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Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
(/ˈsʊn ˈjɑːtˈsɛn/; 12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)[1][2] was a Chinese physician, writer, philosopher, calligrapher[3] and revolutionary, the first president and founding father of the Republic of China. As the foremost pioneer and first leader of a Republican China, Sun is referred to as the "Father of the Nation" in the Republic of China
China
(ROC) and the "forerunner of democratic revolution" in the People's Republic of China
China
(PRC). Sun played an instrumental role in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
(the last imperial dynasty of China) during the years leading up to the Xinhai Revolution. He was appointed to serve as Provisional President of the Republic of China
China
when it was founded in 1912. He later co-founded the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(Nationalist Party of China), serving as its first leader.[4] Sun was a uniting figure in post-Imperial China, and he remains unique among 20th-century Chinese politicians for being widely revered amongst the people from both sides of the Taiwan Strait. Although Sun is considered to be one of the greatest leaders of modern China, his political life was one of constant struggle and frequent exile. After the success of the revolution and the Han Chinese regaining power after 268 years of Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
rule, he quickly resigned from his post as President of the newly founded Republic of China
China
to Yuan Shikai, and led successive revolutionary governments as a challenge to the warlords who controlled much of the nation. Sun did not live to see his party consolidate its power over the country during the Northern Expedition. His party, which formed a fragile alliance with the Communists, split into two factions after his death. Sun's chief legacy resides in his developing of the political philosophy known as the Three Principles of the People: nationalism ( Han Chinese
Han Chinese
nationalism: independence from imperialist domination - taking back power from the Manchurian Qing dynasty), democracy,[5] and the people's livelihood (just society).[6][7]

Contents

1 Names 2 Early years

2.1 Birthplace and early life 2.2 Education years

3 Religious views and Christian
Christian
baptism 4 Transformation into a revolutionary

4.1 Four Bandits 4.2 Furen and Revive China
China
Society 4.3 First Sino-Japanese War

5 From uprising to exile

5.1 First Guangzhou
Guangzhou
uprising 5.2 Exile in Japan 5.3 Huizhou
Huizhou
uprising in China 5.4 Further exile 5.5 Heaven and Earth Society, overseas travel

6 Revolution

6.1 Tongmenghui 6.2 Malaya support 6.3 Siamese support 6.4 Zhennanguan uprising 6.5 Anti-Sun movements 6.6 1911 revolution

7 Republic of China
China
with many governments

7.1 Provisional government 7.2 Beiyang government 7.3 Nationalist party and Second Revolution 7.4 Political chaos

8 Path to Northern Expedition

8.1 Guangzhou
Guangzhou
militarist government 8.2 KMT–CPC cooperation 8.3 Finance concerns 8.4 Final speeches 8.5 Illness and death

9 Legacy

9.1 Power struggle 9.2 Cult of personality 9.3 Father of the Nation 9.4 "Forerunner of the revolution" 9.5 Religious veneration

10 Family 11 Cultural references

11.1 Memorials and structures in Asia 11.2 Memorials and structures outside of Asia

12 In popular culture

12.1 Opera 12.2 TV series and films 12.3 Performances

13 Controversy

13.1 New Three Principles of the People 13.2 KMT emblem removal case 13.3 Father of Independent Taiwan
Taiwan
issue 13.4 Ceded Manchuria

14 See also 15 References 16 Further reading 17 Works 18 External links

Names[edit] Main article: Names of Sun Yat-sen Sun was born as Sun Wen (Cantonese: Syūn Màhn; 孫文), and his genealogical name was Sun Deming (Syūn Dāk-mìhng; 孫德明).[1][8] As a child, his pet name was Tai Tseung (Dai-jeuhng; 帝象).[1] Sun's courtesy name was Zaizhi (Jai-jī; 載之), and his baptized name was Rixin (Yaht-sān; 日新).[9] While at school in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
he got the art name Yat-sen (Chinese: 逸仙; pinyin: Yìxiān).[10] Sūn Zhōngshān (孫中山), the most popular of his Chinese names, is derived from his Japanese name
Japanese name
Nakayama Shō (中山樵), the pseudonym given to him by Tōten Miyazaki
Tōten Miyazaki
while in hiding in Japan.[1] Early years[edit]

Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
(back row, fifth from left) and his family

Birthplace and early life[edit] Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
was born on 12 November 1866 to Sun Dacheng and Madame Yang.[2] His birthplace was the village of Cuiheng, Xiangshan County (now Zhongshan
Zhongshan
City), Guangdong
Guangdong
Province.[2] He had a cultural background of Hakka
Hakka
(with roots in Zijin, Heyuan, Guangdong)[11] and Cantonese. His father owned very few lands and worked as a tailor in Macau, and as a journeyman and a porter.[12] After finishing primary education, he moved to Honolulu
Honolulu
in the Kingdom of Hawaii, where he lived a comfortable life of modest wealth supported by his elder brother Sun Mei.[13][14][15][16] Education years[edit] At the age of 10, Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
began seeking schooling.[1] It is also at this point where he met childhood friend Lu Haodong.[1] By age 13 in 1878 after receiving a few years of local schooling, Sun went to live with his elder brother, Sun Mei (孫眉) in Honolulu.[1] Sun Mei financed Sun Yat-sen's education and would later be a major contributor for the overthrow of the Manchus.[13][14][15][16] During his stay in Honolulu, Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
went to ʻIolani School
ʻIolani School
where he studied English, British history, mathematics, science, and Christianity.[1] While he was originally unable to speak English, Sun Yat-sen quickly picked up the language and received a prize for academic achievement from King David Kalākaua
David Kalākaua
before graduating in 1882.[17] He then attended Oahu College
Oahu College
(now known as Punahou School) for one semester.[1][18] In 1883 he was soon sent home to China
China
as his brother was becoming worried that Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
was beginning to embrace Christianity.[1] When he returned to China
China
in 1883 at age 17, Sun met up with his childhood friend Lu Haodong
Lu Haodong
again at Beijidian (北極殿), a temple in Cuiheng
Cuiheng
Village.[1] They saw many villagers worshipping the Beiji (literally North Pole) Emperor-God in the temple, and were dissatisfied with their ancient healing methods.[1] They broke the statue, incurring the wrath of fellow villagers, and escaped to Hong Kong.[1][19][20] While in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
in 1883 he studied at the Diocesan Boys' School, and from 1884 to 1886 he was at The Government Central School.[21] In 1886 Sun studied medicine at the Guangzhou Boji Hospital
Guangzhou Boji Hospital
under the Christian
Christian
missionary John G. Kerr.[1] Ultimately, he earned the license of Christian
Christian
practice as a medical doctor from the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese (the forerunner of The University of Hong Kong) in 1892.[1][10] Notably, of his class of 12 students, Sun was one of only two who graduated.[22][23][24] Religious views and Christian
Christian
baptism[edit] In the early 1880s, Sun Mei sent his brother to ʻIolani School, which was under the supervision of British Anglicans and directed by an Anglican prelate named Alfred Willis. The language of instruction was English. Although Bishop Willis emphasized that no one was forced to accept Christianity, the students were required to attend chapel on Sunday. At Iolani School, young Sun Wen first came in contact with Christianity, and it made a deep impression on him. Schriffin writes that Christianity was to have a great influence on Sun's whole future political life.[25] Sun was later baptized in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(on May 4, 1884) by Rev. C. R. Hager[26][27][28] an American missionary of the Congregational Church of the United States (ABCFM) to his brother's disdain. The minister would also develop a friendship with Sun.[29][30] Sun attended To Tsai Church (道濟會堂), founded by the London Missionary Society
London Missionary Society
in 1888,[31] while he studied Western Medicine in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
College of Medicine for Chinese. Sun pictured a revolution as similar to the salvation mission of the Christian
Christian
church. His conversion to Christianity was related to his revolutionary ideals and push for advancement.[30] In 1924 Liao Chongzhen, a prominent and influential government official of the day, arranged a meeting between Sun and Martha Root, a well-known journalist and traveling teacher of the Bahá'í Faith in the late 19th and early 20th century. In this meeting Sun came into contact with the Teachings of the Bahá'í Faith, expressing his appreciation for the Cause and declaring it "highly relevant to the needs of China." Transformation into a revolutionary[edit]

Photograph of Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
(seated, second from left) and his revolutionary friends, the Four Bandits, including Yeung Hok-ling (left), Chan Siu-bak
Chan Siu-bak
(seated, second from right), Yau Lit
Yau Lit
(right), and Guan Jingliang (關景良) (standing) at the Hong Kong
Hong Kong
College of Medicine for Chinese

Four Bandits[edit] During the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
rebellion around 1888, Sun was in Hong Kong with a group of revolutionary thinkers who were nicknamed the Four Bandits at the Hong Kong
Hong Kong
College of Medicine for Chinese.[32] Sun, who had grown increasingly frustrated by the conservative Qing government and its refusal to adopt knowledge from the more technologically advanced Western nations, quit his medical practice in order to devote his time to transforming China.[citation needed] Furen and Revive China
China
Society[edit] In 1891, Sun met revolutionary friends in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
including Yeung Ku-wan who was the leader and founder of the Furen Literary Society.[33] The group was spreading the idea of overthrowing the Qing. In 1894, Sun wrote an 8,000 character petition to Qing Viceroy Li Hongzhang
Li Hongzhang
presenting his ideas for modernizing China.[34][35][36] He traveled to Tianjin
Tianjin
to personally present the petition to Li but was not granted an audience.[37] After this experience, Sun turned irrevocably toward revolution. He left China
China
for Hawaii and founded the Revive China
China
Society, which was committed to revolutionizing China's prosperity. Members were drawn mainly from Chinese expatriates, especially the lower social classes. The same month in 1894 the Furen Literary Society
Furen Literary Society
was merged with the Hong Kong
Hong Kong
chapter of the Revive China
China
Society.[33] Thereafter, Sun became the secretary of the newly merged Revive China
China
society, which Yeung Ku-wan
Yeung Ku-wan
headed as president.[38] They disguised their activities in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
under the running of a business under the name "Kuen Hang Club"[39]:90 (乾亨行).[40] First Sino-Japanese War[edit] In 1895, China
China
suffered a serious defeat during the First Sino-Japanese War. There were two types of responses. One group of intellectuals contended that the Manchu
Manchu
Qing government could restore its legitimacy by successfully modernizing.[41] Stressing that overthrowing the Manchu
Manchu
would result in chaos and would lead to China being carved up by imperialists, intellectuals like Kang Youwei
Kang Youwei
and Liang Qichao
Liang Qichao
supported responding with initiatives like the Hundred Days' Reform.[41] In another faction, Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
and others like Zou Rong wanted a revolution to replace the dynastic system with a modern nation-state in the form of a republic.[41] The Hundred Days' reform turned out to be a failure by 1898.[42] From uprising to exile[edit]

Plaque in London marking the site of a house where Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
lived while in exile

Letter from Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
to James Cantlie
James Cantlie
announcing to him that he has assumed the Presidency of the Provisional Republican Government of China. Dated 21 January 1912.

First Guangzhou
Guangzhou
uprising[edit] In the second year of the establishment of the Revive China
China
society on 26 October 1895, the group planned and launched the First Guangzhou uprising against the Qing in Guangzhou.[35] Yeung Kui-wan
Yeung Kui-wan
directed the uprising starting from Hong Kong.[38] However, plans were leaked out and more than 70 members, including Lu Haodong, were captured by the Qing government. The uprising was a failure. Sun received financial support mostly from his brother who sold most of his 12,000 acres of ranch and cattle in Hawaii.[13] Additionally, members of his family and relatives of the Sun would take refuge at the home of his brother Sun Mei at Kamaole in Kula, Maui.[13][14][15][16][43] Exile in Japan[edit] Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
spent time living in Japan while in exile. He befriended and was financially aided by a democratic revolutionary named Miyazaki Toten. Most Japanese who actively worked with Sun were motivated by a pan-Asian fear of encroaching Western imperialism.[44] While in Japan, Sun also met and befriended Mariano Ponce, then a diplomat of the First Philippine Republic.[45] During the Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
and the Philippine–American War, Sun helped Ponce procure weapons salvaged from the Imperial Japanese Army and ship the weapons to the Philippines. By helping the Philippine Republic, Sun hoped that the Filipinos would win their independence so that he could use the archipelago as a staging point of another revolution. However, as the war ended in July 1902, America emerged victorious from a bitter 3-year war against the Republic. Therefore, the Filipino dream of independence vanished with Sun's hopes of collaborating with the Philippines
Philippines
in his revolution in China.[46] Huizhou
Huizhou
uprising in China[edit] On 22 October 1900, Sun launched the Huizhou
Huizhou
uprising to attack Huizhou
Huizhou
and provincial authorities in Guangdong.[47] This came five years after the failed Guangzhou
Guangzhou
uprising. This time, Sun appealed to the triads for help.[48] This uprising was also a failure. Miyazaki, who participated in the revolt with Sun, wrote an account of this revolutionary effort under the title "33-year dream" (三十三年之夢) in 1902.[49][50] Further exile[edit] Sun was in exile not only in Japan but also in Europe, the United States, and Canada. He raised money for his revolutionary party and to support uprisings in China. While the events leading up to it are unclear, in 1896 Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
was detained at the Chinese Legation in London, where the Chinese Imperial secret service planned to kill him.[51] He was released after 12 days through the efforts of James Cantlie, The Globe, The Times, and the Foreign Office, leaving Sun a hero in Britain.[52] James Cantlie, Sun's former teacher at the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese, maintained a lifelong friendship with Sun and would later write an early biography of Sun.[53] Heaven and Earth Society, overseas travel[edit] A "Heaven and Earth Society" sect known as Tiandihui
Tiandihui
had been around for a long time.[54] The group has also been referred to as the "three cooperating organizations" as well as the triads.[54] Sun Yat-sen mainly used this group to leverage his overseas travels to gain further financial and resource support for his revolution.[54] According to the New York Times " Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
left his village in Guangdong, southern China, in 1879 to join a brother in Hawaii. He eventually returned to China
China
and from there moved to the British colony of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
in 1883. It was there that he received his Western education, his Christian
Christian
faith and the money for revolution."[55] This is where Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
realized that China
China
needed to change its ways. He knew that the only way that China
China
would change and modernize would be to overthrow the Qing Dynasty. According to Lee Yun-ping, chairman of the Chinese historical society, Sun needed a certificate to enter the United States at a time when the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
would have otherwise blocked him.[56] However, on Sun's first attempt to enter the US, he was still arrested.[56] He was later bailed out after 17 days.[56] In March 1904, while residing in Kula, Maui, Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
obtained a Certificate of Hawaiian Birth, issued by the Territory of Hawaii, stating that "he was born in the Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
on the 24th day of November, A.D. 1870."[57][58] He renounced it after it served its purpose to circumvent the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882.[58] Official files of the United States show that Sun had United States nationality, moved to China
China
with his family at age 4, and returned to Hawaii 10 years later.[59] Revolution[edit]

A letter with Sun's seal commencing the Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
in Hong Kong

Tongmenghui[edit] Main article: Tongmenghui In 1904, Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
came about with the goal "to expel the Tatar barbarians (i.e. Manchu), to revive Zhonghua, to establish a Republic, and to distribute land equally among the people" (驅除韃虜, 恢復中華, 創立民國, 平均地權).[60] One of Sun's major legacies was the creation of his political philosophy of the Three Principles of the People. These Principles included the principle of nationalism (minzu, 民族), of democracy (minquan, 民權), and of welfare (minsheng, 民生).[60] On 20 August 1905, Sun joined forces with revolutionary Chinese students studying in Tokyo, Japan to form the unified group Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
(United League), which sponsored uprisings in China.[60][61] By 1906 the number of Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
members reached 963 people.[60]

Interior of the Wan Qing Yuan
Wan Qing Yuan
featuring Sun's items and photos

Malaya support[edit] Main article: Chinese revolutionary activities in Malaya

The Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Museum in George Town, Penang, Malaysia, where he planned the Xinhai Revolution.[62]

Sun's notability and popularity extends beyond the Greater China region, particularly to Nanyang (Southeast Asia), where a large concentration of overseas Chinese resided in Malaya ( Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore). While in Singapore, he met local Chinese merchants Teo Eng Hock, Tan Chor Nam and Lim Nee Soon, which mark the commencement of direct support from the Nanyang Chinese. The Singapore
Singapore
chapter of the Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
was established on 6 April 1906.[63] Though some records claim the founding date to be end of 1905.[63] The villa used by Sun was known as Wan Qing Yuan.[63][64] At this point Singapore
Singapore
was the headquarters of the Tongmenghui.[63] Thus, after founding the Tong Meng Hui, Dr Sun advocated the establishment of The Chong Shing Yit Pao as the alliance's mouthpiece to promote revolutionary ideas. Later, he initiated the establishment of reading clubs across Singapore
Singapore
and Malaysia, in order to disseminate revolutionary ideas among the lower class through public readings of newspaper stories. The United Chinese Library, founded on 8 August 1910, was one such reading club, first set up at leased property on the second floor of the Wan He Salt Traders in North Boat Quay.[citation needed] The first actual United Chinese Library building was built between 1908 and 1911 below Fort Canning – 51 Armenian Street, commenced operations in 1912. The library was set up as a part of the 50 reading rooms by the Chinese Republicans to serve as an information station and liaison point for the revolutionaries. In 1987, the library was moved to its present site at Cantonment Road. But the Armenian Street building is still intact with the plaque at its entrance with Sun Yat Sen's words. With an initial membership of over 400, the library has about 180 members today. Although the United Chinese Library, with 102 years of history, was not the only reading club in Singapore
Singapore
during the time, today it is the only one of its kind remaining.[citation needed] Siamese support[edit] In 1903, Sun made a secret trip to Bangkok
Bangkok
in which he sought funds for his cause in Southeast Asia. His loyal followers published newspapers, providing invaluable support to the dissemination of his revolutionary principles and ideals among Chinese descant in Thailand. In Bangkok, Sun visited Yaowarat Road, in Bangkok's Chinatown. It was on this street that Sun gave a speech claiming that overseas Chinese were “the Mother of the Revolution”. He also met local Chinese merchants Seow Houtseng,[65] whose sent financial support to him. Sun's speech on Yaowarat street was commemorated by the street later being named "Sun Yat Sen Street" or "Soi Sun Yat Sen" (Thai: ซอยซุนยัตเซ็น) in his honour.[66] Zhennanguan uprising[edit] On 1 December 1907, Sun led the Zhennanguan uprising against the Qing at Friendship Pass, which is the border between Guangxi
Guangxi
and Vietnam.[67] The uprising failed after seven days of fighting.[67][68] In 1907 there were a total of four uprisings that failed including Huanggang uprising, Huizhou
Huizhou
seven women lake uprising and Qinzhou uprising.[63] In 1908 two more uprisings failed one after another including Qin-lian uprising and Hekou uprising.[63] Anti-Sun movements[edit] Because of these failures, Sun's leadership was challenged by elements from within the Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
who wished to remove him as leader. In Tokyo 1907–1908 members from the recently merged Restoration society raised doubts about Sun's credentials.[63] Tao Chengzhang (陶成章) and Zhang Binglin
Zhang Binglin
publicly denounced Sun with an open leaflet called "A declaration of Sun Yat-sen's criminal acts by the revolutionaries in Southeast Asia".[63] This was printed and distributed in reformist newspapers like Nanyang Zonghui Bao.[63][69] Their goal was to target Sun as a leader leading a revolt for profiteering gains.[63] The revolutionaries were polarized and split between pro-Sun and anti-Sun camps.[63] Sun publicly fought off comments about how he had something to gain financially from the revolution.[63] However, by 19 July 1910, the Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
headquarters had to relocate from Singapore to Penang
Penang
to reduce the anti-Sun activities.[63] It is also in Penang that Sun and his supporters would launch the first Chinese "daily" newspaper, the Kwong Wah Yit Poh
Kwong Wah Yit Poh
in December 1910.[67] 1911 revolution[edit] Main articles: Wuchang Uprising
Wuchang Uprising
and Xinhai Revolution

The Revolutionary
Revolutionary
Army of the Wuchang Uprising
Wuchang Uprising
fighting in the Battle of Yangxia

To sponsor more uprisings, Sun made a personal plea for financial aid at the Penang
Penang
conference held on 13 November 1910 in Malaya.[70] The leaders launched a major drive for donations across the Malay Peninsula.[70] They raised HK$187,000.[70] On 27 April 1911, revolutionary Huang Xing
Huang Xing
led a second Guangzhou uprising known as the Yellow Flower Mound revolt
Yellow Flower Mound revolt
against the Qing. The revolt failed and ended in disaster; the bodies of only 72 revolutionaries were found.[71] The revolutionaries are remembered as martyrs.[71] On 10 October 1911, a military uprising at Wuchang took place led again by Huang Xing. At the time, Sun had no direct involvement as he was still in exile. Huang was in charge of the revolution that ended over 2000 years of imperial rule in China. When Sun learned of the successful rebellion against the Qing emperor from press reports, he returned to China
China
from the United States accompanied by his closest foreign advisor, the American, "General" Homer Lea. He met Lea in London, where he and Lea unsuccessfully tried to arrange British financing for the new Chinese republic. Sun and Lea then sailed for China, arriving there on 21 December 1911.[72] The uprising expanded to the Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
also known as the "Chinese Revolution" to overthrow the last Emperor Puyi. After this event, 10 October became known as the commemoration of Double Ten Day.[73]

Republic of China
China
with many governments[edit] Provisional government[edit] Main article: Provisional Government of the Republic of China
China
(1912) On 29 December 1911 a meeting of representatives from provinces in Nanking (Nanjing) elected Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
as the "provisional president" (臨時大總統).[74] January 1, 1912 was set as the first day of the First Year of the Republic.[75] Li Yuanhong
Li Yuanhong
was made provisional vice-president and Huang Xing
Huang Xing
became the minister of the army. The new Provisional Government of the Republic of China
China
was created along with the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China. Sun is credited for the funding of the revolutions and for keeping the spirit of revolution alive, even after a series of failed uprisings. His successful merger of minor revolutionary groups to a single larger party provided a better base for all those who shared the same ideals. A number of things were introduced such as the republic calendar system and new fashion like Zhongshan
Zhongshan
suits. Beiyang government[edit] Main article: Beiyang government Yuan Shikai, who controlled the Beiyang Army, the military of northern China, was promised the position of President of the Republic of China if he could get the Qing court to abdicate.[76] On 12 February 1912 Emperor Puyi
Puyi
did abdicate the throne.[75] Sun stepped down as President, and Yuan became the new provisional president in Beijing
Beijing
on 10 March 1912.[76] The provisional government did not have any military forces of its own, its control over elements of the New Army that had mutinied was limited and there were still significant forces which still had not declared against the Qing. Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
sent telegrams to the leaders of all provinces requesting them to elect and to establish the National Assembly of the Republic of China
China
in 1912.[77] In May 1912 the legislative assembly moved from Nanjing
Nanjing
to Beijing
Beijing
with its 120 members divided between members of Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
and a Republican party that supported Yuan Shikai.[78] Many revolutionary members were already alarmed by Yuan's ambitions and the northern based Beiyang government. Nationalist party and Second Revolution[edit] Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
member Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren
quickly tried to control the parliament. He mobilized the old Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
at the core with the merger of a number of new small parties to form a new political party called the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(Chinese nationalist party, commonly abbreviated as "KMT") on 25 August 1912 at Huguang Guild Hall
Huguang Guild Hall
Beijing.[78] The 1912–1913 National assembly election was considered a huge success for the KMT winning 269 of the 596 seats in the lower house and 123 of the 274 senate seats.[76][78] The Second Revolution
Revolution
took place where Sun and KMT military forces tried to overthrow Yuan's forces of about 80,000 men in an armed conflict in July 1913.[79] The revolt against Yuan was unsuccessful. Sun was forced to seek asylum in Japan with politician and industrialist Fusanosuke Kuhara. In retaliation the national party leader Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren
was assassinated, almost certainly by a secret order of Yuan, on 20 March 1913.[76] Political chaos[edit] In 1915 Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
proclaimed the Empire of China
China
(1915–1916) with himself as Emperor of China. Sun took part in the Anti-Monarchy war of the Constitutional Protection Movement, while also supporting bandit leaders like Bai Lang during the Bai Lang Rebellion. This marked the beginning of the Warlord Era. In 1915 Sun wrote to the Second International, a socialist-based organization in Paris, asking it to send a team of specialists to help China
China
set up the world's first socialist republic.[80] At the time there were many theories and proposals of what China
China
could be. In the political mess, both Sun Yat-sen and Xu Shichang
Xu Shichang
were announced as President of the Republic of China.[81] Path to Northern Expedition[edit]

(L-R): Liao Zhongkai, Chiang Kai-shek, Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
and Soong Ching-ling at the founding of the Whampoa Military Academy
Whampoa Military Academy
in 1924

Guangzhou
Guangzhou
militarist government[edit] China
China
had become divided between different military leaders without a proper central government. Sun saw the danger of this and returned to China
China
in 1917 to advocate Chinese reunification. In 1921 he started a self-proclaimed military government in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
and was elected Grand Marshal.[82] Between 1912 and 1927 three governments had been set up in South China: the Provisional government in Nanjing
Nanjing
(1912), the Military government in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(1921–1925), and the National government in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
and later Wuhan
Wuhan
(1925–1927).[83] The southern separatist government in the South was established to rival the Beiyang government
Beiyang government
in the north.[82] Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
had banned the KMT. The short lived Chinese Revolutionary Party
Chinese Revolutionary Party
was a temporary replacement for the KMT. On 10 October 1919 Sun resurrected the KMT with the new name Chung-kuo Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(simplified Chinese: 中国国民党; traditional Chinese: 中國國民黨; pinyin: Zhōngguó guómíndǎng), or the "Nationalist Party of China".[78]

Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
(seated on right) and Chiang Kai-shek

KMT–CPC cooperation[edit] By this time Sun had become convinced that the only hope for a unified China
China
lay in a military conquest from his base in the south, followed by a period of political tutelage that would culminate in the transition to democracy. In order to hasten the conquest of China, he began a policy of active cooperation with the Communist Party of China (CPC). Sun and the Soviet Union's Adolph Joffe
Adolph Joffe
signed the Sun-Joffe Manifesto in January 1923.[84] Sun received help from the Comintern for his acceptance of communist members into his KMT. Revolutionary and socialist leader Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
praised Sun and the KMT for their ideology and principles. Lenin praised Sun and his attempts at social reformation, and also congratulated him for fighting foreign Imperialism.[85][86][87] Sun also returned the praise, calling him a "great man", and sent his congratulations on the revolution in Russia.[88] With the Soviets' help, Sun was able to develop the military power needed for the Northern Expedition
Northern Expedition
against the military at the north. He established the Whampoa Military Academy
Whampoa Military Academy
near Guangzhou
Guangzhou
with Chiang Kai-shek as the commandant of the National Revolutionary
Revolutionary
Army (NRA).[89] Other Whampoa leaders include Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
and Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin
as political instructors. This full collaboration was called the First United Front. Finance concerns[edit] In 1924 Sun appointed his brother-in-law T. V. Soong
T. V. Soong
to set up the first Chinese Central bank called the Canton Central Bank.[90] To establish national capitalism and a banking system was a major objective for the KMT.[91] However Sun was not without some opposition as there was the Canton volunteers corps uprising against him. Final speeches[edit]

Sun (seated, right) and his wife Soong Ching-ling
Soong Ching-ling
(seated next to him) in Kobe, Japan in 1924

In February 1923 Sun made a presentation to the Students' Union
Students' Union
in Hong Kong University
Hong Kong University
and declared that it was the corruption of China and the peace, order and good government of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
that turned him into a revolutionary.[92][93] This same year, he delivered a speech in which he proclaimed his Three Principles of the People
Three Principles of the People
as the foundation of the country and the Five-Yuan Constitution as the guideline for the political system and bureaucracy. Part of the speech was made into the National Anthem of the Republic of China. On 10 November 1924, Sun traveled north to Tianjin
Tianjin
and delivered a speech to suggest a gathering for a "national conference" for the Chinese people. It called for the end of warlord rules and the abolition of all unequal treaties with the Western powers.[94] Two days later, he traveled to Beijing
Beijing
to discuss the future of the country, despite his deteriorating health and the ongoing civil war of the warlords. Among the people he met was the Muslim General Ma Fuxiang, who informed Sun that they would welcome his leadership.[95] On 28 November 1924 Sun traveled to Japan and gave a speech on Pan-Asianism at Kobe, Japan.[96] Illness and death[edit] For many years, it was popularly believed that Sun died of liver cancer. On 26 January 1925, Sun underwent an exploratory laparotomy at Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) to investigate a long-term illness. This was performed by the head of the Department of Surgery, Adrian S. Taylor, who stated that the procedure "revealed extensive involvement of the liver by carcinoma" and that Sun only had about ten days to live. Sun was hospitalized and his condition was treated with radium. [97] Sun survived the initial ten-day period and on 18 February, against the advice of doctors, he was transferred to the KMT headquarters and treated with traditional Chinese medicine. This too was unsuccessful and he died on 12 March at the age of 58.[98] Contemporary reports in The New York Times,[98] Time,[99] and the Chinese newspaper Qun Qiang Bao all reported the cause of death as liver cancer, based on Taylor's observation.[100] Following this the body then was preserved in mineral oil[101] and taken to the Temple of Azure Clouds, a Buddhist shrine in the Western Hills a few miles outside of Beijing.[102][103] He also left a short political will (總理遺囑) penned by Wang Jingwei, which had a widespread influence in the subsequent development of the Republic of China
China
and Taiwan.[104] In 1926, construction began on a majestic mausoleum at the foot of Purple Mountain
Purple Mountain
in Nanjing, and this was completed in the spring of 1929. On 1 June 1929, Sun's remains were moved from Beijing
Beijing
and interred in the Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Mausoleum. By pure chance, in May 2016, an American pathologist named Rolf F. Barth was visiting the Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall
Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall
in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
when he noticed a faded copy of the original autopsy report on display. The autopsy was performed immediately after Sun's death by James Cash, a pathologist at PUMCH. Based on a tissue sample, Cash concluded that the cause of death was an adenocarcinoma in the gallbladder that had metastasized to the liver. In modern China, liver cancer is far more common than gallbladder cancer and although the incidence rates of either in 1925 are not known, if one assumes that they were similar at that time, then the original diagnosis by Taylor was a logical conclusion. From the time of Sun's death until the appearance of Barth's report in the Chinese Journal of Cancer in September 2016, the true cause of death was not reported in any English-language publication. Even in Chinese-language sources, it only appeared in one non-medical online report in 2013.[97][105] Legacy[edit]

Chinese Generals pay tribute to the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum
Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum
in Beijing in 1928 after the success of the Northern Expedition. From right to left, are Generals Cheng Jin (何成浚), Zhang Zuobao (張作寶), Chen Diaoyuan (陳調元), Chiang Kai-shek, Woo Tsin-hang, Yan Xishan, Ma Fuxiang, Ma Sida (馬四達), and Bai Chongxi.

Power struggle[edit] After Sun's death, a power struggle between his young protégé Chiang Kai-shek and his old revolutionary comrade Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
split the KMT. At stake in this struggle was the right to lay claim to Sun's ambiguous legacy. In 1927 Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
married Soong Mei-ling, a sister of Sun's widow Soong Ching-ling, and subsequently he could claim to be a brother-in-law of Sun. When the Communists and the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
split in 1927, marking the start of the Chinese Civil War, each group claimed to be his true heirs, a conflict that continued through World War
War
II. Sun's widow, Soong Ching-ling, sided with the Communists during the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
and served from 1949 to 1981 as Vice-President (or Vice-Chairwoman) of the People's Republic of China
China
and as Honorary President shortly before her death in 1981. Cult of personality[edit] A personality cult in the Republic of China
China
was centered on Sun and his successor, Generalissimo
Generalissimo
Chiang Kai-shek. Chinese Muslim Generals and Imams participated in this cult of personality and one party state, with Muslim General Ma Bufang
Ma Bufang
making people bow to Sun's portrait and listen to the national anthem during a Tibetan and Mongol religious ceremony for the Qinghai Lake
Qinghai Lake
God.[106] Quotes from the Quran
Quran
and Hadith
Hadith
were used by Muslims to justify Chiang Kai-shek's rule over China.[107] The Kuomintang's constitution designated Sun as party president. After his death, the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
opted to keep that language in its constitution to honor his memory forever. The party has since been headed by a director-general (1927–1975) and a chairman (since 1975), which discharge the functions of the president. Father of the Nation[edit]

Statue in the Mausoleum, Kuomintang
Kuomintang
flag on the ceiling

Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
remains unique among 20th-century Chinese leaders for having a high reputation both in mainland China
China
and in Taiwan. In Taiwan, he is seen as the Father of the Republic of China, and is known by the posthumous name Father of the Nation, Mr. Sun Zhongshan (Chinese: 國父 孫中山先生, where the one-character space is a traditional homage symbol).[8] His likeness is still almost always found in ceremonial locations such as in front of legislatures and classrooms of public schools, from elementary to senior high school, and he continues to appear in new coinage and currency. "Forerunner of the revolution"[edit] On the mainland, Sun is seen as a Chinese nationalist, proto-socialist, first president of a Republican China
China
and is highly regarded as the Forerunner of the Revolution
Revolution
(革命先行者).[84] He is even mentioned by name in the preamble to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China. In recent years, the leadership of the Communist Party of China
China
has increasingly invoked Sun, partly as a way of bolstering Chinese nationalism
Chinese nationalism
in light of Chinese economic reform and partly to increase connections with supporters of the Kuomintang on Taiwan
Taiwan
which the PRC sees as allies against Taiwan
Taiwan
independence. Sun's tomb was one of the first stops made by the leaders of both the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
and the People First Party on their pan-blue visit to mainland China
China
in 2005.[108] A massive portrait of Sun continues to appear in Tiananmen Square
Tiananmen Square
for May Day
May Day
and National Day. Religious veneration[edit] Sun is venerated as a Saint in Đạo Cao Đài, a religion established in Vietnam
Vietnam
in 1926. He, along with the two other Saints Victor Hugo
Victor Hugo
and Nguyễn Bỉnh Khiêm, represented mankind to declare the Alliance (peaceful treaty) with God.[109] Family[edit] Main article: Family tree of Sun Yat-sen

Lu Muzhen
Lu Muzhen
(1867–1952), Sun's first wife from 1885 to 1915

Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
was born to Sun Dacheng (孫達成) and his wife, lady Yang (楊氏) on 12 November 1866.[110] At the time his father was age 53, while his mother was 38 years old. He had an older brother, Sun Dezhang (孫德彰), and an older sister, Sun Jinxing (孫金星), who died at the early age of 4. Another older brother, Sun Deyou (孫德祐), died at the age of 6. He also had an older sister, Sun Miaoqian (孫妙茜), and a younger sister, Sun Qiuqi (孫秋綺).[23] At age 20, Sun had an arranged marriage with fellow villager Lu Muzhen. She bore a son, Sun Fo, and two daughters, Sun Jinyuan (孫金媛) and Sun Jinwan (孫金婉).[23] Sun Fo
Sun Fo
was the grandfather of Leland Sun, who spent 37 years working in Hollywood
Hollywood
as an actor and stuntman.[111] Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
was also the godfather of Paul Myron Anthony Linebarger, American author and poet who wrote under the name Cordwainer Smith.[112] Sun's first concubine, the Hong Kong-born Chen Cuifen, lived in Taiping, Perak, Malaysia
Malaysia
for 17 years. The couple adopted a local girl as their daughter. Cuifen subsequently relocated to China, where she passed away. [113] On 25 October 1915 in Japan, Sun married Soong Ching-ling, one of the Soong sisters,[23] [114] Soong Ching-Ling's father was the American-educated Methodist
Methodist
minister Charles Soong, who made a fortune in banking and in printing of Bibles. Although Charles Soong
Charles Soong
had been a personal friend of Sun's, he was enraged when Sun announced his intention to marry Ching-ling because while Sun was a Christian
Christian
he kept two wives, Lu Muzhen
Lu Muzhen
and Kaoru Otsuki; Soong viewed Sun's actions as running directly against their shared religion. Soong Ching-Ling's sister, Soong Mei-ling, later married Chiang Kai-shek. Cultural references[edit]

Aerial perspective of Sun Yat Sen Nanyang Memorial Hall
Sun Yat Sen Nanyang Memorial Hall
in central Singapore. Taken in 2016

Memorials and structures in Asia[edit]

The current NT$100 (US$3.4) banknote design portraying Sun

In most major Chinese cities
Chinese cities
one of the main streets is named Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Lu (中山路) to celebrate his memory. There are also numerous parks, schools, and geographical features named after him. Xiangshan, Sun's hometown in Guangdong, was renamed Zhongshan
Zhongshan
in his honor, and there is a hall dedicated to his memory at the Temple of Azure Clouds in Beijing. There are also a series of Sun Yat-sen stamps. Other references to Sun include the Sun Yat-sen University
Sun Yat-sen University
in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
and National Sun Yat-sen University
Sun Yat-sen University
in Kaohsiung. Other structures include Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Mausoleum, Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Memorial Hall subway station, Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
house in Nanjing, Dr. Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Museum in Hong Kong, Chung-Shan Building, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall
Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall
in Taipei and Sun Yat Sen Nanyang Memorial Hall
Sun Yat Sen Nanyang Memorial Hall
in Singapore. Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Memorial Middle School has also been a name used by many schools. Zhongshan Park is also a common name used for a number of places named after him. The first highway in Taiwan
Taiwan
is called the Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
expressway. Two ships are also named after him, the Chinese gunboat Chung Shan
Chinese gunboat Chung Shan
and Chinese cruiser Yat Sen. The old Chinatown in Calcutta
Calcutta
(now known as Kolkata), India
India
has a prominent street by the name of Sun Yat-sen street. There are also two streets named after Sun Yat-sen, located in the cities of Astrakhan and Ufa, Russia. In George Town, Penang, Malaysia, the Penang
Penang
Philomatic Union had its premises at 120 Armenian Street in 1910, during the time when Sun spent more than four months in Penang, convened the historic "Penang Conference" to launch the fundraising campaign for the Huanghuagang Uprising and founded the Kwong Wah Yit Poh; this house, which has been preserved as the Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Museum (formerly called the Sun Yat Sen Penang
Penang
Base), was visited by President designate Hu Jintao in 2002. The Penang
Penang
Philomatic Union subsequently moved to a bungalow at 65 Macalister Road which has been preserved as the Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Memorial Centre Penang. As dedication, the 1966 Chinese Cultural Renaissance was launched on Sun's birthday on 12 November.[115] The Nanyang Wan Qing Yuan
Wan Qing Yuan
in Singapore
Singapore
have since been preserved and renamed as the Sun Yat Sen Nanyang Memorial Hall.[64] A Sun Yat-sen heritage trail was also launched on 20 November 2010 in Penang.[116] Sun's US citizen Hawaii birth certificate that show he was not born in the ROC, but instead born in the US was on public display at the American Institute in Taiwan
Taiwan
on US Independence day 4 July 2011.[117] A street in Medan, Indonesia
Indonesia
is named "Jalan Sun Yat-Sen" in honour of him.[118]

Mausoleum of Sun Yat-sen, Nanjing.

Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Memorial Hall, Taipei

Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Memorial Centre, George Town, Penang, Malaysia

A marker on the Sun Yat-sen Historical Trail
Sun Yat-sen Historical Trail
on Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Island

Dr Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
on a 1960 ND 10 New Taiwan
Taiwan
dollar banknote of Taiwan)

Memorials and structures outside of Asia[edit]

Sun Yat-Sen monument in Chinatown area of Los Angeles, California

St. John's University in New York City
New York City
has a facility built in 1973, the Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall, built to resemble a traditional Chinese building in honor of Sun.[119] Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Classical Chinese Garden is located in Vancouver, the largest classical Chinese gardens outside of Asia. There is the Dr. Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Memorial Park in Chinatown, Honolulu.[120] On the island of Maui, there is the little Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Park at Kamaole. It is located near to where his older brother had a ranch on the slopes of Haleakala
Haleakala
in the Kula region.[14][15][16][43] In Chinatown, Los Angeles, there is a seated statue of him in Central Plaza.[121] In Sacramento, California there is a bronze statue of Sun in front of the Chinese Benevolent Association of Sacramento. Another statue of Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
by Joe Rosenthal can be found at Riverdale Park in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. There is also the Moscow Sun Yat-sen University. In Chinatown, San Francisco, there is a 12-foot statue of him on St. Mary's Square.[122] In late 2011, the Chinese Youth Society
Society
of Melbourne, in celebration of the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Republic Of China, unveiled, in a Lion Dance Blessing ceremony, a memorial statue of Sun outside the Chinese Museum in Melbourne's Chinatown, on the spot where their traditional Chinese New Year Lion Dance always ends.[123]

Sun Yat-Sen plaza in the Chinese Quarter of Montreal, Quebec, Canada

In 1993 Lily Sun, one of Sun Yat-sen's granddaughters, donated books, photographs, artwork and other memorabilia to the Kapi`olani Community College library as part of the " Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Asian collection".[124] During October and November every year the entire collection is shown.[124] In 1997 the "Dr Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Hawaii foundation" was formed online as a virtual library.[124] In 2006 the NASA
NASA
Mars Exploration Rover Spirit labeled one of the hills explored "Zhongshan".[125] The plaque shown earlier in this article is by Dora Gordine, and is situated on the site of Sun's lodgings in London in 1896, 8 Grays Inn Place. There is also a blue plaque commemorating Sun at The Kennels, Cottered, Hertfordshire, the country home of the Cantlies where Sun came to recuperate after his rescue from the legation in 1896.[citation needed] A street named Sun Yat-Sen Avenue is located in Markham. This is the first such street name outside of Asia.[citation needed] In popular culture[edit]

Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
tribute in Tiananmen Square, 2010

Opera[edit] Dr. Sun Yat-sen[126] (中山逸仙; ZhōngShān yì xiān) is a 2011 Chinese-language western-style opera in three acts by the New York-based American composer Huang Ruo who was born in China
China
and is a graduate of Oberlin College's Conservatory as well as the Juilliard School. The libretto was written by Candace Mui-ngam Chong, a recent collaborator with playwright David Henry Hwang.[127] It was performed in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
in October 2011 and will be given its North American premiere on 26 July 2014 at The Santa Fe Opera. TV series and films[edit] The life of Sun is portrayed in various films, mainly The Soong Sisters and Road to Dawn. A fictionalized assassination attempt on his life was featured in Bodyguards and Assassins. He is also portrayed during his struggle to overthrow the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in Once Upon a Time in China
China
II. The TV series Towards the Republic features Ma Shaohua as Sun Yat-sen. In the 100th anniversary tribute of the film 1911, Winston Chao played Sun.[128] In Space: Above and Beyond, one of the starships of the China
China
Navy is named the Sun Yat-sen.[129] Performances[edit] In 2010 a theatrical play Yellow Flower on Slopes (斜路黃花) was created and performed.[130] In 2011 there is also a Mandopop
Mandopop
group called "Zhongsan Road 100" (中山路100號) known for singing the song "Our Father of the Nation" (我們國父).[131] Controversy[edit] New Three Principles of the People[edit] At one time CPC general secretary and PRC president Jiang Zemin claimed Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
had a "New Three Principles of the People" (新三民主義) which consisted of "working with the soviets, working with the communists and helping the farmers" (聯俄, 聯共, 扶助工農).[132][133] Lily Sun said the CPC was distorting Sun's legacy in 2001. She then voiced her displeasure in 2002 in a private letter to Jiang about the distortion of history.[132] In 2008 Jiang Zemin was willing to offer US$10 million to sponsor a Xinhai Revolution
Revolution
anniversary celebration event. According to Ming Pao
Ming Pao
she could not take the money because she would no longer have the freedom to communicate the revolution.[132] This concept is still currently available on Baike Baidu. KMT emblem removal case[edit] In 1981 Lily Sun took a trip to Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
mausoleum in Nanjing, People's Republic of China. The emblem of the KMT had been removed from the top of his sacrificial hall at the time of her visit, but was later restored. On another visit in May 2011, she was surprised to find the four characters "General Rules of Meetings" (會議通則), a document that Sun wrote in reference to Robert's Rules of Order
Robert's Rules of Order
had been removed from a stone carving.[132] Father of Independent Taiwan
Taiwan
issue[edit] In November 2004 the ROC Ministry of Education proposed that Sun Yat-sen was not the father of Taiwan. Instead Sun was a foreigner from mainland China.[134] Taiwanese Education minister Tu Cheng-sheng
Tu Cheng-sheng
and Examination Yuan
Examination Yuan
member Lin Yu-ti (zh), both of whom supported the proposal, had their portraits pelted with eggs in protest.[135] At a Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
statue in Kaohsiung, a 70-year-old ROC retired soldier committed suicide as a way to protest the ministry proposal on the anniversary of Sun's birthday 12 November.[134][135] Ceded Manchuria[edit] In order to exchange for Japan's help, Sun yat-sen was willing to cede Manchuria to them. This is a controversial event in China. His reputation was hurt because of it. Even though it was understandable why he did this in that period, people still wanted to find a justified explanation for his action.[136] See also[edit]

China
China
portal Taiwan
Taiwan
portal Biography portal

Chiang Kai-shek Chinese Anarchism History of the Republic of China Politics of the Republic of China Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Museum Penang United States Constitution and worldwide influence Zhongshan
Zhongshan
suit

References[edit]

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(1800–1949). Scarecrow press. ISBN 0-8108-4930-5, ISBN 978-0-8108-4930-3. Chronology section. ^ Bergère: 86 ^ 劉崇稜. [2004] (2004). 日本近代文學精讀. ISBN 957-11-3675-1, ISBN 978-957-11-3675-2. pg 71. ^ Frédéric, Louis. [2005] (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Harvard university press. ISBN 0-674-01753-6, ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. pg 651. ^ " Sun Yat-sen
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Chinese leader". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-03-31.  ^ Contrary to popular legends, Sun entered the Legation voluntarily, but was prevented from leaving. The Legation planned to execute him, before returning his body to Beijing
Beijing
for ritual beheading. Cantlie, his former teacher, was refused a writ of habeas corpus because of the Legation's diplomatic immunity, but he began a campaign through The Times. The Foreign Office
Foreign Office
persuaded the Legation to release Sun through diplomatic channels. Source: Wong, J.Y. (1986). The Origins of a Heroic Image: SunYat Sen in London, 1896–1987. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.  as summarized in Clark, David J.; Gerald McCoy (2000). The Most Fundamental Legal Right: Habeas Corpus in the Commonwealth. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 162.  ^ Cantlie, James (1913). Sun Yat Sen and the Awakening of China. London: Jarrold & Sons.  ^ a b c João de Pina-Cabral. [2002] (2002). Between China
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and Europe: person, culture and emotion in Macao. Berg publishing. ISBN 0-8264-5749-5, ISBN 978-0-8264-5749-3. pg 209. ^ England, Vaudine (2007-09-17). " Hong Kong
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Star Bulletin. "Sun renounced it in due course. It did, however, help him circumvent the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, which became applicable when Hawaii was annexed to the United States in 1898." ^ Department of Justice. Immigration and Naturalization Service. San Francisco District Office. "Immigration Arrival Investigation case file for SunYat Sen, 1904 – 1925" (PDF). Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1787 – 2004 ]. Washington, DC, USA: National Archives and Records Administration. pp. 92–152. Immigration Arrival Investigation case file for SunYat Sen, 1904 – 1925 at the National Archives and Records Administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 October 2013. Retrieved 15 September 2012.  Note that one immigration official recorded that Sun Yat-sen was born in Kula, a district of Maui, Hawaii. ^ a b c d 計秋楓, 朱慶葆. [2001] (2001). 中國近代史, Volume 1. Chinese university press. ISBN 962-201-987-0, ISBN 978-962-201-987-4. pg 468. ^ "Internal Threats – The Manchu
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morning post. Sun Yat-sen's durable and malleable legacy. 26 April 2011. ^ South China
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(1800–1949). Scarecrow press. ISBN 0-8108-4930-5, ISBN 978-0-8108-4930-3. pg 251. ^ Spence, Jonathan D. [1990] (1990). The search for modern China. WW Norton & company publishing. ISBN 0-393-30780-8, ISBN 978-0-393-30780-1. Pg 345. ^ Ji, Zhaojin. [2003] (2003). A history of modern Shanghai banking: the rise and decline of China's finance capitalism. M.E. Sharpe publishing. ISBN 0-7656-1003-5, ISBN 978-0-7656-1003-4. pg 165. ^ Ho, Virgil K.Y. [2005] (2005). Understanding Canton: Rethinking Popular Culture in the Republican Period. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-928271-4 ^ Carroll, John Mark. Edge of Empires:Chinese Elites and British Colonials in Hong Kong. Harvard university press. ISBN 0-674-01701-3 ^ Ma Yuxin [2010] (2010). Women journalists and feminism in China, 1898–1937. Cambria Press. ISBN 1-60497-660-8, ISBN 978-1-60497-660-1. p. 156. ^ "马福祥,临夏回族自治州马福祥,马福祥介绍---走遍中国". www.elycn.com. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2017.  ^ Calder, Kent; Ye, Min [2010] (2010). The Making of Northeast Asia. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-6922-2, ISBN 978-0-8047-6922-8. ^ a b Barth, Rolf F.; Chen, Jie (2016-01-01). "What did Sun Yat-sen really die of? A re-assessment of his illness and the cause of his death". Chinese Journal of Cancer. 35: 81. doi:10.1186/s40880-016-0144-9. ISSN 1944-446X. PMC 5009495 . PMID 27586157. Retrieved 28 December 2017.  ^ a b "Dr. Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Dies in Peking". The New York Times. March 12, 1925. Retrieved 28 December 2017.  ^ "Lost Leader". Time. 23 March 1925. Retrieved 3 August 2008. A year ago his death was prematurely announced; but it was not until last January that he was taken to the Rockefeller Hospital at Peking and declared to be in the advanced stages of cancer of the liver.  ^ Sharman, L. (1968) [1934]. Sun Yat-sen: His life and times. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. pp. 305–306, 310.  ^ Bullock, M.B. (2011). The oil prince's legacy: Rockefeller philanthropy in China. Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press. p. 81. ISBN 978-0804776882.  ^ Leinwand, Gerald (9 September 2002). 1927: High Tide of the 1920's. Basic Books. p. 101. ISBN 9781568582450. Retrieved 29 December 2017.  ^ Dr Yat-Sen Sun at Find a Grave ^ "Founding Father's Will (國父遺囑)". Vincent's Calligraphy. Retrieved 2016-05-14.  ^ "Clinical record copies from the Peking Union Medical College Hospital decrypt the real cause of death of Sun Yat-sen". Nanfang Daily (in Chinese). 11 November 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2017.  ^ Uradyn Erden Bulag (2002). Dilemmas The Mongols at China's edge: history and the politics of national unity. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 51. ISBN 0-7425-1144-8. Retrieved 28 June 2010.  ^ Stéphane A. Dudoignon; Hisao Komatsu; Yasushi Kosugi (2006). Intellectuals in the modern Islamic world: transmission, transformation, communication. Taylor & Francis. p. 134; 375. ISBN 978-0-415-36835-3. Retrieved 28 June 2010.  ^ Rosecrance, Richard N. Stein, Arthur A. [2006] (2006). No more states?: globalization, national self-determination, and terrorism.Rowman & Littlefield publishing. ISBN 0-7425-3944-X, 9780742539440. pg 269. ^ Nguyễn Văn Hồng. "Cao Đài Từ điển#Tam Thánh ký hòa ước". caodaism.org. Retrieved 11 September 2015.  ^ "孫中山學術研究資訊網 – 國父的家世與求學" [Dr. Sun Yat-sen's family background and schooling]. [sun.yatsen.gov.tw/ sun.yatsen.gov.tw (in Chinese). 16 November 2005. Retrieved 2 October 2011.  ^ "Sun Yat-sen's descendant wants to see unified China". News.xinhuanet.com. 11 September 2011. Archived from the original on 30 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2011.  ^ "Tripping Cyborgs and Organ Farms: The Fictions of Cordwainer Smith NeuroTribes". NeuroTribes. 2010-09-21. Retrieved 2018-01-29.  ^ "Antong Cafe, The Oldest Coffee Mill in Malaysia". Archived from the original on 12 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.  ^ Isaac F. Marcosson, Turbulent Years (1938), p.249 ^ Guy, Nancy. [2005] (2005). Peking Opera and Politics in Taiwan. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-02973-9. pg 67. ^ "Sun Yet Sen Penang
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Further reading[edit]

Soong, Irma Tam (1997). Sun Yat-sen's Christian
Christian
Schooling in Hawai'i. Hawai'i: The Hawaiian Journal of History, vol. 31.  Sun Yat-sen's vision for China
China
/ Martin, Bernard, 1966. Sun Yat-sen, Yang Chu-yun, and the early revolutionary movement in China
China
/ Hsueh, Chun-tu Bergère, Marie-Claire (2000). Sun Yat-sen. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4011-9.  Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
1866–1925 / The Millennium Biographies / Hong Kong, 1999 Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
and the origins of the Chinese revolution Schiffrin, Harold Z. /1968. Sun Yat-sen; his life and its meaning; a critical biography. Sharman, Lyon, / 1968, c. 1934 Sun Yat Sen in Penang. Khoo Salma Nasution, Areca Books / 2008, c. 2010 Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
and the Struggle for Modern China. Tjio, Kayloe. Marshall Cavendish / 2017. "Sun Yat Sen Nanyang memorial hall". Retrieved 7 May 2015.  "Doctor Sun Yat Sen memorial hall". Retrieved 1 July 2005.  "A detailed talk about Sun Zhongshan" (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 5 April 2004. Retrieved 18 September 2005.  "Toten Miyazaki bio".  Pearl S. Buck, The Man Who Changed China: The Story of Sun Yat-sen (1953) Lawrence M. Kaplan, Homer Lea: American Soldier of Fortune (University Press of Kentucky, 2010).

Works[edit]

The Outline of National Reconstruction/Chien Kuo Ta Kang (1918) The Fundamentals of National Reconstruction/Jianguo fanglue (1924) The Principle of Nationalism (1953)

External links[edit]

Find more aboutSun Yat-senat's sister projects

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Research Center Was Yung Wing Dr. Sun's supporter? The Red Dragon scheme reveals the truth! Miyazaki Toten
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He devoted his life and energy to the Chinese people. MY GRANDFATHER, DR. SUN YAT-SEN – By Lily Sui-fong Sun 浓浓乡情系中原—访孙中山先生孙女孙穗芳博士 – 我的祖父是客家人 Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Foundation of Hawaii A virtual library on Dr. Sun in Hawaii including sources for six visits Who is Homer Lea? Sun's best friend. He trained Chinese soldiers and prepared the frame work for the 1911 Chinese Revolution. Works by Sun Yat-sen
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Political offices

Preceded by The Xuantong Emperor (Puyi) as Emperor of the Qing dynasty Head of state of China as Provisional President of the Republic of China 1912 Succeeded by Yuan Shih-kai as Provisional President of the Republic of China

Preceded by Office created Generalissimo
Generalissimo
of the Military Government of Nationalist China 1917–1918 Succeeded by Governing Committee of the Military Government of Nationalist China

Preceded by Himself as Generalissimo
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of the Military Government of Nationalist China Member of the Governing Committee of the Military Government of Nationalist China 1918 Succeeded by Cen Chunxuan as Chairman of the Governing Committee of the Military Government of Nationalist China

Preceded by Cen Chunxuan as Chairman of the Governing Committee of the Military Government of Nationalist China Member of the Governing Committee of the Military Government of Nationalist China 1920–1921 Succeeded by Himself as Extraordinary President of Nationalist China

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Preceded by Song Jiaoren as President of the Kuomintang Premier of the Kuomintang 1913–1914 Succeeded by Himself as Premier of the Chinese Revolutionary
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Preceded by Himself as Premier of the Chinese Revolutionary
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of China 1919–1925 Succeeded by Zhang Renjie as Chairman

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