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Minority: Protestantism, Sunda Wiwitan, Roman Catholicism, Hinduism

Related ethnic groups

Baduys Bantenese Banyumasan Betawi Cirebonese Javanese Balinese

The Sundanese (Sundanese: ᮅᮛᮀ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ, Urang Sunda) are an Austronesian
Austronesian
ethnic group native to the western part of the Indonesian island of Java. They number approximately 40 million, and form Indonesia's second most populous ethnic group, after the neighboring Javanese. In their language, Sundanese, the Sundanese refer to themselves as Urang Sunda (Sundanese: Sunda people), while Orang Sunda or Suku Sunda is its Indonesian equivalent. The Sundanese have traditionally been concentrated in the provinces of West Java, Banten, Jakarta, and the western part of Central Java. Sundanese migrants can also be found in Lampung
Lampung
and South Sumatra, and to lesser extent in Central Java
Central Java
and East Java.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Origins and history

2.1 Migration theories 2.2 Origin myth 2.3 Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
Kingdoms era 2.4 Under Dutch rule 2.5 Contemporary era

3 Language 4 Religion 5 Culture

5.1 Family and social relations 5.2 Artforms 5.3 Cuisine 5.4 Occupations

6 Notable people 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading

Etymology[edit] The name Sunda derives from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
prefix su- which means "goodness" or "possessing good quality". The example is suvarna (lit:"good color") used to describe gold. Sunda is also another name for Hindu
Hindu
God Vishnu. In Sanskrit, the term Sundara (masculine) or Sundari (feminine) means "beautiful" or "excellence".[2] The term Sunda also means bright, light, purity, cleanness and white.[3] Origins and history[edit] Migration theories[edit]

Jaipongan
Jaipongan
Mojang Priangan, a Sundanese traditional dance performance.

The Sundanese are of Austronesian
Austronesian
origins who are thought to have originated in Taiwan, migrated though the Philippines, and reached Java
Java
between 1,500 BC and 1,000 BC.[4] Nevertheless, there is also a hypothesis that argues that the Austronesian
Austronesian
ancestors of contemporary Sundanese people
Sundanese people
originally came from Sundaland, a sunken massive peninsula that today formed Java
Java
Sea, Malacca and Sunda straits, and the islands between them.[5] According to recent genetic study, Sundanese, together with Javanese and Balinese has almost equal ratio of genetic marker shared between Austronesian
Austronesian
and Austroasiatic heritages.[6] Origin myth[edit] The Sunda Wiwitan
Sunda Wiwitan
belief contains the mythical origin of Sundanese people; Sang Hyang
Hyang
Kersa, the supreme divine being in ancient Sundanese belief created seven bataras (deities) in Sasaka Pusaka Buana (The Sacred Place on Earth). The oldest of these bataras is called Batara Cikal and is considered the ancestor of the Kanekes people. Other six bataras ruled various locations in Sunda lands in Western Java. A Sundanese legend of Sangkuriang contain the memory of the prehistoric ancient lake in Bandung
Bandung
basin highland, which suggest that Sundanese already inhabit the region since Mesolithic
Mesolithic
era, at least 20,000 years ago. Another popular Sundanese proverb and legend mentioned about the creation of Parahyangan
Parahyangan
(Priangan) highlands, the heartland of Sundanese realm; "When the hyangs (gods) were smiling, the land of Parahyangan
Parahyangan
was created". This legend suggested the Parahyangan
Parahyangan
highland as the playland or the abode of gods, as well as suggesting its natural beauty. Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
Kingdoms era[edit]

Batutulis inscription
Batutulis inscription
in Bogor, describes the deeds of Sunda King, Sri Baduga Maharaja, popularly known as Prabu Siliwangi.

The earliest historical polity which appeared in the Sundanese realm in the Western part of Java
Java
was the kingdom of Tarumanagara, which flourished between the 4th and 7th century. Hindu
Hindu
influences reached the Sundanese people
Sundanese people
as early as the 4th century CE as is evident in Tarumanagara
Tarumanagara
inscriptions. The adoption of this dharmic faith in Sundanese way of life was, however, never as intense as their Javanese counterparts. It seems that despite the central court beginning to adopt Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
culture and institution, the majority of common Sundanese still retained their native natural and ancestral worship. By the 4th century, the older megalithic culture was probably still alive and well next to the penetrating Hindu
Hindu
influences. Court cultures flourished in ancient times, for example, during the era of Sunda Kingdom, however the Sundanese appear not to have had the resources nor desire to construct large religious monuments similar to those built by Javanese in Central and East Java.[7] The traditional rural Sundanese method of rice farming, by ladang or huma (dry rice farming), in contrast to Javanese irrigated sawah wet rice cultivation (that require complex administration, coordination, and a lot of labor forces), also contributed to small populations of sparsely inhabited Sundanese villages. Geographic constraints that isolate each region also led Sundanese villages to enjoy their simple way of life and their independence even more. That was probably the factor that would contribute to the carefree nature, egalitarian, conservative, independent and somewhat individualistic social outlook of Sundanese people. The Sundanese seem to love and revere their nature in spiritual ways, leading to them adopting some taboos in order to conserve the nature and maintain the ecosystem. The conservative tendency and their somewhat opposition to foreign influences, is demonstrated in extreme isolationist measures adopted keenly by Kanekes or Baduy people. They have rules against interacting with outsiders and adopting foreign ideas, technology, and ways of life. They have also set some taboos, such as not cutting trees nor harming forest creatures, in order to conserve their natural ecosystem. One of the earliest historical records that mentions the name "Sunda" appears in the Sanghyang Tapak inscription
Sanghyang Tapak inscription
dated 952 saka (1030 CE) discovered in Cibadak, near Sukabumi. In 1225, a Chinese writer named Chou Ju-kua, in his book Chu-fan-chi, describes the port of Sin-t'o (Sunda), which probably refers to the port of Banten
Banten
or Kalapa. By examining these records, it seems that the name "Sunda" started to appear in the early 11th century as a Javanese term used to designate their western neighbours. A Chinese source more specifically refers to it as the port of Banten
Banten
or Sunda Kelapa. After the formation and consolidation of the Sunda Kingdom's unity and identity during the Pajajaran
Pajajaran
era under the rule of Sri Baduga Maharaja
Sri Baduga Maharaja
(popularly known as King Siliwangi), the shared common identity of Sundanese people
Sundanese people
was more firmly established. They adopted the name "Sunda" to identify their kingdom, their people and their language. Under Dutch rule[edit]

Traditional Sundanese house with Julang Ngapak roof in Papandak, Garut.

Inland Pasundan is mountainous and hilly, and until the 19th century, was thickly forested and sparsely populated. The Sundanese traditionally live in small and isolated hamlets, rendering control by indigenous courts difficult. The Sundanese, in contrast to the Javanese, traditionally engage in dry-field farming. These factors resulted in the Sundanese having a less rigid social hierarchy and more independent social manners.[7] In the 19th century, Dutch colonial exploitation opened much of the interior for coffee, tea, and quinine production, and the highland society took on a frontier aspect, further strengthening the individualistic Sundanese mindset.[7] Contemporary era[edit] There is popular belief among Indonesian ethnicities that Sundanese are famous for their beauty, in his report "Summa Oriental" on early 16th century Sunda Kingdom, Tomé Pires mentioned: "The (Sundanese) women are beautiful, and those of the nobles chaste, which is not the case with those of the lower classes". It was said that Sundanese women are — in estimation of Indonesians
Indonesians
— one of the most beautiful in the country. In Indonesian popular beliefs, it was said that because of the climate, they have lighter complexion than other Indonesians, and because the Sundanese diet features raw vegetables, they reputedly possess especially soft skin. Bandungite ladies, popularly known as Mojang Priangan
Priangan
are reputedly pretty, fashion smart and forward looking.[8] Probably because of this, many Sundanese people today pursue careers in the Indonesian entertainment industry. Language[edit] Main article: Sundanese language

Map showing the location of the Sundanese in Java.

Sundanese scripts.

The Sundanese language
Sundanese language
is spoken by approximately 36 million people[9] and is the second most widely spoken regional language in Indonesia,[10] after Javanese. The 2000 Indonesia
Indonesia
Census put this figure at 30.9 million. This language is spoken in the southern part of the Banten
Banten
province,[11] and most of West Java
West Java
and eastwards as far as the Pamali River in Brebes, Central Java.[12] Sundanese is also closely related to Malay and Minang as it is to Javanese, as seen by the Sundanese utilising different language levels denoting rank and respect – a concept borrowed from the Javanese.[7] Sundanese shares similar vocabularies with Javanese and Malay. There are several dialects of Sundanese, from the Sunda– Banten
Banten
dialect to the Sunda–Central Javanese dialect which mixes elements of Javanese. Some of the most distinct dialects are from Banten, Bogor, Priangan, and Cirebon. In Central Java, Sundanese is spoken in some of the Cilacap region and some of the Brebes region. It is known that the most refined Sundanese dialect — which is considered as its original form – are those spoken in Ciamis, Tasikmalaya, Garut, Bandung, Sumedang, Sukabumi, and especially Cianjur
Cianjur
(The dialect spoken by people living in Cianjur
Cianjur
is considered as the most refined Sundanese). While Sundanese spoken on north coast, Banten
Banten
and Cirebon
Cirebon
is considered less refined. While the language spoken by the people of Baduy is considered the archaic type of Sundanese language,[13] before the Sundanese people
Sundanese people
adopt the concept of language stratification to denote rank and respect as demonstrated (and influenced) by Javanese. Today, the Sundanese language
Sundanese language
are mostly written in Latin script. An example of Sundanese-language media is Mangle Magazine that is written in Latin script. However, there is an effort to revive the Sundanese script which was used between the 14th and 18th centuries. For example, street names in Bandung
Bandung
and several cities in West Java
West Java
are now written in both Latin and Sundanese scripts. Religion[edit]

Cangkuang
Cangkuang
temple, the 8th century Hindu
Hindu
temple near Garut
Garut
testify the Sundanese Hindu
Hindu
past.

Part of a series on

Religion of Java

Java

Java Javanese culture Javanese people Sundanese people Religion in Indonesia

Early religiosity

Sunda Wiwitan Hyang Dewi Sri

Hinduism

Hinduism
Hinduism
in Java

Buddhism

Buddhism in Indonesia Sanghyang Adi Buddha Ashin Jinarakkhita

Islam

Spread of Islam
Islam
in Indonesia Santri Abangan Wali Sanga Kyai Muhammadiyah

Kebatinan

Kebatinan Subud Aliran kepercayaan

Christianity

Christianity in Indonesia Divine Word Missionaries Ganjuran Church

v t e

Akad nikah, Sundanese Islamic wedding vows in front of penghulu and witnesses.

The initial religious systems of the Sundanese were animism and dynamism with reverence to ancestral (karuhun) and natural spirits identified as hyang, yet bears some traits of pantheism. The best indications are found in the oldest epic poems (wawacan) and among the remote Baduy tribe. This religion is called Sunda Wiwitan
Sunda Wiwitan
("early Sundanese").[14] The rice agriculture had shaped the culture, beliefs and ritual system of traditional Sundanese people, among other the reverence to Nyai Pohaci Sanghyang Asri as the goddess of rice and fertility. The land of Sundanese people
Sundanese people
in Western Java
Java
is among the earliest place in Indonesian archipelago that being exposed to Indian Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
influences. Tarumanagara
Tarumanagara
followed by Sunda Kingdom adopted Hinduism
Hinduism
as early as the 4th century. The Batujaya stupa complex in Karawang shows Buddhist
Buddhist
influences in West Java, while Cangkuang
Cangkuang
Shivaic temple near Garut
Garut
shows Hindu
Hindu
influence. The 16th century sacred text Sanghyang siksakanda ng karesian contain the religious and moral rules, guidance, prescriptions and lessons for ancient Sundanese people. Around the 15th to 16th centuries Islam
Islam
began to spread among the Sundanese people
Sundanese people
by Indian Muslim traders, and its adoption accelerated after the fall of the Hindu
Hindu
Sunda Kingdom
Sunda Kingdom
and the establishment of the Islamic Sultanates of Banten
Banten
and Cirebon
Cirebon
in coastal West Java. Numerous ulama (locally known as "kyai") penetrated villages in the mountainous regions of Parahyangan
Parahyangan
and established mosques and schools (pesantren) and spread the Islamic faith amongst the Sundanese people. Small traditional Sundanese communities retained their indigenous social and belief systems, adopting self-imposed isolation, and refused foreign influences, proselytism and modernization altogether, such as those of the Baduy (Kanekes) people of inland Lebak Regency. Some Sundanese villages such as those in Cigugur Kuningan retained their Sunda Wiwitan
Sunda Wiwitan
beliefs, while some villages such as Kampung Naga
Kampung Naga
in Tasikmalaya, and Sindang Barang Pasir Eurih in Bogor, although identifying themselves as Muslim, still uphold pre-Islamic traditions and taboos and venerated the karuhun (ancestral spirits). Today, most Sundanese are Sunni Muslims. After Western Java
Java
fell under Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
control in the early 18th century, and later under colonial Dutch East Indies control, Christian
Christian
evangelism towards the Sundanese people
Sundanese people
was started by missionaries of Genootschap voor In- en Uitwendige Zending te Batavia (GIUZ). This organization was founded by Mr. F. L. Anthing and Pastor E. W. King in 1851. However, it was Nederlandsche Zendelings Vereeniging (NZV) which sent their missionaries to convert the Sundanese peoples. They started the mission in Batavia, later expanding into several towns in West Java
West Java
such as Bandung, Cianjur, Cirebon, Bogor
Bogor
and Sukabumi. They built schools, churches and hospitals for native people in West Java. Compared to the large Sundanese Muslim population, the numbers of Christian
Christian
Sundanese are scarce; today Christians in West Java
West Java
are mostly Chinese Indonesian residing in West Java, with only small numbers of native Sundanese Christians.

A Hindu
Hindu
shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi
King Siliwangi
in the Hindu
Hindu
temple Pura Parahyangan
Parahyangan
Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor, West Java.

In contemporary Sundanese social and religious life, there is a growing shift towards Islamism, especially amongst urban Sundanese.[15][16] Today, compared to the 1960s, many Sundanese Muslim women have decided to wear the hijab. The same phenomena was also found earlier in the Malay community in Sumatra
Sumatra
and Malaysia. Indeed, modern history saw the rise of political Islam
Islam
through the birth of Darul Islam
Islam
Indonesia
Indonesia
in Tasikmalaya, West Java, back in 1949, although later this Islamist movement was cracked down upon by the Indonesian Republic. In modern contemporary political landscapes, the Sundanese realm in West Java
West Java
and Banten
Banten
also provides popular support for Islamic parties such as Partai Keadilan Sejahtera
Partai Keadilan Sejahtera
and Partai Persatuan Pembangunan. There are numbers of Sundanese ulama and Islamic preachers who have been quite successful in gaining national popularity, such as Kyai
Kyai
Abdullah Gymnastiar
Abdullah Gymnastiar
and Mamah Dedeh who have become TV personalities through their dakwah show. There are an increasing number of Sundanese people
Sundanese people
who are consider the Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) as something that enjoys social prestige. On the other side, there is also a growing movement led by the minority Sundanese conservative traditionalist adat, the Sunda Wiwitan community, who are struggling to achieve wider acceptance and recognition of their faith and way of life. Culture[edit] Family and social relations[edit]

Elderly Sundanese woman near a rice paddy, at Garut, West Java.

Sundanese culture has borrowed much from Javanese culture, however it differs by a much less rigid system of social hierarchy.[7] The Sundanese, in their mentality and behavior, their greater egalitarianism and antipathy to yawning class distinctions, and their community-based material culture, differ from the feudal hierarchy apparent among the people of Javanese principalities.[17] Central Javanese court culture nurtured in atmosphere conducive to elite, stylized, impeccably-polished forms of art and literature. In a pure sense, Sundanese culture bore few traces of these traditions.[18] Culturally Sundanese people
Sundanese people
adopt a bilateral kinship system, with male and female descent are of equal importance. In Sundanese families the important rituals revolved around life cycles, from birth to death, adopting many of the previous Animist and Hindu-Buddhist, as well as Islamic traditions. For example, during the seventh month of pregnancy there is a prenatal ritual called Nujuh Bulanan (identical to Naloni Mitoni in Javanese tradition) which traces its origins to Hindu
Hindu
ritual. Shortly after the birth of a baby, a ritual called Akekahan (from Arabic word: Aqiqah) is performed; an Islamic tradition in which the parents slaughter a goat for a baby girl or two goats for a baby boy, the meat later being cooked and distributed to relatives and neighbours. The circumcision ceremony is performed on pre-pubescent boys and celebrated with Sisingaan (lion) dance. The wedding ceremony is the highlight of Sundanese family celebration involving complex rituals from naroskeun and neundeun omong (marriage proposal and agreement conducted by parents and family elders), siraman (bridal shower), seserahan (presenting wedding gifts for the bride), akad nikah (wedding vows), saweran (throwing coins, mixed with flower petals and sometimes also candies, for the unmarried guests to collect and believed to bring better luck in romance), huap lingkung (bride and groom feed each other by hand, with arms entwined to symbolize love and affection), bakakak hayam (bride and groom ripping a grilled chicken through holding each of its leg; a traditional way to determine which one will dominate the family which is the one that get the larger or head part), and the wedding feast inviting whole family and business relatives, neighbours, and friends as guests. The death in a Sundanese family usually performed through a series of rituals in accordance with traditional Islam, such as the pengajian (reciting Al Quran) including providing berkat (rice box with side dishes) for guests. The Quran recitation is performed daily, from the day of death through the seventh day following; later performed again on the 40th day, a year, and 1,000th days after the death. However today this tradition is not always closely and faithfully followed since growing numbers of Sundanese are adopting a less traditional Islam
Islam
which does not maintain many of the older traditions. Artforms[edit] Further information: Sundanese dance

Sundanese boys playing Angklung
Angklung
in Garut, c. 1910–1930.

Sundanese literature was basically oral; their arts (architecture, music, dance, textiles, ceremonies, etc.) substantially preserved traditions from an earlier phase of civilization, stretching back even to the Neolithic, and never overwhelmed (as eastward, in Java) by aristocratic Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
ideas.[18] The art and culture of Sundanese people
Sundanese people
reflect historical influences by various cultures that include pre-historic native animism and shamanism traditions, ancient Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
heritage, and Islamic culture. The Sundanese have very vivid, orally-transmitted memories of the grand era of the Sunda Kingdom.[18] The oral tradition of Sundanese people
Sundanese people
is called Pantun Sunda: the chant of poetic verses employed for story-telling. It is the counterpart of Javanese tembang, similar to but independent from Malay pantun. The Pantun Sunda often recount Sundanese folklore and legends such as Sangkuriang, Lutung Kasarung, Ciung Wanara, Mundinglaya Dikusumah, the tales of King Siliwangi, and popular children's folk stories such as Si Leungli.

SambaSunda
SambaSunda
music performance, featuring traditional Sundanese music instruments such as kecapi, suling, and kendang.

Traditional Sundanese arts include various forms of music, dance, and martial arts. The most notable types of Sundanese music are angklung bamboo music, kecapi suling music, gamelan degung, reyog Sunda and rampak gendang. The Angklung
Angklung
bamboo musical instrument is considered one of the world heritages of intangible culture.[19]

Wayang Golek, traditional Sundanese puppetry.

The most well known and distinctive Sundanese dances are Jaipongan,[20] a traditional social dance which is usually, but mistakenly, associated with eroticism. Other popular dances such as Merak dance describe colorful dancing peafowls. Sisingaan dance is performed especially in the Subang area to celebrate the circumcision ritual where the boy to be circumcised is seated upon a lion figure carried by four men. Other dances such as the Peafowl dance, Dewi dance and Ratu Graeni dance shows Javanese Mataram courtly influences. Wayang golek
Wayang golek
puppetry is the most popular wayang performance for Sundanese people. Many forms of kejawen dance, literature, gamelan music and shadow puppetry (wayang kulit) derive from the Javanese.[7] Sundanese puppetry is more influenced by Islamic folklore than the influence of Indian epics present in Javanese versions.[7] The Pencak silat
Pencak silat
martial art in Sundanese tradition can be traced to the historical figure King Siliwangi
King Siliwangi
of Sunda Pajajaran
Pajajaran
kingdom, with Cimande is one of the most prominent school. The recently developed Tarung Derajat
Tarung Derajat
is also a popular martial art in West Java. Kujang is the traditional weapon of the Sundanese people. Cuisine[edit] Main article: Sundanese cuisine

Typical modest Sundanese meal consist of steamed rice, salted fish, sayur asem (tamarind dish), lalab sambal (raw vegetables salad with chilly paste) and karedok (peanuts paste).

Sundanese cuisine
Sundanese cuisine
is one of the most popular traditional food in Indonesia, and it is also easily found in most Indonesian cities. The Sundanese food is characterized by its freshness; the famous lalab (raw vegetables salad) eaten with sambal (chilly paste) and also karedok (peanuts paste) demonstrate the Sundanese fondness for fresh raw vegetables. Similar to other ethnic groups in Indonesia, Sundanese people eat rice for almost every meal. The Sundanese like to say, "If you have not eaten rice, then you have not eaten at all." Rice
Rice
is prepared in hundreds of different ways. However, it is simple steamed rice that serves as the centerpiece of all meals. Next to steamed rice, the side dishes of vegetables, fish, or meat are added to provide variety of taste as well as for protein, mineral and nutrient intake. These side dishes are grilled, fried, steamed or boiled and spiced with any combination of garlic, galangal (a plant of the ginger family), turmeric, coriander, ginger, and lemon grass. The herb rich food wrapped and cooked inside banana leaf called pepes (Sundanese:pais) is popular among Sundanese people. Pepes
Pepes
are available in many varieties according to its ingredients; carp fish, anchovies, minced meat with eggs, mushroom, tofu or oncom. Oncom
Oncom
is a popular foodstuff within Sundanese cuisine, just like its counterpart, tempe, is popular among Javanese people. Usually the food itself is not too spicy, but it is served with a very hot sauce made by grinding chili peppers and garlic together. On the coast, saltwater fish are common; in the mountains, fish tend to be either pond-raised carp or goldfish. A well-known Sundanese dish is lalapan, which consists only of raw vegetables, such as papaya leaves, cucumber, eggplant, and bitter melon.[21] In general, Sundanese food tastes rich and savory, but not as tangy as Padang food, nor as sweet as Javanese food.[22] Occupations[edit]

A Sundanese Leuit (rice barn), initially Sundanese are rice farmers.

The traditional occupation of Sundanese people
Sundanese people
is agricultural, especially rice cultivation. Sundanese culture and tradition are usually centred around the agricultural cycle. Festivities such as the Seren Taun
Seren Taun
harvest ceremony are held in high importance, especially in the traditional Sundanese community in Cipta Gelar village, Cisolok, Sukabumi; Sindang Barang, Pasir Eurih village, Taman Sari, Bogor; and the traditional Sundanese community in Cigugur Kuningan.[23] The typical Sundanese leuit (rice barn) is an important part of traditional Sundanese villages; it is held in high esteem as the symbol of wealth and welfare. Since early times, Sundanese have predominantly been farmers.[18] They tend to be reluctant to be government officers or legislators.[24] Next to agriculture, Sundanese people
Sundanese people
often choose business and trade to make a living although mostly are traditional entrepreneurships, such as a travelling food or drink vendors, establishing modest warung (food stall) or restaurant, as the vendor of daily consumer's goods or open a modest barber shop. Their affinity for establishing and running small-scale entrepreneurship is most likely contributed by Sundanese tendency to be independent, carefree, egalitarian, individualistic and optimistic. They seem to abhor the rigid structure and rule of government offices. Several traditional traveling food vendors and food stalls such as Siomay, Gado-gado
Gado-gado
and Karedok, Nasi Goreng, Cendol, Bubur Ayam, Roti Bakar (grilled bread), Bubur kacang hijau (green beans congee) and Indomie
Indomie
instant noodle stall are notably run by Sundanese. Nevertheless, there are numbers of Sundanese that successfully carved their career as intellectuals or politicians in national politics, government offices and military positions. Some notable Sundanese has gained positions in Indonesian government as governor, municipal major, vice president and state ministers, also as officers and general in Indonesian military. Sundanese also popularly known as cheerful and mercurial folks, as they love to joke and tease around. The wayang golek artform of Cepot, Dawala, and Gareng punakawan character clearly demonstrate Sundanese quirky side. Some Sundanese might found art and culture as their passion and become artists, either fine art, musics or performing art. Today, there are a number of Sundanese involved in the music and entertainment industry, with some of Indonesia's most famous singers, musicians, composers, cinema directors, film and Sinetrons actors being of Sundanese origin.[25] Notable people[edit] Main article: List of Sundanese people

A depiction of King Siliwangi
King Siliwangi
or Sri Baduga Maharaja, in Keraton Kasepuhan Cirebon.

Notable Sundanese that being recognized as Indonesian national heroes among others are Dewi Sartika
Dewi Sartika
that fought for equality for women education, and Indonesian statesman such as Oto Iskandar di Nata
Oto Iskandar di Nata
and Djuanda Kartawidjaja. Popular former governor of Jakarta
Jakarta
Ali Sadikin, ex-vice president Umar Wirahadikusumah, and former defense minister Agum Gumelar, and ministers of foreign affairs such as Mochtar Kusumaatmadja, Hassan Wirajuda
Hassan Wirajuda
and Marty Natalegawa, Meutya Hafid
Meutya Hafid
are among notable Sundanese on politics field. Ajip Rosidi
Ajip Rosidi
and Achdiat Karta Mihardja are among Indonesian distinguished poets and writers. Today, in modern Indonesian music and entertainment industry, there are large numbers of Sundanese artists that has become Indonesia's most famous singers, musicians, composers, cinema directors, film and sinetrons (TV soap drama) actors. Famous dangdut singers Rhoma Irama, Elvy Sukaesih and Ayu Ting Ting, musicians and composers such as Erwin Gutawa and singers such as Roekiah, Hetty Koes Endang, Vina Panduwinata, Nicky Astria, Nike Ardilla, Rossa, Gita Gutawa
Gita Gutawa
and popular celebrity Syahrini, Indonesian sinetrons actors such as Raffi Ahmad, Jihan Fahira and Asmirandah Zantman, also film director Nia Dinata, are among artists of Sundanese background. Famous wayang golek puppet master was Asep Sunandar Sunarya, while Sule, Jojon and Kang Ibing are popular comedian. On the sports field, Indonesian athletes of Sundanese background are badminton Olympic gold medalist Taufik Hidayat and Ricky Subagja. See also[edit]

Indonesia
Indonesia
portal

Sunda Kingdom Tarumanegara
Tarumanegara
Kingdom Salakanagara Kingdom Buni culture Sunda Wiwitan Kidung Sunda List of Sundanese people Baduy people

References[edit]

^ Kewarganegaraan, Suku Bangsa, Agama dan Bahasa Sehari-hari Penduduk Indonesia
Indonesia
- Hasil Sensus Penduduk 2010. Badan Pusat Statistik. 2011. ISBN 9789790644175.  ^ "Sunda in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Dictionary". Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Dictionary. Retrieved 20 November 2014.  ^ Kurnia, Iwan (14 August 2007). "Watak Budaya Sunda" (in Indonesian). Kasundaan.org. Retrieved 24 October 2011.  ^ Taylor (2003), p. 7. ^ Oppenheimer, Stephen (1998). Eden in the east: the drowned continent. London: Weidenfield & Nicholson. ISBN 0-297-81816-3.  ^ "Pemetaan Genetika Manusia Indonesia". Kompas.com (in Indonesian).  ^ a b c d e f g Hefner (1997) ^ Cale, Roggie; Eric Oey; Gottfried Roelcke (1997). Java, West Java. Periplus. p. 128. Retrieved 24 October 2011.  ^ "Sundanesiska". Nationalencyklopedin. Retrieved 13 September 2013.  ^ Taylor (2003), p. 120-121 ^ R. Schefold (2014). R. Schefold & Peter J.M. Nas, ed. Indonesian Houses: Volume 2: Survey of Vernacular Architecture in Western Indonesia, Volume 2. BRILL. p. 577. ISBN 900-4253-98-X.  ^ Hetty Catur Ellyawati (2015). "Pengaruh Bahasa Jawa Cilacap Dan Bahasa Sunda Brebes Terhadap Pencilan Bahasa (Enklave) Sunda Di Desa Madura Kecamatan Wanareja Kabupaten Cilacap". Universitas Semarang. Retrieved 2016-11-14.  ^ The Sundanese ^ Dadan Wildan, Perjumpaan Islam
Islam
dengan Tradisi Sunda, Pikiran Rakyat, 26 March 2003 ^ Jajang A. Rohmana (2012). "Sundanese Sufi Literature And Local Islamic Identity: A Contribution of Haji Hasan Mustapa's Dangding" (PDF). State Islamic University (UIN) Sunan Gunung Djati, Bandung, Indonesia. Retrieved 2016-11-14.  ^ Andrée Feillard & Lies Marcoes (1998). "Female Circumcision
Circumcision
in Indonesia : To " Islamize " in Ceremony or Secrecy". Archipel. Retrieved 2016-11-14.  ^ James Minahan (2012). Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 305-306. ISBN 159-8846-59-0.  ^ a b c d Alit Djajasoebrata, Bloemen van net Heelal: De kleurrijke Wereld van de Textiel op Java, A. W. Sijthoffs Uitgeversmaatschappij bv, Amsterdam, 1984 ^ KAsep (11 March 2010). "Angklung, Inspirasi Udjo bagi Dunia" (in Indonesian). Kasundaan.org. Retrieved 24 October 2011.  ^ KAsep (19 November 2009). "Jaipong - Erotismeu Itu Kodrati" (in Indonesian). Kasundaan.org. Retrieved 24 October 2011.  ^ KAsep. "Kuliner" (in Indonesian). Kasundaan.org. Retrieved 24 October 2011.  ^ madjalahkoenjit (6 May 2008). "Kuliner Sunda, Budaya yang Tak Lekang Oleh Waktu" (in Indonesian). Koenjit. Retrieved 24 October 2011.  ^ Seren Taun
Seren Taun
Bogor ^ Ajip Rosidi, Pikiran Rakyat, 2003 ^ Rosidi, Ayip. Revitalisasi dan Aplikasi Nilai-nilai Budaya Sunda dalam Pembangunan Daerah. 

Further reading[edit]

Taylor, Jean Gelman. Indonesia. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10518-5.  Hefner, Robert (1997), Java's Five Regional Cultures. taken from Oey, Eric (editor) (1997). Java. Singapore: Periplus Editions. pp. 58–61. ISBN 962-593-244-5. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)

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