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Super-heavy tank, also super heavy tank, is any tank that is notably beyond the standard of the class heavy tank in either size or weight. Such classifications are only meaningful when comparing contemporary vehicles.

Contents

1 History

1.1 World War I
World War I
period 1.2 World War II
World War II
period 1.3 Cold War
Cold War
period 1.4 Post Cold war

2 List of super-heavy tanks 3 See also 4 References

4.1 Bibliography

History[edit] Programs have been initiated on several occasions with the aim of creating an indestructible vehicle for penetrating enemy formations without fear of being destroyed in combat; however, only a few examples have ever been built, and there is little evidence of any super heavy tank having seen combat. Examples were designed in World War I and World War II, along with a few in the Cold War. World War I
World War I
period[edit]

Model of the Flying Elephant
Flying Elephant
design

The first super-heavy tank was designed by the Russian naval engineer Vasily Mendeleyev who worked on the project from 1911 to 1915. The tank was envisioned to be invulnerable to almost all contemporary threats but remained on paper because of its high construction cost.[1][2] Following the production of their first tanks, the British "Flying Elephant" was designed as a tank that would be resistant to artillery fire. Since mobility was more important than protection, and the tanks already developed were successful, work on the project was stopped. The German K-Wagen
K-Wagen
(Großkampfwagen) was a very heavy design carrying 4 guns and needing a crew of 27. Two of them were under construction when the war ended and both were demolished. In the early 1920s, the French produced the 70-tonne Char 2C. The ten tanks would see limited combat during the Battle for France
Battle for France
in 1940. World War II
World War II
period[edit] During World War II
World War II
all of the major combatants introduced prototypes for special roles. Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
was a proponent of "war winning" weapons and supported projects like the 188 tonne Maus, and even larger 1,000 tonne Landkreuzer P. 1000 Ratte and 1,500 ton Landkreuzer P. 1500 Monster. The British and Soviets all built prototype designs similar to the Jagdtiger, and the US was working on the then known T95 Gun Carriage, which was later changed to T28 Super Heavy Tank. However, most of these designs never passed the prototype stage, and only some have ever been in existence. Cold War
Cold War
period[edit] The idea of very heavy tanks saw less development after the war, not least since tactical nuclear weapons would always be more powerful than any feasible armour could protect against. The advances in armour technology allowed large tanks to stay in the approximate up to 65 ton range. Examples include Object 279
Object 279
(Soviet Union) and T30 Heavy Tank (United States). Post Cold war[edit] Further advances in armour technology have given the armour of late 20th century tanks the estimated equivalent of over a meter of rolled homogeneous armour (the type of armour used before, now used for comparison between different armour designs). At the same time the weapon development allows for any equal adversary to destroy any target detected and tracked by the wide array of different sensors available. This means adding more armour would not increase protection to any significant degree, and thus current development is instead focused on a combination of remaining undetected, interfering with tracking and active counter-measures to neutralize the enemy weapon systems. List of super-heavy tanks[edit]

United Kingdom

TOG1 – 80 tons; built in 1940; designed for ground conditions similar to those experienced in WWI; one prototype. TOG2
TOG2
– 80 tons improved design of TOG1; one prototype. Flying Elephant
Flying Elephant
– First World War-era project at 100 tons; not built. Tortoise heavy assault tank
Tortoise heavy assault tank
– 80 tons, designed to attack fortifications. 6 pilot vehicles completed.

France

Char 2C
Char 2C
– 69 tons; World War I
World War I
era technology; 10 built, in service from 1921 to 1940; obsolete by World War II, 9 destroyed to prevent capture and the remaining 1 was shown in Berlin as a trophy.

Char 2C
Char 2C
bis - 72 tons; modified Char 2C
Char 2C
with 155 mm howitzer and different turret; one Char 2C
Char 2C
was converted into this variant but later returned into original confiquration

FCM F1
FCM F1
– 139 tons; World War II
World War II
era replacement for the Char 2C, to attack fortifications. Ordered and full-scale wooden mockup was produced but no prototype built before the Fall of France
Fall of France
(1940). ARL tracteur C
ARL tracteur C
- 145 tons, developed by ARL to attack fortifications; wooden mockup was produced but cancelled in favor of FCM F1
FCM F1
which was proven to be superior design (developed 1939-1940) AMX tracteur C - 140 tons, developed by AMX to attack fortifications; project was terminated after AMX being horribly out of schedule (developed 1939-1940)

Nazi Germany

Jagdtiger
Jagdtiger
– 71.7 tons. Panzer VII Löwe
Panzer VII Löwe
– About 95–100 tons; cancelled in favour of Maus. Panzer VIII Maus
Panzer VIII Maus
– 188 tons, two prototypes. Both were captured by the Soviet army, although one had been partially destroyed. A composite of the two can now be seen at the Kubinka Tank
Tank
Museum. Panzerkampfwagen E-100
Panzerkampfwagen E-100
– 140 tons; one incomplete hull at factory captured by British and later scrapped. Panzer IX
Panzer IX
– Concept by Signal. Panzer X
Panzer X
– Another concept by Signal. Landkreuzer P. 1000 Ratte – 1,000 tons; cancelled, no evidence construction began.

Japanese Empire

O-I
O-I
series

"Super Heavy Tank" – 120 tons. Purportedly one prototype was produced in 1943.[3] According to another source, the O-I
O-I
project was cancelled before the 120-ton prototype was completed.[4] "Ultra Heavy Tank" – Modification of the O-I
O-I
Super Heavy Tank
Tank
with four turrets. Project only.

Soviet Union

T-42 ( Tank
Tank
Grote or TG-V) – 100 tons with 107 mm main gun and four sub-turrets. Models and drawings produced [5] KV-4
KV-4
– 1941 project. A proposed 90–100 ton tank, carrying a 107 mm main gun and a 45 mm or 76 mm secondary; various layouts were considered, with the hull-mounted 107 mm and a 76 mm turret chosen as the final option.[6] Feasibility stage only. KV-5 – another Kliment Voroshilov series 100-ton-class tank design. Armed with the same 107 mm main gun in a large, KV-2-style turret, and two 12.7 mm machine gun turrets (one on the forward hull, one on top of the main turret); powered by two V2 diesels due to wartime lack of a 1200 hp engine. Project stopped due to Siege of Leningrad and cancelled without anything built.

Russian Empire

Tsar Tank
Tank
– A giant wheeled gun platform of 1914 which was abandoned because it was underpowered and vulnerable to artillery.

German Empire

K-Wagen
K-Wagen
– 120 metric tons; two were nearly complete when World War I ended. Both were demolished.

United States

T28 Super Heavy Tank
Tank
– Also known as T95 GMC, designed for attacking heavy fortifications. 86.2 metric tons; 2 prototypes built right after World War II; by layout a self-propelled gun. One can now be seen on display at Fort Benning, Georgia.

See also[edit]

Landship Heavy tank Bolo (tank)

References[edit]

^ Svirin, Mikhail (2009). Танковая мощь СССР [Tank Power of the USSR] (in Russian). Moscow: Yauza, Eksmo. pp. 15–17. ISBN 978-5-699-31700-4.  ^ Kholyavsky, Gennady (1998). Энциклопедия танков [Encyclopedia of Tanks] (in Russian). Minsk: Kharvest. p. 25. ISBN 985-13-8603-0.  ^ Taki’s Imperial Japanese Army page: Super-Heavy Tank
Tank
"O-I" ^ Estes 2014, p. 37. ^ Zaloga 1984:85 ^ KV-4
KV-4
data sheet and pictures of the proposed designs

Bibliography[edit]

Estes, Kenneth (2014). Super-heavy Tanks of World War II. Osprey. ISBN 978-1782003830.  Zaloga, Steven J., James Grandsen (1984). Soviet Tanks and Combat Vehicles of World War Two, London: Arms and Armour Press. ISBN 0-85368-606-8.

v t e

World War I
World War I
armoured fighting vehicles

List Category

British

Little Willie "Female" tank "Male" tank Mks I, II, III Mk IV Mk V Mk VI Mark VII Mk VIII Mk IX Medium Mk A "Whippet" Medium Mk B Medium Mk C Flying Elephant Killen-Strait Armoured Tractor Lancelot de Mole's proposal* (1912)

French

Schneider CA1 Saint-Chamond Renault FT Breton-Prétot machine Boirault machine Frot-Laffly landship Souain prototype Levavasseur* (1903)

German

A7V K-Wagen LK I LK II Oberschlesien

Armoured Cars:

Büssing A5P Ehrhardt E-V/4

Austro-Hungarian

Günther Burstyn's Motorgeschütz* (1911) Austro Daimler
Austro Daimler
armoured car (1905)

Italian

Fiat 2000 Fiat 3000

American

M1917 light tank Ford 3-Ton M1918 Holt Gas-Electric Skeleton tank Steam tank Steam Wheel Tank

Russian

Tsar Tank Vezdekhod Mendeleev Tank* Rybinsk tank*

Belgian

Minerva Armoured Car

Italics—experimental prototypes; * concept only

Tank

history classification

WWI Interwar WWII Cold War Post–Cold War

v t e

Interwar tanks

List Category

Tankettes

L3/33 L3/35 Carden Loyd Morris-Martel T-27 TKS Type 92 tankette Type 94 tankette Type 97 Te-Ke Tančík vz. 33 AH-IV

Light

H35 R35 Fiat 3000 Leichttraktor Light Tanks Mk I–V Light Tank
Tank
Mk VI Light Tank
Tank
Mk VII M1 Combat Car M2 Light Tank Panzer I Panzer II LT vz. 34 LT vz. 35 LT vz. 38 T1 Light Tank T7 Combat Car T-18 T-13 T-15 T-19 T-26 T-37 T-38 7TP Type 95 Ha-Go Vickers 6-Ton Vickers-Carden-Loyd Light Amphibious Tank

Medium

Char D1 Char D2 Grosstraktor Medium Mk I Medium Mk II Medium Mk III Panzer III T-24 T-28 Type 89 I-Go Type 97 Chi-Ni Type 97 Chi-Ha Type 98 Chi-Ho

Cavalry, Cruiser and Fast

AMC 34 AMC 35 AMR 33 AMR 35 BT tank Cruiser Mk I Cruiser Mk II Cruiser Mk III SOMUA S35

Infantry

FCM 36 Infantry Mk I, Matilda Renault R35 T-26 Type 89 I-Go

Heavy

Char B1 Neubaufahrzeug SMK T-35 T-100 Type 95 Heavy Tank Vickers A1E1 Independent

Super-heavy

FCM F1 Char 2C T-42

Armoured carriers

UE Chenillette Bren Gun Carrier

Tank

history classification

WWI Interwar WWII Cold War Post–Cold War

v t e

World War II
World War II
tanks

List Category

Light

7TP Fiat L6/40 M3/M5 Stuart M22 Locust M24 Chaffee Marmon-Herrington CTLS Renault R40 Schofield T-26 T-40 T-60 T-70 Tetrarch Toldi Type 98 Ke-Ni Type 2 Ke-To Type 2 Ka-Mi Type 4 Ke-Nu Type 5 Ke-Ho

Medium

Carro Armato P 40 40 M Turan I Fiat M11/39 Fiat M13/40 Fiat M14/41 Fiat M15/42 M2 Medium M3 Lee/Grant M4 Sherman Panzer III Panzer IV Panzer V Panther T-34 T-43 Type 97 ShinHoTo Chi-Ha Type 1 Chi-He Type 3 Ka-Chi Type 3 Chi-Nu Type 4 Chi-To Type 5 Chi-Ri Type 5 To-Ku Sherman Firefly

Cruiser

AMC 35 AMR 33 AMR 35 BT-2/BT-5/BT-7/BT-7M Cruiser Mk III Cruiser Mk IV Covenanter Crusader Cavalier Cromwell Mk VIII Challenger Comet Grizzly Ram Sentinel

Infantry

Black Prince Churchill Matilda I Matilda II T-26 T-50 Valentine Valiant Type 2 Ho-I

Heavy

IS tank KV tank M26 Pershing Tiger I Tiger II T-35

Assault

Excelsior T14 Sherman Jumbo Tortoise

Super-heavy

T28 TOG1 TOG2 O-I Panzer VII Löwe Panzer VIII Maus Panzerkampfwagen E-100 Landkreuzer P. 1000 Ratte Landkreuzer P. 1500 Monster

Tank

history classification

WWI Interwar WWII Cold War Post–Cold War

v t e

Cold War
Cold War
tanks

List Category

MBTs

AMX-30 AMX-40 Centurion Challenger 1 Chieftain Chonma-ho EE-T1 Osório K1 88 Leopard 1 Leopard 2 M1 Abrams M60 Patton M-84 Magach MBT-70 MBT-80 Merkava Object 187 Object 292 Object 785 OF-40 Panzer 68 Stridsvagn 103 T-62 T-64 T-72 T-80 TAM TR-85 Type 59 Type 61 Type 69/79 Type 74 Nana-yon Type 88 Vijayanta Vickers MBT WZ-122

Light

AMX-13 ELC Expeditionary tank M8 Armored Gun System M41 Walker Bulldog M551 Sheridan PT-76 Scorpion SK-105 Kürassier Spähpanzer SP I.C. Stingray Stridsvagn 74 T71 Light Tank T92 Light Tank Type 62 Type 63 Type 64 WZ-132

Medium

Charioteer M26 Pershing M46 Patton M47 Patton M48 Patton Panzer 58 Panzer 61 T-44 T-54/55 T95 Type 58

Heavy

AMX-50 Conqueror IS-3 Object 279 M103 T-10 T30 Stridsvagn KRV WZ-111

Tank
Tank
destroyers

Infanterikanonvagn 73 Infanterikanonvagn 91 Kanonenjagdpanzer M56 Scorpion M50 Ontos

Tank

history classification

WWI Interwar WWII Cold War Post–Cold War

v t e

Post– Cold War
Cold War
tanks

List Category

Under 120 mm gun

Ch'ŏnma-ho Ramses II

Under 50 tonnes

Al-Zarrar Al-Khalid P'okpoong-Ho PL-01 PT-91 Twardy T-84 T-90 Type 10 Type 59G Type 96 Zulfiqar

Over 50 tonnes

Ariete Arjun BM Oplot Challenger 2 K1 88-Tank K2 Black Panther Leclerc Leopard 2 M1 Abrams M60-2000 Merkava Sabra Type 90 Type 99 tank T-14 Armata VT-4 Main Battle Tank

Not in service

Altay Black Eagle EE-T1 Osório M-95 Degman M-84AS Black Tiger T-95 Tank
Tank
EX Type 99KM

Tank

History Class

WWI Interwar WWII Cold War Pos

.