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The Super Bowl
Super Bowl
is the annual championship game of the National Football League (NFL). The game is the culmination of a regular season that begins in the late summer of the previous calendar year. Normally, Roman numerals
Roman numerals
are used to identify each game, rather than the year in which it is held. For example, Super Bowl I
Super Bowl I
was played on January 15, 1967, following the 1966 regular season. The sole exception to this naming convention tradition occurred with Super Bowl 50, which was played on February 7, 2016, following the 2015 regular season, and the following year, the nomenclature returned to Roman numerals for Super Bowl
Super Bowl
LI, following the 2016 regular season. The most recent Super Bowl
Super Bowl
was Super Bowl
Super Bowl
LII, on February 4, 2018, following the 2017 regular season. The game was created as part of a merger agreement between the NFL and its then-rival league, the American Football League
American Football League
(AFL). It was agreed that the two leagues' champion teams would play in the AFL–NFL World Championship Game until the merger was to officially begin in 1970. After the merger, each league was redesignated as a "conference", and the game has since been played between the conference champions to determine the NFL's league champion. Currently, the National Football Conference
National Football Conference
(NFC) leads the league with 27 wins to 25 wins for the American Football Conference
American Football Conference
(AFC). The Pittsburgh Steelers
Pittsburgh Steelers
have the most Super Bowl
Super Bowl
championship titles, with six. The New England Patriots
New England Patriots
have the most Super Bowl appearances, with ten. Charles Haley and Tom Brady
Tom Brady
both have five Super Bowl
Super Bowl
rings, which is the record for the most rings won by a single player. The day on which the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
is played, now considered by some as an unofficial American national holiday,[1][2] is called "Super Bowl Sunday". It is the second-largest day for U.S. food consumption, after Thanksgiving Day.[3] In addition, the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
has frequently been the most-watched American television broadcast of the year; the seven most-watched broadcasts in U.S. television history are Super Bowls.[4] In 2015, Super Bowl XLIX
Super Bowl XLIX
became the most-watched American television program in history with an average audience of 114.4 million viewers, the fifth time in six years the game had set a record, starting with the 2010 Super Bowl, which itself had taken over the number-one spot held for 27 years by the final episode of M*A*S*H.[5][6][7] The Super Bowl is also among the most-watched sporting events in the world, almost all audiences being North American, and is second to soccer's UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League
final as the most watched annual sporting event worldwide.[8] The NFL restricts the use of its "Super Bowl" trademark; it is frequently called the Big Game or other generic terms by non-sponsoring corporations. Because of the high viewership, commercial airtime during the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
broadcast is the most expensive of the year, leading to companies regularly developing their most expensive advertisements for this broadcast. As a result, watching and discussing the broadcast's commercials has become a significant aspect of the event.[9] In addition, popular singers and musicians including Mariah Carey, Michael Jackson, Madonna, Prince, Beyoncé, Paul McCartney, The Rolling Stones, The Who, Whitney Houston, and Lady Gaga
Lady Gaga
have performed during the event's pre-game and halftime ceremonies.

Contents

1 Origin 2 Date 3 Game history

3.1 1960s: Early history 3.2 1970s: Dominant franchises 3.3 1980s and 1990s: The NFC's winning streak 3.4 1997–2009: AFC resurgence 3.5 2010–present

4 Television coverage and ratings

4.1 Super Bowl
Super Bowl
on TV 4.2 Lead-out programming

5 Entertainment 6 Venue

6.1 Selection process 6.2 Home team designation 6.3 Host cities/regions 6.4 Host stadiums

7 Super Bowl
Super Bowl
trademark 8 Use of the phrase "world champions" 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Origin[edit] For four decades after its 1920 inception, the NFL successfully fended off several rival leagues. However, in 1960, it encountered its most serious competitor when the American Football League
American Football League
(AFL) was formed. The AFL vied heavily with the NFL for both players and fans, but by the middle of the decade, the strain of competition led to serious merger talks between the two leagues. Prior to the 1966 season, the NFL and AFL reached a merger agreement that was to take effect for the 1970 season. As part of the merger, the champions of the two leagues agreed to meet in a world championship game for professional American football until the merger was effected. A bowl game is a post-season college football game. The original "bowl game" was the Rose Bowl Game
Rose Bowl Game
in Pasadena, California, which was first played in 1902 as the "Tournament East-West football game" as part of the Pasadena Tournament of Roses
Pasadena Tournament of Roses
and moved to the new Rose Bowl Stadium in 1923. The stadium got its name from the fact that the game played there was part of the Tournament of Roses and that it was shaped like a bowl, much like the Yale Bowl
Yale Bowl
in New Haven, Connecticut; the Tournament of Roses football game itself eventually came to be known as the Rose Bowl Game. Exploiting the Rose Bowl Game's popularity, post-season college football contests were created for Miami
Miami
(the Orange Bowl), New Orleans
New Orleans
(the Sugar Bowl), and El Paso, Texas
Texas
(the Sun Bowl) in 1935, and for Dallas
Dallas
(the Cotton Bowl) in 1937. By the time the first Super Bowl
Super Bowl
was played, the term "bowl" for any major American football
American football
game was well established.

The Packers defeated the Chiefs in the first AFL–NFL Championship Game ( Super Bowl
Super Bowl
I).

Lamar Hunt, owner of the AFL's Kansas City Chiefs, first used the term "Super Bowl"[10] to refer to the NFL-AFL championship game in the merger meetings. Hunt later said the name was likely in his head because his children had been playing with a Super Ball
Super Ball
toy;[11] a vintage example of the ball is on display at the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio. In a July 25, 1966, letter to NFL commissioner Pete Rozelle, Hunt wrote, "I have kiddingly called it the 'Super Bowl,' which obviously can be improved upon." The leagues' owners chose the name "AFL–NFL Championship Game",[12] but in July 1966 the Kansas City Star quoted Hunt in discussing "the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
— that's my term for the championship game between the two leagues",[13] and the media immediately began using the term.[14] Although the league stated in 1967 that "not many people like it", asking for suggestions and considering alternatives such as "Merger Bowl" and "The Game", the Associated Press
Associated Press
reported that "Super Bowl" "grew and grew and grew-until it reached the point that there was Super Week, Super Sunday, Super Teams, Super Players, ad infinitum".[12] "Super Bowl" became official beginning with the third annual game.[15] Roman numerals
Roman numerals
were first affixed for the fifth edition, in January 1971.[16]

The Jets were the first AFL team to win a Super Bowl
Super Bowl
( Super Bowl
Super Bowl
III), defeating the Colts.

After the NFL's Green Bay Packers
Green Bay Packers
won the first two Super Bowls, some team owners feared for the future of the merger. At the time, many doubted the competitiveness of AFL teams compared with their NFL counterparts, though that perception changed when the AFL's New York Jets defeated the NFL's Baltimore Colts
Baltimore Colts
in Super Bowl III
Super Bowl III
in Miami. One year later, the AFL's Kansas City Chiefs
Kansas City Chiefs
defeated the NFL's Minnesota Vikings
Minnesota Vikings
23–7 in Super Bowl IV
Super Bowl IV
in New Orleans, which was the final AFL-NFL World Championship Game played before the merger. Beginning with the 1970 season, the NFL realigned into two conferences; the former AFL teams plus three NFL teams (the Colts, Pittsburgh Steelers, and Cleveland Browns) would constitute the American Football Conference
American Football Conference
(AFC), while the remaining NFL clubs would form the National Football Conference
National Football Conference
(NFC). The champions of the two conferences would play each other in the Super Bowl. The winning team receives the Vince Lombardi
Vince Lombardi
Trophy, named after the coach of the Green Bay Packers, who won the first two Super Bowl
Super Bowl
games and three of the five preceding NFL championships in 1961, 1962, and 1965. Following Lombardi's death in September 1970, the trophy was named the Vince Lombardi
Vince Lombardi
Trophy. The first trophy awarded under the new name was presented to the Baltimore Colts
Baltimore Colts
following their win in Super Bowl V
Super Bowl V
in Miami. Date[edit] The Super Bowl
Super Bowl
is currently played on the first Sunday in February. This is due to the current NFL schedule which consists of the opening weekend of the season being held immediately after Labor Day
Labor Day
(the first Monday in September), the 17-week regular season (where teams each play 16 games and have one bye), the first three rounds of the playoffs, and the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
two weeks after the two Conference Championship Games. This schedule has been in effect since Super Bowl XXXVIII in February 2004. The date of the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
can thus be determined from the date of the preceding Labor Day. For example, Labor Day
Labor Day
in 2015 occurred on September 7; therefore the next Super Bowl was scheduled exactly five months later on February 7, 2016. Originally, the game took place in early to mid-January. For Super Bowl I there was only one round of playoffs: the pre-merger NFL and AFL Championship Games. The addition of two playoff rounds (first in 1967 and then in 1978), an increase in regular season games from 14 to 16 (1978), and the establishment of one bye-week per team (1990) have caused the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
to be played later. Partially offsetting these season-lengthening effects, simultaneous with the addition of two regular season games in 1978, the season was started earlier. Prior to 1978, the season started as late as September 21. Now, since Labor Day is always the first Monday of September, September 13 is the latest possible date for the first full Sunday set of games (Since 2002, the regular season has started with the Kickoff Game on the first Thursday after Labor Day). The earliest possible season start date is September 7. Game history[edit] For a full list of Super Bowl
Super Bowl
games and champions, see List of Super Bowl champions.

Super Bowl
Super Bowl
appearances and records

Team Appearances Wins Losses Winning %

Pittsburgh Steelers 8 6 2 .750

New England Patriots 10 5 5 .500

Dallas
Dallas
Cowboys 8 5 3 .625

San Francisco 49ers 6 5 1 .833

Green Bay Packers 5 4 1 .800

New York Giants 5 4 1 .800

Denver Broncos 8 3 5 .375

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
/ Oakland Raiders 5 3 2 .600

Washington Redskins 5 3 2 .600

Miami
Miami
Dolphins 5 2 3 .400

Baltimore / Indianapolis
Indianapolis
Colts 4 2 2 .500

Baltimore Ravens 2 2 0 1.000

St. Louis / Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Rams 3 1 2 .333

Seattle Seahawks 3 1 2 .333

Philadelphia Eagles 3 1 2 .333

Kansas City Chiefs 2 1 1 .500

Chicago Bears 2 1 1 .500

New York Jets 1 1 0 1.000

Tampa
Tampa
Bay Buccaneers 1 1 0 1.000

New Orleans
New Orleans
Saints 1 1 0 1.000

Minnesota
Minnesota
Vikings 4 0 4 .000

Buffalo Bills 4 0 4 .000

Cincinnati Bengals 2 0 2 .000

Carolina Panthers 2 0 2 .000

Atlanta
Atlanta
Falcons 2 0 2 .000

San Diego
San Diego
/ Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Chargers 1 0 1 .000

Houston
Houston
/ Tennessee Oilers
Tennessee Oilers
/ Tennessee Titans 1 0 1 .000

St. Louis / Arizona Cardinals 1 0 1 .000

Cleveland Browns 0 0 0 –

Detroit
Detroit
Lions 0 0 0 –

Jacksonville Jaguars 0 0 0 –

Houston
Houston
Texans 0 0 0 –

The Pittsburgh Steelers
Pittsburgh Steelers
have won six Super Bowls, the most of any team; the Dallas
Dallas
Cowboys, New England Patriots
New England Patriots
and San Francisco 49ers have five victories each, while the Green Bay Packers
Green Bay Packers
and New York Giants have four Super Bowl
Super Bowl
championships. Fourteen other NFL franchises have won at least one Super Bowl. Eight teams have appeared in Super Bowl
Super Bowl
games without a win. The Minnesota Vikings
Minnesota Vikings
were the first team to have appeared a record four times without a win. The Buffalo Bills
Buffalo Bills
played in a record four Super Bowls in a row and lost every one. Four teams (the Cleveland Browns, Detroit
Detroit
Lions, Jacksonville Jaguars, and Houston
Houston
Texans) have never appeared in a Super Bowl. The Browns and Lions both won NFL Championships prior to the creation of the Super Bowl, while the Jaguars (1995) and Texans (2002) are both recent NFL expansion teams. (Detroit, Houston, and Jacksonville, however, have hosted a Super Bowl, leaving the Browns the only team to date who has neither played in nor whose city has hosted the game.) The Minnesota Vikings
Minnesota Vikings
won the last NFL Championship before the merger but lost to the AFL champion Kansas City Chiefs
Kansas City Chiefs
in Super Bowl
Super Bowl
IV. 1960s: Early history[edit] The Green Bay Packers
Green Bay Packers
won the first two Super Bowls (Known as the AFL-NFL World Championship Game for these first two contests), defeating the Kansas City Chiefs
Kansas City Chiefs
and Oakland Raiders
Oakland Raiders
following the 1966 and 1967 seasons, respectively. The Packers were led by quarterback, Bart Starr, who was named the Most Valuable Player (MVP) for both games. These two championships, coupled with the Packers' NFL championships in 1961, 1962, and 1965, amount to the most successful stretch in NFL History; five championships in seven years, and the only threepeat in NFL history (1965, 1966, and 1967). In Super Bowl
Super Bowl
III, the AFL's New York Jets
New York Jets
defeated the eighteen-point favorite Baltimore Colts
Baltimore Colts
of the NFL, 16–7. The Jets were led by quarterback Joe Namath, who had famously guaranteed a Jets win prior to the game, and former Colts head coach Weeb Ewbank, and their victory proved that the AFL was the NFL's competitive equal. This was reinforced the following year when the AFL's Kansas City Chiefs defeated the NFL's Minnesota Vikings
Minnesota Vikings
23–7 in Super Bowl
Super Bowl
IV. 1970s: Dominant franchises[edit] After the AFL–NFL merger
AFL–NFL merger
was completed in 1970, three franchises – the Dallas
Dallas
Cowboys, Miami
Miami
Dolphins, and Pittsburgh Steelers – would go on to dominate the 1970s, winning a combined eight Super Bowls in the decade. The Baltimore Colts, now a member of the AFC, would start the decade by defeating the Cowboys in Super Bowl
Super Bowl
V, a game which is notable as being the only Super Bowl
Super Bowl
to date in which a player from the losing team won the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
MVP (Cowboys' linebacker Chuck Howley). Beginning with this Super Bowl, all Super Bowls have served as the NFL's league championship game.

The Steelers defeated the Rams in Super Bowl XIV
Super Bowl XIV
to win an unprecedented four championships in six years.

The Cowboys, coming back from a loss the previous season, won Super Bowl VI over the Dolphins. However, this would be the Dolphins' final loss in over a year, as the next year, the Dolphins would go 14–0 in the regular season and eventually win all of their playoff games, capped off with a 14–7 victory in Super Bowl
Super Bowl
VII, becoming the first and only team to finish an entire perfect regular and postseason. The Dolphins would repeat as league champions by winning Super Bowl VIII
Super Bowl VIII
a year later. In the late 1970s, the Steelers became the first NFL dynasty of the post-merger era by winning four Super Bowls (IX, X, XIII, and XIV) in six years. They were led by head coach Chuck Noll, the play of offensive stars Terry Bradshaw, Franco Harris, Lynn Swann, John Stallworth, and Mike Webster, and their dominant "Steel Curtain" defense, led by "Mean" Joe Greene, L. C. Greenwood, Ernie Holmes, Mel Blount, Jack Ham, and Jack Lambert. The coaches and administrators also were part of the dynasty's greatness as evidenced by the team's "final pieces" being part of the famous 1974 draft. The selections in that class have been considered the best by any pro franchise ever, as Pittsburgh selected four future Hall of Famers, the most for any team in any sport in a single draft. The Steelers were the first team to win three and then four Super Bowls and appeared in six AFC Championship Games during the decade, making the playoffs in eight straight seasons. Nine players and three coaches and administrators on the team have been inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame. Pittsburgh still remains the only team to win back-to-back Super Bowls twice and four Super Bowls in a six-year period. The Steelers' dynasty was interrupted only by the Oakland Raiders' Super Bowl XI
Super Bowl XI
win and the Cowboys winning their second Super Bowl
Super Bowl
of the decade. 1980s and 1990s: The NFC's winning streak[edit] In the 1980s and 1990s, the tables turned for the AFC, as the NFC dominated the Super Bowls of the new decade and most of those of the 1990s. The NFC won 16 of the 20 Super Bowls during these two decades, including 13 straight from Super Bowl XIX
Super Bowl XIX
to Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XXXI.

The 49ers playing against the Dolphins in Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XIX.

The most successful team of the 1980s was the San Francisco 49ers, which featured the West Coast offense of Hall of Fame head coach Bill Walsh. This offense was led by three-time Super Bowl
Super Bowl
MVP and Hall of Fame quarterback Joe Montana, Super Bowl
Super Bowl
MVP and Hall of Fame wide receiver Jerry Rice, running back Roger Craig, and defensive safety/cornerback Ronnie Lott. Under their leadership, the 49ers won four Super Bowls in the decade (XVI, XIX, XXIII, and XXIV) and made nine playoff appearances between 1981 and 1990, including eight division championships, becoming the second dynasty of the post-merger NFL. The 1980s also produced the 1985 Chicago Bears, who posted an 18–1 record under head coach Mike Ditka; quarterback Jim McMahon; and Hall of Fame running back Walter Payton. Their team won Super Bowl XX
Super Bowl XX
in dominant fashion. The Washington Redskins
Washington Redskins
and New York Giants
New York Giants
were also top teams of this period; the Redskins won Super Bowls XVII, XXII, and XXVI. The Giants claimed Super Bowls XXI and XXV. As in the 1970s, the Oakland Raiders
Oakland Raiders
were the only team to interrupt the Super Bowl dominance of other teams; they won Super Bowls XV and XVIII (the latter as the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Raiders). Following several seasons with poor records in the 1980s, the Dallas Cowboys rose back to prominence in the 1990s. During this decade, the Cowboys made post-season appearances every year except for the seasons of 1990 and 1997. From 1992 to 1996, the Cowboys won their division championship each year. In this same period, the Buffalo Bills
Buffalo Bills
had made their mark reaching the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
for a record four consecutive years, only to lose all four. After Super Bowl
Super Bowl
championships by division rivals New York (1990) and Washington (1991), the Cowboys won three of the next four Super Bowls (XXVII, XXVIII, and XXX) led by quarterback Troy Aikman, running back Emmitt Smith, and wide receiver Michael Irvin. All three of these players went to the Hall of Fame. The Cowboys' streak was interrupted by the 49ers, who won their league-leading fifth title overall with Super Bowl XXIX
Super Bowl XXIX
in dominating fashion under Super Bowl
Super Bowl
MVP and Hall of Fame quarterback Steve Young, Hall of Fame wide receiver Jerry Rice, and Hall of Fame cornerback Deion Sanders; however, the Cowboys' victory in Super Bowl XXX
Super Bowl XXX
the next year also gave them five titles overall and they did so with Sanders after he won the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
the previous year with the 49ers. The NFC's winning streak was continued by the Green Bay Packers
Green Bay Packers
who, under Hall of Fame quarterback Brett Favre, won Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XXXI, their first championship since Super Bowl II
Super Bowl II
in the late 1960s. 1997–2009: AFC resurgence[edit] Super Bowl XXXII
Super Bowl XXXII
saw quarterback John Elway
John Elway
and running back Terrell Davis lead the Denver Broncos
Denver Broncos
to an upset victory over the defending champion Packers, snapping the NFC's 13-year winning streak. The following year, the Broncos defeated the Atlanta Falcons
Atlanta Falcons
in Super Bowl XXXIII, Elway's fifth Super Bowl
Super Bowl
appearance, his second NFL championship, and his final NFL game. The back-to-back victories heralded a change in momentum in which AFC teams would win nine out of 12 Super Bowls. In the years between 1995 and 2016, five teams – the Steelers, New England Patriots, Broncos, Baltimore Ravens, and Indianapolis Colts
Indianapolis Colts
– accounted for 20 of the 22 AFC Super Bowl
Super Bowl
appearances (including the last 14), with those same teams often meeting each other earlier in the playoffs. In contrast, the NFC saw a different representative in the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
every season from 2001 through 2010. The year following the Broncos' second victory, however, a surprising St. Louis Rams
St. Louis Rams
team led by the undrafted quarterback, Kurt Warner, who would close out the 1990s in a wild battle against the Tennessee Titans in Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XXXIV. The tense game came down to the final play in which Tennessee had the opportunity to tie the game and send it to overtime. The Titans nearly pulled it off, but the tackle of receiver Kevin Dyson by linebacker Mike Jones kept the ball out of the end zone by a matter of inches. In 2007, ESPN
ESPN
would rank "The Tackle" as the 2nd greatest moment in Super Bowl
Super Bowl
history.[17] Super Bowl XXXV
Super Bowl XXXV
was played by the AFC's Baltimore Ravens
Baltimore Ravens
and the NFC's New York Giants. The Ravens defeated the Giants by the score of 34–7. The game was played on January 28, 2001, at Raymond James Stadium in Tampa, Florida. The New England Patriots
New England Patriots
became the dominant team throughout the early 2000s, winning the championship three out of four years early in the decade. They would become only the second team in the history of the NFL to do so (after the 1990s Dallas
Dallas
Cowboys). In Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XXXVI, first-year starting quarterback Tom Brady
Tom Brady
led his team to a 20–17 upset victory over the St. Louis Rams. Brady would go on to win the MVP award for this game. The Patriots also won Super Bowls XXXVIII[18] and XXXIX defeating the Carolina Panthers
Carolina Panthers
and the Philadelphia Eagles respectively. This four-year stretch of Patriot dominance was interrupted by the Tampa
Tampa
Bay Buccaneers' 48–21 Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XXXVII victory over the Oakland Raiders. The Pittsburgh Steelers
Pittsburgh Steelers
and Indianapolis Colts
Indianapolis Colts
continued the era of AFC dominance by winning Super Bowls XL and XLI in 2005–06 and 2006–07, respectively defeating the Seattle Seahawks
Seattle Seahawks
and Chicago Bears. In the 2007 season, the Patriots became the fourth team in NFL history to have a perfect unbeaten and untied regular season record, the second in the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
era after the 1972 Miami
Miami
Dolphins, and the first to finish 16–0. They easily marched through the AFC playoffs and were heavy favorites in Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XLII. However, they lost that game to Eli Manning
Eli Manning
and the New York Giants
New York Giants
17–14, leaving the Patriots' 2007 record at 18–1. The following season, the Steelers logged their record sixth Super Bowl title (XLIII) in a 27–23, final-minute victory against the Arizona Cardinals. The 2009 season saw the New Orleans Saints
New Orleans Saints
defeat the Indianapolis Colts in Super Bowl XLIV
Super Bowl XLIV
by a score of 31–17 to take home their first Championship. With this victory, the Saints joined the Tampa
Tampa
Bay Buccaneers and New York Jets
New York Jets
as the only teams to have won in their sole Super Bowl
Super Bowl
appearance. 2010–present[edit] The 2010s have seen parity between the two conferences, but not within them. Since the start of 2010, five of the nine Super Bowl
Super Bowl
winners hailed from the NFC, the other four from the AFC. Following up the Saints' win in Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XLIV, the 2010 season brought the Green Bay Packers
Green Bay Packers
their fourth Super Bowl
Super Bowl
(XLV) victory and record thirteenth NFL championship overall with the defeat of the Pittsburgh Steelers
Pittsburgh Steelers
in February 2011. The Giants won another title after the 2011 season, again defeating the Patriots in Super Bowl XLVI. The Baltimore Ravens
Baltimore Ravens
snapped the NFC's three-game winning streak by winning Super Bowl XLVII
Super Bowl XLVII
in a 34–31 victory over the San Francisco 49ers. Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XLVIII, played at New Jersey's MetLife Stadium
MetLife Stadium
in February 2014, was the first Super Bowl
Super Bowl
held outdoors in a cold weather environment. The Seattle Seahawks
Seattle Seahawks
won their first NFL title with a 43–8 defeat of the Denver Broncos, in a highly touted matchup that pitted Seattle's top-ranked defense against a Peyton Manning-led Denver offense that had broken the NFL's single-season scoring record. In Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XLIX, the Patriots beat the defending Super Bowl champions, the Seahawks, 28–24 as Malcolm Butler
Malcolm Butler
intercepted a Seattle pass in the end zone with the Seahawks poised to take the lead. In Super Bowl
Super Bowl
50, the Broncos, led by the league's top-ranked defense, defeated the Carolina Panthers, who had the league's top-ranked offense, in what became the final game of quarterback Peyton Manning's career. In Super Bowl
Super Bowl
LI, the Atlanta Falcons
Atlanta Falcons
had a 28–3 lead late in the third quarter, but lost to the Patriots, 34–28, in the first Super Bowl to ever end in overtime. In Super Bowl
Super Bowl
LII, the Philadelphia Eagles
Philadelphia Eagles
defeated the New England Patriots, 41–33. It was the Eagles' third Super Bowl
Super Bowl
appearance, and their first win in franchise history. It was the Patriots' tenth Super Bowl appearance, and their fourth appearance in ten years; had the Patriots won, they would have tied the Pittsburgh Steelers
Pittsburgh Steelers
with the most Super Bowl
Super Bowl
wins (six). The Super Bowls of the late 2000s and 2010s are notable for the performances (and the pedigrees) of several of the participating quarterbacks, and stagnation (especially on the AFC side) in repeated appearances by the same teams and players. In particular, Tom Brady, Ben Roethlisberger, or Peyton Manning
Peyton Manning
appeared as the AFC team's quarterback in all but two of the Super Bowls between 2001 and 2018. Television coverage and ratings[edit] Main article: Super Bowl
Super Bowl
television ratings See also: List of most watched television broadcasts in the United States

The Super Bowl XXXV
Super Bowl XXXV
broadcasting compound, full of satellite trucks.

The Super Bowl
Super Bowl
is one of the most watched annual sporting events in the world, with viewership overwhelmingly domestic.[19] The only other annual event that gathers more viewers is the UEFA Champions League final.[19] For many years, the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
has possessed a large US and global television viewership, and it is often the most watched United States originating television program of the year.[20] The game tends to have high Nielsen television ratings, which is usually around a 40 rating and 60 shares. This means that on average, more than 100 million people from the United States alone are tuned into the Super Bowl at any given moment. In press releases preceding each year's event, the NFL typically claims that that year's Super Bowl
Super Bowl
will have a potential worldwide audience of around one billion people in over 200 countries.[21] This figure refers to the number of people able to watch the game, not the number of people actually watching. However, the statements have been frequently misinterpreted in various media as referring to the latter figure, leading to a common misperception about the game's actual global audience.[22][23] The New York-based media research firm Initiative measured the global audience for the 2005 Super Bowl
Super Bowl
at 93 million people, with 98 percent of that figure being viewers in North America, which meant roughly 2 million people outside North America watched the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
that year.[22] The 2015 Super Bowl XLIX
Super Bowl XLIX
holds the record for average number of U.S. viewers, with a final number of 114.4 million,[24] making the game the most-viewed television broadcast of any kind in American history. The halftime show was the most watched ever with 118.5 million viewers tuning in, and an all-time high of 168 million viewers in the United States had watched several portions of the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
2015 broadcast.[25] The game set a record for total viewers for the fifth time in six years.[6] The highest-rated game according to Nielsen was Super Bowl XVI
Super Bowl XVI
in 1982, which was watched in 49.1 percent of households (73 shares), or 40,020,000 households at the time. Ratings for that game, a San Francisco victory over Cincinnati, may have been aided by a large blizzard that had affected much of the northeastern United States on game day, leaving residents to stay at home more than usual. Super Bowl XVI still ranks fourth on Nielsen's list of top-rated programs of all time, and three other Super Bowls, XII, XVII, and XX, made the top ten.[26] Famous commercial campaigns include the Budweiser
Budweiser
"Bud Bowl" campaign, the 1984 introduction of Apple's Macintosh computer, and the 1999 and 2000 dot-com ads. As the television ratings of the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
have steadily increased over the years, prices have also increased every year, with advertisers paying as much as $3.5 million for a thirty-second spot during Super Bowl XLVI
Super Bowl XLVI
in 2012.[27] A segment of the audience tunes into the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
solely to view commercials.[9] In 2010, Nielsen reported that 51 percent of Super Bowl
Super Bowl
viewers tune in for the commercials.[28] The Super Bowl
Super Bowl
halftime show has spawned another set of alternative entertainment such as the Lingerie Bowl, the Beer Bottle Bowl, and others. Since 1991, the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
has begun between 6:19 and 6:40 PM EST so that most of the game is played during the primetime hours on the East Coast.[29] Super Bowl
Super Bowl
on TV[edit] See also: National Football League
National Football League
on television

Network Number broadcast Years broadcast Future scheduled telecasts*[›]

ABC**[›] 7 1985, 1988, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2003, 2006 **[›]

Fox 8 (10ˇ[›]) 1997, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017 2020ˇ[›], 2023ˇ[›]

NBC 19 (20ˇ[›]) 1967***[›], 1969, 1971, 1973, 1975, 1977, 1979, 1981, 1983, 1986, 1989, 1993, 1994, 1996, 1998, 2009, 2012, 2015, 2018 2021ˇ[›]

CBS 19 (21ˇ[›]) 1967***[›], 1968, 1970, 1972, 1974, 1976, 1978, 1980, 1982, 1984, 1987, 1990, 1992, 2001, 2004, 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016 2019ˇ[›], 2022ˇ[›]

Note: Years listed are the year the game was actually played (will be playedˇ[›]) rather than what NFL season it is considered to have been. ^ *: The extended current TV contracts with the networks expire after the 2022 season (or Super Bowl LVII
Super Bowl LVII
in early 2023) and the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
is currently rotated annually between CBS, Fox, and NBC in that order. ^ **: ABC is not currently in the rotation for Super Bowl broadcasts. ^ ***: The first Super Bowl
Super Bowl
was simultaneously broadcast by CBS
CBS
and NBC, with each network using the same video feed, but providing its own commentary. Super Bowls I–VI were blacked out in the television markets of the host cities, due to league restrictions then in place.[30]

Game analyst John Madden
John Madden
is the only person to broadcast a Super Bowl for each of the four networks that have televised the game (5 with CBS, 3 with Fox, 2 with ABC, and 1 with NBC).

Lead-out programming[edit] See also: List of Super Bowl
Super Bowl
lead-out programs The Super Bowl
Super Bowl
provides an extremely strong lead-in to programming following it on the same channel, the effects of which can last for several hours. For instance, in discussing the ratings of a local TV station, Buffalo television critic Alan Pergament noted on the coattails from Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XLVII, which aired on CBS: "A paid program that ran on Channel 4 (WIVB-TV) at 2:30 in the morning had a 1.3 rating. That's higher than some CW prime time shows get on WNLO-TV, Channel 4's sister station."[31] Because of this strong coattail effect, the network that airs the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
typically takes advantage of the large audience to air an episode of a hit series, or to premiere the pilot of a promising new one in the lead-out slot, which immediately follows the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
and post-game coverage. Entertainment[edit] See also: List of national anthem performers at the Super Bowl
List of national anthem performers at the Super Bowl
and List of Super Bowl
Super Bowl
halftime shows

Initially, it was sort of a novelty and so it didn't quite feel right. But it was just like, this is the year. ... Bands of our generation, you can sort of be seen on a stage like this or, like, not seen. There's not a lot of middle places. It is a tremendous venue. —  Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen
on why he turned down several invitations to perform at the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
before finally agreeing to appear in Super Bowl XLIII.[32]

Jennifer Hudson
Jennifer Hudson
sings the national anthem at Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XLIII.

Madonna performing with LMFAO
LMFAO
during the Super Bowl XLVI
Super Bowl XLVI
halftime show.

Early Super Bowls featured a halftime show consisting of marching bands from local colleges or high schools; but as the popularity of the game increased, a trend where popular singers and musicians performed during its pre-game ceremonies and the halftime show, or simply sang the national anthem of the United States, emerged.[33] Unlike regular season or playoff games, thirty minutes are allocated for the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
halftime. After a special live episode of the Fox sketch comedy series In Living Color
In Living Color
caused a drop in viewership for the Super Bowl XXVI
Super Bowl XXVI
halftime show, the NFL sought to increase the Super Bowl's audience by hiring A-list talent to perform. They approached Michael Jackson, whose performance the following year drew higher figures than the game itself.[34][35] Another notable performance came during Super Bowl XXXVI
Super Bowl XXXVI
in 2002, when U2 performed; during their third song, "Where the Streets Have No Name", the band played under a large projection screen which scrolled through names of the victims of the September 11 attacks. For many years, Whitney Houston's performance of the national anthem at Super Bowl XXV
Super Bowl XXV
in 1991, during the Gulf War, had long been regarded as one of the best renditions of the anthem in history.[36][37][38] Then, in an historic, groundbreaking, and emotional performance prior to Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XLVIII, soprano Renee Fleming
Renee Fleming
became the first opera singer to perform the anthem, propelling FOX to the highest ratings of any program in its history, and remains so today. The halftime show of Super Bowl XXXVIII
Super Bowl XXXVIII
attracted controversy, following an incident in which Justin Timberlake
Justin Timberlake
removed a piece of Janet Jackson's top, briefly exposing one of her breasts before the broadcast quickly cut away from the shot. The incident led to fines being issued by the FCC (and a larger crackdown over "indecent" content broadcast on television), and MTV
MTV
(then a sister to the game's broadcaster that year, CBS, under Viacom) being banned by the NFL from producing the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
halftime show in the future. In an effort to prevent a repeat of the incident, the NFL held a moratorium on Super Bowl halftime shows featuring pop performers, and instead invited a single, headlining veteran act, such as Paul McCartney, The Who, Prince, and Bruce Springsteen. This practice ended at Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XLV, which returned to using current pop acts such as The Black Eyed Peas and Katy Perry.[39][40] Excluding Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XXXIX, the famous "I'm going to Disney World!" advertising campaign took place in every Super Bowl
Super Bowl
since Super Bowl XXI when quarterback Phil Simms from the New York Giants
New York Giants
became the first player to say the tagline. Venue[edit] For a full list of Super Bowl
Super Bowl
games and venues, see List of Super Bowl champions.

A view from the south end zone during Super Bowl XLVII
Super Bowl XLVII
in New Orleans, the tenth time that the city has hosted the Super Bowl.

A view of Super Bowl XLV
Super Bowl XLV
in Arlington, Texas.

The field of Super Bowl XXXIX
Super Bowl XXXIX
in Jacksonville, Florida
Jacksonville, Florida
before kickoff.

As of Super Bowl
Super Bowl
LII, 27 of 52 Super Bowls have been played in three cities: New Orleans
New Orleans
(ten times), the Greater Miami
Miami
area (ten times), and the Greater Los Angeles area
Greater Los Angeles area
(seven times). No market or region without an active NFL franchise has ever hosted a Super Bowl, and the presence of an NFL team in a market or region is now a de jure requirement for bidding on the game.[41][42] The winning market is not, however, required to host the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
in the same stadium that its NFL team uses, and nine Super Bowls have been held in a stadium other than the one the NFL team in that city was using at the time. For example, Los Angeles's last five Super Bowls were all played at the Rose Bowl, which has never been used by any NFL franchise outside of the Super Bowl.[citation needed] No team has ever played the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
in its home stadium. The closest any team has come was the 2017 Minnesota
Minnesota
Vikings, who were within one win of playing Super Bowl LII
Super Bowl LII
in U.S. Bank Stadium, but lost the NFC Championship game to the Philadelphia Eagles. Two teams have played the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
in their home market: the San Francisco 49ers, who played Super Bowl XIX
Super Bowl XIX
in Stanford Stadium
Stanford Stadium
instead of Candlestick Park; and the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Rams, who played Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XIV in the Rose Bowl instead of the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Memorial Coliseum. In both cases, the stadium in which the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
was held was perceived to be a better stadium for a large, high-profile event than the stadiums the Rams and 49ers were playing in at the time; this situation has not arisen since 1993, in part because the league has traditionally awarded the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
in modern times to the newest stadiums. Besides those two, the only other Super Bowl
Super Bowl
venue that was not the home stadium to an NFL team at the time was Rice Stadium in Houston: the Houston Oilers
Houston Oilers
had played there previously, but moved to the Astrodome several years prior to Super Bowl
Super Bowl
VIII. The Orange Bowl
Orange Bowl
was the only AFL stadium to host a Super Bowl
Super Bowl
and the only stadium to host consecutive Super Bowls, hosting Super Bowls II and III. Traditionally, the NFL does not award Super Bowls to stadiums that are located in climates with an expected average daily temperature less than 50 °F (10 °C) on game day unless the field can be completely covered by a fixed or retractable roof.[43] Six Super Bowls have been played in northern cities: two in the Detroit
Detroit
area—Super Bowl XVI at Pontiac Silverdome
Pontiac Silverdome
in Pontiac, Michigan
Pontiac, Michigan
and Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XL at Ford Field
Ford Field
in Detroit, two in Minneapolis— Super Bowl XXVI
Super Bowl XXVI
at the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome
Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome
and Super Bowl LII
Super Bowl LII
at the U.S. Bank Stadium, one in Indianapolis
Indianapolis
at Lucas Oil Stadium
Lucas Oil Stadium
for Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XLVI, and one in the New York area— Super Bowl XLVIII
Super Bowl XLVIII
at MetLife Stadium. Only MetLife Stadium
MetLife Stadium
did not have a roof (be it fixed or retractable) but it was still picked as the host stadium for Super Bowl XLVIII
Super Bowl XLVIII
in an apparent waiver of the warm-climate rule. There have been a few instances where the league has rescinded the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
from cities. Super Bowl XXVII
Super Bowl XXVII
in 1993 was originally awarded to Sun Devil Stadium
Sun Devil Stadium
in Tempe, Arizona, but after Arizona voters elected not to recognize Martin Luther King, Jr. Day
Martin Luther King, Jr. Day
as a paid state-employee's holiday in 1990, the NFL moved the game to the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California.[44] When voters in Arizona opted to create such a legal holiday in 1992, Super Bowl XXX
Super Bowl XXX
in 1996 was awarded to Tempe. Super Bowl XXXIII
Super Bowl XXXIII
was awarded first to Candlestick Park in San Francisco, but when plans to renovate the stadium fell through, the game was moved to Pro Player Stadium in greater Miami. Super Bowl XXXVII
Super Bowl XXXVII
was awarded to a new stadium not yet built in San Francisco, when that stadium failed to be built, the game was moved to San Diego. Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XLIV, slated for February 7, 2010, was withdrawn from New York City's proposed West Side Stadium, because the city, state, and proposed tenants New York Jets
New York Jets
could not agree on funding. Super Bowl XLIV
Super Bowl XLIV
was then eventually awarded to Sun Life Stadium in Miami
Miami
Gardens, Florida. Super Bowl XLIX
Super Bowl XLIX
in 2015 was originally given to Arrowhead Stadium
Arrowhead Stadium
in Kansas City, Missouri, but after two sales taxes failed to pass at the ballot box, and opposition by local business leaders and politicians increased, Kansas City eventually withdrew its request to host the game.[45] Super Bowl XLIX
Super Bowl XLIX
was then eventually awarded to University
University
of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale, Arizona. In 2011, Texas
Texas
Attorney General Greg Abbott
Greg Abbott
said, "[The Super Bowl
Super Bowl
is] commonly known as the single largest human trafficking incident in the United States." According to Forbes, 10,000 prostitutes were brought to Miami
Miami
in 2010 for the Super Bowl.[46] Snopes
Snopes
research in 2015 determined that the actual number of prostitutes involved in a typical Super Bowl
Super Bowl
weekend is less than 100, not statistically higher than any other time of the year, and that the notion of mass increases in human trafficking around the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
was a politician's myth.[47] Selection process[edit] The location of the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
is chosen by the NFL well in advance, usually three to five years before the game. Cities place bids to host a Super Bowl
Super Bowl
and are evaluated in terms of stadium renovation and their ability to host.[43][48] In 2014, a document listing the specific requirements of Super Bowl
Super Bowl
hosts was leaked, giving a clear list of what was required for a Super Bowl
Super Bowl
host.[49] Much of the cost of the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
is to be assumed by the host community, although some costs are enumerated within the requirements to be assumed by the NFL. Some of the host requirements include:

The host stadium must be in a market that hosts an NFL team and must have a minimum of 70,000 seats, with the media and electrical amenities necessary to produce the Super Bowl. Stadiums may include temporary seating for Super Bowls, but seating must be approved by the league. Stadiums where the average game day temperature is below 50° Fahrenheit must either have a roof or a waiver given by the league. There must be a minimum of 35,000 parking spaces within one mile of the stadium. The host stadium must have space for the Gameday Experience, a large pregame entertainment area, within walking distance of the stadium. The host city must have space for the NFL Experience, the interactive football theme park which is operated the week prior to the Super Bowl. An indoor venue for the event must have a minimum of 850,000 square feet, and an outdoor venue must have a minimum of 1,000,000 square feet. Additionally, there must be space nearby for the Media Center, and space for all other events involved in the Super Bowl week, including golf courses and bowling alleys. The necessary infrastructure must be in place around the stadium and other Super Bowl
Super Bowl
facilities, including parking, security, electrical needs, media needs, communication needs, and transportation needs. There must be a minimum number of hotel spaces within one hour's drive of the stadium equaling 35% of the stadium's capacity, along with hotels for the teams, officials, media, and other dignitaries. (For Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XXXIX, the city of Jacksonville docked several luxury cruise liners at their port to act as temporary hotel space.[50]) There must be practice space of equal and comparable quality for both teams within a 20-minute drive of the team hotels, and rehearsal space for all events within a reasonable distance to the stadium. The practice facilities must have one grass field and at least one field of the same surface as the host stadium. The stadium must have a minimum of 70,000 fixed seats, including club and fixed suite seating, during regular season operations.

The NFL owners meet to make a selection on the site, usually three to five years prior to the event. In 2007, NFL commissioner Roger Goodell suggested that a Super Bowl
Super Bowl
might be played in London, perhaps at Wembley Stadium.[51] The game has never been played in a region that lacks an NFL franchise; seven Super Bowls have been played in Los Angeles, but none were held there in the 21-year period when the league had no team in the area.[citation needed] New Orleans, the site of the 2013 Super Bowl, invested more than $1 billion in infrastructure improvements in the years leading up to the game.[52] Home team designation[edit] The designated "home team" alternates between the NFC team in odd-numbered games and the AFC team in even-numbered games.[53][54] This alternation was initiated with the first Super Bowl, when the Green Bay Packers
Green Bay Packers
were the designated home team. Regardless of being the home or away team of record, each team has their team logo and wordmark painted in one of the end zones. Designated away teams have won 30 of 51 Super Bowls to date (approximately 59 percent).

The Redskins are one of six home teams that chose to wear their white jersey, shown here in Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XVII.

Since Super Bowl XIII
Super Bowl XIII
in January 1979, the home team is given the choice of wearing their colored or white jerseys. Originally, the designated home team had to wear their colored jerseys, which resulted in Dallas
Dallas
donning their less exposed dark blue jerseys for Super Bowl V. While most of the home teams in the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
have chosen to wear their colored jerseys, there have been six (6) exceptions: the Dallas Cowboys during Super Bowl XIII
Super Bowl XIII
and XXVII, the Washington Redskins during Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XVII, the Pittsburgh Steelers
Pittsburgh Steelers
during Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XL, the Denver Broncos
Denver Broncos
during Super Bowl
Super Bowl
50, and the New England Patriots in Super Bowl
Super Bowl
LII. The Cowboys, since 1964, have worn white jerseys at home. The Redskins wore white at home under coach Joe Gibbs
Joe Gibbs
starting in 1981 through 1992, continued by Richie Petitbon and Norv Turner through 2000, then again when Gibbs returned from 2004 through 2007. Meanwhile, the Steelers, who have always worn their black jerseys at home since the AFL–NFL merger
AFL–NFL merger
in 1970, opted for the white jerseys after winning three consecutive playoff games on the road, wearing white. The Steelers' decision was compared with the New England Patriots in Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XX; the Patriots had worn white jerseys at home during the 1985 season, but after winning road playoff games against the New York Jets
New York Jets
and Miami Dolphins
Miami Dolphins
wearing red jerseys, New England opted to switch to crimson for the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
as the designated home team. For the Broncos in Super Bowl
Super Bowl
50, Denver general manager John Elway simply stated, "We've had Super Bowl
Super Bowl
success in our white uniforms"; they previously had been 0–4 in Super Bowls when wearing their orange jerseys.[55][56] The Broncos' decision is also perceived to be made out of superstition, losing all Super Bowl
Super Bowl
games with the orange jerseys in terrible fashion. It is unclear why the Patriots chose to wear their white jerseys for Super Bowl
Super Bowl
LII. During the pairing of Bill Belichick
Bill Belichick
and Tom Brady, New England has mostly worn their blue jerseys for home games, but have worn white for a home game in the 2008, 2010, and 2011 seasons.[57] The New England Patriots
New England Patriots
were 3-0 in their white uniforms in Super Bowls prior to Super Bowl
Super Bowl
LII with Belichick and Brady,[58][59] and they may have been going on recent trends of teams who wear white for the Super Bowl game.[60][61][62] White-shirted teams have won 33 of 52 Super Bowls to date (63 percent). The only teams to win in their dark-colored uniform in more recent years are the Green Bay Packers
Green Bay Packers
against the Pittsburgh Steelers in Super Bowl XLV
Super Bowl XLV
and the Philadelphia Eagles
Philadelphia Eagles
against the New England Patriots in Super Bowl
Super Bowl
LII, with teams in white winning 12 of the last 14 Super Bowls.[63] The 49ers, as part of the league's 75th Anniversary celebration, used their 1957 throwback uniform in Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XXIX, which for that year was their regular home jersey. No team has yet worn a third jersey or Color Rush
Color Rush
uniform for the Super Bowl. Host cities/regions[edit] For a full list of Super Bowl
Super Bowl
venues, see List of Super Bowl champions.

Miami
Miami
Metro Area

New Orleans

L.A. Metro Area

Tampa

San Diego

Houston

Detroit
Detroit
Metro

Atlanta

Phoenix Metro Area

Minneapolis

Jacksonville

S.F. Bay Area

Dallas‑Fort Worth

Indianapolis

N.Y. Metro Area

Super Bowl
Super Bowl
host cities/regions

Fifteen different regions have hosted Super Bowls.

City/Region No. hosted Years hosted

Miami
Miami
metropolitan area 10 (11)ˇ[›] 1968, 1969, 1971, 1976, 1979, 1989, 1995, 1999, 2007, 2010, 2020ˇ[›]

New Orleans 10 1970, 1972, 1975, 1978, 1981, 1986, 1990, 1997, 2002, 2013

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
metropolitan area 7 (8)ˇ[›] 1967, 1973, 1977, 1980, 1983, 1987, 1993, 2022ˇ[›]

Tampa 4 (5)ˇ[›] 1984, 1991, 2001, 2009, 2021ˇ[›]

San Diego 3 1988, 1998, 2003

Phoenix metropolitan area 3 1996, 2008, 2015

Houston 3 1974, 2004, 2017

Atlanta 2 (3)ˇ[›] 1994, 2000, 2019ˇ[›]

Metro Detroit 2 1982, 2006

San Francisco Bay Area 2 1985, 2016

Minneapolis 2 1992, 2018

Jacksonville 1 2005

Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex 1 2011

Indianapolis 1 2012

New York metropolitan area 1 2014

Note: Years listed are the year the game was actually played (or will be playedˇ[›]; future games are denoted through italics) rather than what NFL season it is considered to have been. Host stadiums[edit] A total of twenty-six different stadiums, five of which no longer exist and one of which does not yet exist, have hosted or are scheduled to host Super Bowls. Years listed in the table below are the years the game was actually played (will be playedˇ[›]) rather than what NFL season it is considered to have been.

Stadium Location No. hosted Years hosted

Mercedes-Benz Superdome, formerly Louisiana
Louisiana
Superdome New Orleans, Louisiana 7 1978, 1981, 1986, 1990, 1997, 2002, 2013

Hard Rock Stadium, formerly Joe Robbie Stadium, Pro Player Stadium, Dolphin Stadium, and Sun Life Stadium Miami
Miami
Gardens, Florida‡[›] 5 (6ˇ[›]) 1989, 1995, 1999, 2007, 2010, 2020ˇ[›]

Miami
Miami
Orange Bowl^[›] Miami, Florida 5 1968, 1969, 1971, 1976, 1979

Rose Bowl Pasadena, California 5 1977, 1980, 1983, 1987, 1993

Tulane Stadium^[›] New Orleans, Louisiana 3 1970, 1972, 1975

SDCCU Stadium, formerly Jack Murphy Stadium and Qualcomm Stadium San Diego, California 3 1988, 1998, 2003

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Memorial Coliseum Los Angeles, California 2 1967, 1973

Tampa
Tampa
Stadium^[›] Tampa, Florida 2 1984, 1991

Georgia Dome^[›] Atlanta, Georgia 2 1994, 2000

Raymond James Stadium Tampa, Florida 2 (3ˇ[›]) 2001, 2009, 2021ˇ[›]

University
University
of Phoenix Stadium Glendale, Arizona 2 2008, 2015

NRG Stadium, formerly Reliant Stadium Houston, Texas 2 2004, 2017

Rice Stadium Houston, Texas 1 1974

Pontiac Silverdome^[›] Pontiac, Michigan 1 1982

Stanford Stadium††[›] Stanford, California 1 1985

Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome^[›] Minneapolis, Minnesota 1 1992

Sun Devil Stadium Tempe, Arizona 1 1996

EverBank Field, formerly Alltel Stadium Jacksonville, Florida 1 2005

Ford Field Detroit, Michigan 1 2006

AT&T Stadium Arlington, Texas 1 2011

Lucas Oil Stadium Indianapolis, Indiana 1 2012

MetLife Stadium East Rutherford, New Jersey 1 2014

Levi's Stadium Santa Clara, California 1 2016

U.S. Bank Stadium Minneapolis, Minnesota 1 2018

Mercedes-Benz Stadium Atlanta, Georgia 1ˇ[›] 2019ˇ[›]

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Stadium at Hollywood Park Inglewood, California 1ˇ[›] 2022ˇ[›]

^ ^: Stadium is now demolished. ^ ‡:  Miami
Miami
Gardens became a city in 2003. Before that, the stadium had a Miami
Miami
address while in unincorporated Miami-Dade County. ^ ††: The original Stanford Stadium, which hosted Super Bowl XIX, was demolished and replaced with a new stadium in 2006. ^ ˇ: Future Super Bowls, also denoted by italics. Future venues:

2019: Mercedes-Benz Stadium
Mercedes-Benz Stadium
(1), Atlanta
Atlanta
(3) 2020: Hard Rock Stadium
Hard Rock Stadium
(6), Miami Gardens, Florida
Miami Gardens, Florida
(6; 11 for the Miami
Miami
metropolitan area) 2021: Raymond James Stadium
Raymond James Stadium
(3), Tampa, Florida
Florida
(5) 2022: Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Stadium at Hollywood Park (1), Inglewood, California (1; 8 for the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
metropolitan area)[64][65][66]

The game has never been played in a region that lacked an NFL or AFL franchise.[citation needed] London, England has occasionally been mentioned as a host city for a Super Bowl
Super Bowl
in the near future.[67] Wembley Stadium
Wembley Stadium
has hosted several NFL games as part of the NFL International Series and is specifically designed for large, individual events. NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell
Roger Goodell
has openly discussed the possibility on different occasions.[68][69][70][71] Time zone complications are a significant obstacle to a Super Bowl
Super Bowl
in London; a typical 6:30 p.m. Eastern Time
Eastern Time
start would result in the game beginning at 11:30 p.m. local time in London, an unusually late hour to be holding spectator sports (the NFL has never in its history started a game later than 9:15 p.m. local time).[71] As bids have been submitted for all Super Bowls through Super Bowl
Super Bowl
LVI, the soonest that any stadium outside the NFL's footprint could serve as host would be Super Bowl LVII
Super Bowl LVII
in 2023. Super Bowl
Super Bowl
trademark[edit] The NFL is very active on stopping what it says is unauthorized commercial use of its trademarked terms "NFL", "Super Bowl", and "Super Sunday".[72] As a result, many events and promotions tied to the game, but not sanctioned by the NFL, are asked to refer to it with euphemisms such as "The Big Game", or other generic descriptions.[73][74] A radio spot for Planters
Planters
nuts parodied this, by saying "it would be super...to have a bowl...of Planters
Planters
nuts while watching the big game!" and comedian Stephen Colbert
Stephen Colbert
began referring to the game in 2014 as the "Superb Owl". In 2015, the NFL filed opposition with the USPTO Trademark
Trademark
Trial and Appeal Board to a trademark application submitted by an Arizona-based nonprofit for "Superb Owl".[75] The NFL claims that the use of the phrase "Super Bowl" implies an NFL affiliation, and on this basis the league asserts broad rights to restrict how the game may be shown publicly; for example, the league says Super Bowl
Super Bowl
showings are prohibited in churches or at other events that "promote a message", while venues that do not regularly show sporting events cannot show the Super Bowl on any television screen larger than 55 inches.[76] Some critics say the NFL is exaggerating its ownership rights by stating that "any use is prohibited", as this contradicts the broad doctrine of fair use in the United States.[76] Legislation was proposed by Utah
Utah
Senator Orrin Hatch
Orrin Hatch
in 2008 "to provide an exemption from exclusive rights in copyright for certain nonprofit organizations to display live football games", and "for other purposes".[77] In 2004, The NFL started issuing Cease and Desist letters to casinos in Las Vegas that were hosting Super Bowl
Super Bowl
parties. "Super Bowl" is a registered trademark, owned by the NFL, and any other business using that name for profit-making ventures is in violation of federal law, according to the letters. In reaction to the letters, many Vegas resorts, rather than discontinue the popular and lucrative parties, started referring to them as "Big Game Parties."[78][79][80] In 2006, the NFL made an attempt to trademark "The Big Game" as well; however, it withdrew the application in 2007 due to growing commercial and public-relations opposition to the move, mostly from Stanford University
University
and the University
University
of California, Berkeley and their fans, as the Stanford Cardinal football
Stanford Cardinal football
and California
California
Golden Bears football teams compete in the Big Game, which has been played since 1892 (28 years before the formation of the NFL and 75 years before Super Bowl I).[81] Additionally, the Mega Millions lottery game was known as The Big Game from 1996 to 2002.[82] Use of the phrase "world champions"[edit] Main article: Major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada § Use of the phrase "world champions" Like the other major professional leagues in the United States, the winner of the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
is usually declared "world champions", a title that has been mocked by non-American journalists.[83][84] Others feel the title is fitting, since it is the only professional league of its kind.[85] The practice by the U.S. major leagues of using the "World Champion" moniker originates from the World Series
World Series
of professional baseball,[citation needed] and it was later used during the first three Super Bowls when they were referred to as AFL-NFL World Championship Games. The phrase is still engraved on the Super Bowl rings. See also[edit]

Active head coach career Super Bowl
Super Bowl
history Grey Cup History of National Football League
National Football League
championship List of NFL champions (1920–69) List of NFL franchise post-season droughts List of NFL franchise post-season streaks List of quarterbacks with multiple Super Bowl
Super Bowl
starts List of Super Bowl
Super Bowl
champions List of Super Bowl
Super Bowl
broadcasters List of Super Bowl
Super Bowl
head coaches List of Super Bowl
Super Bowl
officials List of Super Bowl
Super Bowl
records National Football League
National Football League
lore NFL Honors Super Bowl
Super Bowl
advertising Super Bowl
Super Bowl
counterprogramming Super Bowl
Super Bowl
curse Super Bowl
Super Bowl
indicator

References[edit]

Notes

^ Since Super Bowl LI
Super Bowl LI
in 2017, the Roman numeral
Roman numeral
of the game has been featured alongside the trophy, with the logo decorated in different colors for each year.

Citations

^ Belkin, Douglas (January 29, 2004). " Super Bowl
Super Bowl
underscores cultural divide". Boston Globe. Retrieved June 28, 2015.  ^ " Super Bowl
Super Bowl
Sunday: An Unofficial Holiday for Millions". U.S. Bureau of International Information Programs (IIP). January 29, 2015. Retrieved June 28, 2015.  ^ "USDA Offers Food Safety Advice for Your Super Bowl
Super Bowl
Party" (Press release). U.S. Department of Agriculture. January 27, 2006. Retrieved June 28, 2015.  ^ Mark Koba (January 28, 2014). " Super Bowl
Super Bowl
TV ratings: Fast facts at a glance". CNBC. Retrieved February 5, 2014.  ^ Hibberd, James (February 8, 2010). " Super Bowl
Super Bowl
dethrones 'M*A*S*H,' sets all-time record". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on February 11, 2011.  ^ a b Patra, Kevin (February 2, 2015). " Super Bowl XLIX
Super Bowl XLIX
is most-watched show in U.S. history". National Football League. Retrieved June 28, 2015.  ^ Kissell, Rick (February 2, 2015). "Update: Super Bowl
Super Bowl
on NBC Draws Record U.S. Television Audience". Variety. Retrieved February 2, 2015.  ^ Harris, Nick (January 31, 2010). "Elite clubs on Uefa gravy train as Super Bowl
Super Bowl
knocked off perch". The Independent. London.  ^ a b Commercials as big as game, Florida
Florida
Today ^ Tinley, Josh (January 31, 2012). "'Super Bowl' – Why Do We Call It That? Why Roman Numerals?". Midwest Sports Fans. Retrieved January 28, 2012.  ^ "Corny and a bit presumptuous, but it's still the 'Super Bowl'". St. Petersburg Times. Florida. Associated Press. January 7, 1970. p. 1C.  ^ a b "What to name the Super Bowl? Rozelle asks newsmen to help". Fort Scott Tribune. Kansas. Associated Press. May 26, 1967. p. 8.  ^ "'Super Bowl' Site May Be Rose Bowl". The Evening Standard. Associated Press. 1966-07-18. p. 14. Retrieved 16 January 2016.  ^ "Merge Gives Incentive to AFL Champs-Collier". Pottstown Mercury. Associated Press. 30 July 1966. p. 12. Retrieved 2016-01-16.  ^ MacCambridge, Michael (2004). America's Game. New York: Random House. p. 237.  ^ Rosenthal, Gregg (June 4, 2014). "NFL won't use Roman numerals
Roman numerals
for Super Bowl
Super Bowl
50". National Football League. Retrieved February 2, 2018.  ^ Jackson, Kevin; Merron, Jeff; Schoenfield, David. "100 Greatest Super Bowl
Super Bowl
Moments". ESPN. Retrieved September 30, 2014.  ^ Fischer-Baum, Reuben (February 6, 2013). "What Was The Best Super Bowl Ever? Ranking All 47 Games According To Watchability". Deadspin.com. Retrieved February 4, 2013.  ^ a b "Champions League final tops Super Bowl
Super Bowl
for TV market". BBC Sport. BBC. January 31, 2010. Retrieved December 14, 2017.  ^ Statistics on Super Bowl
Super Bowl
TV Viewership in the US, Nielsen Media Research, February 2013. Retrieved April 10, 2013. ^ Super Bowl XLI
Super Bowl XLI
broadcast in 232 countries, NFL press release, February 3, 2007. ^ a b Rushin, Steve (February 6, 2006). "A Billion People Can Be Wrong". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on December 10, 2007. Retrieved January 15, 2007.  ^ " Super Bowl XL
Super Bowl XL
to Attract Close to 1 Billion Viewers Worldwide". Voice of America. February 3, 2006. Archived from the original on September 24, 2009.  ^ Bibel, Sara (3 February 2014). " Super Bowl XLIX
Super Bowl XLIX
is Most-Watched Show in U.S. Television History With 114.4 Million Viewers". TV By the numbers. Retrieved 2 February 2015.  ^ Soshnick, Scott (February 3, 2014). "Despite rout, Super Bowl
Super Bowl
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Super Bowl
halftime show". Chicago Tribune. 6 February 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2013.  ^ "Hudson's Super Bowl
Super Bowl
Lip-Sync No Surprise to Insiders". ABC News. February 3, 2009. Retrieved February 4, 2009.  ^ "A fitting wartime rendition". St. Petersburg Times. February 4, 1991.  ^ "Our National Anthem: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly". Rolling Stone. July 3, 2007. Retrieved February 4, 2009.  ^ "Boobs, Beyoncé, & Brass Bands: The Evolution of the Super Bowl Halftime Show". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 22 February 2017.  ^ "The 10 Best Super Bowl
Super Bowl
Halftime Shows". Rolling Stone. January 31, 2013. Retrieved September 30, 2013.  ^ Triplett, Mike (May 19, 2015). "Atlanta, Miami, New Orleans, Tampa eye 2019, 2020 Super Bowls". ESPN. Retrieved May 21, 2015.  ^ Kelly, Omar (November 6, 2014). Dolphins will host New York Jets
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in London in 2015. South Florida
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Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved November 6, 2014. ^ a b Earnheardt, Adam C. (2011). "Super Bowl". In Swayne, Linda E.; Dodds, Mark. Encyclopedia of Sports Management and Marketing. 4. Sage Publications. pp. 1508–1511. ISBN 978-1412973823.  ^ George, Thomas (March 14, 1990). "Phoenix Gets '93 Super Bowl
Super Bowl
if King Holiday Goes Statewide; '93 Super Bowl
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to Phoenix If King Holiday Wins Vote Football". The New York Times. pp. D27.  ^ "No rolling roof, no Super Bowl
Super Bowl
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Is Single Largest Human Trafficking Incident In U.S.: Attorney General". The Huffington Post.  ^ Mikkelson, Barbara (January 30, 2015). "Pro Bowl: Super Bowl Prostitution Increase". Snopes.com. Retrieved February 7, 2016.  ^ Pedulla, Tom (September 23, 2003). "N.Y./N.J. Super Bowl
Super Bowl
in 2008 may not come to pass". USA Today. Retrieved July 28, 2007.  ^ Rose, Bryan (June 9, 2014). "NFL's lengthy list of requirements for Super Bowl
Super Bowl
host city leaked". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved February 3, 2015.  ^ "Cruise Ships Score Touchdown in Jacksonville for Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XXXIX". Cruise Critic. February 4, 2005. Retrieved February 3, 2015.  ^ ESPN – Goodell says NFL to look into playing Super Bowl
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in London – NFL, Associated Press, ESPN, 2007-10-15. Retrieved January 26, 2009. ^ Craig Johnson. "For NFL, New Orleans
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LII". NFL.com. National Football League. Retrieved January 24, 2018.  ^ "XLII facts about Super Bowl
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XLII". January 22, 2008. Archived from the original on February 2, 2008. Retrieved April 12, 2008. The AFC is the home team in this year's Super Bowl
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[ Super Bowl
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XLII].  ^ Swanson, Ben (January 25, 2016). "Broncos to wear white uniforms in Super Bowl
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50". Denver Broncos. Retrieved January 26, 2016.  ^ Patra, Kevin (January 25, 2016). "Broncos choose to wear white jerseys in Super Bowl". National Football League. Retrieved January 26, 2016.  ^ https://uni-watch.com/research-projects/white-at-home-in-the-nfl/ ^ http://www.espn.com/blog/boston/new-england-patriots/post/_/id/4683236/why-the-patriots-wore-white-at-home ^ https://www.cbssports.com/nfl/news/attention-to-detail-is-everything-to-bill-belichick/ ^ https://www.sbnation.com/2018/1/23/16923176/super-bowl-52-patriots-eagles-jerseys-home-away ^ http://boston.cbslocal.com/2018/01/23/patriots-white-jerseys-super-bowl-lii-eagles/ ^ https://www.patspulpit.com/2018/1/23/16921342/super-bowl-lii-new-england-patriots-white-jerseys-against-philadelphia-eagles-designated-home-team ^ Benjamin, Cody (February 4, 2018). " Super Bowl
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2018 jerseys: Patriots hope white stays lucky, Eagles will wear green". CBS
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Sports. Retrieved February 21, 2018.  ^ Rosenthal, Gregg (May 24, 2016). "Atlanta, South Florida, L.A. chosen to host Super Bowls". National Football League. Retrieved May 25, 2016.  ^ McClure, Vaughn (May 24, 2016). "Owners award 2019 Super Bowl
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to Atlanta, 2020 to South Florida, 2021 to Los Angeles". ESPN. Retrieved May 25, 2016.  ^ " Super Bowl LV
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relocated to Tampa; L.A. will host SB LVI". NFL.com. May 23, 2017. Retrieved May 23, 2017.  ^ Sundby, Alex (January 31, 2012). " Super Bowl
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in London? It's possible, owner says". CBS
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News. Retrieved January 21, 2013.  ^ " New Orleans
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to host 10th Super Bowl
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News (May 3, 2009). "Report: London eyes Super Bowl". ESPN. Retrieved May 3, 2009.  ^ a b Marvez, Alex (May 4, 2009). "All signs point to Favre returning". Fox Sports. Archived from the original on May 5, 2009. Retrieved May 4, 2009.  ^ 27, Ali Toumadj / January; Blog, 2014 / Comments Off on The Super- Trademark
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(January 28, 2014). "The Super – Trademark
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– Bowl".  ^ Gardner, Eriq (January 29, 2007). "Super Bowl, Super Trademarks: Protecting the NFL's IP". The Hollywood Reporter, Esq. Archived from the original on July 1, 2007. Retrieved February 4, 2007.  ^ Norfleet, Nicole (September 23, 2017). "Be careful with the phrase 'Super Bowl' in marketing; NFL has the trademark". Star Tribune. Retrieved February 4, 2018.  ^ "USPTO TTABVUE. Proceeding Number 91222783".  ^ a b Alter, Alexandra (February 2, 2008). "God vs. Gridiron". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 2, 2008.  ^ "Church Super Bowl
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Victory: Senators Hatch & Specter Score Touchdown with NFL Policy". Copyright Queen Blog. February 22, 2008. Archived from the original on February 16, 2009. Retrieved March 10, 2009.  ^ Linshi, Jack. "Here's Why Companies Can't Say "Super Bowl" in their Super Bowl
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Further reading[edit]

2006 NFL Record and Fact Book. Time Inc. Home Entertainment. ISBN 1-933405-32-5.  Total Football II: The Official Encyclopedia of the National Football League. Harper Collins. ISBN 1-933405-32-5.  The Sporting News Complete Super Bowl
Super Bowl
Book 1995. ISBN 0-89204-523-X.  The Super Bowl: An Official Retrospective with DVD. Ballantine Books. 2005. ISBN 0-345-48719-2.  MacCambridge, Michael (2004). America's Game. Random House. ISBN 0-375-50454-0.  Chris Jones (February 2, 2005). "NFL tightens restrictions on Super Bowl advertisements". Las Vegas Review-Journal. John Branch (February 4, 2006). "Build It and They Will Come". The New York Times. Super Bowl
Super Bowl
play-by-plays from USA Today. Retrieved September 28, 2005. 100 Greatest Super Bowl
Super Bowl
Moments by Kevin Jackson, Jeff Merron, and David Schoenfield; espn.com. Retrieved October 31, 2005. Various Authors – "SI's 25 Lost Treasures" – Sports Illustrated, July 11, 2005 p. 114. "The Super Bowl
Super Bowl
I-VII." Lost Treasures of NFL Films. ESPN2. January 26, 2001. "MTV's Super Bowl
Super Bowl
Uncensored". MTV. January 27, 2001. " Talk
Talk
Shows." CBS: 50 Years from Television City. CBS. April 27, 2002. Dee, Tommy (January 2007). " Super Bowl
Super Bowl
Halftime Jinx". Maxim. Archived from the original on February 8, 2009. Retrieved January 25, 2007.  The Pro Football Playoff Encyclopedia. ISBN 978-0-9835136-2-9. 

External links[edit] Media related to Super Bowl
Super Bowl
at Wikimedia Commons

Official website Super Bowl
Super Bowl
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Super Bowl
Super Bowl
broadcast backend (2016) – Terry Collins, Super Bowl special effects: New cameras power 'Matrix'-style replays, CNET, February 5, 2016

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