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Superman
Superman
is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by writer Jerry Siegel and artist Joe Shuster, high school students living in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1933. They sold Superman
Superman
to Detective Comics, the future DC Comics, in 1938. Superman
Superman
debuted in Action Comics
Action Comics
#1 (cover-dated June 1938) and subsequently appeared in various radio serials, newspaper strips, television programs, films, and video games. With this success, Superman
Superman
helped to create the superhero archetype and establish its primacy within the American comic book.[2] The character is also referred to by such epithets as the Big Blue Boy Scout, the Man of Steel, the Man of Tomorrow, the Last Son of Krypton, and the Greatest Hero of All Time.[3] The origin story of Superman
Superman
relates that he was born Kal-El on the planet Krypton, before being rocketed to Earth
Earth
as an infant by his scientist father Jor-El, moments before Krypton's destruction. Discovered and adopted by a farm couple from Kansas, the child is raised as Clark Kent
Clark Kent
and imbued with a strong moral compass. Early in his childhood, he displays various superhuman abilities, which, upon reaching maturity, he resolves to use for the benefit of humanity through a "Superman" identity. Superman
Superman
resides and operates in the fictional American city of Metropolis. As Clark Kent, he is a journalist for the Daily Planet, a Metropolis newspaper. Superman's love interest is Lois Lane, and his archenemy is the supervillain Lex Luthor. A close ally of Batman
Batman
and Wonder Woman, he is typically depicted as a member of the Justice League. Like other characters in the DC Universe, several alternative versions of Superman
Superman
have been characterized over the years. Superman's appearance is distinctive and iconic; he usually wears a blue costume with a red-and-yellow emblem on the chest, consisting of the letter S in a shield shape, and a red cape. This shield is used in many media to symbolize the character. Superman
Superman
is widely considered an American cultural icon.[2][4][5][6] Superman
Superman
is a hero that reflects the potential in all of us for greatness; a beacon of light in times that are grim and a glimmer of hope for the hopeless.[7] He has fascinated scholars, with cultural theorists, commentators, and critics alike exploring the character's role and impact in the United States and worldwide. The character's ownership has often been the subject of dispute, with Siegel and Shuster twice suing for the return of rights. The character has been portrayed in many media adaptations as well, including films, television series, and video games. Several actors have played Superman
Superman
in motion pictures and TV series including Bud Collyer, Kirk Alyn, George Reeves, Christopher Reeve, Dean Cain, Tim Daly, Tom Welling, Brandon Routh, Henry Cavill, and Tyler Hoechlin.

Contents

1 Creation and conception

1.1 Influences

2 Publication history

2.1 Comic books and comic strips 2.2 Creative management 2.3 Aesthetic style

3 Copyright battles

3.1 Ownership lawsuits 3.2 Copyright infringement lawsuits

4 Fictional character biography

4.1 Personality 4.2 Age and birthday 4.3 Other versions

5 Powers and abilities 6 Supporting characters

6.1 Allies 6.2 Enemies

7 Cultural impact

7.1 Merchandising 7.2 In other media 7.3 Musical references, parodies, and homages 7.4 Literary analysis 7.5 Critical reception and popularity

8 See also 9 Footnotes 10 Bibliography 11 Further reading 12 External links

Creation and conception

"The Reign of the Superman" from Siegel's Science Fiction #3 (January 1933)

In January 1933, Cleveland
Cleveland
high school student[8] Jerry Siegel
Jerry Siegel
wrote a short story, illustrated by his friend and classmate Joe Shuster, titled "The Reign of the Superman", which Siegel self-published in his fanzine, Science Fiction. The titular character is a vagrant who gains vast psychic powers from an experimental drug and uses them maliciously for profit and amusement, only to lose them and become a vagrant again, ashamed that he will be remembered only as a villain.[9] Siegel's fanzine did not sell well. Siegel and Shuster shifted to making comic strips, which they self-published in a book they called Popular Comics. The pair dreamed of becoming professional authors and believed that syndicated newspaper strips offered more lucrative and stable work than pulp magazines. The art quality standards were also lower, making them more accessible to the inexperienced Shuster.[10] In early 1933 or in 1934,[11] Siegel developed a new character, also named Superman, but now a heroic character, which Siegel felt would be more marketable.[12] This first prototype of Superman
Superman
had no fantastic abilities and wore casual clothing. Siegel and Shuster often compared this version to Slam Bradley, a comics character they created in 1936.[13][14] Siegel shared his idea with Shuster and they decided to turn it into a comic strip. The first publisher they solicited was Humor Publishing in Chicago, after having read one of their comic books, Detective Dan.[15][16][17] A representative of Humor Publishing was due to visit Cleveland
Cleveland
on a business trip and so Siegel and Shuster hastily put together a comic story titled "The Superman" and presented it to the publisher.[18] Although Humor showed interest, it pulled out of the comics business before any book deal could be made.[19]

Inked cover of The Superman, a rejected 1933 comic story proposal by Siegel and Shuster

Siegel believed publishers kept rejecting them because he and Shuster were young and unknown, so he looked for an established artist to replace Shuster.[20] When Siegel told Shuster what he was doing, Shuster reacted by burning their rejected Superman
Superman
comic, sparing only the cover.[21][22] Siegel solicited multiple artists[20][23] and in 1934 Russell Keaton,[23] who worked on the Buck Rogers comic strip, responded. In nine sample strips Keaton produced based on Siegel's treatment, the Superman
Superman
character further evolves: In the distant future, when Earth is on the verge of exploding due to "giant cataclysms", the last surviving man sends his child back in time to the year 1935, where he is adopted by Sam and Molly Kent. The boy exhibits superhuman strength and bulletproof skin, and the Kents teach the child, whom they name Clark, to use his powers for good.[24][25] However, the newspaper syndicates rejected their work and Keaton abandoned the project.[26] Siegel and Shuster reconciled and resumed developing Superman. The character became an alien from the planet Krypton with the now-familiar costume: tights with an "S" on the chest, over-shorts, and a cape.[27][28][29] They made Clark Kent
Clark Kent
a journalist who pretends to be timid, and introduced his colleague Lois Lane, who is attracted to the bold and mighty Superman, but does not realize he and Kent are the same person.[30] Siegel and Shuster entered the comics field professionally in 1935, producing detective and adventure stories for the New York-based comic-book publisher National Allied Publications. Although National expressed interest in Superman,[31] Siegel and Shuster wanted to sell Superman
Superman
as a syndicated comic strip, but the newspaper syndicates all turned them down.[32] Max Gaines, who worked at McClure Newspaper Syndicate, suggested they show their work to Detective Comics (which had recently bought out National Allied).[33] Siegel recalled, In March 1938, Siegel and Shuster sold all rights to the character to Detective Comics, Inc.[34] for $130 (ten dollars per page, the equivalent of $2,300 when adjusted for inflation).[35][36] It was the company's policy to buy the full rights to the characters it published.[37] By this time, they had resigned themselves that Superman
Superman
would never be a success, and with this deal they would at least see their character finally published.[38] Influences Siegel and Shuster read pulp science-fiction and adventure magazines, and many stories featured characters with extraordinary powers such as telepathy, clairvoyance, and superhuman strength. An influence was Edgar Rice Burroughs' John Carter of Mars, a human who was displaced to Mars, where the low gravity makes him stronger than the natives and allows him to leap great distances.[39] Which were essentially the same kind of powers Superman
Superman
had on earth in the early days of the comic.[40] While it is widely assumed that the 1930 Philip Wylie
Philip Wylie
novel Gladiator, featuring a protagonist, Hugo Danner, with similar powers, was an inspiration for Superman,[41][42] Siegel denied this.[43]

Douglas Fairbanks
Douglas Fairbanks
(left) and Harold Lloyd
Harold Lloyd
(right) influenced the look of Superman
Superman
and Clark Kent, respectively.

Siegel and Shuster were also avid moviegoers.[44] Shuster based Superman's stance and devil-may-care attitude on that of Douglas Fairbanks, who starred in adventure films such as The Mark of Zorro and Robin Hood.[45] The name of Superman's home city, Metropolis, was taken from the 1927 film of the same name.[44] Popeye
Popeye
cartoons were also an influence.[46] The persona of Clark Kent
Clark Kent
was inspired by slapstick comedian Harold Lloyd. Lloyd wore glasses and often played gentle characters who were abused by bullies, but later in the story would snap and fight back furiously. Shuster, who also wore glasses and described himself as "mild-mannered", found Lloyd's characters relatable.[47] Kent is a journalist, because Siegel often imagined himself becoming one after leaving school. The inclusion of a romantic subplot with Lois Lane
Lois Lane
was inspired by Siegel's own awkwardness with girls.[48] The pair collected comic strips in their youth, with a favorite being Winsor McCay's fantastical Little Nemo.[44] Shuster remarked on the artists which played an important part in the development of his own style: " Alex Raymond
Alex Raymond
and Burne Hogarth
Burne Hogarth
were my idols – also Milt Caniff, Hal Foster, and Roy Crane."[44] Shuster taught himself to draw by tracing over the art in the strips and magazines they collected.[19] As a boy, Shuster was obsessed with fitness culture[46] and a fan of strongmen such as Siegmund Breitbart
Siegmund Breitbart
and Joseph Greenstein. He collected fitness magazines and manuals and used their photographs as visual references for his art.[19] The visual design of Superman
Superman
came from multiple influences. The tight-fitting suit and shorts were inspired by the costumes of wrestlers, boxers, and strongmen. Shuster first gave Superman
Superman
laced sandals like those of strongmen and classical heroes.[49] The emblem on his chest may have been inspired by the uniforms of athletic teams. Many pulp action heroes such as swashbucklers wore capes. Superman's face was based on Johnny Weissmuller's.[19] The word "superman" was commonly used in the 1920s and 1930s to describe men of great ability, most often athletes and politicians.[50] It occasionally appeared in pulp fiction stories as well, such as "The Superman
Superman
of Dr. Jukes"[51] and Doc Savage.[52] It is unclear whether Siegel and Shuster were influenced by Friedrich Nietzsche's concept of the Übermensch;[53] they never acknowledged as much.[54] Publication history See also: Publication history of Superman, Superman
Superman
(comic strip), List of Superman
Superman
comics, and Superman
Superman
(franchise) Comic books and comic strips Superman
Superman
debuted as the cover feature of the anthology Action Comics #1 (cover-dated June 1938 and published on April 18, 1938).[55] The series was an immediate success,[56] and reader feedback showed it was because of the Superman
Superman
character.[57] In June 1939, Detective Comics began a sister series, Superman, dedicated exclusively to the character.[58] Action Comics
Action Comics
eventually became dedicated to Superman stories too, and both it and Superman
Superman
have been published without interruption since 1938 (ignoring changes to the titles and numbering).[59][60] A large number of other series and miniseries have been published as well.[61] Superman
Superman
has also appeared as a regular or semi-regular character in a number of superhero team series, such as Justice League
Justice League
of America and World's Finest Comics, and in spin-off series such as Supergirl. Sales of Action Comics
Action Comics
and Superman
Superman
declined steadily from the 1950s,[62][63] but rose again starting in 1987. Superman
Superman
#75 (Nov 1992) sold over 6 million copies, making it the best-selling issue of a comic book of all time,[64] thanks to a media sensation over the possibly permanent death of the character in that issue.[65] Sales declined from that point on. In February 2016, Action Comics sold just over 31,000 copies.[66] The comic books are today considered a niche aspect of the Superman
Superman
franchise due to low readership.[67] Beginning in January 1939, a Superman
Superman
daily comic strip appeared in newspapers, syndicated through the McClure Syndicate. A color Sunday version was added that November. The Sunday strips had a narrative continuity separate from the daily strips, possibly because Siegel had to delegate the Sunday strips to ghostwriters.[68] By 1941, the newspaper strips had an estimated readership of 20 million.[69] Shuster drew the early strips, then passed the job to Wayne Boring.[70] From 1949 to 1956, the newspaper strips were drawn by Win Mortimer.[71] The strip ended in May 1966, but was revived from 1977 to 1983 to coincide with a series of movies released by Warner Bros.[72] After Shuster left National, Boring also succeeded him as the principal artist on Superman
Superman
comic books.[73] He redrew Superman taller and more detailed.[74] Around 1955, Curt Swan
Curt Swan
in turn succeeded Boring.[75] Creative management Initially, Siegel was allowed to write Superman
Superman
more or less as he saw fit,[76] because nobody had anticipated the success and rapid expansion of the franchise.[77] But soon Siegel and Shuster's work was put under careful oversight for fear of trouble with censors.[78] Siegel was forced to tone down the violence and social crusading that characterized his early stories.[79] Editor Whitney Ellsworth, hired in 1940, dictated that Superman
Superman
not kill.[80] Sexuality was banned, and colorfully outlandish villains such as Ultra-Humanite
Ultra-Humanite
and Toyman were thought to be less nightmarish for young readers.[81] Mort Weisinger
Mort Weisinger
was the editor on Superman
Superman
comics from 1941 to 1970, his tenure briefly interrupted by military service. Siegel and his fellow writers had developed the character with little thought of building a coherent mythology, but as the number of Superman
Superman
titles and the pool of writers grew, Weisinger demanded a more disciplined approach.[82] Weisinger assigned story ideas, and the logic of Superman's powers, his origin, the locales, and his relationships with his growing cast of supporting characters were carefully planned. Elements such as Bizarro, Supergirl, the Phantom Zone, alternate varieties of kryptonite, robot doppelgangers, and Krypto
Krypto
were introduced. The complicated universe built under Weisinger was beguiling to devoted readers, but alienating to casuals.[83] Weisinger favored lighthearted stories over serious drama, and avoided sensitive subjects such as the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
and the civil rights movement, because he feared his right-wing views would alienate his writing staff and readers.[84] Weisinger also introduced letters columns in 1958 to encourage feedback and build intimacy with readers.[85] Superman
Superman
was the best-selling comic book character of the 1960s.[86][87] Weisinger retired in 1970 and Julius Schwartz took over. By his own admission, Weisinger had grown out of touch with newer readers.[88] Schwartz updated Superman
Superman
by removing overused plot elements such as kryptonite and robot doppelgangers and making Clark Kent
Clark Kent
a television anchor.[89] Schwartz also scaled Superman's powers down to a level closer to Siegel's original. These changes would eventually be reversed by later writers. Schwartz allowed stories with serious drama, as in "For the Man Who Has Everything" ( Superman
Superman
Annual #11), in which the villain Mongul
Mongul
torments Superman
Superman
with an illusion of happy family life on a living Krypton. Schwartz retired from DC Comics
DC Comics
in 1986, and was succeeded by Mike Carlin as editor on Superman
Superman
comics His retirement coincided with DC Comics' decision to streamline the shared continuity called the DC Universe with the companywide-crossover storyline "Crisis on Infinite Earths". Writer John Byrne rewrote the Superman
Superman
mythos, again reducing Superman's powers, which writers had slowly re-strengthened, and revised many supporting characters, such as making Lex Luthor
Lex Luthor
a billionaire industrialist rather than a mad scientist, and making Supergirl
Supergirl
an artificial shapeshifting organism, because DC wanted Superman
Superman
to be the sole surviving Kryptonian. Carlin was promoted to Executive Editor for the DC Universe
DC Universe
books in 1996, a position he held until 2002. K.C. Carlson took his place as editor of the Superman
Superman
comics. The 1940s radio serial was produced by Robert Maxwell and Allen Ducovny, who were employees of Superman, Inc. and Detective Comics, respectively.[90][91] Robert Maxwell was later hired to produce the TV show starring George Reeves. DC Comics
DC Comics
(then known as National Comics Publications) felt that the first season was too violent for what they expected to be a children's show, so they removed Maxwell and replaced him with Whitney Ellsworth, a veteran writer and editor at National Comics.[92] DC Comics
DC Comics
had approval rights over all creative aspects of the Superboy
Superboy
TV series (1988–1992), from scripts to casting to shooting revisions.[93] The first three movies starring Christopher Reeve
Christopher Reeve
were produced by Alexander and Ilya Salkind. When Warner Bros sold the movie rights to Superman
Superman
to the Salkinds in 1974, it demanded control over the budget and the casting, but left everything else to the producers' discretion.[94] These movies influenced future stories, with the Salkinds insisting Clark Kent
Clark Kent
be a newspaper journalist, in order to appeal to older fans.[95] Kent left his TV anchor job and returned to the Daily Planet. Innovations such as John Barry's crystalline set designs for Krypton and the Fortress of Solitude, Superman's chest emblem being his family crest, and screenwriter Mario Puzo's messianic themes were also adopted by the comics' writers.[citation needed] Aesthetic style In the earlier decades of Superman
Superman
comics, artists were expected to conform to a certain "house style".[96] Joe Shuster
Joe Shuster
defined the aesthetic style of Superman
Superman
in the 1940s, and not just in the comics: he also provided character model sheets for the Fleischer and Famous animated serial of the 1940s.[97] After Shuster left National, Wayne Boring succeeded him as the principal artist on Superman
Superman
comic books.[73] He redrew Superman
Superman
taller and more detailed.[74] Around 1955, Curt Swan
Curt Swan
in turn succeeded Boring.[75] The 1980s saw a boom in the diversity of comic book art and now there is no single "house style" in Superman
Superman
comics.[98] Copyright battles Ownership lawsuits Main article: Superman
Superman
ownership disputes Siegel wrote most of the comic-book and daily newspaper stories until he was conscripted in 1943.[99] While Siegel was serving in Hawaii, Detective Comics introduced a child version of Superman
Superman
called "Superboy", based on a concept Siegel had submitted several years before. Siegel was furious, because Detective did this without having bought the character.[100] After Siegel's discharge from the Army, he and Shuster sued Detective Comics in 1947 for the rights to Superman and Superboy. The judge ruled that the March 1938 sale of Superman
Superman
was binding, but that Superboy
Superboy
was a separate entity that rightfully belonged to Siegel. Siegel and Shuster settled out-of-court with Detective, which paid the pair $94,000 ($960,000 when adjusted for inflation) in exchange for the full rights to both Superman
Superman
and Superboy.[101] Detective then fired Siegel and Shuster.[102] In 1969, Siegel and Shuster attempted to regain rights to Superman using the renewal option in the Copyright Act of 1909, but the court ruled Siegel and Shuster had transferred the renewal rights to Detective Comics in 1938. Siegel and Shuster appealed, but the appeals court upheld this decision. Detective had re-hired Siegel as a writer in 1957, but fired him again when he filed this second lawsuit. In 1975, Siegel and a number of other comic book writers and artists launched a public campaign for better compensation and treatment of comic creators. Warner Brothers agreed to give Siegel and Shuster a yearly stipend, full medical benefits, and credit their names in all future Superman
Superman
productions in exchange for never contesting ownership of Superman. Siegel and Shuster upheld this bargain.[19] Shuster died in 1992. DC Comics
DC Comics
offered Shuster's heirs a stipend in exchange for never challenging ownership of Superman, which they accepted for some years.[101] Siegel died in 1996. His heirs attempted to take the rights to Superman
Superman
using the termination provision of the Copyright Act of 1976. DC Comics
DC Comics
negotiated an agreement wherein it would pay the Siegel heirs several million dollars and a yearly stipend of $500,000 in exchange for permanently granting DC the rights to Superman. DC Comics also agreed to insert the line "By Special
Special
Arrangement with the Jerry Siegel Family" in all future Superman
Superman
productions.[103] The Siegels accepted DC's offer in an October 2001 letter.[101] Copyright lawyer and movie producer Marc Toberoff then struck a deal with the heirs of both Siegel and Shuster to help them get the rights to Superman
Superman
in exchange for signing the rights over to his production company, Pacific Pictures. Both groups accepted. The Siegel heirs called off their deal with DC Comics
DC Comics
and in 2004 sued DC for the rights to Superman
Superman
and Superboy. In 2008, the judge ruled in favor of the Siegels. DC Comics
DC Comics
appealed the decision, and the appeals court ruled in favored of DC, arguing that the October 2001 letter was binding. In 2003, the Shuster heirs served a termination notice for Shuster's grant of his half of the copyright to Superman. DC Comics sued the Shuster heirs in 2010, and the court ruled in DC's favor on the grounds that the 1992 agreement with the Shuster heirs barred them from terminating the grant.[101] Superman
Superman
is due to enter the public domain in 2033.[101] However, this would only apply to the character as he is depicted in Action Comics #1 (1938). Later developments, such as his power of "heat vision" (introduced in 1949), may persist under copyright until the works they were introduced in enter the public domain themselves.[104] Copyright infringement lawsuits Superman's success quickly spawned a wave of imitations, and Detective Comics defended its copyright vigorously.[105] Will Eisner
Will Eisner
created a character called Wonder Man in 1939, but a lawsuit from Detective Comics forced its cancellation after just one issue.[106] Fawcett Comics introduced Captain Marvel in 1940 and for some years that character outsold Superman,[107] but after protracted legal battles Fawcett was forced to cease publishing Captain Marvel in 1953. Fictional character biography In Action Comics
Action Comics
#1 (April 1938), Superman
Superman
is born on an alien world to a technologically advanced species that resembles humans. When his world is on the verge of destruction, his father, a scientist, places his infant son alone in a spaceship that takes him to Earth. The earliest newspaper strips name the planet "Krypton", the baby "Kal-L", and his biological parents "Jor-L" and "Lora";[108] their names become "Jor-el", and "Lara" in a 1942 spinoff novel by George Lowther.[109] The ship lands in the American countryside, where the baby is adopted by the Kents. In the original stories, they adopt him from an orphanage.[110] The Kents
The Kents
name the boy Clark and raise him in a farming community. A 1947 episode of the radio serial places the then-unnamed community in Iowa.[111] It is named Smallville
Smallville
in Superboy
Superboy
#2 (June 1949). New Adventures of Superboy
Superboy
#22 (Oct. 1981) places it in Maryland. The 1978 Superman
Superman
movie and most stories since place it in Kansas.[112] The Kents
The Kents
teach Clark he must conceal his otherworldly origins and use his fantastic powers to do good. Clark creates the costumed identity of Superman
Superman
so as to protect his personal privacy and the safety of his loved ones. As Clark Kent, he wears eyeglasses to disguise his face and wears his Superman
Superman
costume underneath his clothes so that he can change at a moment's notice. To complete this disguise, Clark avoids violent confrontation, preferring to slip away and change into Superman
Superman
when danger arises, and suffers occasional ridicule for his apparent cowardice. Writers developed Superman's powers gradually. Since the beginning, he has had superhuman strength and a nigh-invulnerable body. In the earliest comics, Superman
Superman
travels by running and leaping. In the radio serial that began in 1940, Superman
Superman
has the ability to fly.[113] Fleischer Studios
Fleischer Studios
also depicted Superman
Superman
flying in a theatrical animated series they produced that same decade, because this required fewer frames of animation,[114] and their animation tests of Superman leaping looked "silly" anyway.[115] X-ray vision is introduced in Action Comics
Action Comics
#11 (April 1939) and heat vision in Superman
Superman
#59 (Aug. 1949). Originally, Superman's powers were common on Krypton, but in later stories they are activated by the light of Earth's yellow sun, and can be deactivated by red sunlight similar to that of Krypton's sun. Siegel understood that Superman's invulnerability diminished his appeal as an action hero, and so wrote a story introducing "K-metal", whose radiation harms Superman. This draft was never published since the story had Superman
Superman
reveal his secret identity to Lois,[116] but the writers of the radio serial took inspiration and introduced the green mineral kryptonite in a 1943 episode.[117] It first appeared in comics in the story " Superman
Superman
Returns To Krypton!", credited to writer Bill Finger, in Superman
Superman
#61 (Dec. 1949).[118] Clark works as a newspaper journalist. In the earliest stories, he is employed by George Taylor of The Daily Star, but the second episode of the radio serial changed this to Perry White
Perry White
of The Daily Planet.[119] Action Comics
Action Comics
#1 introduced Clark's colleague Lois Lane. Clark is romantically attracted to her, but she rejects the mild-mannered Clark and is infatuated with the bold and mighty Superman. This love triangle was conceived in 1934 and is present in most Superman stories. Jerry Siegel
Jerry Siegel
objected to any proposal that Lois discover that Clark is Superman, because he felt that, as implausible as Clark's disguise is, the love triangle was too important to the book's appeal.[120] For decades in comic stories, Lois suspects Clark is Superman
Superman
and tries to prove it, but Superman
Superman
always outwits her; the first such story was Superman
Superman
#17 (1942).[121][122] In Action Comics
Action Comics
#662 (Feb. 1991) in a story by writer Roger Stern
Roger Stern
and artist Bob McLeod, Lois definitively learns of Clark's dual identity,[123] a status quo that would exist for two decades and was reflected in a 1995 episode of the TV series Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman.[124] Both in that series and in the 1996 comic book special Superman: The Wedding Album, Clark and Lois marry.[125] The couple's biological child, Jonathan Samuel Kent, was born in Convergence: Superman
Superman
#2 (July 2015). The first story in which Superman
Superman
dies was published in Superman
Superman
#188 (April 1966) in which he is killed by kryptonite radiation, but is revived in the same issue by one of his android doppelgangers. In the 1990s The Death and Return of Superman
Superman
story arc, after a deadly battle with Doomsday, Superman
Superman
died in Superman
Superman
#75 (Jan. 1993). He was later revived by the Eradicator. In Superman
Superman
#52 (May 2016) Superman
Superman
is killed by kryptonite poisoning, and this time he was not resurrected, but replaced by the Superman
Superman
of a previous continuity. In 2011, DC Comics
DC Comics
rebooted its continuity and relaunched its entire line of comic books under the rubric The New 52, with a new version of Superman
Superman
as the protagonist of the Superman
Superman
books. In this new version of events, Clark's parents were killed by a drunk driver when he was a teenager, and he is not married to Lois.[126] In this continuity, he first encounters Lex Luthor
Lex Luthor
early in his career as a superhero. Luthor, who is working for the government, tortures him in order to find out the limits of his powers. Superman
Superman
eventually manages to escape, however. In Superman
Superman
vol. 2, #43 (October 2015) Superman's identity is exposed to the world.[124][127][128] The pre-New 52 version of Superman
Superman
was re-introduced in the comic book series Superman: Lois and Clark [129] and for a time Earth
Earth
had two superheroes each called Superman. The older, more mature Superman remained on Earth
Earth
after the younger Superman
Superman
died in Superman
Superman
vol. 3, #52 (May 25, 2016). In June 2016, DC Comics
DC Comics
once again relaunched its comic book titles with DC Rebirth. The publisher re-established the pre-New 52 Superman as the protagonist of the new comic books, with Lois Lane
Lois Lane
as his wife once more. He and Lois also conceive a biological son, Jonathan Samuel Kent, who eventually becomes Superboy.[130] The story arc Superman Reborn smooths over the discrepancies between the two versions of the character. According to Mister Mxyzptlk, the creation of the New 52 caused Superman
Superman
to be separated into two people: the New 52 character that served as the protagonist of the Superman
Superman
books and the pre-Flashpoint character that took part in the Convergence event and sired Jon. Thanks to Jon, the new Superboy, the two Supermen merge into one complete version of Superman, rearranging their shared histories and accommodating them into the restored DC Universe. This complete Superman
Superman
features a new suit that combines elements from the two eras.[131][132] DC Comics
DC Comics
ended the Rebirth branding in December 2017, opting to include everything under a larger "DC Universe" banner and naming. The continuity established by Rebirth continues across DC's comic book titles, including volume one of Action Comics
Action Comics
and the fourth volume of Superman.[133][134] Personality In the original Siegel and Shuster stories, Superman's personality is rough and aggressive. The character often attacks and terrorizes wife beaters, profiteers, lynch mobs, and gangsters in a rough manner and with a looser moral code than audiences today might be used to.[135] Superman
Superman
in the comics of the 1930s is unconcerned about the harm his strength may cause. He tosses villainous characters in such a manner that fatalities would presumably occur, although these are seldom shown explicitly on the page. This came to an end in late 1940 when new editor Whitney Ellsworth
Whitney Ellsworth
instituted a code of conduct for his characters to follow, banning Superman
Superman
from ever killing.[136] The character was softened and given a sense of humanitarianism. Ellsworth's code, however, is not to be confused with "the Comics Code", which was created in 1954 by the Comics Code Authority and ultimately abandoned by every major comic book publisher by the early 21st century.[137] In his first appearances, Superman
Superman
was considered a vigilante by the authorities, being fired upon by the National Guard as he razed a slum so that the government would create better housing conditions for the poor. By 1942, however, Superman
Superman
was working side-by-side with the police.[138][139] Today, Superman
Superman
is commonly seen as a brave and kind-hearted hero with a strong sense of justice, morality, and righteousness. He adheres to an unwavering moral code instilled in him by his adoptive parents.[140] His commitment to operating within the law has been an example to many citizens and other heroes, but has stirred resentment and criticism among others, who refer to him as the "big blue boy scout". Superman
Superman
can be rather rigid in this trait, causing tensions in the superhero community.[141] This was most notable with Wonder Woman, one of his closest friends, after she killed Maxwell Lord.[141] Booster Gold
Booster Gold
had an initial icy relationship with the Man of Steel, but grew to respect him.[142] Having lost his home world of Krypton, Superman
Superman
is very protective of Earth,[143] and especially of Clark Kent's family and friends. This same loss, combined with the pressure of using his powers responsibly, has caused Superman
Superman
to feel lonely on Earth, despite having his friends and parents. Previous encounters with people he thought to be fellow Kryptonians, Power Girl[144] (who is, in fact from the Krypton of the Earth-Two
Earth-Two
universe) and Mon-El,[145] have led to disappointment. The arrival of Supergirl, who has been confirmed to be not only from Krypton, but also his cousin, has relieved this loneliness somewhat.[146] Superman's Fortress of Solitude
Fortress of Solitude
acts as a place of solace for him in times of loneliness and despair.[147] In Superman/ Batman
Batman
#3 (Dec. 2003), Batman, under writer Jeph Loeb, observes, "It is a remarkable dichotomy. In many ways, Clark is the most human of us all. Then ... he shoots fire from the skies, and it is difficult not to think of him as a god. And how fortunate we all are that it does not occur to 'him'." In writer Geoff Johns' Infinite Crisis #1 (Dec. 2005), part of the 2005–2006 "Infinite Crisis" crossover storyline, Batman
Batman
admonishes him for identifying with humanity too much and failing to provide the strong leadership that superhumans need. Age and birthday Superman's age has varied through his history in comics, with the character typically being in his 30s. His age was originally left undefined, with real-time references to specific years sometimes given to past events in Golden Age and early Silver Age comics. In comics published between the early 1970s and early 1990s, his age was usually cited as 29 years old.[148] However, during "The Death of Superman" storyline, Clark's age was given as 34 years old (in a fictional promotional newspaper published), while 1994's "Zero Hour" timeline established his age as 35. Action Comics
Action Comics
#149 (Oct. 1950) gives October as Superman's birthdate. Comics of the 1960s through 1980s describe Superman's birthday as February 29.[149] Clark Kent, meanwhile, would celebrate his birthday on June 18, the date the Kents first found Clark; June 18 is also the birthdate of Superman
Superman
voice actor Bud Collyer.[150] Following the 1980s editorial-revamp DC called Crisis on Infinite Earths, Kent's birthday is given as February 29.[151] Superman: Secret Origin #1 (Nov. 2009) depicts Kent celebrating his birthday on December 1. Other versions Main article: Alternative versions of Superman See also: Superman
Superman
(Earth-Two) and Superman
Superman
(Earth-One) The details Superman's story vary across his large body of fiction published since 1938. Versions of Superman
Superman
depicted on television and in movies are typically not part of the same narrative continuity presented in the comics, and even in the comic books there are many different depictions of the character, a few of which differ radically from the "classic" version (e.g., the graphic novel Superman: Red Son depicts a Communist Superman
Superman
who rules the Soviet Union). DC Comics has on some occasions published crossover stories where different depictions of Superman
Superman
interact with each other using the plot device of parallel universes. For instance, in the 1960s, the Superman
Superman
of "Earth-One" would occasionally star in stories alongside the Superman of "Earth-Two", the latter of whom resembled Superman
Superman
as he was portrayed in the 1940s. DC Comics
DC Comics
has not developed a consistent and universal system to classify all versions of the character. Powers and abilities Main article: Powers and abilities of Superman As an influential archetype of the superhero genre, Superman
Superman
possesses extraordinary powers, with the character traditionally described as "Faster than a speeding bullet. More powerful than a locomotive. Able to leap tall buildings in a single bound ... It's Superman!",[152] a phrase coined by Jay Morton and first used in the Superman
Superman
radio serials and Max Fleischer
Max Fleischer
animated shorts of the 1940s[153] as well as the TV series of the 1950s. For most of his existence, Superman's famous arsenal of powers has included flight, super-strength, invulnerability to non-magical attacks, super-speed, vision powers (including x-ray, heat-emitting, telescopic, infra-red, and microscopic vision), super-hearing, super-intelligence, and super-breath, which enables him to blow out air at freezing temperatures, as well as exert the propulsive force of high-speed winds.[154] As originally conceived and presented in his early stories, Superman's powers were relatively limited, consisting of superhuman strength that allowed him to lift a car over his head, run at amazing speeds and leap one-eighth of a mile, as well as an incredibly dense body structure that could be pierced by nothing less than an exploding artillery shell.[154] He could be knocked unconscious and nearly killed by powerful electric fields [155] or bombs.[156] Siegel and Shuster compared his strength and leaping abilities to an ant and a grasshopper.[157] When making the Superman
Superman
cartoons in the early 1940s, the Fleischer Brothers
Fleischer Brothers
found it difficult to keep animating him leaping and requested to DC to change his ability to flying; this was an especially convenient concept for short films, which would have otherwise had to waste precious running time moving earthbound Clark Kent from place to place.[158] Writers gradually increased his powers to larger extents during the Silver Age, in which Superman
Superman
could fly to other worlds and galaxies and even across universes with relative ease.[154] He would often fly across the solar system to stop meteors from hitting the Earth
Earth
or sometimes just to clear his head. Writers found it increasingly difficult to write Superman
Superman
stories in which the character was believably challenged,[159] so DC made a series of attempts to rein the character in. The most significant attempt, John Byrne's 1986 rewrite, established several hard limits on his abilities: He barely survives a nuclear blast, and his space flights are limited by how long he can hold his breath.[160] Superman's power levels have again increased since then, with Superman
Superman
eventually possessing enough strength to hurl mountains, withstand nuclear blasts with ease, fly into the sun unharmed, and survive in the vacuum of outer space without oxygen. The source of Superman's powers has changed subtly over the course of his history. It was originally stated that Superman's abilities derived from his Kryptonian
Kryptonian
heritage, which made him eons more evolved than humans.[136] This was soon amended, with the source for the powers now based upon the establishment of Krypton's gravity as having been stronger than that of the Earth. This situation mirrors that of Edgar Rice Burroughs' John Carter. As Superman's powers increased, the implication that all Kryptonians had possessed the same abilities became problematic for writers, making it doubtful that a race of such beings could have been wiped out by something as trifling as an exploding planet. In part to counter this, the Superman
Superman
writers established that Kryptonians, whose native star Rao had been red, possessed superpowers only under the light of a yellow sun.[161] Superman
Superman
is most vulnerable to green Kryptonite, mineral debris from Krypton transformed into radioactive material by the forces that destroyed the planet. Exposure to green Kryptonite
Kryptonite
radiation nullifies Superman's powers and immobilizes him with pain and nausea; prolonged exposure will eventually kill him. The only substance on Earth
Earth
that can protect him from Kryptonite
Kryptonite
is lead, which blocks the radiation. Lead is also the only known substance that Superman
Superman
cannot see through with his x-ray vision. Kryptonite
Kryptonite
was introduced in 1943 as a plot device to allow the radio-serial voice actor, Bud Collyer, to take some time off.[162] Although green Kryptonite
Kryptonite
is the most commonly seen form, writers have introduced other forms over the years: such as red, gold, blue, white, and black, each with its own effect.[163] Supporting characters See also: Superman
Superman
character and cast and List of Superman
Superman
supporting characters Clark Kent, Superman's secret identity, was based partly on Harold Lloyd and named after Clark Gable
Clark Gable
and Kent Taylor.[164][165] Creators have discussed the idea of whether Superman
Superman
pretends to be Clark Kent or vice versa, and at differing times in the publication either approach has been adopted.[166][167] Although typically a newspaper reporter, during the 1970s the character left the Daily Planet
Daily Planet
for a time to work for television,[167] whilst the 1980s revamp by John Byrne saw the character become somewhat more aggressive.[160] This aggressiveness has since faded with subsequent creators restoring the mild mannerisms traditional to the character. Allies Superman's large cast of supporting characters includes Lois Lane, the character most commonly associated with Superman, being portrayed at different times as his colleague, competitor, love interest and wife. Other main supporting characters include Daily Planet
Daily Planet
coworkers such as photographer Jimmy Olsen
Jimmy Olsen
and editor Perry White, Clark Kent's adoptive parents Jonathan and Martha Kent, childhood sweetheart Lana Lang and best friend Pete Ross, associates like Professor Hamilton
Professor Hamilton
and John Henry Irons who often provide scientific advice and tech support, and former college love interest Lori Lemaris
Lori Lemaris
(a mermaid). Stories making reference to the possibility of Superman
Superman
siring children have been featured both in and out of mainstream continuity. Incarnations of Supergirl, Krypto
Krypto
the Superdog, and Superboy
Superboy
have also been major characters in the mythos, as well as the Justice League
Justice League
of America (of which Superman
Superman
is usually a member and often its leader) and Legion of Super-Heroes
Legion of Super-Heroes
(which Superboy
Superboy
traveled through time to join). A feature shared by several supporting characters is alliterative names, especially with the initials "LL", including Lex Luthor, Lois Lane, Linda Lee, Lana Lang, Lori Lemaris, and Lucy Lane,[168] alliteration being common in early comics. Team-ups with fellow comics icon Batman
Batman
are common, inspiring many stories over the years. When paired, they are often referred to as the "World's Finest" in a nod to the name of the comic book series that features many team-up stories. In 2003, DC began to publish a new series featuring the two characters titled Superman/ Batman
Batman
or Batman/Superman. Following DC Comic's The New 52
The New 52
line-wide relaunch, Superman
Superman
established a romantic relationship with Wonder Woman. A comic book series titled Superman/ Wonder Woman
Wonder Woman
debuted in 2013, which explores their relationship and shared adventures.

Various enemies of Superman, as they appear on the cover of Superman Villains: Secret Files and Origins #1 (June 1998). Art by Dan Jurgens.

Enemies Main article: List of Superman
Superman
enemies The villains Superman
Superman
faced in the earliest stories were ordinary humans, such as gangsters, corrupt politicians, and violent husbands, but they soon grew more outlandish and collectively become Superman's rogues gallery. The mad scientist Ultra-Humanite, introduced in Action Comics #13 (June 1939), was Superman's first recurring villain. The hero's best-known nemesis, Lex Luthor, was introduced in Action Comics #23 (April 1940) and has been envisioned over the years as both a recluse with advanced weaponry to a power-mad billionaire.[169] In 1944, the magical imp Mister Mxyzptlk, Superman's first recurring super-powered adversary, was introduced.[170] Superman's first alien villain, Brainiac, debuted in Action Comics
Action Comics
#242 (July 1958). The monstrous Doomsday, introduced in Superman: The Man of Steel #17–18 (Nov.-Dec. 1992), was the first villain to evidently kill Superman
Superman
in physical combat. Other adversaries include the odd Superman-doppelgänger Bizarro, the Kryptonian
Kryptonian
criminal General Zod, and alien tyrants Darkseid
Darkseid
and Mongul.[171] Cultural impact Superman
Superman
has come to be seen as an American cultural icon.[172][173] Superman
Superman
is often thought of as the first superhero. This point is debated by historians: Doctor Occult, an earlier creation of Siegel and Shuster, appeared in comic books two years earlier, and the Phantom and Mandrake the Magician
Mandrake the Magician
had previously appeared in newspaper strips. However, there is no debate that Superman
Superman
started the 20th century's craze for costumed adventurers. His adventures and popularity have established the character as an inspiring force within the public eye, with the character serving as inspiration for musicians, comedians and writers alike. Kryptonite, Brainiac and Bizarro
Bizarro
have become synonymous in popular vernacular with Achilles' heel, extreme intelligence[174] and reversed logic[175] respectively. Similarly, the phrase "I'm not Superman" or "you're not Superman" is an idiom used to suggest a lack of omnipotence.[176][177][178] Merchandising

The "S" symbol that became iconic

Superman
Superman
became popular very quickly, with an additional title, Superman
Superman
Quarterly, rapidly added. In 1940 the character was represented in the annual Macy's parade
Macy's parade
for the first time.[179] In fact Superman
Superman
had become popular to the extent that in 1942, with sales of the character's three titles standing at a combined total of over 1.5 million, Time was reporting that "the Navy Department (had) ruled that Superman
Superman
comic books should be included among essential supplies destined for the Marine garrison at Midway Islands."[180] The character was soon licensed by companies keen to cash in on this success through merchandising. The earliest paraphernalia appeared in 1939, a button proclaiming membership in the Supermen of America club. By 1940 the amount of merchandise available increased dramatically, with jigsaw puzzles, paper dolls, bubble gum and trading cards available, as well as wooden or metal figures. The popularity of such merchandise increased when Superman
Superman
was licensed to appear in other media, and Les Daniels has written that this represents "the start of the process that media moguls of later decades would describe as 'synergy.'"[181] By the release of Superman Returns, Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
had arranged a cross promotion with Burger King,[182] and licensed many other products for sale. Superman's appeal to licensees rests upon the character's continuing popularity, cross market appeal and the status of the "S" shield, the stylized magenta and gold "S" emblem Superman
Superman
wears on his chest, as a fashion symbol.[183][184] The "S" shield by itself is often used in media to symbolize the Superman
Superman
character.[185][186] In other media Main article: Superman
Superman
(franchise) The character of Superman
Superman
has appeared in various media aside from comic books, including radio and television series, several films, and video games. The first adaptation was a daily newspaper comic strip, launched on January 16, 1939, and running through May 1966; Siegel and Shuster used the first strips to establish Superman's background, adding details such as the planet Krypton and Superman's father, Jor-El, concepts not yet established in the comic books.[136] A radio show, The Adventures of Superman, premiered February 12, 1940, and featured the voice of Bud Collyer
Bud Collyer
as Superman. It ran through 1951. Collyer was also cast as the voice of Superman
Superman
in Paramount Pictures' 17 Superman
Superman
animated cartoons produced by Fleischer Studios
Fleischer Studios
and then Famous Studios
Famous Studios
for theatrical release in 1941–1943. The first episode had a budget of $50,000 with the remaining episodes at $30,000 each[187] ($831,900 when adjusted for inflation), which was exceptional for the time.[188] The first live-action film was a 15-part serial released in 1948. In 1948, the movie serial Superman
Superman
made Kirk Alyn
Kirk Alyn
the first actor to portray the hero onscreen. The first feature film, Superman
Superman
and the Mole Men, starring George Reeves, was released in 1951, and was intended to promote the first television series Adventures of Superman, which aired from 1952 to 1958. National had creative control over the show.[189] Television series featuring Superman
Superman
and Superboy would also debut in the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s. In 1966 came the Broadway musical
Broadway musical
It's a Bird...It's a Plane...It's Superman, remade for television in 1975. Also in 1966, Superman
Superman
starred in the first of several animated television series The New Adventures of Superman. Superman
Superman
also appeared in a Filmation-produced animation segment on the children's educational TV series Sesame Street, discussing the letter S.[190] Superman
Superman
returned to movie theaters in 1978 with director Richard Donner's Superman, starring Christopher Reeve, which spawned three sequels and was the most successful Superman
Superman
feature film.[191] DC Comics has had little creative control over these in movies: When Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
sold the movie rights to Superman
Superman
to the Salkinds in 1974, it demanded control over the budget and the casting, but left everything else to the producers' discretion.[192] In 2006, Bryan Singer
Bryan Singer
directed the feature Superman
Superman
Returns, starring Brandon Routh. In 2013, director Zack Snyder
Zack Snyder
rebooted the film franchise with Man of Steel, starring Henry Cavill. Snyder also directed its 2016 sequel, Batman
Batman
v Superman: Dawn of Justice, which featured Superman
Superman
alongside Batman
Batman
and Wonder Woman
Wonder Woman
for the first time in a live-action movie. Cavill reprised his role as Superman
Superman
in the 2017 film Justice League
Justice League
and revealed he is under contract to play Superman
Superman
for one more film.[193]. Tyler Hoechlin
Tyler Hoechlin
plays Superman
Superman
in the second season of the Supergirl
Supergirl
TV series.[194] Musical references, parodies, and homages See also: Superman
Superman
in popular music

A building with a painted caricature of Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in Superman's clothes in its facade

Superman
Superman
has also featured as an inspiration for musicians, with songs by numerous artists from several generations celebrating the character. Donovan's Billboard Hot 100
Billboard Hot 100
topping single "Sunshine Superman" utilized the character in both the title and the lyric, declaring " Superman
Superman
and Green Lantern
Green Lantern
ain't got nothing on me."[195] Folk singer-songwriter Jim Croce
Jim Croce
sung about the character in a list of warnings in the chorus of his song "You Don't Mess Around with Jim", introducing the phrase "you don't tug on Superman's cape" into popular lexicon.[196] Other tracks to reference the character include Genesis' "Land of Confusion",[197] the video to which featured a Spitting Image puppet of Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
dressed as Superman,[198] "(Wish I Could Fly Like) Superman" by The Kinks
The Kinks
on their 1979 album Low Budget and "Superman" by The Clique, a track later covered by R.E.M.
R.E.M.
on its 1986 album Lifes Rich Pageant. This cover is referenced by Grant Morrison in Animal Man, in which Superman
Superman
meets the character, and the track comes on Animal Man's Walkman
Walkman
immediately after.[199] Crash Test Dummies' "Superman's Song", from the 1991 album The Ghosts That Haunt Me explores the isolation and commitment inherent in Superman's life.[200] Five for Fighting
Five for Fighting
released " Superman
Superman
(It's Not Easy)" in 2000, which is from Superman's point of view, although Superman
Superman
is never mentioned by name.[201] From 1988 to 1993, American composer Michael Daugherty
Michael Daugherty
composed "Metropolis Symphony", a five-movement orchestral work inspired by Superman
Superman
comics.[202][203]

Superman
Superman
depicted as stricken by AIDS, in an awareness campaign

Parodies of Superman
Superman
did not take long to appear, with Mighty Mouse introduced in "The Mouse of Tomorrow" animated short in 1942.[204] While the character swiftly took on a life of its own, moving beyond parody, other animated characters soon took their turn to parody the character. In 1943, Bugs Bunny
Bugs Bunny
was featured in a short, Super-Rabbit, which sees the character gaining powers through eating fortified carrots. This short ends with Bugs stepping into a phone booth to change into a real "Superman" and emerging as a U.S. Marine. In 1956 Daffy Duck
Daffy Duck
assumes the mantle of "Cluck Trent" in the short "Stupor Duck", a role later reprised in various issues of the Looney Tunes comic book.[205] In the United Kingdom Monty Python
Monty Python
created the character Bicycle Repairman, who fixes bicycles on a world full of Supermen, for a sketch in series of their BBC show.[206] Also on the BBC was the sitcom My Hero, which presented Thermoman as a slightly dense Superman
Superman
pastiche, attempting to save the world and pursue romantic aspirations.[207] In the United States, Saturday Night Live has often parodied the figure, with Margot Kidder
Margot Kidder
reprising her role as Lois Lane
Lois Lane
in a 1979 episode. The manga and anime series Dr. Slump featured the character Suppaman; a short, fat, pompous man who changes into a thinly veiled Superman-like alter-ego by eating a sour-tasting umeboshi. Jerry Seinfeld, a noted Superman
Superman
fan, filled his series Seinfeld
Seinfeld
with references to the character and in 1997 asked for Superman
Superman
to co-star with him in a commercial for American Express. The commercial aired during the 1998 NFL Playoffs and Super Bowl, Superman animated in the style of artist Curt Swan, again at the request of Seinfeld.[208] Superman
Superman
has also been used as reference point for writers, with Steven T. Seagle's graphic novel Superman: It's a Bird exploring Seagle's feelings on his own mortality as he struggles to develop a story for a Superman
Superman
tale.[209] Brad Fraser
Brad Fraser
used the character as a reference point for his play Poor Super Man, with The Independent noting the central character, a gay man who has lost many friends to AIDS
AIDS
as someone who "identifies all the more keenly with Superman's alien-amid-deceptive-lookalikes status."[210] Superman's image was also used in an AIDS
AIDS
awareness campaign by French organization AIDES. Superman
Superman
was depicted as emaciated and breathing from an oxygen tank, demonstrating that no-one is beyond the reach of the disease, and it can destroy the lives of everyone.[211] Superman
Superman
is also mentioned in several films, including Joel Schumacher's Batman
Batman
& Robin, in which Batman
Batman
states, "That's why Superman
Superman
works alone ..." in reference to the many troubles caused by his partner Robin, and also in Sam Raimi's Spider-Man, in which Aunt May
Aunt May
gives her nephew Peter Parker
Peter Parker
a word of advice not to strain himself too much, because, "You're not Superman, you know", among many others. Literary analysis Superman
Superman
has been interpreted and discussed in many forms in the years since his debut. The character's status as the first costumed superhero has allowed him to be used in many studies discussing the genre, Umberto Eco
Umberto Eco
noting that "he can be seen as the representative of all his similars".[212] Writing in Time in 1971, Gerald Clarke stated: "Superman's enormous popularity might be looked upon as signalling the beginning of the end for the Horatio Alger myth
Horatio Alger myth
of the self-made man." Clarke viewed the comics characters as having to continuously update in order to maintain relevance, and thus representing the mood of the nation. He regarded Superman's character in the early seventies as a comment on the modern world, which he saw as a place in which "only the man with superpowers can survive and prosper."[213] Andrew Arnold, writing in the early 21st century, has noted Superman's partial role in exploring assimilation, the character's alien status allowing the reader to explore attempts to fit in on a somewhat superficial level.

Clark Kent, argued by Jules Feiffer
Jules Feiffer
to be the most innovative feature of Superman

A.C. Grayling, writing in The Spectator, traces Superman's stances through the decades, from his 1930s campaign against crime being relevant to a nation under the influence of Al Capone, through the 1940s and World War II, a period in which Superman
Superman
helped sell war bonds,[214] and into the 1950s, where Superman
Superman
explored the new technological threats. Grayling notes the period after the Cold War
Cold War
as being one where "matters become merely personal: the task of pitting his brawn against the brains of Lex Luthor
Lex Luthor
and Brainiac appeared to be independent of bigger questions", and discusses events post 9/11, stating that as a nation "caught between the terrifying George W. Bush and the terrorist Osama bin Laden, America is in earnest need of a Saviour for everything from the minor inconveniences to the major horrors of world catastrophe. And here he is, the down-home clean-cut boy in the blue tights and red cape".[215] An influence on early Superman
Superman
stories is the context of the Great Depression. Superman
Superman
took on the role of social activist, fighting crooked businessmen and politicians and demolishing run-down tenements.[135] Comics scholar Roger Sabin sees this as a reflection of "the liberal idealism of Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal", with Shuster and Siegel initially portraying Superman
Superman
as champion to a variety of social causes.[53][216] In later Superman
Superman
radio programs the character continued to take on such issues, tackling a version of the Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
in a 1946 broadcast, as well as combating anti-semitism and veteran discrimination.[217][218][219] Scott Bukatman has discussed Superman, and the superhero in general, noting the ways in which they humanize large urban areas through their use of the space, especially in Superman's ability to soar over the large skyscrapers of Metropolis. He writes that the character "represented, in 1938, a kind of Corbusierian ideal. Superman
Superman
has X-ray vision: walls become permeable, transparent. Through his benign, controlled authority, Superman
Superman
renders the city open, modernist and democratic; he furthers a sense that Le Corbusier
Le Corbusier
described in 1925, namely, that 'Everything is known to us'."[220] Jules Feiffer
Jules Feiffer
has argued that Superman's real innovation lay in the creation of the Clark Kent
Clark Kent
persona, noting that what "made Superman extraordinary was his point of origin: Clark Kent." Feiffer develops the theme to establish Superman's popularity in simple wish fulfillment,[221] a point Siegel and Shuster themselves supported, Siegel commenting that "If you're interested in what made Superman what it is, here's one of the keys to what made it universally acceptable. Joe and I had certain inhibitions ... which led to wish-fulfillment which we expressed through our interest in science fiction and our comic strip. That's where the dual-identity concept came from" and Shuster supporting that as being "why so many people could relate to it".[222] Ian Gordon suggests that the many incarnations of Superman
Superman
across media use nostalgia to link the character to an ideology of the American Way. He defines this ideology as a means of associating individualism, consumerism, and democracy and as something that took shape around WWII and underpinned the war effort. Superman
Superman
he notes was very much part of that effort.[223] Superman's immigrant status is a key aspect of his appeal.[224][225][226] Aldo Regalado saw the character as pushing the boundaries of acceptance in America. The extraterrestrial origin was seen by Regalado as challenging the notion that Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
ancestry was the source of all might.[227] Gary Engle saw the "myth of Superman [asserting] with total confidence and a childlike innocence the value of the immigrant in American culture." He argues that Superman
Superman
allowed the superhero genre to take over from the Western as the expression of immigrant sensibilities. Through the use of a dual identity, Superman allowed immigrants to identify with both their cultures. Clark Kent represents the assimilated individual, allowing Superman
Superman
to express the immigrants cultural heritage for the greater good.[225] David Jenemann has offered a contrasting view. He argues that Superman's early stories portray a threat: "the possibility that the exile would overwhelm the country."[228] David Rooney, a theater critic for The New York Times, in his evaluation of the play, Year Zero, considers Superman
Superman
to be the "quintessential immigrant story ... (b)orn on an alien planet, he grows stronger on Earth, but maintains a secret identity tied to a homeland that continues to exert a powerful hold on him even as his every contact with those origins does him harm."[229] Some see Judaic themes in Superman. Simcha Weinstein
Simcha Weinstein
notes that Superman's story has some parallels to that of Moses. For example, Moses
Moses
as a baby was sent away by his parents in a reed basket to escape death and adopted by a foreign culture. Weinstein also posits that Superman's Kryptonian
Kryptonian
name, "Kal-El", resembles the Hebrew words קל-אל, which can be taken to mean "voice of God".[230] Larry Tye suggests that this "Voice of God" is an allusion to Moses' role as a prophet.[231] The suffix "el", meaning "(of) God", is also found in the name of angels (e.g. Gabriel, Ariel), who are airborne humanoid agents of good with superhuman powers. The Nazis also thought Superman was a Jew and in 1940 Joseph Goebbels
Joseph Goebbels
publicly denounced Superman
Superman
and his creator Siegel.[232] Superman
Superman
stories have occasionally exhibited Christian themes as well. Screenwriter Tom Mankiewicz
Tom Mankiewicz
consciously made Superman
Superman
an allegory for Christ in the 1978 movie starring Christopher Reeve:[233] baby Kal-El's ship resembles the Star of Bethlehem, and Jor-El's gives his son a messianic mission. Critical reception and popularity The character Superman
Superman
and his various comic series have received various awards over the years.

Superman
Superman
placed first on IGN's Top 100 Comic Book
Book
Heroes.[234] Empire magazine named him the greatest comic book character.[235] The Reign of the Supermen
Reign of the Supermen
is one of many storylines or works to have received a Comics Buyer's Guide Fan Award, winning the Favorite Comic Book
Book
Story category in 1993.[236] Superman
Superman
came in at number 2 in VH1's Top Pop Culture Icons 2004.[237] Also in 2004, British moviegoers voted Superman
Superman
the greatest superhero.[238] Works featuring the character have also garnered six Eisner Awards,[239][240] and three Harvey Awards,[241] either for the works or the creators of the works. The Superman
Superman
films have received a number of nominations and awards, with Christopher Reeve
Christopher Reeve
winning a BAFTA
BAFTA
for his performance in Superman (1978). The Smallville
Smallville
television series has garnered Emmys for crew members and various other awards.[242][243][244]

See also

Book: Superman

List of DC animated universe characters List of DC Comics
DC Comics
characters

Comics portal Fictional characters portal Speculative fiction portal Superhero
Superhero
fiction portal

Footnotes

^ Mike's Amazing World of Comics: Action Comics
Action Comics
#1 (1938)[permanent dead link] ^ a b Daniels 1998, p. 11 ^ Rhoades, Shirrel (2008). Comic Books: How the Industry Works. Peter Lang. p. 72. ISBN 0820488925.  ^ Holt, Douglas B. (2004). How Brands Become Icons: The Principles of Cultural Branding. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. p. 1. ISBN 1-57851-774-5.  ^ Koehler, Derek J.; Harvey, Nigel., eds. (2004). Blackwell Handbook of Judgment and Decision Making. Blackwell. p. 519. ISBN 1-4051-0746-4.  ^ Dinerstein, Joel (2003). Swinging the machine: Modernity, technology, and African American culture
American culture
between the wars. University of Massachusetts Press. p. 81. ISBN 1-55849-383-2.  ^ http://www.ign.com/lists/comic-book-heroes/1 ^ " Superman
Superman
turns 75: Man of Steel milestone puts spotlight on creators' Cleveland
Cleveland
roots". New York Daily News. New York City. The Associated Press. April 17, 2013. Archived from the original on December 1, 2015. Retrieved April 18, 2013.  'The encouragement that he received from his English teachers and the editors at the Glenville High School newspaper and the literary magazine gave my dad a real confidence in his talents,' [Laura Siegel Larson] said over the phone from Los Angeles.  ^ Daniels 1998, pp. 13–14 ^ Ricca (2014): "What really pushed Jerry in this direction was an article about comics called "The Funny Papers" that he read in Fortune magazine. The article begins with the shocking fact that "some twenty comic-strip headliners are paid at least $1,000 a week." The article describes in detail how syndicates such as the Chicago Tribune and even Cleveland’s Newspaper Enterprise Association (NEA) worked for writers and artists to put their strips into hundreds of papers. According to the article, this "is how the strips get into Big Money." So much so that "the headliners usually get 50 per cent of the gross income." [...] As far as artists go, "In many cases they were not artists at all, but just fellows with a knack for sketching who thought of a good idea or a funny character that ‘made a hit’ with an editor and eventually with newspaper readers."" ^ Ricca (2014), p. 92, says, "It was the night of Sunday, June 18, 1933". Siegel says only "early 1933" In Andrae (1983). Other sources, including court records, list the year as 1934. ^ In Andrae (1983), Siegel is quoted as saying: "Obviously, having him a hero would be infinitely more commercial than having him a villain. I understand that the comic strip Dr. Fu Manchu ran into all sorts of difficulties because the main character was a villain. And with the example before us of Tarzan and other action heroes of fiction who were very successful, mainly because people admired them and looked up to them, it seemed the sensible thing to do to make The Superman
Superman
a hero. The first piece was a short story, and that's one thing; but creating a successful comic strip with a character you'll hope will continue for many years, it would definitely be going in the wrong direction to make him a villain." ^ Daniels (1998), p. 17: "... usually [Shuster] and Siegel agreed that no special costume was in evidence, and the surviving artwork bears them out. The most important point on which [Siegel and Shuster] are clear is that this version of the hero had no superpowers." ^ In Andrae (1983), Shuster is quoted as saying: "It wasn't really Superman: that was before he evolved into a costumed figure. He was simply wearing a T-shirt and pants..." ^ Humor Publishing Company Archived December 22, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. at the Grand Comics Database. ^ Dan Dunn
Dan Dunn
at Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on April 14, 2012. ^ Jones (2004): A Humor comic starring the character Detective Dan "...wasn't much better than what he and Joe could do – but it was in print. And its publication didn't depend on the distant and indifferent world of newspaper syndication but on what was, in Jerry's mind at least, the far more familiar world of cheap magazines. 'We can do this!' he said." ^ Most sources, including Jones (2004) and Ricca (2014), agree that Siegel met with Humor Publishing in Cleveland. Tye (2012) writes that they mailed their proposal to Humor's offices in Chicago. ^ a b c d e Ricca (2014) ^ a b Ricca (2014), p. 99: "Jerry was convinced, just as he was in those early pulp days, that you had to align yourself with someone famous to be famous yourself." ^ Tye (2012): "'When I told Joe of this, he unhappily destroyed the drawn-up pages of "THE SUPERMAN" burning them in the furnace of his apartment building,' Jerry recalled. 'At my request, he gave me as a gift the torn cover.'" ^ In an interview with Andrae (1983), Shuster said he destroyed their 1933 Superman
Superman
comic as a reaction to Humor Publishing's rejection letter, which contradicts Siegel's account in Siegel's unpublished memoir. Tye (2012) argues that the account from the memoir is the truth, and that Shuster lied in the interview to avoid tension. ^ a b Jones (2004), p. 112-113 ^ Trexler, Jeff (August 20, 2008). "Superman's Hidden History: The Other "First" Artist". Newsarama.com. Archived from the original on August 26, 2008. Retrieved August 26, 2008.  ^ "Scans of Siegel and Keaton's collaboration" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 December 2015.  ^ Ricca (2014), p. 102: "Jerry tried to sell this version to the syndicates, but no one was interested, so Keaton gave up." ^ Daniels 1998, p. 18 ^ Wallace, Daniel; Bryan Singer
Bryan Singer
(2006). The Art of Superman
Superman
Returns. Chronicle Books. p. 22. ISBN 0-8118-5344-6.  ^ Over the years, Siegel and Shuster made contradictory statements regarding when they developed Superman's familiar costume. They occasionally claimed to have developed it immediately in 1933, but Daniels (1998) writes: "... usually [Shuster] and Siegel agreed that no special costume was in evidence [in 1933], and the surviving artwork bears them out." The cover art for their 1933 proposal to Humor Publishing shows a shirtless, cape-less Superman. Siegel's collaboration with Russell Keaton in 1934 contains no description or illustration of Superman
Superman
in costume. Tye (2012) writes that Siegel and Shuster developed the costume shortly after they resumed working together. In an interview with Andrae (1983), Siegel said:

"NEMO: When you first conceived Superman, did you have the dual-identity theme in mind? Siegel: That occurred to me in late 1934, when I decided that I'd like to do Superman
Superman
as a newspaper strip. I approached Joe about it, and he was enthusiastic about the possibility. I was up late one night, and more and more ideas kept coming to me, and I kept writing out several weeks of syndicate strips for the proposed newspaper strip. When morning came, I had written several weeks of material, and I dashed over to Joe's place and showed it to him. (This was the story that appeared in Action Comics
Action Comics
#1, June, 1938, the first published appearance of Superman.) [...] Of course, Joe had worked on that earlier version of Superman, and when I came to him with this new version of it, he was immediately sold." ^ Siegel's unpublished memoir, The Story Behind Superman
Superman
Archived September 13, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., as well as an interview in Nemo #2 in 1983, corroborate each other that Clark Kent's timid-journalist persona and Lois Lane
Lois Lane
were developed in 1934. ^ Letter quoted in Ricca (2014), p. 146 ^ Ricca (2014), p. 134 "They submitted and resubmitted for several years." ^ Siegel, Jerry. Unpublished memoir "The Story Behind Superman
Superman
#1", registered for U.S. copyright in 1978 under later version Creation of a Superhero
Superhero
as noted by Tye (2012), p. 309. Memoir additionally cited by Ricca (2014), p. 148, and available online at sites including "The Story Behind Superman
Superman
#1". Superman-Through-the-Ages.com. p. 5 of manuscript. Archived from the original on December 21, 2015. Retrieved December 20, 2015.  ^ Action Comics
Action Comics
#1 (June 1938) Archived February 23, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. at the Grand Comics Database. ^ Daniels (1998), p. 17 ^ Ricca (2014): "The facts are that it was Harry [Donenfeld] who signed [Siegel and Shuster], at Gaines's direction, and when McClure sold the Superman
Superman
strip to the newspapers, McClure bought the rights from Harry, not the boys. It was then Donenfeld who not only now owned the property, but received the lion's share of the profits; whatever Jerry and Joe got was parsed out by him." ^ Kobler (1941), p. 73: "Before payment, however, [Donenfeld's] far-seeing general manager, Jack Liebowitz, mailed them a release form, explaining, ‘It is customary for all our contributors to release all rights to us. This is the businesslike way of doing things.’" ^ Kobler (1941), p. 73: "The partners, who by this time had abandoned hope that Superman
Superman
would ever amount to much, mulled this over gloomily. Then Siegel shrugged, ‘Well, at least this way we'll see him in print.’ They signed the form." ^ Andrae (1983): "...when I did the version in 1934, (which years later, in 1938, was published, in revised form, in Action Comics
Action Comics
#1) the John Carter stories did influence me. Carter was able to leap great distances because the planet Mars was smaller that [sic] the planet Earth; and he had great strength. I visualized the planet Krypton as a huge planet, much larger than Earth; so whoever came to Earth
Earth
from that planet would be able to leap great distances and lift great weights." ^ The History Behind Superman's Ever-Changing Superpowers Archived March 26, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Steranko (1970), p. 37: "Wylie's story was one of Siegel's favorites; he even reviewed it in his S-F fanzine." ^ Feeley, Gregory (March 2005). "When World-views Collide: Philip Wylie in the Twenty-first Century". Science Fiction Studies. 32 (95). ISSN 0091-7729. Archived from the original on April 3, 2013. Retrieved December 6, 2006.  ^ Jones (2004), p. 346: Wylie threatened to sue Siegel for plagiarism in 1940, but there is no evidence that he carried through with the litigation. Siegel flatly denied any plagiarism. ^ a b c d Andrae (1983) ^ Andrae (1983): "... I was inspired by the movies. In the silent films, my hero was Douglas Fairbanks
Douglas Fairbanks
Senior, who was very agile and athletic. So I think he might have been an inspiration to us, even in his attitude. He had a stance which I often used in drawing Superman. You'll see in many of his roles—including Robin Hood—that he always stood with his hands on his hips and his feet spread apart, laughing—taking nothing seriously." ^ a b Best, Daniel (August 3, 2012). "'Jerry and I did a comic book together...' Jerry Siegel
Jerry Siegel
& Joe Shuster
Joe Shuster
Interviewed". 20th Century Danny Boy. Archived from the original on December 4, 2015. Retrieved December 4, 2015.  ^ Siegel: "We especially loved some of those movies in which Harold Lloyd would start off as a sort of momma's boy being pushed around, kicked around, thrown around, and then suddenly would turn into a fighting whirlwind."

Shuster: "I was kind of mild-manned and wore glasses so I really identified with it"

Anthony Wall (1981). Superman
Superman
– The Comic Strip Hero (Television production). BBC. Event occurs at 00:04:50. Archived from the original on December 28, 2015.  ^ Andrae (1983): Siegel: "As a high school student, I thought that some day I might become a reporter, and I had crushes on several attractive girls who either didn't know I existed or didn't care I existed. [...] It occurred to me: What if I was real terrific? What if I had something special going for me, like jumping over buildings or throwing cars around or something like that? Then maybe they would notice me." ^ Andrae (1983): "I also had classical heroes and strongmen in mind, and this shows in the footwear. In the third version Superman
Superman
wore sandals laced halfway up the calf. You can still see this on the cover of Action #1, though they were covered over in red to look like boots when the comic was printed." ^ Ricca (2014): "What the boys did read were the magazines and papers where "superman" was a common word. Its usage was almost always preceded by "a." Most times the word was used to refer to an athlete or a politician." ^ Flagg, Francis (Nov 11, 1931). "The Superman
Superman
of Dr. Jukes". Wonder Stories. Gernsback.  ^ "His life work was one which called for the abilities of a superman, and Doc had been trained from the cradle, that he might have the strength to arise to any occasion." -Robeson, Kenneth (September 1933). "The Lost Oasis". Doc Savage Magazine. Street & Smith. ^ a b The Mythology of Superman
Superman
(DVD). Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
2006.  ^ Jacobson, Howard (March 5, 2005). "Up, Up and Oy Vey!". The Times. UK. p. 5. : "If Siegel and Shuster knew of Nietzsche's Ubermensch, they didn't say..." ^ Muir, John Kenneth (July 2008). The Encyclopedia of Superheroes on Film and Television. McFarland & Co. p. 539. ISBN 978-0-7864-3755-9. Archived from the original on December 30, 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-31.  ^ Tye (2012): "Vendors had sold 130,000 comic books, or 64 percent of the print run. Anything over 50 percent constituted a success and guaranteed a profit. [...] Sales, meanwhile, continued to climb—to 136,000 for the second issue, 159,000 for the third, 190,000 for the fourth, and 197,000 for the fifth. Action No. 13, released on the first anniversary of the original, offered up 415,000 reasons to celebrate. National printed 725,000 copies of Action No. 16 and sold 625,000—an unheard-of success rate of 86 percent." ^ Tye (2012): "...readers were asked to list in order of preference their five favorite stories. [...] 404 of 542 respondents named Superman
Superman
as tops, with 59 more listing him second. ^ Superman
Superman
#1 (Summer 1939) Archived April 22, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. at the Grand Comics Database. ^ Action Comics
Action Comics
Archived February 23, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. at the Grand Comics Database. ^ Superman
Superman
Archived February 27, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. (1939–1986 series)] and Adventures of Superman
Superman
Archived March 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. (1987 continuation of series) at the Grand Comics Database. ^ "Superman"-titled comics Archived March 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. at the Grand Comics Database. ^ "Marvel and DC sales figures". Archived from the original on April 5, 2016.  ^ Miller, John Jackson, ed. " Superman
Superman
Annual Sales Figures". ComicChron.com. Archived from the original on March 14, 2016. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Tye (2012): " Superman
Superman
75, the death issue, tallied the biggest one-day sale ever for a comic book, with more than six million copies printed." ^ Tye (2012): "Journalists, along with most of their readers and viewers, didn’t understand that heroes regularly perished in the comics and almost never stayed dead." ^ "February 2016 Comic Book
Book
Sales Figures". Comichron. Archived from the original on July 21, 2016. Retrieved 2016-07-26.  ^ Tye (2012): "The remaining audience [by 2011] was dedicated to the point of fanaticism, a trend that was self-reinforcing. No longer did casual readers pick up a comic at the drugstore or grocery, both because the books increasingly required an insider’s knowledge to follow the action and because they simply weren’t being sold anymore at markets, pharmacies, or even the few newsstands that were left. [...] Comic books had gone from being a cultural emblem to a countercultural refuge." ^ Tumey, Paul (April 14, 2014). "Reviews: Superman: The Golden Age Sundays 1943–1946". The Comics Journal. Archived from the original on May 29, 2014. Retrieved March 1, 2016. ... Jerry Siegel
Jerry Siegel
had his hands — and typewriter — full, turning out stories for the comic books and the daily newspaper strips (which had completely separate continuities from the Sundays).  ^ Daniels (1998), p. 74 ^ Cole, Neil A. (ed.). " Wayne Boring
Wayne Boring
(1905–1987)". SupermanSuperSite.com. Archived from the original on October 8, 2016. Retrieved March 2, 2016.  ^ Cole, Neil A. (ed.). " Win Mortimer
Win Mortimer
(1919–1998)". SupermanSuperSite.com. Archived from the original on June 30, 2014. Retrieved March 1, 2016.  ^ Younis, Steven, ed. " Superman
Superman
Newspaper Strips". SupermanHomepage.com. Archived from the original on March 26, 2015. Retrieved February 28, 2016. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ a b Eury (2006), p. 18: "In 1948 Boring succeeded Shuster as the principal superman artist, his art style epitomizing the Man of Steel's comics and merchandising look throughout the 1950s." ^ a b Daniels (1998), p. 74: "... Superman
Superman
was drawn in a more detailed, realistic style of illustration. He also looked bigger and stronger. "Until then Superman
Superman
had always seemed squat," Boring said. "He was six heads high, a bit shorter than normal. I made him taller–nine heads high–but kept his massive chest." ^ a b Curt Swan
Curt Swan
(1987). Drawing Superman. Essay reprinted in Eury (2006), pp. 58: "For 30 years or so, from around 1955 until a couple of years ago when I more or less retired, I was the principal artists of the Superman
Superman
comic for DC Comics." ^ Tye (2012): "Initially Harry [Donenfeld], Jack [Liebowitz], and the managers they hired to oversee their growing editorial empire had let Jerry [Siegel] do as he wished with the character..." ^ Tye (2012): "Neither Harry [Donenfeld] nor Jack [Liebowitz] had planned for a separate Superman
Superman
comic book, or for that to be ongoing. Having Superman's story play out across different venues presented a challenge for Jerry [Siegel] and the writers who came after him: Each installment needed to seem original yet part of a whole, stylistically and narratively. Their solution, at the beginning, was to wing it..." ^ Daniels (1998), p. 42: "...the publisher was anxious to avoid any repetition of the censorship problems associated with his early pulp magazines (such as the lurid Spicy Detective)." ^ Tye (2012): "Once Superman
Superman
became big business, however, plots had to be sent to New York for vetting. Not only did editors tell Jerry to cut out the guns and knives and cut back on social crusading, they started calling the shots on minute details of script and drawing." ^ Daniels (1998), p. 42: "It was left to Ellsworth to impose tight editorial controls on Jerry Siegel. Henceforth, Superman
Superman
would be forbidden to use his powers to kill anyone, even a villain." ^ Tye (2012): "No hint of sex. No alienating parents or teachers. Evil geniuses like the Ultra-Humanite
Ultra-Humanite
were too otherworldly to give kids nightmares... The Prankster, the Toyman, the Puzzler, and J. Wilbur Wolngham, a W. C. Fields lookalike, used tricks and gags instead of a bow and arrows in their bids to conquer Superman. For editors wary of controversy, 1940s villains like those were a way to avoid the sharp edges of the real world." ^ Tye (2012): "Before Mort came along, Superman’s world was ad hoc and seat-of-the-pants, with Jerry and other writers adding elements as they went along without any planning or anyone worrying whether it all hung together. That worked fine when all the books centered around Superman
Superman
and all the writing was done by a small stable. Now the pool of writers had grown and there were eight different comic books with hundreds of Superman
Superman
stories a year to worry about." ^ Tye (2012): "But Weisinger’s innovations were taking a quiet toll on the story. Superman’s world had become so complicated that readers needed a map or even an encyclopedia to keep track of everyone and everything. (There would eventually be encyclopedias, two in fact, but the first did not appear until 1978.) All the plot complications were beguiling to devoted readers, who loved the challenge of keeping current, but to more casual fans they could be exhausting." ^ Tye (2012): "Weisinger stories steered clear of the Vietnam War, the sexual revolution, the black power movement, and other issues that red the 1960s. There was none of what Mort would have called "touchy-feely" either, much as readers might have liked to know how Clark felt about his split personality, or whether Superman
Superman
and Lois engaged in the battles between the sexes that were a hallmark of the era. Mort wanted his comics to be a haven for young readers, and he knew his right-leaning politics wouldn’t sit well with his leftist writers and many of his Superman
Superman
fans." ^ Daniels (1998), p. 102: "One of the ways the editor kept in touch with his young audience was through a letters colum, "Metropolis Mailbag," introduced in 1958." ^ Tye (2012): "It did work. In 1960, the first year in which sales data was made public, Superman
Superman
was selling more comic books than any other title or character, and he stayed on top through much of the decade. The Man of Steel was at the front of a charge that saw superheroes taking over from western and romance-themed comics. Some of that was a dividend from an easing of the comics scare and other, broader forces, but Weisinger’s reinventions were key ingredients in Superman’s comeback. "Mort kept it alive," says Carmine Infantino, a National Comics artist who would rise to editorial director, then publisher. "He was a damn good editor. Damn good."" ^ Comichron. Comic Book
Book
Sales By Year Archived July 23, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.. ^ Tye (2012): "He admitted later he was losing touch with a new generation of kids and their notions about heroes and villains." ^ Julius Schwartz, quoted in Daniels (1998): "I said, 'I want to get rid of all the kryptonite. I want to get rid of all the robots that are used to get him out of situations. And I'm sick and tired of that stupid suit Clark Kent
Clark Kent
wears all the time. I want to give him more up-to-date clothes. And maybe the most important thing I want to do is take him out of the Daily Planet
Daily Planet
and put him into television.' I said 'Our readers are not that familiar with newspapers. Most of them get their news on television, and I think it's high time after all these years.'" ^ Tye (2012): "[Harry Donenfeld] drafted Maxwell into Superman, Inc., first to oversee the licensing of toys and other products, then to bring the superhero into the world of broadcast." ^ Scivally (2007): " Superman
Superman
was brought to radio by Allen Ducovny, a press agent with Detective Comics, and Robert Maxwell (the pen name of Robert Joffe), a former pulp fiction author who was in charge of licensing the subsidiary rights of the company's comic book characters." ^ Scivally (2007): "...Robert Maxwell hoped for an adult time slot, so he made Superman
Superman
an adult show, with death scenes and rough violence."

[...]

"In May of 1953, script conferences began for the second season of Adventures of Superman. The program was now under the supervision of a new producer. Robert Maxwell was out, National Comics' editorial director Whitney Ellsworth
Whitney Ellsworth
was in." ^ Jenette Kahn: "We have approval rights to everything, the casting of Superboy/Clark Kent, approval of the synopses, the scripts and revised scripts. We even have the right to be on the set as the show is being shot to oversee the revisions being made during shooting."

McDonnell, David; Dickholtz, Daniel (1988). "...And the Adventures of Superboy". Comics Scene. No. 5. O'Quinn Studios, Inc.  ^ Scivally (2007), p. 77: "Under the terms of the deal, Warners would have budget and casting approval and the right of first refusal for Superman
Superman
films made by the Salkinds, but otherwise the financing and production of the films was up to the producers." ^ Daniels (1998): "The Salkinds told Puzo to take Clark Kent
Clark Kent
off TV and make him a newspaperman after a survey revealed that's how most adults remembered him." ^ Harvey (1996), p. 144: "Artistic expressiveness of a highly individualistic sort had never been particularly welcomed by traditional comic book publishers. The corporate mind, ever focused on the bottom line of the balance sheet, favored bland "house styles" of rendering..." ^ Tye (2012): "Max and Dave [Fleischer's] composers knew what Superman, Lois, and the others should look like, thanks to model sheets provided by Joe Shuster." ^ Wandtke (2012) ^ "While I was in the service they started ghosting the Superman scripts, because obviously I couldn't write them while I was away in the service." -Siegel, in a 1975 interview with Phil Yeh for Cobblestone magazine. Quoted in Siegel and Shuster's Funnyman by Tom Andrae and Mel Gordon on page 49. ^ Ricca (2014): "Jerry felt angry and instantly very isolated: Harry had gone ahead and okayed the title without telling him—or paying for it?" ^ a b c d e Sergi (2015) ^ Ricca (2014): "Jerry and Joe got a final check—and were promptly shown the door by National." ^ This term was spelled out in an October 19, 2001 letter Archived February 15, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. from the lawyer representing the Siegel heirs. ^ Scott Niswander (2015-07-22). Why Isn't SUPERMAN a PUBLIC DOMAIN Superhero?? (YouTube video). NerdSync Productions. Event occurs at 3:03~3:33. Archived from the original on November 22, 2016. Retrieved 2016-05-21.  ^ Ricca (2014): "Harry sued these impostors – Wonder Man, Captain Marvel, and others – usually within days of their release." ^ Lloyd L. Rich (1998). "Protection of Graphic Characters". Publishing Law Center. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved December 3, 2011. the court found that the character Superman
Superman
was infringed in a competing comic book publication featuring the character Wonderman  ^ "Comic Book
Book
Success Stories". The Museum of Comic Book
Book
Advertising. Retrieved 2005-06-17. By the middle of the decade, Captain Marvel had received a self-titled comic book, Captain Marvel's Adventures [sic], which had a circulation that reached 1.3 million copies per month. Captain Marvel's circulation numbers exceeded National's Superman title and the rivalry between the companies led National to sue Fawcett for plagiarism.  ^ Superman
Superman
comic strip, January 16, 1939 Archived October 8, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., reprinted at "Episode 1: Superman
Superman
Comes to Earth". TheSpeedingBullet.com. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved March 27, 2016.  ^ Lowther, George (1942). The Adventures of Superman. Per Ricca (2014): "The book is also the first time that Superman's parents are named "Jor-el" and "Lara"—a slight spelling change that would stick." ^ Second panel of Action Comics
Action Comics
#1 ^ The Secret Rocket per Lantz, James. " Superman
Superman
Radio Series – Story Reviews". SupermanHomepage.com. Archived from the original on June 26, 2016.  ^ Jackson, Matthew (December 17, 2012). "The campaign to make a real Kansas town into Superman's Smallville". Blastr.com (Syfy). Archived from the original on March 22, 2016. Retrieved March 22, 2016. Decades of comic book mythology and a hit TV series have made Superman's hometown of Smallville, Kan., one of the most famous places in America.  ^ "Clark Kent, Reporter". The Adventures of Superman. Episode 2. February 14, 1940. WOR. :

-Look! Look! There, in the sky! It's a man!

-Why, he's flying!

-It can't be! It's impossible! ^ Cronin (2009): "To animate Superman
Superman
jumping, however, required extra frames to be drawn of Superman
Superman
crouching down and then leaping upward. A way to avoid drawing these extra frames was to simply take the frame with Superman
Superman
standing and move it up slowly over the background, which would make it appear as though he was flying off the ground." ^ "Celebrating Superman's Leap to the Silver Screen!". Fleischer Studios. September 26, 2015. Archived from the original on March 7, 2016. Retrieved March 22, 2016. But the Fleischers found all that, when animated, all that leaping was kind of... silly looking. So it was the Fleischers that granted Superman
Superman
with the super power of flight.  ^ Tye (2012) ^ The Meteor From Krypton (June 1943). Per Ricca (2014): "And sure enough, elements of Jerry's K-metal story would later surface on the radio, where it would finally be named "kryptonite."" ^ Superman
Superman
#61 Archived April 27, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. at the Grand Comics Database. "Indexer notes ... Green Kryptonite
Kryptonite
introduced in this story." ^ Scivally (2007): "The episode also introduced Julian Noa as Clark Kent's boss, whose name had evolved from Paris White to Perry White. White's newspaper changed from The Daily Flash to The Daily Planet. Soon after the radio show appeared, the comic books also changed their Daily Star editor George Taylor to Daily Planet
Daily Planet
editor Perry White..." ^ "If Lois should ACTUALLY learn Clark's secret, the strip would lose about 75% of its appeal—the human interest angle. I know that a formula can possibly prove monotonous through repetition but I fear that if this element is removed from the story formula that makes up SUPERMAN, that this strip will lose a great part of its effectiveness." Siegel, in his script notes, quoted in Ricca (2014). ^ Superman
Superman
#17 Archived April 15, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. at the Grand Comics Database. ^ Cronin, Brian (June 28, 2011). "When We First Met". (column #30) ComicBookResources.com. Archived from the original on October 17, 2013. Retrieved March 16, 2016.  ^ Action Comics
Action Comics
#662 Archived April 15, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. at the Grand Comics Database. ^ a b McMillan, Graeme (July 28, 2015). "The Many Times Lois Lane
Lois Lane
Has Discovered the Truth About Superman". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on July 31, 2015.  ^ Superman: The Wedding Album (1996) Archived April 15, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. at the Grand Comics Database. ^ Rogers, Vaneta (July 18, 2011). "DiDio, Lee Say DCnU Superman Changes Make Him "Accessible'". Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved March 27, 2016.  ^ Truitt, Brian (July 27, 2015). "Superman's new reality? No secret identity". USA Today. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016.  ^ Superman
Superman
(DC, 2011 series) Archived April 27, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. at the Grand Comics Database. ^ Narcisse, Evan (October 14, 2015). "DC Comics' Handling Of Superman Just Got More Convoluted". Kotaku.com. Archived from the original on March 8, 2016.  ^ Rogers, Vaneta (May 27, 2016). "Rebirth Superman's New Status Quo – Being a Super-Dad". Newsarama.com. Archived from the original on July 16, 2016. Retrieved July 8, 2016.  ^ Tomasi, Peter, Gleason, Patrick (w). Superman v4, 18–19 (March 2017), DC Comics ^ Jurgens, Dan (w). Action Comics 975–976 (March 2017), DC Comics ^ Johnston, Rich (October 6, 2017). "The End Of DC Rebirth
DC Rebirth
Announced At New York Comic-Con". bleedingcool. Retrieved March 11, 2018.  ^ Bonthuys, Darryn (December 1, 2017). "The Rebirth era is over, as a new direction begins in DC Universe". criticalhit. Retrieved March 11, 2018.  ^ a b Daniels (1995), pp. 22–23 ^ a b c Daniels (1998), p. 42 ^ Lee, Jim. "From the Co-Publishers", "The Source" (column), DC Comics, January 20, 2011. WebCitation archive. ^ Weldon 2013, p. 33 ^ Glen Weldon (2013). Superman
Superman
the Unauthorized Biography. p. 55.  ^ "The religion of Superman
Superman
( Clark Kent
Clark Kent
/ Kal-El)". Adherents.com. August 14, 2007. Archived from the original on August 28, 2012.  ^ a b Rucka, Greg (w), Lopez, David (p). "Affirmative Defense" Wonder Woman
Wonder Woman
v2, 220 (Oct. 2005), DC Comics ^ Action Comics
Action Comics
#594 (1987) ^ Woody Evans (2014). "Why They Won't Save Us: Political Dispositions in the Conflicts of Superheroes".  ^ Johns, Geoff (w), Conner, Amanda (p), Palmiotti, Jimmy (i). "Power Trip" JSA: Classified 1 (September 2005), DC Comics ^ Johns, Geoff Donner, Richard (w), Wight, Eric (p), Wight, Eric (i). "Who is Clark Kent's Big Brother?" Action Comics
Action Comics
Annual 10 (March 2007), DC Comics ^ Buskiek, Kurt, Nicieza, Fabian, Johns, Geoff (w), Guedes, Renato (p), Magalhaes, Jose Wilson (i). "Superman: Family" Action Comics 850 (July 2007), DC Comics ^ Wallace, Dan (2008). "Alternate Earths". In Dougall, Alastair. The DC Comics
DC Comics
Encyclopedia. London: Dorling Kindersley. pp. 20–21. ISBN 0-7566-4119-5.  ^ Superboy
Superboy
#171, January 1971 ^ For example, Superman
Superman
Annual #11 (1985). ^ Superman
Superman
#263 (April 1973) ^ For example, Action Comics
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#655 (July 1990). ^ " Superman
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Homepage – Superman
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on Radio & Audio". supermanhomepage.com. Archived from the original on November 9, 2016.  ^ "Obituaries of note". St. Petersburg Times. Wire services. September 25, 2003. Archived from the original on May 21, 2007. Retrieved December 8, 2006.  ^ a b c Daniels (1995), p. 80 ^ Siegel, Jerome (2006). The Superman
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Chronicles. DC Comics. p. 190. ISBN 9781401207649.  ^ Siegel, Jerome (1999). Superman: The Dailies 1939-1940. DC Comics. p. 71,108. ISBN 1563894602.  ^ Siegel, Jerry (w), Shuster, Joe (a). "A Scientific Explanation of Superman's Amazing Strength--!" Superman 1 (Summer 1939), National Periodical Publications ^ Cabarga, Leslie, Beck, Jerry, Fleischer, Richard (Interviewees). (2006). "First Flight: The Fleischer Superman
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Roundtable". Back Issue! (20). January 2007. ) on September 29, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2007.  ^ a b Eury (2006), p. 119 ^ "Superman's LL's [Text page]" Superman 204 (February, 1968), DC Comics ^ Daniels (1998), p. 160 ^ Though created to appear in Superman
Superman
#30 (Sept. 1944), publishing lag time resulted in the character first appearing in the Superman daily comic strip that year, per Superman
Superman
#30 Archived March 11, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. at the Grand Comics Database. ^ George, Richard (June 22, 2006). "Superman's Dirty Dozen". IGN.com. Archived from the original on December 24, 2015. Retrieved January 11, 2007.  Archive of page 2. ^ Magnussen, Anne; Hans-Christian Christiansen (2000). Comics & Culture: Analytical and Theoretical Approaches to Comics. Museum Tusculanum Press. ISBN 87-7289-580-2. a metaphor and cultural icon for the 21st century  ^ Postmes, Tom; Jolanda Jetten (2006). Individuality and the Group: Advances in Social Identity. Sage Publications. ISBN 1-4129-0321-1. American cultural icons (e.g., the American Flag, Superman, the Statue of Liberty)  ^ Soanes, C. and Stevenson, A. 2004. Electronic version of The Concise Oxford English Dictionary. Eleventh Edition. England: Oxford University Press. ^ Bizarro
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reference Archived July 3, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Reference to Bizzaro logic in FCC pleading. ^ "You're not Superman: Despite major medical advances, recovery times for regular folks take time" Archived September 16, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. PhysOrg.com. May 1, 2009. Retrieved October 5, 2009. ^ "You're Not Superman, You Know" Archived May 29, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.. Scarleteen. 2009-05-25. Retrieved October 5, 2009. ^ "Stress In The Modern World – Face It Guys, You're Not Superman" Archived April 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.. Natural Holistic Health. January 19, 2011. Retrieved December 3, 2011. ^ " Superman
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Struts in Macy Parade" Archived May 18, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. The New York Times, November 22, 1940. p.18 ^ "The Press: Superman's Dilemma". Time. April 13, 1942. Archived from the original on January 6, 2008. Retrieved January 29, 2007.  ^ Daniels (1998), p. 50 ^ Karl Heitmueller (June 13, 2006). "The 'Superman' Fanboy Dilemma, Part 4: Come On Feel The Toyz" (Flash). MTV News. Archived from the original on October 1, 2007. Retrieved January 16, 2007. Warner Bros. has " Superman
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Consumer Products Flies High with DC's Superman
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at Licensing 2005 International; Franchise Set to Reach New Heights in 2005 Leading Up to Feature Film Release of Superman
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Returns in June 2006" (Press release). Warner Bros.
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June 16, 2005. Archived from the original on January 5, 2008. Retrieved January 16, 2007. With a super hero that transcends all demographics" ... and ... "S-Shield, which continues to be a fashion symbol and hot trend  ^ Superheroes: Fashion and Fantasy. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2008. p. 28. ISBN 1-58839-280-5.  ^ Gormly, Kellie B. (June 28, 2006). "Briefs: Blige concert cancelled > Superman
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returns ... to the North Shore". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Archived from the original on September 3, 2008. Retrieved September 3, 2008.  ^ Pointer2017 : "...the budget for each short – an astonishing $30,000..." ^ Dave Fleischer, quoted in Daniels (2004), p. 58: "The average short cost nine or ten thousand dollars, some ran up to fifteen; they varied." ^ Weldon (2013): "...the last time the character had enjoyed a similar chance to reach beyond the comics shelves to a mass audience – during the run of the fifties television show – the comics had moved in lockstep. Yet that had been an inevitable result of DC holding creative control over all aspects of the television program..." ^ "Sesame Street: Superman's Favorite Letter S". YouTube. Sesame Street. November 15, 2015. Retrieved June 16, 2017.  ^ " Superman
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Movies at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on August 26, 2014. Retrieved 2016-07-24. 

Superman
Superman
(1978) made $134,218,018 in North American theaters, which is about $503,591,500 when adjusted for inflation. By comparison, Batman v Superman
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(2016) made only $330,360,194. ^ Scivally (2007), p. 77: "Under the terms of the deal, Warners would have budget and casting approval and the right of first refusal for Superman
Superman
films made by the Salkinds, but otherwise the financing and production of the films was up to the producers." ^ Zemler, Emily. " Henry Cavill
Henry Cavill
on the secrets of Superman's return in 'Justice League'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 20 November 2017.  ^ (June 16, 2016), " Supergirl
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R.E.M.
starts singing "Superman." My arm aches and I've got déjà vu. Funny how everything comes together. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) ^ Lyrics to "Superman's Song". ^ "Five For Fighting: Inside Track". VH1. Archived from the original on July 19, 2008. Retrieved June 17, 2010.  ^ Classical Music News Desk. "The Ann Arbor Symphony Orchestra Presents MADE IN THE USA Tonight". Wisdom Digital Media. Archived from the original on October 27, 2014. Retrieved October 27, 2014.  ^ "Metropolis Symphony". Archived from the original on October 27, 2014. Retrieved August 27, 2014.  ^ Turner, Robin (August 8, 2006). "Deputy Dawg". Western Mail. p. 21.  ^ "Looney Tunes # 97". Big Comicbook Database. Archived from the original on January 2, 2013. Retrieved January 16, 2007.  ^ Clarke, Mel (August 1, 2004). "The Pitch". The Sunday Times. p. 34.  ^ Kinnes, Sally (January 30, 2000). "The One To Watch". The Sunday Times. p. 58.  ^ Daniels (1998), p. 185 ^ "Steven Seagle Talks It's a Bird". ugo.com. Archived from the original on December 13, 2006. Retrieved January 16, 2007. the semi-autobiographical tale of Steven being given the chance to write a Superman
Superman
comic, but stumbling when he can't figure out how to relate to the character. Through the course of the story, Seagle finds his way into Superman
Superman
by looking at it through the lens of his own mortality.  ^ Taylor, Paul (September 21, 1994). "Theatre". The Independent. UK.  ^ DiPaolo, Marc (2011). War, Politics and Superheroes: Ethics and Propaganda In Comics and Film. McFarland & Company. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7864-8579-6.  ^ Eco, Umberto (2004) [1962]. "The Myth of Superman". In Jeet Heer; Kent Worcester. Arguing Comics. University Press of Mississippi. p. 162. ISBN 1-57806-687-5.  ^ Clarke, Gerald (December 13, 1971). "The Comics On The Couch". Time: 1–4. ISSN 0040-781X. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved January 29, 2007.  ^ Daniels (1995), p. 64 ^ Grayling, A C (July 8, 2006). "The Philosophy of Superman: A Short Course". The Spectator. UK. ISSN 0038-6952. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved January 29, 2007.  ^ Sabin, Roger (1996). Comics, Comix & Graphic Novels (4th paperback ed.). Phaidon. ISBN 0-7148-3993-0.  ^ von Busack, Richard (July 2–8, 1998). " Superman
Superman
Versus the KKK". Metro Silicon Valley. San Jose, California. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved January 28, 2007.  ^ Dubner, Stephen J; Levitt, Steven D (January 8, 2006). "Hoodwinked?". The New York Times
The New York Times
Magazine. p. F26. Archived from the original on April 7, 2012. Retrieved January 28, 2007.  ^ Glen Weldon (2013). Superman
Superman
the Unauthorized Biography. p. 83.  ^ Bukatman, Scott (2003). Matters of Gravity: Special
Special
Effects and Supermen in the 20th century. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3132-2.  ^ Jules Feiffer
Jules Feiffer
The Great Comic Book
Book
Heroes, (2003). Fantagraphics. ISBN 1-56097-501-6 ^ Andrae (1983), p.10. ^ Ian Gordon "Nostalgia, Myth, and Ideology: Visions of Superman
Superman
at the End of the 'American Century"in Michael Ryan, ' 'Cultural Studies: An Anthology' '(2007). Blackwell ISBN 978-1-4051-4577-0 [1]. ^ Fingeroth, Danny Superman
Superman
on the Couch (2004). Continuum International Publishing Group p53. ISBN 0-8264-1539-3 ^ a b Engle, Gary "What Makes Superman
Superman
So Darned American?" reprinted in Popular Culture (1992) Popular Press p 331–343. ISBN 0-87972-572-9 ^ Wallace, Daniel; Bryan Singer
Bryan Singer
(2006). The Art of Superman
Superman
Returns. Chronicle Books. p. 92. ISBN 0-8118-5344-6.  ^ Regalado, Aldo "Modernity, Race, and the American Superhero" in McLaughlin, Jeff (ed.) Comics as Philosophy (2005). Univ of Mississippi Press p92. ISBN 1-57806-794-4 ^ Jenemann, David (2007). Adorno in America. U of Minnesota Press. p. 180. ISBN 0-8166-4809-3.  ^ Rooney, David (June 3, 2010). "Finding America, Searching for Identity". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 9, 2010. Retrieved June 11, 2010.  ^ Weinstein, Simcha (2006). Up, Up, and Oy Vey! (1st ed.). Leviathan Press. ISBN 978-1-881927-32-7.  ^ Tye, Larry (2012). Superman: The High-Flying History of America's Most Enduring Hero. Random House Digital. pp. 65–67. ISBN 978-1-4000-6866-1. Like Moses. Much as the baby prophet was floated in a reed basket by a mother desperate to spare him from an Egyptian Pharaoh's death warrant, so Kal-El's doomed…  ^ Goebbels, Paul Joseph (25 April 1940). " Jerry Siegel
Jerry Siegel
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Book
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Superman
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Will Eisner
Comic Industry Award: Summary of Winners". Comic Book
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Awards Almanac. Joel Hahn. Archived from the original on February 16, 2007. Retrieved January 17, 2007.  ^ "Alan Moore Back on Top for 2006 Eisner Awards". Comic-Con International. July 2006. Archived from the original on April 11, 2008. Retrieved January 17, 2007.  ^ Joel Hahn (2006). "Will Harvey Award Winners Summary". Comic Book Awards Almanac. Joel Hahn. Archived from the original on March 13, 2007. Retrieved January 17, 2007.  ^ "CNN's 2002 Emmy
Emmy
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Emmy
Winners". Emmys.org. Archived from the original on July 8, 2006. Retrieved August 23, 2007.  ^ "The 2006 Creative Arts Emmy
Emmy
winners press release" (PDF) (Press release). Emmys.org. August 19, 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 29, 2006. Retrieved August 23, 2007. 

Bibliography

Andrae, Thomas (August 1983). "Of Supermen and Kids with Dreams". Nemo: The Classic Comics Library (2). Gary G. Groth. pp. 6–19.  Cronin, Brian (2009). Was Superman
Superman
a Spy?. Penguin. ISBN 9781101046562.  Daniels, Les (1995). DC Comics: Sixty Years of the World's Favorite Comic Book
Book
Heroes (First ed.). Bulfinch Press. ISBN 978-0821220764.  Daniels, Les (1998). Superman: The Complete History (1st ed.). Titan Books. ISBN 1-85286-988-7.  Dean, Michael (October 14, 2004). "An Extraordinarily Marketable Man: The Ongoing Struggle for Ownership of Superman
Superman
and Superboy". The Comics Journal (263): 13–17. Archived from the original on December 1, 2006. Retrieved December 22, 2006.  Eury, Michael; Adams, Neal; Swan, Curt; Anderson, Murphy (2006). The Krypton Companion. Raleigh, NC: TwoMorrows Publishing. ISBN 978-1-893905-61-0.  Harvey, Robert C. (1996). The Art of the Comic Book: An Aesthetic History. Univ. Press of Mississippi. ISBN 9780878057580.  Hatfield, Charles (2005). Alternative Comics: An Emerging Literature. Univ. Press of Mississippi. ISBN 9781604735871.  Jones, Gerard (2004). Men of Tomorrow: Geeks, Gangsters, and the Birth of the Comic Book. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-03656-2.  Kobler, John (June 21, 1941). "Up, Up, and Awa-a-ay!: The Rise of Superman, Inc" (PDF). The Saturday Evening Post. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 13, 2016.  Pointer, Ray (2017). The Art and Inventions of Max Fleischer: American Animation Pioneer. McFarland. ISBN 978-1-4766-6367-8.  Ricca, Brad (2014). Super Boys: The Amazing Adventures of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster
Joe Shuster
– the Creators of Superman. St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 978-1250049681.  Scivally, Bruce (2007). Superman
Superman
on Film, Television, Radio and Broadway. McFarland. ISBN 9780786431663.  Sergi, Joe (2015). The Law for Comic Book
Book
Creators: Essential Concepts and Applications. McFarland. ISBN 978-0786473601.  Steranko, Jim (1970). The Steranko History of Comics vol. 1. Supergraphics. ISBN 9780517501887.  Tye, Larry (2012). Superman: The High-Flying History of America's Most Enduring Hero. Random House New York. ISBN 978-1-58836-918-5.  Weldon, Glen (2013). Superman
Superman
the Unauthorized Biography. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 978-1-118-34184-1. 

Further reading

De Haven, Tom (2009). Our Hero: Superman
Superman
on Earth. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-11817-9. OCLC 320132317.  Hayde, Michael J. (2009). Flights of Fantasy: The Unauthorized but True Story of Radio & TV's Adventures of Superman. Albany, GA: BearManor Media. ISBN 978-1-59393-344-9. OCLC 429466149.  Ian Gordon, 2017, Superman: The Persistence of an American Icon, Rutgers University Press

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in other media

v t e

Supergirl

Otto Binder Al Plastino Curt Swan

Versions

Kara Zor-El Matrix Linda Danvers Cir-El Laurel Gand Power Girl Ariella Kent

Characters

Supporting

Cat Grant Comet Lana Lang Lena Luthor Lucy Lane Mary Marvel Maxima Streaky the Supercat Superman Zor-El

Enemies

Blithe The Council Cyborg Superman Decay Lesla-Lar Reactron Silver Banshee Twilight

Titles

Adventure Comics Supergirl Supergirl
Supergirl
and the Legion of Super-Heroes Superman
Superman
Family Elseworld's Finest: Supergirl
Supergirl
& Batgirl

Other media

Film

Supergirl
Supergirl
(1984) Superman/Batman: Apocalypse (2010) Superman: Unbound (2013)

Television

Superman: The Animated Series (1996)

episodes

Smallville
Smallville
(2001)

characters episodes

Supergirl
Supergirl
(2015)

characters episodes

DC Super Hero Girls
DC Super Hero Girls
(2015)

Category

v t e

Justice League

Gardner Fox

Founding members

Superman Batman Wonder Woman Green Lantern
Green Lantern
(Hal Jordan) Flash (Barry Allen) Aquaman Martian Manhunter
Martian Manhunter
(original) Black Canary
Black Canary
(some retellings) Triumph (some retellings) Cyborg (some retellings)

Enemies

Major antagonists

Amazo Anti-Monitor Appellaxians Brainiac Darkseid Deathstroke Despero Doctor Destiny Doctor Light Doomsday Eclipso Felix Faust General Wade Eiling Imperiex Joker Kanjar Ro Key Lex Luthor Libra Maxwell Lord Neron Professor Ivo Prometheus Queen Bee Queen of Fables Ra's al Ghul Sinestro Sonar Starro T. O. Morrow Vandal Savage White Martians

Organizations

Aryan Brigade Brotherhood of Evil Demons Three Extremists Crime Syndicate of America Kobra Legion of Doom Secret Society of Super Villains Injustice
Injustice
Gang Injustice
Injustice
League League of Assassins Manhunters Royal Flush Gang

Spin-off groups

Extreme Justice Just'a Lotta Animals Justice Guild of America Justice League
Justice League
3000 Justice League
Justice League
Dark Justice League
Justice League
Elite Justice League
Justice League
Europe Justice League
Justice League
International Justice League
Justice League
Task Force Justice League
Justice League
United Justice Legion Alpha Super Buddies Super Jrs. Young Justice

Bases and facilities

Hall of Justice Happy Harbor

Secret Sanctuary

Justice League
Justice League
Satellite Justice League
Justice League
Watchtower

Publications

Storylines

"Breakdowns" "JLApe: Gorilla Warfare!" "World War III" "JLA: Tower of Babel" "JLA: Earth
Earth
2" "Justice Leagues" "JLA: Pain of the Gods" "The Lightning Saga" "Throne of Atlantis" "Trinity War"

Current series

Justice League
Justice League
(vol. 3) Justice League
Justice League
of America (vol. 5)

Previous series

Justice League
Justice League
of America Justice League
Justice League
International Justice League
Justice League
Europe Justice League
Justice League
Quarterly Justice League
Justice League
Task Force Extreme Justice JLA Justice JLA: Classified Justice League: Generation Lost Justice League
Justice League
(The New 52) Justice League
Justice League
Dark Justice League
Justice League
United Justice League
Justice League
3000

Limited series

Justice Riders Justice League
Justice League
Elite JLA: The Nail series DC Comics
DC Comics
Two Thousand JLA: Created Equal JLA: Act of God JLA: Destiny JLA: Age of Wonder JLA: Shogun of Steel Justice League: Cry for Justice

Crossovers

JLA/Avengers JLA/The 99 Justice League/Power Rangers

Related articles

A.R.G.U.S. Bizarro
Bizarro
League Snapper Carr JL8 Justice League
Justice League
in other media Justice Society of America Squadron Supreme

v t e

Legion of Super-Heroes

Original continuity/Post-Infinite Crisis Post-Zero Hour Threeboot Post-Infinite Crisis

Creators

Otto Binder Al Plastino Mort Weisinger

Founding members

Cosmic Boy Lightning Lad Saturn Girl

Notable members

Blok Bouncing Boy Brainiac 5 Catspaw Chameleon Boy Chameleon Girl Chemical Kid/Chemical King Colossal Boy Comet Queen Computo (Danielle Foccart) Dawnstar Dragonmage Dream Boy Dream Girl Earth-Man Element Lad Ferro Lad Laurel Gand Gates Gazelle Gear Glorith Invisible Kid (Lyle Norg) Invisible Kid (Jacques Foccart) Karate Kid (Val Armorr) Karate Kid (Myg) Khundian Legionnaires Kid Quantum Kinetix Kono Lightning Lass/Light Lass Magnetic Kid Magno Matter-Eater Lad Celeste McCauley Mon-El Monstress Night Girl Devlin O'Ryan Phantom Girl Polar Boy Princess Projectra/Sensor Girl Quislet Sensor Shadow Lass Kent Shakespeare Shikari Shrinking Violet Spider Girl/Wave Star Boy/Starman Sun Boy Tellus Thunder Timber Wolf Triplicate Girl/Duo Damsel/Duplicate Damsel Tyroc Ultra Boy White Witch Wildfire XS

Special
Special
members

Elastic Lad (Jimmy Olsen) Insect Queen (Lana Lang) Kid Psycho Pete Ross Superboy
Superboy
(Kal-El) Superboy
Superboy
(Kon-El) Supergirl
Supergirl
(Kara Zor-El) Superman Rond Vidar

Supporting characters

R. J. Brande Controllers Shvaughn Erin Inferno Laurel Kent Legion Academy Legion of Substitute Heroes Lori Morning

Antagonists

Blight Brainiac Composite Superman Computo Dark Circle Darkseid Dominators Evillo Fatal Five

Emerald Empress Mano Persuader Tharok Validus

Glorith Grimbor Infinite Man Justice League
Justice League
of Earth Khunds League of Super-Assassins Legion of Super-Villains

Cosmic King Lightning Lord Saturn Queen

Leland McCauley Mordru Nemesis Kid Ol-Vir Omega Pulsar Stargrave Ra's al Ghul Roxxas Sklarian Raiders Starfinger Sun-Eater Superboy-Prime Time Trapper Universo Vandal Savage White Triangle

Planets

Braal Colu Daxam Dryad Durla Imsk Naltor Orando Rimbor Shanghalla Sorcerers' World Starhaven Takron-Galtos Tharn Titan Trom Weber's World Winath Xanthu Xolnar

Storylines

"One of Us Is a Traitor" "The Death of Ferro Lad" "The Adult Legion" " Mordru
Mordru
the Merciless" Karate Kid "Earthwar" "The Exaggerated Death of Ultra Boy" "The Great Darkness Saga" "Who Is Sensor Girl?" Legionnaires 3 Cosmic Boy "The Universo
Universo
Project" "The Greatest Hero of Them All" "The Terra Mosaic" Valor "End of an Era" Legion Lost
Legion Lost
(vol. 1) " Superboy
Superboy
and the Legion" "The Lightning Saga" " Superman
Superman
and the Legion of Super-Heroes" Final Crisis: Legion of 3 Worlds

Alternate continuities

Legion of Galactic Guardians 2099 Superboy's Legion Legion of Super Heroes in the 31st Century

In other media

Legion of Super Heroes Smallville
Smallville
(season 8) "New Kids in Town" (Superman: The Animated Series) "Far From Home" ( Justice League
Justice League
Unlimited) JLA Adventures: Trapped in Time Lego DC Comics
DC Comics
Super Heroes: Justice League
Justice League
– Cosmic Clash Supergirl
Supergirl
(season 3)

Related articles

Adventure Comics Iris West Allen Atmos Dev-Em The Final Night Heroes of Lallor Imperiex Impulse/Kid Flash Interlac Invasion! Justice Legion L Kwai L.E.G.I.O.N. Legion Flight
Flight
Ring Legion of Super-Pets Miracle Machine R.E.B.E.L.S. Reflecto Science Police Sodam Yat Superboy
Superboy
(comic book) Time Bubble Tornado Twins United Planets Wanderers Workforce Zero Hour: Crisis in Time

See also List of Legion of Super-Heroes
Legion of Super-Heroes
items List of Legion of Super-Heroes
Legion of Super-Heroes
members List of Legion of Super-Heroes
Legion of Super-Heroes
publications

v t e

Batman
Batman
characters

Batman
Batman
family

By secret identity

Batman Robin Catwoman Batwoman Batgirl Huntress Nightwing Flamebird Oracle Spoiler Red Robin Red Hood Batwing Black Bat Bluebird

By public identity

Bruce Wayne Dick Grayson Selena Kyle Kathy Kane Bette Kane Barbara Gordon Helena Wayne Jason Todd Helena Bertinelli Tim Drake Stephanie Brown Cassandra Cain Kate Kane Damian Wayne

Supporting characters

Main supporting

Alfred Pennyworth Julie Madison Martha Wayne Thomas Wayne Vicki Vale Knight Squire Dark Ranger Ace the Bat-Hound Leslie Thompkins Silver St. Cloud Lucius Fox Orpheus Nightrunner Bat-Cow

GCPD contacts

James "Jim" Gordon Harvey Bullock Sarah Essen Maggie Sawyer Renee Montoya Crispus Allen

Neutral characters

Mayors of Gotham City

Hamilton Hill

Professor Carter Nichols Bat-Mite Arnold John Flass Gillian B. Loeb Azrael The Sacred Order of Saint Dumas

Superhero
Superhero
allies

Superman Wonder Woman Green Arrow Green Lantern Flash Aquaman Cyborg Martian Manhunter Hawkgirl Shazam Justice League

Adversaries

Central rogues gallery

Bane Black Mask Black Spider Blockbuster Calendar Man Catman Catwoman Clayface Deadshot Deathstroke Firefly Harley Quinn Hugo Strange Hush Joker KGBeast Killer Croc Killer Moth Mad Hatter Man-Bat Maxie Zeus Mr. Freeze Penguin Poison Ivy Ra's al Ghul Riddler Scarecrow Solomon Grundy Talia al Ghul Two-Face Ventriloquist Victor Zsasz

Mad scientists

Crime Doctor Doctor Death Dollmaker Jeremiah Arkham Professor Milo Professor Pyg

Mobsters and crime lords

Alberto Falcone Carmine Falcone Mario Falcone Sofia Falcone Gigante Joe Chill Lew Moxon Rupert Thorne Sal Maroni Squid Tony Zucco

Rivals and vigilantes

Anarky Lady Shiva Lock-Up Red Hood

Recurring antagonists

Amygdala Anthony Lupus Cavalier Clock King Cluemaster Composite Superman Copperhead Cornelius Stirk Crazy Quilt David Cain Deacon Blackfire Doctor Double X Doctor Phosphorus Electrocutioner Emperor Blackgate Film Freak Firebug Flamingo Gearhead Gentleman Ghost Gorilla Boss Great White Shark Humpty Dumpty Joker's Daughter Key King Snake Kite Man Kobra Mister Toad Monk Nightslayer Nocturna Nyssa Raatko Orca Owlman Phosphorus Rex Planet Master Prometheus Rag Doll Ratcatcher Reaper Sensei Signalman Simon Hurt Snowman Spellbinder Tally Man Ten-Eyed Man Tiger Shark Tweedledum and Tweedledee Wrath Zebra-Man

Hostile organizations

Circus of Strange Court of Owls League of Assassins Terrible Trio

Alternative versions

Batman

Earth-Two Batman
Batman
of Zur-En-Arrh Owlman The Dark Knight Returns Terry McGinnis Batzarro

Robin

Earth-Two Carrie Kelley

Alternative versions of Barbara Gordon Alternative versions of Joker

Affiliated teams

Batmen of All Nations Birds of Prey Justice League World's Finest Team Outsiders

Other media

Gotham

Bruce Wayne James Gordon Fish Mooney Oswald Cobblepot

Other

Batman
Batman
enemies in other media

Egghead Roland Daggett Andrea Beaumont Blight

Rachel Dawes

v t e

Superman
Superman
/ Batman
Batman
crossover media

Comic books

World's Finest Comics Batman/Superman/Wonder Woman: Trinity Superman/Batman Superman
Superman
and Batman
Batman
versus Aliens and Predator

Television

The Batman/ Superman
Superman
Hour The Superman/ Batman
Batman
Adventures The New Batman/ Superman
Superman
Adventures

Books

Enemies & Allies

Film

Superman/Batman: Public Enemies Superman/Batman: Apocalypse Lego Batman: The Movie – DC Super Heroes Unite Batman
Batman
v Superman: Dawn of Justice

Video game

Lego Batman
Batman
2: DC Super Heroes Lego Batman
Batman
3: Beyond Gotham

The Dark Knight Universe

The Dark Knight Returns

film

The Dark Knight Strikes Again The Dark Knight III: The Master Race

Fan films and parodies

World's Finest HISHE: Super Cafe

Miscellanea

Composite Superman Hiro Okamura

v t e

Wonder Woman

William Moulton Marston Elizabeth Holloway Marston H. G. Peter Other contributors

Characters

Wonder Women

Diana Prince Orana Artemis of Bana-Mighdall Hippolyta Donna Troy

Supporting characters

Antiope Aphrodite Artemis Artemis of Bana-Mighdall Batman Drusilla Etta Candy Fury Hephaestus Hera Heracles/Hercules Hermes I Ching Julia and Vanessa Kapatelis Mala Nemesis (Thomas Tresser) Nubia The Olympian Orion Paula Philippus Poseidon Queen Hippolyta Helena Sandsmark Sarge Steel Superman Steve Trevor Wonder Girl
Wonder Girl
(Cassie Sandsmark Donna Troy) Zeus Zola

Adversaries

Aegeus Angle Man Ares/Mars Baron Blitzkrieg Baroness Paula von Gunther Blue Snowman Veronica Cale Captain Wonder Cheetah Circe Dark Angel Decay Doctor Cyber Doctor Poison Doctor Psycho Duke of Deception Earl of Greed Egg Fu/Chang Tzu Eviless The First Born Genocide Giganta Hades Hypnota Kung Lord Conquest Mask Medusa Minister Blizzard Osira Queen Clea Red Panzer Silver Swan Tezcatlipoca Zara

Factions

Amazons of Themyscira Amazons of Bana-Mighdall Children of Ares Godwatch Gorilla Knights Olympian Gods Titans of Myth Villainy Inc.

Locations

Aeaea Boston, Massachusetts London, England Mount Olympus Thalarion Themyscira (The Paradise Islands) The Underworld

Publications

All Star Comics Amazonia Batman/Superman/Wonder Woman: Trinity The Blue Amazon Comic Cavalcade The Legend of Wonder Woman Sensation Comics Superman
Superman
and Wonder Woman: The Hidden Killer Superman/Wonder Woman Wonder Woman
Wonder Woman
'77 The Wonder Woman
Wonder Woman
Chronicles Wonder Woman: Earth
Earth
One The World's Greatest Superheroes

Storylines

Introducing Wonder Woman
Wonder Woman
(1941) Gods and Mortals (1987) Challenge of the Gods
Challenge of the Gods
(1987–88) War of the Gods (1991) The Contest (1994) The Challenge of Artemis
The Challenge of Artemis
(1995) Paradise Island Lost (2001) Our Worlds at War
Our Worlds at War
(2001) The Hiketeia (2002) Down to Earth
Earth
(2003–04) Who Is Wonder Woman?
Who Is Wonder Woman?
(2006–07) Amazons Attack! (2007) The Circle (2008) Ends of the Earth
Earth
(2008) Rise of the Olympian
Rise of the Olympian
(2009) Flashpoint (2011) The Lies (2016) Year One (2016) The Truth (2017) Godwatch (2017)

Technology

Bracelets Golden Girdle of Gaea Invisible plane Lasso of Truth Mental radio Pegasi Purple Ray Sky Kangas

In other media

Super Friends
Super Friends
(episodes) Wonder Woman
Wonder Woman
(1974 film) Wonder Woman
Wonder Woman
(TV series) (episodes) Justice League
Justice League
(episodes) Justice League
Justice League
Unlimited (episodes) Justice League: The New Frontier Wonder Woman
Wonder Woman
(2009 film) Justice League: Crisis on Two Earths Superman/Batman: Apocalypse Wonder Woman
Wonder Woman
(2011 TV pilot) Young Justice DC Universe
DC Universe
Online Justice League: Doom Justice League: The Flashpoint Paradox Justice League: War The Lego Movie Justice League: Throne of Atlantis Justice League: Gods and Monsters Batman
Batman
v Superman: Dawn of Justice Justice League
Justice League
vs. Teen Titans Justice League
Justice League
Action Wonder Woman
Wonder Woman
(2017 film) Justice League

Miscellaneous

Alternative versions

Earth-Two Bizarra

Olive Byrne Cultural impact Professor Marston and the Wonder Women Literature Wonder Women! The Untold Story of American Superheroines

Portal Category

v t e

Golden Age of Comic Books

All-American Comics

The Atom (Al Pratt) Black Canary Doctor Mid-Nite Doiby Dickles The Flash (Jay Garrick) The Gay Ghost Green Lantern
Green Lantern
(Alan Scott) Hawkgirl Hawkman Hop Harrigan The King Justice Society of America Mister Terrific (Terry Sloane) Johnny Thunder Red Tornado (Ma Hunkel) Sargon the Sorcerer Ultra-Man The Whip Wildcat Wonder Woman

Archie Comics

The Black Hood Captain Flag The Comet The Firefly The Fox The Shield The Web The Wizard

Centaur Comics

Airman Amazing-Man The Arrow The Clock The Eye The Fantom of the Fair The Masked Marvel Minimidget

National Allied

Air Wave Aquaman Batman Crimson Avenger Dan the Dyna-Mite Doctor Fate Doctor Occult Genius Jones Green Arrow Guardian Hourman Johnny Quick (Johnny Chambers) Liberty Belle Manhunter Merry, the Girl of 1000 Gimmicks Mister America Robin

Dick Grayson

Robotman Sandman Sandy the Golden Boy Shining Knight The Spectre Speedy (Roy Harper) Star-Spangled Kid Starman (Ted Knight) Stripesy Superboy
Superboy
(Kal-El) Superman Tarantula TNT Vigilante Wing Zatara Seven Soldiers of Victory

Fawcett Comics

Bulletgirl Bulletman Captain Marvel Captain Marvel Jr. Captain Midnight The Golden Arrow Ibis the Invincible Lieutenant Marvels Mary Marvel Master Man Minute-Man Mr. Scarlet Phantom Eagle Pinky the Whiz Kid Spy Smasher

Fox Comics

Black Fury Blue Beetle The Bouncer Bronze Man Dynamo The Flame Green Mask Samson Spider Queen Stardust the Super Wizard U.S. Jones V-Man Wonder Man

Nedor Comics

American Crusader American Eagle Black Terror Captain Future Cavalier Doc Strange Fighting Yank The Ghost Grim Reaper Judy of the Jungle Lance Lewis, Space Detective Liberator The Magnet Miss Masque Princess Pantha Pyroman The Scarab The Woman in Red

Quality Comics

#711 The Black Condor Blackhawk Blue Tracer Bozo the Iron Man Captain Triumph The Clock Doll Girl Doll Man Firebrand The Human Bomb The Invisible Hood The Jester Kid Eternity Lady Luck Madame Fatal Magno The Manhunter Merlin the Magician Midnight Miss America Mouthpiece Neon the Unknown Phantom Lady Plastic Man Quicksilver The Ray Red Bee Red Torpedo The Spider Spider Widow Uncle Sam Wildfire Wonder Boy

Timely Comics

American Ace The Angel Black Marvel The Black Widow The Blazing Skull The Blonde Phantom The Blue Diamond Breeze Barton Bucky

Bucky Barnes

Captain America Citizen V The Destroyer Dynamic Man Father Time Ferret Fin Golden Girl The Human Torch Jack Frost Laughing Mask Marvel Boy Miss America Mercury Namor Namora The Patriot Red Raven Sun Girl Toro Thin Man Thunderer Venus The Vision The Whizzer

Misc.

Bell Features

Johnny Canuck Nelvana of the Northern Lights The Brain

Cardal Publishing

Streamline

Columbia Comics

The Face Skyman

Crestwood Publications

Atomic-Man Black Owl Green Lama

David McKay Publications

Vulcan

Dell Comics

Owl

Dynamic Publications

Dynamic Man Yankee Girl

EC Comics

Moon Girl

Elliot Publishing Company

Kismet, Man of Fate

Eastern Color Printing

Hydroman

Frew Publications

The Phantom Mandrake the Magician

Harvey Comics

Black Cat Captain Freedom Shock Gibson Spirit of '76

Holyoke Publishing

Cat-Man and Kitten Miss Victory

Lev Gleason Publications

Captain Battle Crimebuster Daredevil Silver Streak

Maple Leaf Publishing

Iron Man Brok Windsor

Novelty Press

Target Comics

Target and the Targeteers

Blue Bolt Dick Cole, The Wonder Boy Twister

Rural Home Publications

The Green Turtle

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 57682879 LCCN: n2015060

.