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Sundanese /sʌndəˈniːz/[4] (Basa Sunda /basa sʊnda/, in Sundanese script ᮘᮞ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ, literally "language of Sunda") is a Malayo-Polynesian language
Malayo-Polynesian language
spoken by the Sundanese. It has approximately 39 million native speakers in the western third of Java; they represent about 15% of the Indonesia's total population.

Contents

1 Dialects 2 Writing 3 Phonology 4 Register 5 Basic grammar

5.1 Root word

5.1.1 Root verb 5.1.2 Plural form

5.2 Active form 5.3 Negation 5.4 Question 5.5 Passive form 5.6 Adjectives 5.7 Prepositions

5.7.1 Place 5.7.2 Time 5.7.3 Miscellaneous

6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Dialects[edit] Sundanese appears to be most closely related to Madurese and Malay, and more distantly related to Javanese. It has several dialects, conventionally described according to the locations of the people:

Western dialect, spoken in the provinces of Banten
Banten
and some parts of Lampung; Northern dialect, spoken in Bogor, and northwestern coastal areas of West Java; Southern or Priangan dialect, spoken in Sukabumi, Cianjur, Bandung, Garut and Tasikmalaya Mid-east dialect, spoken in Cirebon, Majalengka
Majalengka
and Indramayu, Northeast dialect, spoken in Kuningan, and Brebes
Brebes
(Central Java), Southeast dialect, spoken in Ciamis, Pangandaran, Banjar and Cilacap (Central Java).

The Priangan dialect, which covers the largest area where Sundanese people lives (Parahyangan in Sundanese), is the most widely spoken type of Sundanese language, taught in elementary till senior-high schools (equivalent to twelfth-year school grade) in West Java
West Java
and Banten
Banten
Province. Writing[edit] Main article: Sundanese alphabet The language is written in different writing systems throughout history. During the early Hindu-Buddhist era, the Vatteluttu
Vatteluttu
and Nāgarī script
Nāgarī script
were used. The Sundanese later then developed their own alphabet, the Old Sundanese script
Sundanese script
(Aksara Sunda Kuno). After the arrival of Islam, the Pegon script
Pegon script
is also used, usually for religious purposes. The Latin script
Latin script
then began to be used after the arrival of Europeans. In modern times, most of Sundanese literature is written in Latin. The regional government of West Java
West Java
and Banten
Banten
are currently promoting the use of Standard Sundanese script
Sundanese script
(Aksara Sunda Baku) in public places and road signs. The Pegon script
Pegon script
is still used mostly by pesantrens (Islamic boarding school) in West Java
West Java
and Banten
Banten
or in Sundanese Islamic literature.[5] Phonology[edit] Sundanese orthography is highly phonetic (see also Sundanese script). There are seven vowels: a /ɑ/, é /ɛ/, i /i/, o /ɔ/, u /ʊ/, e /ə/, and eu /ɤ/. The consonantal phonemes are transcribed with the letters p, b, t, d, k, g, c (pronounced /tʃ/), j /d͡ʒ/, h, ng (/ŋ/), ny /ɲ/, m, n, s /s/, w, l, r /r~ɾ/, and y /j/. Other consonants that originally appear in Indonesian loanwords are mostly transferred into native consonants: f → p, v → p, sy → s, sh → s, z → j, and kh /x/ → h. According to Yayat Sudaryat (1991,35)[citation needed] there are 16 consonants in Sundanese phonology: /b/, /tʃ/, /d/, /g/, /h/, /dʒ/, /k/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /p/, /r/, /s/, /ŋ/, /t/; /ɲ/, however, influences from foreign languages have introduced several additional consonants such as /f/, /v/, /z/ (as in fonem, qur'an, xerox, zakat). There are also /w/ and /j/ as semi vowels, they function as glide sound between two different vowels, as in the words:

kuéh - /kuwɛh/ muih - /muwih/ béar - /bejar/ miang - /mijaŋ/

Phonemes /w/ and /j/ function as glide sounds between two different vowels as in the words:[clarification needed]

wa - rung wa - yang ba - wang ha - yang ku - ya

Register[edit] Sundanese has an elaborate system of register distinguishing two basic levels of formality: kasar (low, informal) and lemes (high, formal).[6] For many words, there are distinct kasar and lemes forms, e.g. arek (kasar) vs. bade (lemes) "want", maca (kasar) vs. maos (lemes) "read". In the lemes level, some words further distinguish humble and respectful forms, the former being used to refer to oneself, and the latter for the addressee and third persons, e.g. rorompok "(my own) house" vs. bumi "(your or someone else's) house" (the kasar form is imah). Similar systems of speech levels are found in Javanese, Madurese, Balinese and Sasak. Basic grammar[edit] Root word[edit] Root verb[edit]

English Sundanese (normal) Sundanese (polite)

eat .. dahar .. tuang ..(for other) neda ..(for myself)

drink .. inum .. leueut ..

write .. tulis .. serat ..

read .. maca .. maos ..

forget .. poho .. hilap ..

remember .. inget .. emut ..

sit .. diuk .. calik .. linggih

standing .. nangtung .. adeg ..

walk .. leumpang .. papah ..

Plural form[edit] Other Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
commonly use reduplication to create plural forms. However, Sundanese inserts the ar infix into the stem word. If the stem word starts with l, or contains r following the infix, the infix ar becomes al. Also, as with other Sundanese infixes (such as um), if the word starts with vowel, the infix becomes a prefix. Examples:

Mangga A, tarahuna haneut kénéh. "Please sir, the bean curds are still warm/hot." The plural form of tahu 'bean curd, tofu' is formed by infixing ar after the initial consonant. Barudak leutik lalumpatan. "Small children running around." Barudak "children" is formed from budak (child) with the ar infix; in lumpat (run) the ar infix becomes al because lumpat starts with l. Ieu kaén batik aralus sadayana. "All of these batik clothes are beautiful." Formed from alus (nice, beautiful, good) with the infix ar that becomes a prefix because alus starts with a vowel. It denotes the adjective "beautiful" for the plural subject/noun (batik clothes). Siswa sakola éta mah balageur. "The students of that school are well-behaved." Formed from bageur ("good-behaving, nice, polite, helpful") with the infix ar, which becomes al because of r in the root, to denote the adjective "well-behaved" for plural students.

However, it is reported that this use of al instead of ar (as illustrated in (4) above) does not to occur if the 'r' is in onset of a neighbouring syllable. For example, the plural form of the adjective curiga (suspicious) is caruriga and not *caluriga, because the 'r' in the root occurs at the start of the following syllable.[7] The prefix can be reduplicated to denote very-, or the plural of groups. For example, "bararudak" denotes many, many children or many groups of children (budak is child in Sundanese). Another example, "balalageur" denotes plural adjective of "very well-behaved". Active form[edit] Most active forms of Sundanese verbs are identical to the root, as with diuk "sit" or dahar "eat". Some others depend on the initial phoneme in the root:

Initial /d/, /b/, /f/, /g/, /h/, /j/, /l/, /r/, /w/, /z/ can be put after prefix nga like in ngadahar. Initial /i/, /e/, /u/, /a/, /o/ can be put after prefix ng like in nginum "drink".

Negation[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2015)

Abdi henteu acan neda. "I have not eaten yet." Buku abdi mah sanes nu ieu. "My book is not this one." Question[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2015)

Dupi -(question) example:saya Polite-

Dupi Bapa aya di bumi? "Is your father at home?" Dupi bumi di palih mana? "Where do you live?"

Passive form[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2015)

Buku dibantun ku abdi. "The book is brought by me." Dibantun is the passive form ngabantun "bring". Pulpen ditambut ku abdi. "The pen is borrowed by me." Soal ieu digawekeun ku abdi. "This problem is done by me." Adjectives[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2015)

Examples: teuas (hard), tiis (cool), hipu (soft), lada (hot, usually for foods), haneut (warm), etc. Prepositions[edit] Place[edit]

English Sundanese (normal) Sundanese (polite)

above .. diluhureun .. diluhureun ..

behind .. ditukangeun .. dipengkereun ..

under .. dihandapeun .. dihandapeun ..

inside .. di jero .. di lebet ..

outside .. di luar .. di luar ..

between .. and .. di antara .. jeung .. di antawis .. sareng ..

front .. hareup .. payun ..

back .. tukang .. pengker ..

Time[edit]

English Sundanese (normal) Sundanese (polite)

before saacan sateuacan

after sanggeus saparantos

during basa nalika

past baheula kapungkur

Miscellaneous[edit]

English Sundanese (normal) Sundanese (polite)

from tina/ti tina

for jang kanggo

Languages spoken in Java.

See also[edit]

Kidung Sunda Sundanese alphabet Sundanese ( Unicode
Unicode
block)

References[edit]

^ Mempertahankan Eksistensi Bahasa Sunda Pikiran Rakyat ^ Karl Andebeck, 2006. 'An initial reconstruction of Proto-Lampungic' ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sundanese–Badui". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh ^ Rosidi, Ajip (2010). Mengenang hidup orang lain: sejumlah obituari (in Indonesian). Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia. ISBN 9789799102225.  ^ Anderson, E.A. (1997). "The use of speech levels in Sundanese". In Clark, M. (ed.). Papers in Southeast Asian Linguistics No. 16. Canberra: Australian National University. ^ Bennett, Wm. G. (2015). The Phonology of Consonants: Harmony, Dissimilation, and Correspondence. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. (Page 132).

Further reading[edit] Rigg, Jonathan (1862). A Dictionary of the Sunda Language of Java. Batavia: Lange & Co.  External links[edit]

Sundanese edition of, the free encyclopedia

Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Sundanese.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sundanese language.

Sundanese-Indonesian and Indonesian-Sundanese Dictionary Sundanese converter Latin-Sudanese script (Aksara Sunda) Indonesian-Sundanese Translator

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Languages of Indonesia

Sunda-Sulawesi languages

Malayo-Sumbawan

Indonesian

Bahasa Binan Slang

Malay

Anambas/Natuna Bangka Bengkulu Berau Jambi Jaring Halus Kutai Larantuka Palembang Pontianak

Acehnese Balinese Bamayo Banjarese Col Duano' Haji Iban Kangean Kaur Kendayan Keninjal Kerinci Kubu Lubu Loncong Madurese Minangkabau Mualang Pekal Sasak Seberuang Sumbawan Sundanese

Baduy Bantenese

Javanese

Javanese

Banyumasan Osing Tenggerese

Celebic

Andio Badaic Bahonsuai Balaesang Balantak Banggai Batui Boano Bobongko Bonerate Bungku Busoa Cia-Cia Dampelas Dondo Kalao Kaili Kaimbulawa Kamaru Kodeoha Kulisusu Kumbewaha Lasalimu Laiyolo Lauje Liabuku Mbelala Moronene Mori Bawah Mori Atas Moma Muna Padoe Pancana Pendau Rahambuu Rampi Saluan Sarudu Sedoa Pamona Taje Tajio Tukang Besi Tolaki Tomadino Topoiyo Tomini Totoli Uma Waru Wawonii Wolio Wotu

Lampungic

Komering Lampung

Northwest Sumatran

Batak

Alas Batak Angkola Batak Dairi Batak Karo Batak Mandailing Batak Simalungun Batak Toba

Enggano Gayo Mentawai Nias Simeulue Sikule

South Sulawesi

Aralle-Tabulahan Bambam Bentong Budong-Budong Buginese Campalagian Dakka Duri Embaloh Enrekang Kalumpang Konjo Lemolang Maiwa Makassarese Malimpung Mamasa Mamuju Mandar Panasuan Pannei Selayar Seko Tae’ Talondo’ Taman Toraja-Sa’dan Ulumanda’

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Land Dayak

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North Bornean

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Mainstream

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Central-Eastern languages

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Central Maluku

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Flores–Lembata

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Afro-Asiatic languages

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Sign languages

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Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages

Malayo-Sumbawan

Sundanese

Sundanese (Bantenese, Baduy)

Madurese

Kangean Madurese

Malayo-Chamic

Chamic

Acehnese Cham dialects Chru Haroi Jarai Rade Roglai Tsat (Utsat)

Malayic

Bamayo Banjar Brunei/Kedayan Malay Berau Malay Bangka Malay Balau Bengkulu Col Duano' Haji Iban Jambi Malay Jakun Kedah Malay Kutai Malay Kaur Kerinci Kelantan-Pattani Malay (Yawi) Kendayan Keninjal Kubu Orang Laut Lubu Malay (Malaysian & Indonesian) Minangkabau Musi Mualang Orang Kanaq Orang Seletar Pahang Malay Pekal Perak Malay Remun Sarawak Malay Seberuang Sebuyau Temuan Terengganu Malay Urak Lawoi'

Bali–Sasak

Balinese Sasak Sumbawa

Northwest Sumatran

Enggano Gayo Mentawai Nias Sikule Simeulue

Batak

Alas Batak Angkola Batak Dairi Batak Karo Batak Simalungun Batak Toba Mandailing

Lampungic

Lampung
Lampung
Api Lampung
Lampung
Nyo Komering

Celebic (Disputed)

Andio Badaic Bahonsuai Balaesang Balantak Banggai Batui Boano Bobongko Bonerate Bungku Busoa Cia-Cia Dampelas Dondo Kalao Kaili Kaimbulawa Kamaru Kodeoha Kulisusu Kumbewaha Lasalimu Laiyolo Lauje Liabuku Mbelala Moronene Mori Bawah Mori Atas Moma Muna Padoe Pancana Pendau Rahambuu Rampi Saluan Sarudu Sedoa Pamona Taje Tajio Tukang Besi Tolaki Tomadino Topoiyo Tomini Totoli Uma Waru Wawonii Wolio Wotu

South Sulawesi

Aralle-Tabulahan Bambam Bentong Budong-Budong Buginese Campalagian Dakka Duri Embaloh Enrekang Kalumpang Konjo Lemolang Maiwa (Sulawesi) Makassarese Malimpung Mamasa Mamuju Mandar Panasuan Pannei Selayar Seko Tae’ Talondo’ Taman Toraja-Sa’dan Ulumanda’

Moken

Moken dialects

Javanese

Arekan Banyumasan Mataraman Kawi (Old Javanese) Kedu Osing Tenggerese

Central–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian (over 700 languages)

Eastern Malayo-Polynesian groups

Halmahera–Cenderawasih Oceanic languages

Central Malayo-Polynesian linkages

Aru Central Maluku Kei-Tanimbar Kowiai Selaru Sumba–Flores Teor–Kur Timoric West Damar

Unclassified

Chamorro Hukumina † Palauan

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