HOME
The Info List - Sultans


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

SULTAN (/ˈsʌltən/ ; Arabic
Arabic
: سلطان‎ sulṭān, pronounced ) is a noble title with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic
Arabic
abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e., the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), albeit without claiming the overall caliphate , or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate.

The dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a SULTANATE (سلطنة salṭanah).

A feminine form of sultan, used by Westerners, is SULTANA or SULTANAH and this title used legally used for some (not all) Muslim women monarchs and sultan's mothers and chief consorts. But Turkish and Ottoman Turkish also uses sultan for imperial lady, because Turkish grammar influenced by Persian grammar uses the same words for women and men. However, this styling misconstrues the roles of wives of sultans. In a similar usage, the wife of a German field marshal might be styled Frau Feldmarschall (in French, similar constructions of the type madame la maréchale are quite common). The female leaders in Muslim history are correctly known as "sultanas". However, the wife of the sultan in the Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Sulu
is styled as the "panguian" while the sultan's chief wife in many sultanates of Indonesia
Indonesia
and Malaysia are known as "permaisuri", "Tunku Ampuan", " Raja
Raja
Perempuan" or "Tengku Ampuan". The queen consort in Brunei
Brunei
especially is known as Raja Isteri with the title of Pengiran Anak suffixed should the queen consort also be a royal princess.

Among those modern hereditary rulers who wish to emphasize their secular authority under the rule of law , the term is gradually being replaced by king (i.e. malik in Arabic, Datu
Datu
in Maranao ).

CONTENTS

* 1 Compound ruler titles

* 2 Former sultans and sultanates

* 2.1 Anatolia and Central Asia * 2.2 Caucasus * 2.3 Levant and Arabian peninsula * 2.4 North Africa * 2.5 Horn of Africa

* 2.6 Southeast Africa and Indian Ocean

* 2.6.1 Maliki * 2.6.2 Swahili Coast * 2.6.3 Sultani

* 2.7 West and Central Africa * 2.8 Southern Asia * 2.9 Southeast and East Asia

* 3 Contemporary sovereign sultanates * 4 Princely and aristocratic titles * 5 Military rank * 6 See also * 7 References

COMPOUND RULER TITLES

Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
Mehmed IV attended by a eunuch and two pages.

These are generally secondary titles, either lofty 'poetry' or with a message, e.g.:

* Mani Sultan
Sultan
= Manney Sultan
Sultan
(meaning the "Pearl of Rulers" or "Honoured Monarch") - a subsidiary title, part of the full style of the Maharaja
Maharaja
of Travancore
Travancore
* Sultan of Sultans - the sultanic equivalent of the style King
King
of Kings * Certain secondary titles have a devout Islamic connotation; e.g., Sultan ul-Mujahidin as champion of jihad (to strive and to struggle in the name of Allah). * Sultanic Highness - a rare, hybrid western-Islamic honorific style exclusively used by the son, daughter-in-law and daughters of Sultan Hussein Kamel of Egypt (a British protectorate since 1914), who bore it with their primary titles of Prince
Prince
( Amir
Amir
; Turkish : Prens ) or Princess
Princess
, after 11 October 1917. They enjoyed these titles for life, even after the Royal Rescript regulating the styles and titles of the Royal House following Egypt's independence in 1922 , when the sons and daughters of the newly styled king (malik Misr, considered a promotion) were granted the title Sahib(at) us-Sumuw al-Malaki, or Royal Highness
Royal Highness
.

FORMER SULTANS AND SULTANATES

ANATOLIA AND CENTRAL ASIA

* Ghaznavid Sultanate * Sultans of Great Seljuk * Seljuk Sultanate of Rum
Sultanate of Rum
* Sultans (becoming padishahs ) of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, the Osmanli

CAUCASUS

* Elisu Sultanate and a few others. A Sultan
Sultan
ranked below a Khan.

LEVANT AND ARABIAN PENINSULA

H.M. Sultan
Sultan
Qaboos bin Said al Said , the current Sultan
Sultan
of Oman from the Al Said
Al Said
dynasty.

* in Syria
Syria
:

* Ayyubid Sultans * Mamluk Sultans

* in present-day Yemen
Yemen
, various small sultanates of the former British Aden Protectorate and South Arabia : Audhali , Fadhli , Haushabi , Kathiri , Lahej , Lower Aulaqi , Lower Yafa
Lower Yafa
, Mahra , Qu\'aiti , Subeihi , Upper Aulaqi , Upper Yafa and the Wahidi sultanates

* in present-day Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
:

* Sultans of Nejd * Sultans of the Hejaz
Hejaz

* Oman
Oman
Sultan
Sultan
of Oman
Oman
(authentically referred to as Hami), on the southern coast of the Arabian peninsula, still an independent sultanate, since 1744 (assumed the formal title of Sultan
Sultan
in 1861)

NORTH AFRICA

Sultan
Sultan
Abd al-Hafid of Morocco .

* in Algeria
Algeria
: sultanate of Tuggurt

* in Egypt
Egypt
:

* Ayyubid Sultans * Mamluk Sultans

* in Morocco
Morocco
, until Mohammed V changed the style to Malik
Malik
(king) on 14 August 1957, maintaining the subsidiary style Amir
Amir
al-Mu´minin (Commander of the Faithful)

* in Sudan
Sudan
:

* Darfur
Darfur
* Dar al-Masalit * Dar Qimr * Funj Sultanate of Sinnar (Sennar) * Kordofan

* in Chad
Chad
:

* Bag(u)irmi (main native title: Mbang ) * Wada\'i (main native title: Kolak ), successor state to Birgu * Dar Sila (actually a wandering group of tribes)

HORN OF AFRICA

Main articles: Somali aristocratic and court titles
Somali aristocratic and court titles
and Ethiopian aristocratic and court titles Mohamoud Ali Shire
Mohamoud Ali Shire
, the 26th Sultan
Sultan
of the Somali Warsangali Sultanate
Warsangali Sultanate

* Adal Sultanate
Adal Sultanate
, in northwestern Somalia
Somalia
, southern Djibouti
Djibouti
, and the Somali , Oromia , Harari , and Afar regions of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
* Ajuran Sultanate
Ajuran Sultanate
, in southern Somalia
Somalia
and eastern Ethiopia * Majeerteen Sultanate
Majeerteen Sultanate
(Migiurtinia), in northern Somalia * Marehan Sultanate , in northern Somalia * Sultanate of the Geledi
Sultanate of the Geledi
, in southern Somalia * Sultanate of Aussa , in northeastern Ethiopia * Sultanate of Harar , in eastern Ethiopia * Sultanate of Hobyo
Sultanate of Hobyo
, in Somalia * Sultanate of Ifat
Sultanate of Ifat
, in eastern Ethiopia * Sultanate of Mogadishu , in south-central Somalia * Sultanate of Showa
Sultanate of Showa
, in central Ethiopia * Warsangali Sultanate
Warsangali Sultanate
, in northern Somalia * Bimal Sultanate of Merca south eastrern Somalia

SOUTHEAST AFRICA AND INDIAN OCEAN

* Angoche Sultanate , on the Mozambiquan coast (also several neighbouring sheikdoms) * various sultans on the Comoros
Comoros
; however on the Comoros
Comoros
, the normally used styles were alternative native titles, including Mfalme , Phany or Jambé and the 'hegemonic' title Sultani tibe * the Maore (or Mawuti) sultanate on Mayotte
Mayotte
(separated from the Comoros)

Maliki

This was the alternative native style (apparently derived from malik , the Arabic
Arabic
word for "king") of the sultans of the Kilwa Sultanate , in Tanganyika (presently the continental part of Tanzania).

Swahili Coast

* Sultanate of Zanzibar : two incumbents (from the Omani dynasty) since the de facto separation from Oman
Oman
in 1806, the last assumed the title Sultan
Sultan
in 1861 at the formal separation under British auspices; since 1964 union with Tanganyika (part of Tanzania
Tanzania
)

Mfalume is the (Ki)Swahili title of various native Muslim rulers, generally rendered in Arabic
Arabic
and in western languages as Sultan:

* in Kenya
Kenya
:

* Pate on part of Pate island (capital also named Pate), in the Lamu Archipelago * Wituland
Wituland
, came under German, then British protectorate

* in Tanganyika (presently part of Tanzania
Tanzania
): of Hadimu, on the island of that name; also styled Jembe

Sultani

This was the native ruler's title in the Tanzanian state of Uhehe a female sultan

WEST AND CENTRAL AFRICA

* In Cameroon
Cameroon
:

* Bamoun (Bamun, 17th century, founded uniting 17 chieftaincies) 1918 becomes a sultanate, but in 1923 re-divided into the 17 original chieftaincies. * Bibemi , founded in 1770 - initially styled lamido * Mandara Sultanate, since 1715 (replacing Wandala kingdom); 1902 Part of Cameroon * Rey Bouba Sultanate founded 1804

* in the Central African Republic
Central African Republic
:

* Bangassou
Bangassou
created c.1878; 14 June 1890 under Congo Free State protectorate , 1894 under French protectorate; 1917 Sultanate suppressed by the French. * Dar al-Kuti - French protectorate since December 12, 1897 * Rafai c.1875 Sultanate, 8 April 1892 under Congo Free State protectorate, March 31, 1909 under French protectorate; 1939 Sultanate suppressed * Zemio c.1872 established; December 11, 1894 under Congo Free State protectorate, April 12, 1909 under French protectorate; 1923 Sultanate suppressed

* in Niger
Niger
: Arabic
Arabic
alternative title of the following autochthonous rulers:

* the Amenokal of the Aïr confederation of Tuareg * the Sarkin Damagaram since the 1731 founding of the Sultanate of Damagaram ( Zinder
Zinder
)

* in Nigeria
Nigeria
most monarchies previously had native titles, but when most in the north converted to Islam, Muslim titles were adopted, such as emir and sometimes sultan.

* in Borno (alongside the native title Mai) * since 1817 in Sokoto
Sokoto
, the suzerain (also styled Amir
Amir
al-Mu´minin and Sarkin Musulmi) of all Fulbe jihad states and premier traditional Muslim leader in the Sahel
Sahel
(according to some once a caliph)

SOUTHERN ASIA

Sultan
Sultan
Ali Khan Bahadur, grandson of Nawab
Nawab
H.H Noor ul Umrah and son of Nawab
Nawab
Shujaath Ali Khan

* Bahmani Sultanate * the Deccan sultanates : Berar , Bidar , Bijapur , Golconda and Ahmednagar * Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
: several dynasties, the last (Mughal) became imperial Padshah-i Hind * Bengal Sultanate * Sultanate of Gujarat
Sultanate of Gujarat
* Sultanate of Jaunpur * Sultanate of Kandesh * Sultanate of Malwa
Malwa
* Sultanate of Mysore
Sultanate of Mysore
, Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
* Sultanate of Lakshadweep and Cannanore, Arakkal Kingdom * Sultanate of Maldives
Sultanate of Maldives

SOUTHEAST AND EAST ASIA

Hamengkubuwono X
Hamengkubuwono X
, the incumbent Sultan
Sultan
of Yogyakarta Pakubuwono XII , last undisputed Susuhunan
Susuhunan
of Surakarta Sultan Saifuddin of Tidore

In Indonesia
Indonesia
(formerly in the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
):

* On Kalimantan
Kalimantan

* Sultanate of Banjar * Sultanate of Berau * Sultanate of Bulungan * Sultanate of Gunung Tabur * Sultanate of Kubu * Sultanate of Kutai Kartanegara * Sultanate of Mempawah * Sultanate of Paser * Sultanate of Pontianak * Sultanate of Sambaliung * Sultanate of Sambas

* On Sulawesi
Sulawesi

* Sultanate of Buton
Buton
* Sultanate of Bone * Sultanate of Gowa
Sultanate of Gowa
* Sultanate of Luwu * Sultanate of Soppeng * Sultanate of Wajo

* On Java
Java

* Sultanate of Banten * Sultanate of Cirebon
Sultanate of Cirebon
- the rulers in three of the four palaces (kraton), from which divided Cirebon
Cirebon
was ruled: Kraton Kasepuhan , Kraton Kanoman and Kraton Kacirebonan (only in Kraton Kaprabonan was the ruler's title Panembahan ) * Sultanate of Demak * Sultanate of Pajang * Sumedang Larang Kingdom

* Sultanate of Mataram
Sultanate of Mataram
(was divided into two kingdoms: the Sultanate of Yogyakarta and Sunanan Surakarta)

* Sultanate of Yogyakarta (The Divine Sultanate of which its ruler Sri Sultan
Sultan
Hamengkubowono is considered a divine being, a half God) * Sunanate of Surakarta (susuhunan , a high-ranked monarch, equivalent to emperor)

* Sultanate of Jayakarta (also known as Sunda Kelapa ; modern-day Jakarta
Jakarta
)

* On Madura island : Pamekasan

* In the Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands

* Sultanate of Iha (Saparua) * Sultanate of Honimoa/ Siri Sori (Saparua) * Sultanate of Huamual (West Seram) * Sultanate of Tanah Hitu (Ambon) * Sultanate of Ternate * Sultanate of Tidore
Sultanate of Tidore
* Sultanate of Bacan
Bacan
* Sultanate of Jilolo * Sultanate of Loloda, later occupied by Ternate

* In the Nusa Tenggara

* Sultanate of Bima on Sumbawa island

* In the Riau archipelago : sultanate of Lingga-Riau by secession in 1818 under the expelled sultan of Johore (on Malaya) Sultan
Sultan
Abdul Rahman Muadzam Syah ibni al-Marhum Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud

* In Sumatra
Sumatra

* Sultanate of Aceh (full style Sultan
Sultan
Berdaulat Zillullah fil-Alam), which had many vassal states * Sultanate of Asahan * Awak Sungai, established 17th century at the split in four of Minangkabau , in 1816 extinguished by Netherlands East Indies colonial government * Sultanate of Deli since 1814, earlier Aceh's vassal as Aru * Sultanate of Indragiri * Sultanate of Langkat
Sultanate of Langkat
since 1817 (previous style Raja) * Sultanate of Palembang
Palembang
(Darussalam), also holding the higher title of Susuhunan
Susuhunan
* Sultanate of Pagaruyung * Sultanate of Pelalawan * Sultanate of Perlak * Sultanate of Riau-Lingga * Sultanate of Samudera Pasai
Pasai
* Sultanate of Serdang
Sultanate of Serdang
* Sultanate of Siak Sri Inderapura

In Malaysia
Malaysia
:

* In Peninsular Malaysia
Malaysia
, where all nine of the country's present sultanates are located:

* Sultanate of Malacca
Sultanate of Malacca
* Sultanate of Johor * Sultanate of Kedah * Sultanate of Kelantan
Kelantan
* Sultanate of Pahang
Pahang
* Sultanate of Perak
Perak
* Sultanate of Selangor * Sultanate of Terengganu
Terengganu

* Furthermore, the ruler of Luak Jelebu , one of the constitutive states of the Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan
confederation, had the style Sultan
Sultan
in addition to his principal title Undang Luak Jelebu.

In Brunei
Brunei
:

* Sultan
Sultan
of Brunei
Brunei
, Brunei
Brunei
(on Borneo island)

In China
China
:

* Dali, Yunnan , capital of the short-lived Panthay Rebellion

* Furthermore, the Qa´id Jami al-Muslimin (Leader of the Community of Muslims) of Pingnan Guo ("Pacified South State", a major Islamic rebellious polity in western Yunnan province) is usually referred to in foreign sources as Sultan.

In the Philippines
Philippines
:

* Sultanate of Buayan * Sultanate of Maguindanao
Sultanate of Maguindanao
* Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Sulu
(Sulu, Basilan, Palawan and Tawi-Tawi islands and part of eastern Sabah on North Borneo) * Sultanate of Ranaw ( Sultan
Sultan
ko Pat a Pangampong a Ranao)

In Thailand
Thailand
:

* Sultanate of Patani * Sultanate of Singgora

CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGN SULTANATES

* Brunei
Brunei
* Indonesia
Indonesia
Yogyakarta Sultanate ( Sultan
Sultan
of Yogyakarta Special Region is also governor of that province)

* Malaysia
Malaysia

* Sultan
Sultan
is the title of seven ( Johor
Johor
, Kedah
Kedah
, Kelantan
Kelantan
, Pahang
Pahang
, Perak
Perak
, Selangor and Terengganu
Terengganu
) of the nine rulers of the Malay states . The federal head of state the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
Yang di-Pertuan Agong
, is elected (de facto rotated) for five years by and among the hereditary state rulers, but is usually styled "king" in foreign countries; political power, however, lies with the prime minister . See also: Malay titles

* Oman
Oman
, an Arabian nation, formerly sultanate of Muscat and Oman
Oman

In some parts of the Middle East and North Africa, there still exist regional sultans or people who are descendants of sultans and who are styled as such.

PRINCELY AND ARISTOCRATIC TITLES

The Valide Sultan
Valide Sultan
(Sultana mother) of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire

By the beginning of the 16th century, the title sultan was carried by both men and women of the Ottoman dynasty and was replacing other titles by which prominent members of the imperial family had been known (notably khatun for women and bey for men). This usage underlines the Ottoman conception of sovereign power as family prerogative.

Western tradition knows the Ottoman ruler as "sultan", but Ottomans themselves used "padişah" (emperor) or "hünkar" to refer to their ruler. The emperor's formal title consisted of "sultan" together with "khan" (for example, Sultan
Sultan
Suleiman Khan). In formal address, the sultan's children were also entitled "sultan", with imperial princes (Şehzade) carrying the title before their given name, with imperial princesses carrying it after. Example, Şehzade Sultan
Sultan
Mehmed and Mihrimah Sultan
Mihrimah Sultan
, son and daughter of Suleiman the Magnificent. Like imperial princesses, living mother and main consort of reigning sultan also carried the title after their given names, for example, Ayşe Hafsa Sultan
Sultan
, Suleiman's mother and first valide sultan , and Hürrem Sultan
Sultan
, Suleiman's chief consort and first haseki sultan . The evolving usage of this title reflected power shifts among imperial women, especially between Sultanate of Women
Sultanate of Women
, as the position of main consort eroded over the course of 17th century, the main consort lost the title "sultan", which replaced by "kadin", a title related to the earlier "khatun". Henceforth, the mother of the reigning sultan was the only person of non imperial blood to carry the title "sultan".

In Kazakh Khanate
Kazakh Khanate
a Sultan
Sultan
was a lord from the ruling dynasty (a direct descendants of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
) elected by clans, i.e. a kind of princes. The best of sultans was elected as khan by people at Kurultai . See ru:Казахские султаны

MILITARY RANK

In a number of post-caliphal states under Mongol
Mongol
or Turkic rule, there was a feudal type of military hierarchy. These administrations were often decimal (mainly in larger empires), using originally princely titles such as khan , malik , amir as mere rank denominations.

In the Persian empire
Persian empire
, the rank of sultan was roughly equivalent to that of a modern-day captain in the West; socially in the fifth-rank class, styled ' Ali Jah .

SEE ALSO

Other ruling titles

* Khan (title) , Ilkhan and Khakhan * Emir
Emir
(Amir) * Atabeg * Bey * Baig * Mirza
Mirza
* Caliph
Caliph
* Datu
Datu
* Maharajah
Maharajah
* Malik
Malik
* Mir (title) * Padishah
Padishah
* Raja
Raja
* Shah
Shah
and Shahanshah
Shahanshah
* Zoltán

REFERENCES

Wikimedia Commons has media related to SULTANS .

* ^ Peirce, Leslie P. (1993). The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507673-7 .

* RoyalArk - see each nation, e.g. here Oman * World Statesmen - see each present nation

* v * t * e

Royal and noble titles and honours by country

MONARCHIES

* Commonwealth realms * Spain * Sweden * Thailand
Thailand

FORMER MONARCHIES

* Austria-Hungary * Burma * Byzantium * Brazil

* China
China

* Qing

* Egypt
Egypt

* Mamluk

* Ethiopia
Ethiopia
* France * Germany

* Korea

* Joseon

* Ottoman * Portugal * Poland and Lithuania * Romania * Russia

* Serbia

* royal * noble

* Somalia
Somalia
* Maratha

* v * t * e

Authoritarian and totalitarian forms of government

FORMS

* Absolute monarchy
Absolute monarchy
* Benevolent dictatorship * Enlightened absolutism
Enlightened absolutism
* Fascism
Fascism
* Imperialism
Imperialism
* Military dictatorship
Military dictatorship
* Nazism
Nazism
* Ochlocracy * Self-coup
Self-coup
* Stalinism
Stalinism
* Theocracy
Theocracy

CONCEPTS

* Illiberal democracy * Totalitarian democracy * Inverted totalitarianism * Authoritarian democracy * Authoritarian socialism * Autocracy * Constitutional dictatorship * Corporate republic *