The Summits of the Americas (SOA) is a series of international summit meetings bringing together the leaders of countries in the OAS. All countries sent representatives to all meetings except for Cuba, who was expelled from the OAS under US pressure after its Revolution. Cuba joined the Summit on its seventh edition.[1] In the early 1990s, what were formerly ad hoc summits came to be institutionalized into a regular "Summit of the Americas" based on the principles of democracy and free trade.[2] The meetings, organized by a number of multilateral bodies led by the Organization of American States, provide an opportunity for discussions about a variety of issues and topics.

List of summits

Summit Dates Host Country Host City Host leader
1st December 9–11, 1994  United States[3] Miami Bill Clinton
2nd April 18–19, 1998  Chile[4] Santiago Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle
3rd April 20–22, 2001  Canada[5] Quebec City Jean Chrétien
4th November 4–5, 2005  Argentina[6] Mar del Plata Néstor Kirchner
5th April 17–19, 2009  Trinidad and Tobago[7] Port-of-Spain Patrick Manning
6th April 14–15, 2012  Colombia[8] Cartagena Juan Manuel Santos Calderón
7th April 10–11, 2015  Panama[9] Panama City Juan Carlos Varela
8th April 13–14, 2018  Peru[10] Lima Martín Vizcarra

The summits that garnered most general public and media attention were the Quebec City and Mar del Plata events, both of which provoked very large anti-globalization and anti–Free Trade Area of the Americas protests and attendant police response.

OAS member states

All 35 independent nations of the Americas are members of the OAS.

Nation Capital HDI
2016 est.
for 2015
 Antigua and Barbuda St. John's 0.786 English
 Argentina Buenos Aires 0.827 Spanish
 Bahamas Nassau 0.792 English
 Barbados Bridgetown 0.795 English
 Belize Belmopan 0.706 English
 Bolivia Sucre 0.674 Spanish
 Brazil Brasilia 0.754 Portuguese
 Canada Ottawa 0.920 English, French
 Chile Santiago 0.847 Spanish
 Colombia Bogota 0.727 Spanish
 Costa Rica San José 0.776 Spanish
 Cuba Havana 0.774 Spanish
 Dominica Roseau 0.726 English
 Dominican Republic Santo Domingo 0.722 Spanish
 Ecuador Quito 0.739 Spanish
 El Salvador San Salvador 0.680 Spanish
 Grenada St. George's 0.754 English
 Guatemala Guatemala City 0.640 Spanish
 Guyana Georgetown 0.636 English
 Haiti Port-au-Prince 0.493 French, Haitian Creole
 Honduras Tegucigalpa 0.625 Spanish
 Jamaica Kingston 0.730 English
 Mexico Mexico City 0.762 Spanish
 Nicaragua Managua 0.645 Spanish
 Panama Panama City 0.788 Spanish
 Paraguay Asuncion 0.693 Spanish
 Peru Lima 0.740 Spanish
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Basseterre 0.765 English
 Saint Lucia Castries 0.735 English
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Kingstown 0.722 English
 Suriname Paramaribo 0.726 Dutch
 Trinidad and Tobago Port of Spain 0.780 English
 United States Washington D.C. 0.920 English (De Facto)
 Uruguay Montevideo 0.795 Spanish
 Venezuela Caracas 0.767 Spanish


The following jurisdictions are not members of the OAS as they are dependencies of other nations. They are grouped under the nation that has sovereignty over them.




 United Kingdom

 United States




  1. ^ Prieto, Alfredo. "Everybody But Cuba," Havana Times. April 15, 2009.
  2. ^ Twaddle, Andrew C. (2002). Health Care Reform Around the World, p. 382.
  3. ^ Summit Americas: I summit (1st)
  4. ^ Summit Americas: II summit (2nd)
  5. ^ Summit Americas: III summit (3rd)
  6. ^ Summit Americas: IV summit (4th)
  7. ^ Summit Americas: V summit (5th)
  8. ^ Summit Americas: VI summit (6th)
  9. ^ Summit Americas: VII summit (7th)
  10. ^ Summit Americas: VIII summit (8th)
  11. ^ "Human Development Report 2016 – "Rethinking Work for Human Development"" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 15 January 2017. 

External links