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Sulu
Sulu
(Tausūg: ولايا سين سوگ, Wilāya sin Sūg) is a province of the Philippines
Philippines
in the Sulu Archipelago
Sulu Archipelago
and part of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao
Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao
(ARMM). Its capital is Jolo
Jolo
on the island of the same name. Sulu
Sulu
is along the southern border of the Sulu Sea
Sulu Sea
and the northern boundary of the Celebes Sea. Its head of state is Sultan
Sultan
Mudarasulail Alastam Kiram.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Pre-Spanish and Spanish eras 1.2 American and Contemporary eras 1.3 Philippine Independence era

2 Geography

2.1 Administrative divisions

3 Demographics

3.1 Religion

4 Economy 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] Pre-Spanish and Spanish eras[edit] Further information: Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Sulu
and Spanish–Moro conflict Prior to the arrival of Islam
Islam
in Sulu, the province used to adhere to local animist religions, which was later changed into Hindu and Buddhist belief systems. The advent of Islam
Islam
around 1138 through merchants and traders had a distinct influence on Southeast Asia. The coming of Arabs, Persians and other Muslims
Muslims
paved the way for the arrival of religious missionaries, traders, scholars and travelers to Sulu
Sulu
and Mindanao
Mindanao
in the 12th century.

Painting of Sulu
Sulu
home & coconut plantation

A landmark born of the social process was the founding of the Sultanate
Sultanate
of Sulu. Year 1380 CE, Karim-ul Makhdum came to Sulu
Sulu
and introduced Islam
Islam
to the Philippines. Year 1450 CE, a Johore-born Arab adventurer, Sayyid Abubakar Abirin came to Sulu
Sulu
and lived with Rajah Baguinda Ali, eventually marrying his daughter Dayang-dayang Paramisuli and eventually inheriting Rajah Baguinda's polity (which was a principality before) and turning it into a sultanate. Sayyid Abubakar eventually inherited the rule of Rajah Baguinda, established the Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Sulu
and became its first Sultan. To consolidate his rule, Sayyid Abubakar united the local political units under the umbrella of the Sultanate. He brought Sulu, Zamboanga Peninsula, Palawan
Palawan
and Basilan
Basilan
under its aegis. The navigational error that landed Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan
in Limasawa brought awareness of Europe to the Philippines
Philippines
and opened the door to Spanish colonial incursion. The Spaniards
Spaniards
introduced Christianity
Christianity
and a political system of church-state dichotomy, which encountered fierce resistance in the devastating Moro wars from 1578 to 1899. The Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Sulu
formally recognised Spanish sovereignty in Tawi-Tawi and Sulu
Sulu
in middle of 19th century, but these areas remained partially ruled by the Spanish as their sovereignty was limited to military stations and garrisons and pockets of civilian settlements, until they had to abandon the region as a consequence of their defeat in the Spanish–American War. American and Contemporary eras[edit] Further information: Moro Province
Moro Province
and Department of Mindanao
Mindanao
and Sulu After Spain ceded the Philippines
Philippines
to the United States, American forces came to Jolo
Jolo
and ended the 23 years of Spanish military occupation (1876 to 1899). On August 20, Sultan
Sultan
Jamalul Kiram II and Brig. Gen. John C. Bates
John C. Bates
signed the Bates Agreement that continued the gradual emasculation of the Sultanate
Sultanate
started by Spain (Treaty of 1878) until March 1915 when the Sultan
Sultan
abdicated his temporal powers in the Carpenter Agreement. The Agreement eliminated opposition to the civilian government of Gov. Clinton Solidum.

Sulu
Sulu
in 1918, which covered the current province of Tawi-Tawi

The Department of Mindanao
Mindanao
and Sulu
Sulu
under Gov. Carpenter was created by Philippine Commission Act 2309 (1914) and ended on February 5, 1920 by Act of Philippine Legislature No. 2878. The Bureau of Non-Christian Tribes was organized and briefly headed by Teofisto Guingona, Sr. With the enactment by the US Congress
US Congress
of the Jones Law (Philippine Autonomy Law) in 1916, ultimate Philippine independence was guaranteed and the Filipinization of public administration began. Sulu, however, had an appointed American governor until 1935 and the Governor
Governor
General in Manila
Manila
had a say in Sulu
Sulu
affairs. At any rate, the essence of local governance forged by Rajah Baguinda continued to permeate the ethos of Sulu
Sulu
politics despite centuries of colonial presence. History points to a local government in Sulu
Sulu
that antedates other similar systems in the country. The province hosted the Daru Jambangan (Palace of Flowers) which was the royal palace of the Sultan
Sultan
of Sulu
Sulu
since historical times. The palace, located in Maimbung
Maimbung
was made of wood, and was destroyed in 1932 by a huge storm. During the brief Japanese occupation years, Sulu
Sulu
was bombed by the Japanese and was conquered afterwards. The Japanese were eventually expelled by the Americans and the natives of Sulu, and the Americans started to push for the independence of the Philippines
Philippines
as 'one country'. This prompted various leaders from Mindanao
Mindanao
and the Sulu archipelago to campaign against being lumped with the Catholic natives of Luzon
Luzon
and the Visayas. Despite the campaign against the 'one Philippines
Philippines
model', the United States
United States
granted independence to the Philippines, effectively giving control of Mindanao
Mindanao
and the Sulu archipelago to the Filipino government in Manila. Philippine Independence era[edit] At the beginning of Philippine independence era, the reconstruction of the Daru Jambangan continued to be of huge importance to the people of Sulu
Sulu
as only a few arches and posts remain from the once grand palace complex. Many members of the royal family advocated for the reconstruction of the palace, however, the government of the Philippines
Philippines
made no official position or fund for the matter. During that time, the Mindanao
Mindanao
sentiment to become a free country on its own was also felt in Sulu. During the dictatorship era, Sulu
Sulu
was one of the provinces that fought back against Ferdinand Marcos as hundreds of Moros were tortured, killed, and exterminated during the era. The Marcos dictatorship used the Moro National Liberation Front
Moro National Liberation Front
as an excuse to bombard the Islamic areas of Mindanao
Mindanao
and the Sulu
Sulu
archipelago. The Sultan
Sultan
of Sulu, members of the royal family, and the leaders of Sulu
Sulu
were in favor of the People Power Revolution
People Power Revolution
in Manila
Manila
that toppled the dictatorship. In 1989, the province of Sulu
Sulu
became part of the Autonomous Region in Muslim
Muslim
Mindanao
Mindanao
or ARMM. A peace pact between the Moro National Liberation Front or MNLF and the Philippine government was also made. The founder and leader of the MNLF, Nur Misuari, who was a native of Sulu
Sulu
and adhered to the Sultanate
Sultanate
of Sulu, became the governor of the entire ARMM from 1996 to 2001. In 2012, the town of Maimbung, Sulu
Maimbung, Sulu
was officially cited by the Sultan Jamalul Kiram III
Jamalul Kiram III
of the Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Sulu
as the capital of the sultanate, and the place where he wished he was buried after death. The late sultan died in 2013 and was buried in the town afterwards. The town hosts a school named after the late sultan. In 2016, a small replica of Daru Jambangan was built in the neighboring town of Talipao and became a centerpiece for a 'vacation park'. The replica was about 25% of the actual size of the real Daru Jambangan during its heyday. A campaign to restore the Daru Jambanagn in its original location in Maimbung
Maimbung
is still ongoing. The National Commission for Culture and the Arts and the National Museum of the Philippines
Philippines
were tasked to faithfully restore or reconstruct the Daru Jambangan in Maimbung.[4] Geography[edit] The province covers an area of 1,600.40 square kilometres (617.92 sq mi).[2] Sulu's main island, Jolo, has an area of 868.5 square kilometres (335.3 sq mi),[5] making it the 16th largest island of the Philippine Archipelago by area.

Jolo
Jolo
and its adjacent islets seen from space

Sulu
Sulu
is a part of the Sulu
Sulu
Archipelago, which stretches from the tip of the Zamboanga Peninsula
Zamboanga Peninsula
on the north to the island of Borneo
Borneo
in the south. The main island and its islets are situated between the island-provinces of Basilan
Basilan
to the northeast, and Tawi-Tawi
Tawi-Tawi
to the southwest. Sulu
Sulu
is bordered by two seas; the Sulu Sea
Sulu Sea
to the north, and the Celebes Sea
Celebes Sea
to its south. Sulu
Sulu
has over 157 islets, some of which remain unnamed.[1]

Political map

The islands are organized into four groups:[1]

Jolo
Jolo
group Pangutaran group Tongkil-Banguingui (Samales) group Siasi-Tapul group

Administrative divisions[edit] Sulu
Sulu
comprises 19 municipalities, organized into two legislative districts and further subdivided into 410 barangays.

 †  Provincial capital

Municipality[A] District[6] Population ±% p.a. Area[6] Density Brgy. Coordinates[B]

(2015)[3] (2010)[7]

km2 sq mi /km2 /sq mi

Banguingui (Tongkil) 2nd 7000290000000000000♠2.9% 24,161 17,802 5.99% 352.59 136.14 69 180 14 6°01′32″N 121°50′11″E / 6.0256°N 121.8363°E / 6.0256; 121.8363 (Banguingui (Tongkil))

Hadji Panglima Tahil (Marunggas) 1st 6999800000000000000♠0.8% 6,375 5,850 1.65% 67.90 26.22 94 240 5 6°06′37″N 120°57′58″E / 6.1104°N 120.9660°E / 6.1104; 120.9660 (Hadji Panglima Tahil (Marunggas))

Indanan 1st 7000980000000000000♠9.8% 80,883 65,858 3.99% 170.72 65.92 470 1,200 34 5°58′20″N 120°58′10″E / 5.9721°N 120.9695°E / 5.9721; 120.9695 (Indanan)

Jolo † 1st 7001152000000000000♠15.2% 125,564 118,307 1.14% 126.40 48.80 990 2,600 8 6°03′13″N 121°00′01″E / 6.0536°N 121.0002°E / 6.0536; 121.0002 (Jolo)

Kalingalan Caluang 2nd 7000380000000000000♠3.8% 31,567 26,848 3.13% 166.50 64.29 190 490 9 5°53′03″N 121°15′48″E / 5.8843°N 121.2632°E / 5.8843; 121.2632 (Kalingalan Caluang)

Lugus 2nd 7000270000000000000♠2.7% 21,897 19,839 1.90% 133.04 51.37 160 410 17 5°42′12″N 120°49′11″E / 5.7033°N 120.8197°E / 5.7033; 120.8197 (Lugus)

Luuk 2nd 7000390000000000000♠3.9% 32,162 29,897 1.40% 313.04 120.87 100 260 12 5°58′04″N 121°18′47″E / 5.9677°N 121.3130°E / 5.9677; 121.3130 (Luuk)

Maimbung 1st 7000460000000099999♠4.6% 37,914 28,445 5.62% 77.50 29.92 490 1,300 27 5°55′51″N 121°01′37″E / 5.9309°N 121.0269°E / 5.9309; 121.0269 (Maimbung)

Old Panamao 2nd 7000500000000000000♠5.0% 40,998 37,933 1.49% 107.57 41.53 380 980 31 5°58′48″N 121°13′06″E / 5.9801°N 121.2182°E / 5.9801; 121.2182 (Old Panamao)

Omar 2nd 7000300000000000000♠3.0% 25,116 18,098 6.44% — — — — 8 6°00′36″N 121°23′01″E / 6.0099°N 121.3837°E / 6.0099; 121.3837 (Omar)

Pandami 2nd 7000310000000000000♠3.1% 25,885 22,474 2.73% 170.89 65.98 150 390 16 5°33′02″N 120°48′30″E / 5.5505°N 120.8083°E / 5.5505; 120.8083 (Pandami)

Panglima Estino (New Panamao) 2nd 7000350000000000000♠3.5% 28,817 27,724 0.74% 125.10 48.30 230 600 12 5°57′25″N 121°11′46″E / 5.9569°N 121.1961°E / 5.9569; 121.1961 (Panglima Estino (New Panamao))

Pangutaran 1st 7000370000000000000♠3.7% 30,613 28,461 1.40% 258.10 99.65 120 310 16 6°18′00″N 120°35′01″E / 6.3001°N 120.5837°E / 6.3001; 120.5837 (Pangutaran)

Parang 1st 7000750000000000000♠7.5% 62,172 58,028 1.32% 258.00 99.61 240 620 40 5°54′46″N 120°54′19″E / 5.9129°N 120.9052°E / 5.9129; 120.9052 (Parang)

Pata 2nd 7000270000000000000♠2.7% 22,163 14,918 7.83% 116.99 45.17 190 490 14 5°50′28″N 121°10′55″E / 5.8411°N 121.1819°E / 5.8411; 121.1819 (Pata)

Patikul 1st 7000760000000000000♠7.6% 62,287 42,036 7.77% 330.04 127.43 190 490 30 6°05′19″N 121°06′25″E / 6.0886°N 121.1070°E / 6.0886; 121.1070 (Patikul)

Siasi 2nd 7000820009999999999♠8.2% 67,705 64,229 1.01% 192.87 74.47 350 910 50 5°32′36″N 120°48′53″E / 5.5433°N 120.8146°E / 5.5433; 120.8146 (Siasi)

Talipao 1st 7000970000000099999♠9.7% 80,255 75,173 1.25% 380.57 146.94 210 540 52 5°58′31″N 121°06′29″E / 5.9754°N 121.1080°E / 5.9754; 121.1080 (Talipao)

Tapul 2nd 7000220000000000000♠2.2% 18,197 16,370 2.04% 89.17 34.43 200 520 15 5°42′18″N 120°52′53″E / 5.7050°N 120.8813°E / 5.7050; 120.8813 (Tapul)

Total[C] 824,731 718,290 2.67% —[C] —[C] —[C] —[C] 410 (see GeoGroup box)

^ Former names are italicized. ^ Coordinates
Coordinates
are sortable by latitude.

(Italicized entries indicate the generic location. Otherwise, they mark the town center).

^ Total population density and area (sum of all component municipalities: 3,436.99 km2 or 343,699 ha)[8] is inconclusive as it conflicts with the figures given by the Sulu Provincial Government website (1,600.40 km2 or 160,040 ha),.[1] Dashes (—) in cells indicate unavailable information.

Demographics[edit]

Population census of Sulu

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1980 360,588 —    

1990 469,971 +2.69%

1995 536,201 +2.50%

2000 619,668 +3.15%

2007 849,670 +4.45%

2010 718,290 −5.93%

2015 824,731 +2.67%

Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[3][7][9]

The population of Sulu
Sulu
in the 2015 census was 824,731 people,[3] with a density of 520 inhabitants per square kilometre or 1,300 inhabitants per square mile. Although consisting of a mixed community of Muslims, the Tausug dominate the Sulu
Sulu
Archipelago. The Tausug were among the first inhabitants of the Philippines
Philippines
to embrace Islam
Islam
as a religion and a way of life. They are referred to as ‘people of the current’, reflective of their close ties to the sea. The Tausug language
Tausug language
is the lingua franca of Sulu. The other local language is the indigenous Bahasa Sama which is widely used in varied tones and accents. This variety led to the development of Sinama dialects. The major ones are Sinama Sibutu (spoken mainly in the Sibutu-Sitangkai Region), Sinama Simunul (concentrated in Simunul-Manuk-Mangkaw Islands), Sinama Kapoan (spoken in the South Ubian-Tandubas and Sapa-Sapa Regions) and Sinama Banguingui (concentrated in Buan Island and spoken by Banguingui people). The Bajau-Sama language is also spoken, as are English and Tagalog. Many locals and barter traders can speak Malay and Indonesian. Chavacano
Chavacano
is also spoken by Christian and Muslim
Muslim
locals who maintain contacts and trade with the mainland Zamboanga Peninsula
Zamboanga Peninsula
and Basilan, as Tawi-tawi and Sulu
Sulu
were partially ruled by the Spanish as their sovereignty was limited to military stations and garrisons and pockets of civilian settlements, until they had to abandon the region as a consequence of their defeat in the Spanish–American War. The rest of Muslims
Muslims
speak Cebuano because of the mass influx of Cebuano settlers to Mindanao, especially with the Tau Sūg since Tausug is a Visayan language. Religion[edit]

Tulay Mosque in Jolo

Sulu
Sulu
inhabitants are predominantly Muslim, constituting about 97% of the provincial population in 2000, with a minority of Christians (2.6%).[1] A majority of Sulu's Muslim
Muslim
population practice Sunni Islam
Islam
of the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
tradition, as taught by Arab, Persian, Indian Muslim, Chinese Muslim
Muslim
and Malaccan missionaries from the 14th century onwards. Relatively newer Islamic sects, mostly brought by returning veterans of the Afghan wars and missionaries from Pakistan's stricter Sufi traditions, referred to as the Tableegh, have been active in propagating what they believe to be a "purer" Islamic way of life and worship. A very small number who have since married into Iranian or Iraqi families have converted to Shiite Islam. Majority of Sulu
Sulu
Christians are Roman Catholics,[1] they are under the jurisdiction of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Zamboanga
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Zamboanga
through its suffragan Apostolic Vicariate of Jolo. Non-Catholic Christians include Evangelicals, Jesus Miracle Crusade, Episcopalian, and Iglesia ni Cristo (INC), Mormons, Seventh-day Adventists, Jehovah's Witnesses, and a number of other Protestant denominations. Only the most recent Chinese immigrants adhere to Buddhism
Buddhism
or Taoism, while most of the older Chinese families have acculturated and have either converted to Christianity
Christianity
or Islam
Islam
while retaining most of their Chinese beliefs. Economy[edit] Sulu
Sulu
is predominantly agricultural with farming and fishing as its main livelihood activities. Its fertile soil and ideal climate can grow a variety of crops such as abaca, coconuts, Sulu
Sulu
coffee,[10] oranges, and lanzones as well as exotic fruits seldom found elsewhere in the country such as durian and mangosteen. Fishing is the most important industry since the Sulu Sea
Sulu Sea
is one of the richest fishing grounds in the country. The province also have an extensive pearl industry. Pearls are extensively gathered and a pearl farm is established at Marungas Island. The backs of sea turtles are made into beautiful trays and combs. During breaks from fishing, the people build boats and weave mats. Other industries include coffee processing and fruit preservation. The handicrafts of Sulu
Sulu
have both Islamic and Malay influences. Skilled artisans make boats, bladed weapons, bronze and brassware, pis cloth, embroidered textiles, shellcraft, traditional house carvings, and carved wooden grave markers. The province used to be one of the most prosperous in southern Philippines, however, due to conflicts, terrorism, and the establishment of jihadists groups such as the Abu Sayyaf, the province's economy has suffered badly and has been reduced to its current state. See also[edit]

Bangsamoro Moro people Islam
Islam
in the Philippines Moro Islamic Liberation Front Sultanate
Sultanate
of Sulu Moro National Liberation Front

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f "Brief Profile". Province of Sulu, Philippines. Archived from the original on 26 February 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2016. Various government agencies report varying land areas for Sulu. According to the National Mapping and Resources Information Authority, Sulu
Sulu
has a total land area of 160,040 hectares. On the other hand, based on the Philippine Statistics Authority
Philippine Statistics Authority
(NSO) 2000 Demographic and Socio-Economic profile, the province has a land area of 1,754.6.  ^ a b Province of Sulu: Brief Profile Archived 2011-02-26 at the Wayback Machine. (There seems to be major discrepancies among authoritative sources: 343,699 ha (NSCB 2007), 175,460 ha (NSCB 2000), 167,377 ha (NAMRIA)) ^ a b c d Census of Population (2015). Highlights of the Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.  ^ https://eazytraveler.net/2014/11/sulu-sultan-royal-palace-replica/ ^ "Islands by Land Area". Island Directory Tables. United Nations Environment Programme. Retrieved 25 August 2014.  ^ a b "Province: Sulu". PSGC Interactive. Quezon
Quezon
City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 8 January 2016.  ^ a b Census of Population and Housing (2010). Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines
Philippines
and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities (PDF). NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.  ^ "PSGC Interactive; List of Provinces". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 18 April 2016.  ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). "ARMM – Autonomous Region in Muslim
Muslim
Mindanao". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.  ^ http://cnnphilippines.com/life/leisure/food/2016/11/11/sulu-coffee.html

External links[edit]

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap · Google Maps

Download coordinates as: KML · GPX

Media related to Sulu
Sulu
at Wikimedia Commons Geographic data related to Sulu
Sulu
at OpenStreetMap Philippine Standard Geographic Code Local Governance Performance Management System

Places adjacent to Sulu

Sulu
Sulu
Sea

Basilan

Sulu

Tawi-Tawi

Celebes Sea

v t e

Province of Sulu

Jolo
Jolo
(capital)

Municipalities

Banguingui Hadji Panglima Tahil Indanan Jolo Kalingalan Caluang Lugus Luuk Maimbung Old Panamao Omar Pandami Panglima Estino Pangutaran Parang Pata Patikul Siasi Talipao Tapul

Articles related to Sulu

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Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao
Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao
(ARMM)

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Cotabato City
Cotabato City
(provisional and de facto seat of regional government; part of Region XII)

Provinces

Basilan Lanao del Sur Maguindanao Sulu Tawi-Tawi

Component Cities

Lamitan Marawi

Provincial Capitals

Bongao Buluan Jolo Lamitan Marawi

Municipalities

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Sultan
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Sultan
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sa Barongis Sumisip Tabuan-Lasa Tagoloan II Talayan Talipao Talitay Tamparan Tandubas Tapul Taraka Tipo-Tipo Tubaran Tuburan Tugaya Turtle Islands Ungkaya Pukan Upi Wao

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