to consider matters which are mostly definitory. Iceland[edit] The Supreme Court
Court
of Iceland (Icelandic: Hæstiréttur Íslands, lit. Highest Court
Court
of Iceland) was founded under Act No. 22/1919 and held its first session on 16 February 1920. The Court
Court
holds the highest judicial power in Iceland, where the court system has two levels.[6] India[edit] The Supreme Court
Court
of India, also known colloquially as the 'apex court', is the highest judicial body in the Republic of India. Any decision taken by it is final and binding, and can only be modified in some cases (death sentence, etc.) by the President of India. It has several jurisdiction like 1. Original 2.Appellate 3. Advisory It is also known as court of records, i. e. all judgements are recorded and printed. These are cited in lower courts as case - law in various cases. Italy[edit] Italy
Italy
follows the French system of different supreme courts. The Italian court of last resort for most disputes is the Corte Suprema di Cassazione. There is also a separate constitutional court, the Corte costituzionale, which has a duty of judicial review, and which can strike down legislation as being in conflict with the Constitution. Japan[edit] In Japan, the Supreme Court
Court
of Japan is called 最高裁判所 (Saikō-Saibansho; called 最高裁 Saikō-Sai for short), located in Chiyoda, Tokyo, and is the highest court in Japan. It has ultimate judicial authority within Japan to interpret the Constitution
Constitution
and decide questions of national law (including local by laws). It has the power of judicial review (i.e., it can declare Acts of Diet and Local Assembly, and administrative actions, unconstitutional). Luxembourg[edit] In Luxembourg, challenges on the conformity of the law to the Constitution
Constitution
are brought before the Cour Constitutionnelle (Constitutional Court). — The most used and common procedure to present these challenges is by way of the "question préjudicielle" (prejudicial question). The Court
Court
of last resort for civil and criminal proceedings is the "Cour de Cassation". For administrative proceedings the highest court is the "Cour Administrative" (Administrative Court). Macau[edit] The supreme court of Macau
Macau
is the Court
Court
of Final Appeal
Appeal
(Portuguese: Tribunal de Última Instância; Chinese: 澳門終審法院). Mexico[edit] The Supreme Court
Court
of Justice of the Nation (Spanish: Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación) is the highest court in Mexico. The Netherlands[edit] Main article: Supreme Court
Court
of the Netherlands In the Netherlands, the Supreme Court
Court
of the Netherlands is the highest court. Its decisions, known as "arresten", are absolutely final. The court is banned from testing legislation against the constitution, pursuant to the principle of the sovereignty of the States-General; the court can, however, test legislation against some treaties. Also, the ordinary courts in the Netherlands, including the Hoge Raad, do not deal with administrative law, which is dealt with in separate administrative courts, the highest of which is the Council of State (Raad van State) Philippines[edit] While the Philippines is generally considered a civil law nation, its Supreme Court
Court
is heavily modelled after the American Supreme Court. This can be attributed to the fact that the Philippines was colonized by both Spain
Spain
and the United States, and the system of laws of both nations strongly influenced the development of Philippine laws and jurisprudence. Even as the body of Philippine laws remain mostly codified, the Philippine Civil Code expressly recognizes that decisions of the Supreme Court
Court
"form part of the law of the land", belonging to the same class as statutes. The 1987 Philippine Constitution
Constitution
also explicitly grants to the Supreme Court
Court
the power of judicial review over laws and executive actions. The Supreme Court
Court
is composed of 1 Chief Justice and 14 Associate Justices. The court sits either en banc or in divisions, depending on the nature of the case to be decided. People's Republic of China[edit] In the judicial system of mainland China the highest court of appeal is the Supreme People's Court. This supervises the administration of justice by all subordinate "local" and "special" people's courts, and is the court of last resort for the whole People's Republic of China except for Macau
Macau
and Hong Kong Portugal[edit] In Portugal, there are several supreme courts, each with a specific jurisdiction:

The Supreme Court
Court
of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de Justiça) - for judicial (civil and criminal) matters; The Constitutional Court
Court
(Tribunal Constitucional) - for the constitutional matters; The Supreme Administrative Court
Court
(Supremo Tribunal Administrativo) - for administrative and fiscal matters; The Court
Court
of Auditors (Tribunal de Contas) - for auditing the public expenditure.

Until 2003, a fifth supreme court also existed for the military jurisdiction, this being the Supreme Military Court
Court
(Supremo Tribunal Militar). Presently, in time of peace, the supreme court for military justice matters is the Supreme Court
Court
of Justice, which now includes four military judges. Republic of China[edit] In the Republic of China
Republic of China
(Taiwan), there are three different courts of last resort:

Supreme Court
Court
of the Republic of China
Republic of China
(中華民國最高法院): civil and criminal cases. Supreme Administrative Court
Court
of the Republic of China (中華民國最高行政法院): executive cases. Council of Grand Justices
Council of Grand Justices
(大法官會議): interpretation of the Constitution, interpretation of laws and regulations, dissolution of political parties in violation of the Constitution, trial of impeachments against the President or Vice President.

The Council of Grand Justices, consisting of 15 justices and mainly dealing with constitutional issues, is the counterpart of constitutional courts in some countries. All three courts are directly under the Judicial Yuan, whose president also serves as Chief Justice in the Council of Grand Justices. Scotland[edit] Main article: College of Justice Founded by papal bull in 1532, the Court
Court
of Session is the supreme civil court of Scotland, and the High Court
Court
of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court. However, the absolute highest court (excluding criminal matters) is the Supreme Court
Court
of the United Kingdom. Spain[edit] Main article: Supreme Court
Court
of Spain Spanish Supreme Court
Court
is the highest court for all cases in Spain (both private and public). Only those cases related to human rights can be appealed at the Constitutional Court
Court
(which also decides about acts accordance with Spanish Constitution). In Spain, high courts cannot create binding precedents;[7] however, lower rank courts usually observe Supreme Court
Court
interpretations. In most private law cases, two Supreme Court
Court
judgements supporting a claim are needed to appeal at the Supreme Court.[8] Five sections form the Spanish Supreme court:

Section one judges private law cases (including commercial law). Section two decides about criminal appeals. Section three judges administrative cases and controls government normative powers. Section four is dedicated to labour law. Section five is dedicated to military justice.

Sweden[edit] In Sweden, the Supreme Court
Court
and the Supreme Administrative Court respectively function as the highest courts of the land. The Supreme Administrative Court
Court
considers cases concerning disputes between individuals and administrative organs, as well as disputes among administrative organs, while the Supreme Court
Court
considers all other cases. The judges are appointed by the Government. In most cases, the Supreme Courts will only grant leave to appeal a case (prövningstillstånd) if the case involves setting a precedent in the interpretation of the law. Exceptions are issues where the Supreme Court
Court
is the court of first instance. Such cases include an application for a retrial of a criminal case in the light of new evidence, and prosecutions made against an incumbent minister of the Government for severe neglect of duty. If a lower court has to try a case which involves a question where there is no settled interpretation of the law, it can also refer the question to the relevant Supreme Court
Court
for an answer. Switzerland[edit] In Switzerland, the Federal Supreme Court
Court
of Switzerland[9] is the final court of appeals. Due to Switzerland's system of direct democracy, it has no authority to review the constitutionality of federal statutes, but the people can strike down a proposed law by referendum. According to settled case law, however, the Court
Court
is authorised to review the compliance of all Swiss law with certain categories of international law, especially the European Convention of Human Rights. Sri Lanka[edit] In Sri Lanka, the Supreme Court
Court
of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
was created in 1972 after the adoption of a new Constitution. The Supreme Court
Court
is the highest and final superior court of record and is empowered to exercise its powers, subject to the provisions of the Constitution. The court rulings take precedence over all lower Courts. The Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
judicial system is complex blend of both common-law and civil-law. In some cases such as capital punishment, the decision may be passed on to the President of the Republic for clemency petitions. However, when there is 2/3 majority in the parliament in favour of president (as with present), the supreme court and its judges' powers become nullified as they could be fired from their positions according to the Constitution, if the president wants. Therefore, in such situations, Civil law empowerment vanishes. South Africa[edit] In South Africa, a "two apex" system existed from 1994 to 2013. The Supreme Court
Court
of Appeal
Appeal
(SCA) was created in 1994 and replaced the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court
Court
of South Africa as the highest court of appeal in non-constitutional matters. The SCA is subordinate to the Constitutional Court, which is the highest court in matters involving the interpretation and application of the Constitution. But in August 2013 the Constitution
Constitution
was amended to make the Constitutional Court
Court
the country's single apex court, superior to the SCA in all matters, both constitutional and non-constitutional. Thailand[edit] Historically, citizens appealed directly to the King along his route to places out of the Palace. A Thai King
Thai King
would adjudicate all disputes. During the reign of King Chulalongkorn, an official department for appeals was set up, and, after Thailand adopted a western-styled government, Thai Supreme Court
Court
was established in 1891. At present, the Supreme Court
Court
of Thailand retains the important status as the highest court of justice in the country. Operating separately from the Administrative Court
Court
and the Constitutional Court, the judgement of the Supreme Court
Court
is considered as final. United Arab Emirates[edit] In the United Arab Emirates, the Federal Supreme Court
Court
of the United Arab Emirates was created in 1973 after the adoption of the Constitution. The Supreme Court
Court
is the highest and final superior court of record and is empowered to exercise its powers, subject to the provisions of the Constitution. The court rulings take precedence over all lower Courts. The Emirati judicial system is complex blend of both Islamic law and civil law. In some cases such as capital punishment, the decision may be passed on to the President of the country (currently Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan).[10] Other civil law jurisdictions[edit]

For Honduras, see Supreme Court
Court
of Honduras. For Peru, see Supreme Court
Court
of Peru. For Poland, see Supreme Court
Court
of the Republic of Poland. For Romania, see High Court
Court
of Cassation and Justice. For Uganda, see Supreme Court
Court
of Uganda For Ukraine, see Supreme Court
Court
of Ukraine. For Vietnam, see Supreme People's Court
Court
of Vietnam.

Mixed-system jurisdictions[edit] Indonesia[edit] Law of Indonesia
Law of Indonesia
at the national level is based on a combination of civil law from the tradition of Roman-Dutch law and customary law from the tradition of Adat.[11] Law in regional jurisdictions can vary from province to province, including even Sharia
Sharia
law,[12] for example Islamic criminal law in Aceh, though even at the national level, individual justices can cite sharia or other forms of non-Dutch law in their legal opinions. The Supreme Court
Court
of Indonesia is the main judicial arm of the state, functioning as the final court of appeal as well as a means to re-open cases previously closed. The Supreme Court, which consists of a total of 51 justices, also oversees the regional high courts. It was founded at the country's independence in 1945. The Constitutional Court
Court
of Indonesia, on the other hand, is a part of the judicial branch tasked with review of bills and government actions for constitutionality, as well as regulation of the interactions between various arms of the state. The constitutional amendment to establish the court was passed in 2001, and the court itself was established in 2003.[13] The Constitutional Court
Court
consists of nine justices serving nine year terms, and they're appointed in tandem by the Supreme Court, the President of Indonesia
President of Indonesia
and the People's Representative Council.[14] Soviet-model jurisdictions[edit] In most nations with constitutions modelled after the Soviet Union, the legislature was given the power of being the court of last resort. In the People's Republic of China, the final power to interpret the law is vested in the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC). This power includes the power to interpret the basic laws of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau, the constitutional documents of the two special administrative regions which are common law and Portuguese-based legal system jurisdictions respectively. This power is a legislative power and not a judicial one in that an interpretation by the NPCSC does not affect cases which have already been decided. See also[edit]

Constitutionalism Independence of the judiciary Judiciary List of national supreme courts Separation of powers

Notes and references[edit]

^ " Supreme court
Supreme court
- Define Supreme court
Supreme court
at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com.  ^ Constitution
Constitution
Act, 1867, s. 101. ^ "Nauru: Courts & Judgments", United States
United States
Department of State ^ Agreement between the Government of Australia
Australia
and the Government of the Republic of Nauru relating to Appeals to the High Court
Court
of Australia
Australia
from the Supreme Court
Court
of Nauru, 1976 ^ "Overview of the Delaware
Delaware
Court
Court
System". Delaware
Delaware
Judicial Information Center. Retrieved 2009-12-19.  ^ "Hæstiréttur Íslands". haestirettur.is.  ^ Spanish Civil Code, article 1 ^ Pablo Contreras, Pedro de (ed.). "Curso de Derecho Civil (I)". Colex 2008, p. 167, 168 and 175 ^ "The Judiciary: The Federal Supreme Court". Government of Switzerland. Retrieved 2010-11-14.  ^ Administrator, System. "Reem Island murder: 'Ghost' executed". Emirates 247. Retrieved 2016-05-24.  ^ Alphabetical Index of the 192 United Nations Member States and Corresponding Legal Systems. University of Ottawa Faculty of Law
University of Ottawa Faculty of Law
World Legal Systems Research Group. Accessed 8 February 2017. ^ Indonesia - Freedom in the World 2012. Freedom House. Accessed 8 February 2017. ^ Constitutional Court
Court
Website: History of The Constitution
Constitution
Court accessed 17 May 2009 ^ Ina Parlina and Margareth S Aritonang, 'House begins selection of new Constitutional Court
Court
justice', The Jakarta Post, 28 February 2013.

Authority control

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