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The Sultanate
Sultanate
of Rûm (also known as Rûm sultanate (Persian: سلجوقیان روم‎, Saljuqiyān-e Rum), Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Sultanate
Sultanate
of Iconium, Anatolian Seljuk State (Turkish: Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti) or Turkey Seljuk State (Turkish: Türkiye Selçuklu Devleti))[5] was a Turko-Persian[6][7][8][9] Sunni Muslim state, established in the parts of Anatolia
Anatolia
which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
by the Seljuk Empire
Seljuk Empire
which was established by Seljuk Turks. The name Rûm is the Arabic
Arabic
name of Rome and the Roman Empire, الرُّومُ ar-Rūm, a loan from Greek Ρωμιοί "Romans".[10] The Sultanate
Sultanate
of Rum seceded from the Great Seljuk Empire
Seljuk Empire
under Suleiman ibn Qutulmish
Suleiman ibn Qutulmish
in 1077, following the Battle of Manzikert, with capitals first at İznik
İznik
and then at Konya. It reached the height of its power during the late 12th and early 13th century, when it succeeded in taking Byzantine key ports on the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. In the east, the sultanate absorbed other Turkish states and reached Lake Van. Trade from Iran and Central Asia
Central Asia
across Anatolia was developed by a system of caravanserai. Especially strong trade ties with the Genoese formed during this period. The increased wealth allowed the sultanate to absorb other Turkish states that had been established in eastern Anatolia
Anatolia
(Danishmends, Mengujekids, Saltukids, Artuqids). The Seljuq sultans bore the brunt of the Crusades, and eventually succumbed to the Mongol invasion in 1243 (Battle of Köse Dağ). For the remainder of the 13th century, the Seljuqs acted as vassals of the Ilkhanate.[11] Their power disintegrated during the second half of the 13th century. The last of the Seljuq vassals of the Ilkhanate, Mesud II, was murdered in 1308. The dissolution of the Seljuq state left behind many small Anatolian beyliks
Anatolian beyliks
(Turkish principalities), among them that of the Ottoman dynasty, which eventually conquered the rest and reunited Anatolia
Anatolia
to become the Ottoman Empire.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Establishment 1.2 Crusades 1.3 Mongol conquest 1.4 Disintegration

2 Culture and society 3 Dynasty 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] Further information: Timeline of the Seljuk Sultanate
Sultanate
of Rum Establishment[edit] In the 1070s, after the battle of Manzikert, the Seljuk commander Suleiman ibn Qutulmish, a distant cousin of Malik-Shah I
Malik-Shah I
and a former contender for the throne of the Seljuk Empire, came to power in western Anatolia. In 1075, he captured the Byzantine cities of Nicaea (İznik) and Nicomedia (İzmit). Two years later, he declared himself sultan of an independent Seljuq state and established his capital at İznik.[12] Suleyman was killed in Antioch
Antioch
in 1086 by Tutush I, the Seljuk ruler of Syria, and Suleyman's son Kilij Arslan I
Kilij Arslan I
was imprisoned. When Malik Shah died in 1092, Kilij Arslan was released and immediately established himself in his father's territories. Crusades[edit]

Seljuk Sultanate
Sultanate
of Rum in 1190.

v t e

Crusader battles in the Levant
Levant
(1096–1303)

First Crusade

Xerigordos Civetot Nicaea 1st Dorylaeum 1st Antioch Ma'arra Arqa 1st Jerusalem 1st Ascalon

Period post First Crusade

Arsuf Melitene Mersivan 1st Heraclea 2nd Heraclea 1st Ramla 2nd Ramla 1st Tripoli Harran 3rd Ramla Artah Sidon 1st Shaizar Al-Sannabra Sarmin Ager Sanguinis Hab Jaffa and Tyre Yibneh Azaz Marj al-Saffar Ba'rin 2nd Shaizar Edessa Bosra

Second Crusade

2nd Dorylaeum Ephesus Meander Valley Mount Cadmus Damascus

Period post Second Crusade

Inab Aintab 2nd Ascalon Lake Huleh al-Buqaia Harim 1st Bilbeis al-Babein 2nd Bilbeis 1st Damietta Montgisard Marj Ayyun Jacob's Ford Belvoir Castle Cresson Al-Fule Kerak Hattin 2nd Jerusalem Tyre

Third Crusade

1st Acre Iconium 1st Arsuf Jaffa

Fifth Crusade

2nd Damietta 3rd Jerusalem

Period post Sixth Crusade

4th Jerusalem La Forbie

End of the Crusader states
Crusader states
in the Levant

2nd Antioch 2nd Arsuf Caesarea Haifa 2nd Acre Krak des Chevaliers 2nd Tripoli 3rd Tripoli Ruad

Kilij Arslan was defeated by soldiers of the First Crusade
First Crusade
and driven back into south-central Anatolia, where he set up his state with capital in Konya. In 1107, he ventured east and captured Mosul
Mosul
but died the same year fighting Malik Shah's son, Mehmed Tapar. Meanwhile, another Rum Seljuq, Malik Shah (not to be confused with the Seljuq sultan of the same name), captured Konya. In 1116 Kilij Arslan's son, Mesud I, took the city with the help of the Danishmends. Upon Mesud's death in 1156, the sultanate controlled nearly all of central Anatolia. Mesud's son, Kilij Arslan II, captured the remaining territories around Sivas
Sivas
and Malatya
Malatya
from the last of the Danishmends. At the Battle of Myriokephalon
Battle of Myriokephalon
in 1176, Kilij Arslan II
Kilij Arslan II
also defeated a Byzantine army led by Manuel I Komnenos, dealing a major blow to Byzantine power in the region. Despite a temporary occupation of Konya in 1190 by the Holy Roman Empire's forces of the Third Crusade, the sultanate was quick to recover and consolidate its power.[13] During the last years of Kilij Arslan II's reign, the sultanate experienced a civil war with Kaykhusraw I
Kaykhusraw I
fighting to retain control and losing to his brother Suleiman II
Suleiman II
in 1196.[13][14]

The Sultanate
Sultanate
of Rûm and surrounding states, c. 1200.

Suleiman II
Suleiman II
(1196–1204) was routed by the Kingdom of Georgia
Kingdom of Georgia
in the Battle of Basian
Battle of Basian
(1203) and died in 1204.[15] He was succeeded by his son Kilij Arslan III, whose reign was unpopular.[15] Kaykhusraw I seized Konya
Konya
in 1205 reestablishing his reign.[15] Under his rule and those of his two successors, Kaykaus I
Kaykaus I
and Kayqubad I, Seljuq power in Anatolia
Anatolia
reached its apogee. Kaykhusraw's most important achievement was the capture of the harbour of Attalia (Antalya) on the Mediterranean coast in 1207. His son Kaykaus captured Sinop and made the Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond
his vassal in 1214. He also subjugated Cilician Armenia but in 1218 was forced to surrender the city of Aleppo, acquired from al-Kamil. Kayqubad continued to acquire lands along the Mediterranean coast from 1221 to 1225. In the 1220s, he sent an expeditionary force across the Black Sea
Black Sea
to Crimea.[16] In the east he defeated the Mengujekids
Mengujekids
and began to put pressure on the Artuqids. Mongol conquest[edit]

The sultanate expanded towards the east during the reign of Kayqubad I.

Kaykhusraw II
Kaykhusraw II
(1237–1246) began his reign by capturing the region around Diyarbakır, but in 1239 he had to face an uprising led by a popular preacher named Baba Ishak. After three years, when he had finally quelled the revolt, the Crimean foothold was lost and the state and the sultanate's army had weakened. It is in these conditions that he had to face a far more dangerous threat, that of the expanding Mongols. The forces of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
took Erzurum
Erzurum
in 1242 and in 1243, the sultan was crushed by Baiju
Baiju
in the Battle of Köse Dağ
Battle of Köse Dağ
(a mountain between the cities of Sivas
Sivas
and Erzincan), and the Seljuq Turks were forced to swear allegiance to the Mongols
Mongols
and became their vassals.[11] The sultan himself had fled to Antalya
Antalya
after the 1243 battle, where he died in 1246, his death starting a period of tripartite, and then dual, rule that lasted until 1260. The Seljuq realm was divided among Kaykhusraw's three sons. The eldest, Kaykaus II (1246–1260), assumed the rule in the area west of the river Kızılırmak. His younger brothers, Kilij Arslan IV (1248–1265) and Kayqubad II (1249–1257), were set to rule the regions east of the river under Mongol administration. In October 1256, Bayju defeated Kaykaus II near Aksaray
Aksaray
and all of Anatolia became officially subject to Möngke Khan. In 1260 Kaykaus II fled from Konya
Konya
to Crimea
Crimea
where he died in 1279. Kilij Arslan IV was executed in 1265, and Kaykhusraw III (1265–1284) became the nominal ruler of all of Anatolia, with the tangible power exercised either by the Mongols
Mongols
or the sultan's influential regents.

The declining Sultanate
Sultanate
of Rûm, vassal of the Mongols, and the emerging beyliks, c. 1300

Disintegration[edit] The Seljuq state had started to split into small emirates (beyliks) that increasingly distanced themselves from both Mongol and Seljuq control. In 1277, responding to a call from Anatolia, the Mamluk sultan, Baibars, raided Anatolia
Anatolia
and defeated the Mongols, temporarily replacing them as the administrator of the Seljuq realm. But since the native forces who had called him to Anatolia
Anatolia
did not manifest themselves for the defense of the land, he had to return to his home base in Egypt, and the Mongol administration was re-assumed, officially and severely. Also, the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia captured the Mediterranean coast from Selinos to Seleucia, as well as the cities of Marash and Behisni, from the Seljuq in the 1240s.

Hanabad caravanserai in Çardak
Çardak
(1230)

Near the end of his reign, Kaykhusraw III could claim direct sovereignty only over lands around Konya. Some of the beyliks (including the early Ottoman state) and Seljuq governors of Anatolia continued to recognize, albeit nominally, the supremacy of the sultan in Konya, delivering the khutbah in the name of the sultans in Konya in recognition of their sovereignty, and the sultans continued to call themselves Fahreddin, the Pride of Islam. When Kaykhusraw III was executed in 1284, the Seljuq dynasty
Seljuq dynasty
suffered another blow from internal struggles which lasted until 1303 when the son of Kaykaus II, Mesud II, established himself as sultan in Kayseri. He was murdered in 1308 and his son Mesud III soon afterwards. A distant relative to the Seljuq dynasty
Seljuq dynasty
momentarily installed himself as emir of Konya, but he was defeated and his lands conquered by the Karamanids
Karamanids
in 1328. The sultanate's monetary sphere of influence lasted slightly longer and coins of Seljuq mint, generally considered to be of reliable value, continued to be used throughout the 14th century, once again, including by the Ottomans. Culture and society[edit] Further information: Seljuk architecture; Alâeddin Mosque; Ince Minaret Medrese; and Karatay Madrasa, Konya The Seljuk dynasty of Rum, as successors to the Great Seljuqs, based their political, religious and cultural heritage on the Perso-Islamic tradition,[17] even to the point of naming their sons with Persian names.[18] Though of Turkic origin, Rum Seljuks patronized Persian art, architecture, and literature[19] and used Persian as a language of administration.[20] Moreover, Byzantine influence in the Sultanate was also significant, since Greek aristocracy remained part of the Seljuk nobility, and the local Greek population was numerous in the region.[21][22]

Kızıl Kule
Kızıl Kule
(Red Tower) built between 1221–1226 by Kayqubad I
Kayqubad I
in Alanya.

In their construction of caravanserais, madrasas and mosques, the Rum Seljuks translated the Iranian Seljuk architecture
Seljuk architecture
of bricks and plaster into the use of stone.[23] Among these, the caravanserais (or hans), used as stops, trading posts and defense for caravans, and of which about a hundred structures were built during the Anatolian Seljuqs period, are particularly remarkable. Along with Persian influences, which had an indisputable effect,[24] Seljuk architecture was inspired by Christian
Christian
and Muslim Armenians.[25] As such, Anatolian architecture represents some of the most distinctive and impressive constructions in the entire history of Islamic architecture. Later, this Anatolian architecture would be transmitted to Sultanate India.[26]

Ince Minaret Medrese, a 13th-century madrasa located in Konya, Turkey

The largest caravanserai is the Sultan
Sultan
Han (built in 1229) on the road between the cities of Konya
Konya
and Aksaray, in the township of Sultanhanı
Sultanhanı
depending the latter city, enclosing 3,900 m2 (42,000 sq ft). There are two caravanserais that carry the name " Sultan
Sultan
Han", the other one being between Kayseri
Kayseri
and Sivas. Furthermore, apart from Sultanhanı, five other towns across Turkey owe their names to caravanserais built there. These are Alacahan in Kangal, Durağan, Hekimhan
Hekimhan
and Kadınhanı, as well as the township of Akhan within the Denizli
Denizli
metropolitan area. The caravanserai of Hekimhan
Hekimhan
is unique in having, underneath the usual inscription in Arabic
Arabic
with information relating to the edifice, two further inscriptions in Armenian and Syriac, since it was constructed by the sultan Kayqubad I's doctor (hekim) who is thought to have been a Christian
Christian
by his origins, and to have converted to Islam. There are other particular cases like the settlement in Kalehisar (contiguous to an ancient Hittite site) near Alaca, founded by the Seljuq commander Hüsameddin Temurlu, who had taken refuge in the region after the defeat in the Battle of Köse Dağ
Battle of Köse Dağ
and had founded a township comprising a castle, a madrasa, a habitation zone and a caravanserai, which were later abandoned apparently around the 16th century. All but the caravanserai, which remains undiscovered, was explored in the 1960s by the art historian Oktay Aslanapa, and the finds as well as a number of documents attest to the existence of a vivid settlement in the site, such as a 1463 Ottoman firman which instructs the headmaster of the madrasa to lodge not in the school but in the caravanserai.

Gök Medrese (Celestial Madrasa) of Sivas, periodic capital of the Sultanate
Sultanate
of Rum

The Seljuk palaces, as well as their armies, were staffed with ghulams (plural ghilmân, Arabic: غِلْمَان‎), enslaved youths taken from non-Muslim communities, mainly Greeks from former Byzantine territories. The practice of keeping ghulams may have offered a model for the later devşirme during the time of the Ottoman Empire.[27] Dynasty[edit] Main articles: Anatolian Seljuks family tree and Seljuq dynasty

Dirham of Kaykhusraw II, minted at Sivas
Sivas
1240–1241 AD

As regards the names of the sultans, there are variants in form and spelling depending on the preferences displayed by one source or the other, either for fidelity in transliterating the Persian variant of the Arabic
Arabic
script which the sultans used, or for a rendering corresponding to the modern Turkish phonology and orthography. Some sultans had two names that they chose to use alternatively in reference to their legacy. While the two palaces built by Alaeddin Keykubad I carry the names Kubadabad Palace and Keykubadiye Palace, he named his mosque in Konya
Konya
as Alâeddin Mosque
Alâeddin Mosque
and the port city of Alanya
Alanya
he had captured as "Alaiye". Similarly, the medrese built by Kaykhusraw I
Kaykhusraw I
in Kayseri, within the complex (külliye) dedicated to his sister Gevher Nesibe, was named Gıyasiye Medrese, and the one built by Kaykaus I
Kaykaus I
in Sivas
Sivas
as Izzediye Medrese.

Sultan Reign Notes

1. Qutalmish 1060–1064 Contended with Alp Arslan
Alp Arslan
for succession to the Imperial Seljuq throne.

2. Suleiman ibn Qutulmish 1075-1077 de facto rules Turkmen around İznik
İznik
and İzmit; 1077–1086 recognised Rum Sultan
Sultan
by Malik I Founder of Anatolian Seljuq Sultanate
Sultanate
with capital in İznik

3. Kilij Arslan I 1092–1107 First sultan in Konya

4. Malik Shah 1107–1116

5. Masud I 1116–1156

6. 'Izz al-Din Kilij Arslan II 1156–1192

7. Giyath al-Din Kaykhusraw I 1192–1196 First reign

8. Rukn al-Din Suleiman II 1196–1204

9. Kilij Arslan III 1204–1205

Giyath al-Din Kaykhusraw I 1205–1211 Second reign

10. 'Izz al-Din Kayka'us I 1211–1220

11. 'Ala al-Din Kayqubad I 1220–1237

12. Giyath al-Din Kaykhusraw II 1237–1246 After his death, sultanate split until 1260 when Kilij Arslan IV remained the sole ruler

13. 'Izz al-Din Kayka'us II 1246–1260

14. Rukn al-Din Kilij Arslan IV 1248–1265

15. 'Ala al-Din Kayqubad II 1249–1257

16. Giyath al-Din Kaykhusraw III 1265–1284

17. Giyath al-Din Masud II 1284–1296 First reign

18. 'Ala al-Din Kayqubad III 1298–1302

Giyath al-Din Masud II 1303–1308 Second reign

See also[edit]

History of the Turkic peoples Pre-14th century

Turkic Khaganate
Turkic Khaganate
552–744

  Western Turkic

  Eastern Turkic

Khazar Khaganate 618–1048

Xueyantuo
Xueyantuo
628–646

Great Bulgaria 632–668

  Danube Bulgaria

  Volga Bulgaria

Kangar union
Kangar union
659–750

Turk Shahi
Turk Shahi
665–850

Turgesh
Turgesh
Khaganate 699–766

Uyghur Khaganate
Uyghur Khaganate
744–840

Karluk Yabgu State 756–940

Kara-Khanid Khanate
Kara-Khanid Khanate
840–1212

  Western Kara-Khanid

  Eastern Kara-Khanid

Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom
Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom
848–1036

Qocho
Qocho
856–1335

Pecheneg Khanates 860–1091 Kimek confederation 743–1035

Cumania 1067–1239 Oghuz Yabgu State 750–1055

Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186

Seljuk Empire
Seljuk Empire
1037–1194

  Sultanate
Sultanate
of Rum

Kerait khanate 11th century–13th century

Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231

Naiman Khanate –1204

Qarlughid Kingdom 1224–1266

Delhi Sultanate
Sultanate
1206–1526

  Mamluk dynasty

  Khalji dynasty

  Tughlaq dynasty

Golden Horde
Golden Horde
[28][29][30] 1240s–1502

Mamluk Sultanate
Sultanate
(Cairo) 1250–1517

  Bahri dynasty

  Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
1299–1923

Other Turkic dynasties 

in Anatolia Artuqid dynasty Saltuqid dynasty in Azerbaijan Ahmadili dynasty Ildenizid dynasty in Egypt Tulunid dynasty Ikhshidid dynasty in Fars Salghurid dynasty in The Levant Burid dynasty Zengid dynasty

This box:

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Timeline of the Seljuk Sultanate
Sultanate
of Rûm Babai Revolt Byzantine–Seljuq Wars Rûm Province, Ottoman Empire

Notes[edit]

^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia, (Rutgers University Press, 2002), 157; "...the Seljuk court at Konya
Konya
adopted Persian as its official language." ^ Bernard Lewis, Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire, (University of Oklahoma Press, 1963), 29; "The literature of Seljuk Anatolia
Anatolia
was almost entirely in Persian...". ^ ""Modern Turkish is the descendant of Ottoman Turkish and its predecessor, so-called Old Anatolian Turkish, which was introduced into Anatolia
Anatolia
by the Seljuq Turks in the late 11th century ad."". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 30 September 2017.  ^ Andrew Peacock and Sara Nur Yildiz, The Seljuks of Anatolia: Court and Society in the Medieval Middle East, (I.B. Tauris, 2013), 132; "The official use of the Greek language
Greek language
by the Seljuk chancery is well known". ^ [1][dead link] ^ Bernard Lewis, Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire, 29; "Even when the land of Rum became politically independent, it remained a colonial extension of Turco-Persian culture which had its centers in Iran and Central Asia","The literature of Seljuk Anatolia was almost entirely in Persian ..." ^ "Institutionalisation of Science in the Medreses of pre-Ottoman and Ottoman Turkey", Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu, Turkish Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science, ed. Gürol Irzik, Güven Güzeldere, (Springer, 2005), 266; "Thus, in many of the cities where the Seljuks had settled, Iranian culture became dominant." ^ Andrew Peacock and Sara Nur Yildiz, The Seljuks of Anatolia: Court and Society in the Medieval Middle East, (I.B. Tauris, 2013), 71-72 ^ Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective, ed. Robert L. Canfield, (Cambridge University Press, 1991), 13. ^ Alexander Kazhdan, "Rūm" The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (Oxford University Press, 1991), vol. 3, p. 1816. Paul Wittek, Rise of the Ottoman Empire, Royal Asiatic Society Books, Routledge (2013), p. 81: "This state too bore the name of Rûm, if not officially, then at least in everyday usage, and its princes appear in the Eastern chronicles under the name 'Seljuks of Rûm' (Ar.: Salâjika ar-Rûm). A. Christian
Christian
Van Gorder, Christianity in Persia and the Status of Non-muslims in Iran p. 215: "The Seljuqs called the lands of their sultanate Rum because it had been established on territory long considered 'Roman', i.e. Byzantine, by Muslim armies." ^ a b John Joseph Saunders, The History of the Mongol Conquests, (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1971), 79. ^ Sicker, Martin, The Islamic world in ascendancy: from the Arab conquests to the siege of Vienna , (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000), 63-64. ^ a b Anatolia
Anatolia
in the period of the Seljuks and the "beyliks", Osman Turan, The Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 1A, ed. P.M. Holt, Ann K.S. Lambton and Bernard Lewis, (Cambridge University Press, 1995), 244-245. ^ A.C.S. Peacock and Sara Nur Yildiz, The Seljuks of Anatolia: Court and Society in the Medieval Middle East, (I.B. Tauris, 2015), 29. ^ a b c Claude Cahen, The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rum: Eleventh to Fourteenth, transl. & ed. P.M. Holt, (Pearson Education Limited, 2001), 42. ^ A.C.S. Peacock, "The Saliūq Campaign against the Crimea
Crimea
and the Expansionist Policy of the Early Reign of'Alā' al-Dīn Kayqubād", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. 16 (2006), pp. 133-149. ^ Saljuqs: Saljuqs of Anatolia, Robert Hillenbrand, The Dictionary of Art, Vol.27, Ed. Jane Turner, (Macmillan Publishers Limited, 1996), 632. ^ Rudi Paul Lindner, Explorations in Ottoman Prehistory, (University of Michigan Press, 2003), 3. ^ "A Rome of One's Own: Reflections on Cultural Geography and Identity in the Lands of Rum", Cemal Kafadar,Muqarnas, Volume 24 History and Ideology: Architectural Heritage of the "Lands of Rum", Ed. Gülru Necipoğlu, (Brill, 2007), page 21. ^ Ágoston, Gábor; Masters, Bruce Alan (2010). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4381-1025-7. , page 40 ^ The Oriental Margins of the Byzantine World: a Prosopographical Perspective, / Rustam Shukurov, in Herrin, Judith; Saint-Guillain, Guillaume (2011). Identities and Allegiances in the Eastern Mediterranean After 1204. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-4094-1098-0. , pages 181–191 ^ A sultan in Constantinople:the feasts of Ghiyath al-Din Kay-Khusraw I, Dimitri Korobeinikov, Eat, drink, and be merry (Luke 12:19) - food and wine in Byzantium, in Brubaker, Leslie; Linardou, Kallirroe (2007). Eat, Drink, and be Merry (Luke 12:19): Food and Wine in Byzantium : Papers of the 37th Annual Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, in Honour of Professor A.A.M. Bryer. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7546-6119-1. , page 96 ^ West Asia:1000-1500, Sheila Blair and Jonathan Bloom, Atlas of World Art, Ed. John Onians, (Laurence King Publishing, 2004), 130. ^ Architecture (Muhammadan), H. Saladin, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, Vol.1, Ed. James Hastings and John Alexander, (Charles Scribner's son, 1908), 753. ^ Armenia during the Seljuk and Mongol Periods, Robert Bedrosian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times: The Dynastic Periods from Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, Vol. I, Ed. Richard Hovannisian, (St. Martin's Press, 1999), 250. ^ Lost in Translation: Architecture, Taxonomy, and the "Eastern Turks", Finbarr Barry Flood, Muqarnas: History and Ideology: Architectural Heritage of the "Lands of Rum, 96. ^ Rodriguez, Junius P. (1997). The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-87436-885-7. , page 306 ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2006). Peoples of Western Asia. p. 364.  ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. p. 280.  ^ Borrero, Mauricio (2009). Russia: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. p. 162. 

References[edit]

Bosworth, C. E. (2004). The New Islamic Dynasties: a Chronological and Genealogical Manual ISBN 0-7486-2137-7. Edinburgh University Press.  Bektaş, Cengiz (1999). Selcuklu Kervansarayları, Korunmaları Ve Kullanlmaları üzerine bir öneri: A Proposal regarding the Seljuk Caravanserais, Their Protection and Use ISBN 975-7438-75-8 (in Turkish and English). 

External links[edit]

Yavuz, Ayşıl Tükel. "The concepts that shape Anatolian Seljuq caravanserais" (PDF). ArchNet. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-07-04.  "List of Seljuk edifices". ArchNet. Archived from the original on 2007-04-05.  Katharine Branning. "Examples of caravanserais built by the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate". Turkish Hans. 

v t e

Seljuk Sultanate
Sultanate
of Rum

Ancestor Qutalmish Founder Suleyman I Capital İznik, then Konya

Important centers and extension

Konya Kayseri Sivas
Sivas
(1175) Malatya
Malatya
(1178) Alanya Antalya

Dynasty

Suleyman I (1077–1086) Kilij Arslan I
Kilij Arslan I
(1092–1107) Melikshah (1107–1116) Mesud I
Mesud I
(1116–1156) Kilij Arslan II
Kilij Arslan II
(1156–1192) Kaykhusraw I
Kaykhusraw I
(1192–1196) Süleymanshah II (1196–1204) Kilij Arslan III (1204–1205) Kaykhusraw I
Kaykhusraw I
(2nd reign) (1205–1211) Kaykaus I
Kaykaus I
(1211–1220) Kayqubad I
Kayqubad I
(1220–1237) Kaykhusraw II
Kaykhusraw II
(1237–1246) Kaykaus II (1246–1260) Kilij Arslan IV (1248–1265) Kayqubad II (1249–1257) Kaykhusraw III (1265–1282) Mesud II
Mesud II
(1282–1284) Kayqubad III (1284) Mesud II
Mesud II
(2nd reign) (1284–1293) Kayqubad III (2nd reign) (1293–1294) Mesud II
Mesud II
(3rd reign) (1294–1301) Kayqubad III (3rd reign) (1301–1303) Mesud II
Mesud II
(4th reign) (1303–1307) Mesud III (1307)

Chronology

1243 Gradually vassalized to the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
after the defeat suffered in the Battle of Köse Dağ 1307 Taken over by the Karamanids

Palaces and castles

Seljuk Palace in Konya
Konya
(1190–1220) Kubadabad Palace in Beyşehir
Beyşehir
(1220–1230) Keykubadiye Palace in Kayseri
Kayseri
(1220–1230) Alanya
Alanya
Kızıl Kule
Kızıl Kule
(Red Tower) and Shipyard constructions and widescale extension of Alanya
Alanya
Castle

Külliye
Külliye
("complexes") and dar al-shifa (hospitals) and medrese (schools) and mosques:

Gevher Nesibe Külliye
Külliye
with Medical Center and Medical School and Mosque
Mosque
in Kayseri
Kayseri
(1204–1210) Battal Gazi Külliye
Külliye
in Seyitgazi
Seyitgazi
(1208) Karatay Medrese in Konya
Konya
(1225) Ince Minaret Medrese
Ince Minaret Medrese
in Konya
Konya
(1258–1279) Atabeg Ferruh Darüşşifa
Darüşşifa
in Çankırı
Çankırı
(1236) Alâeddin Keykubad I Darüşşifa
Darüşşifa
in Konya
Konya
(1237) Torumtay Darüşşifa
Darüşşifa
in Amasya
Amasya
(1266) Izzeddin Keykavus I
Izzeddin Keykavus I
Şifaiye Medrese
Şifaiye Medrese
and Medical Center (Darüşşifa) in Sivas
Sivas
(1218) Gökmedrese
Gökmedrese
in Sivas
Sivas
(1271) Çifte Minaret Medrese in Sivas
Sivas
(1271) Alaeddin Mosque
Mosque
in Konya
Konya
(1220) Alâeddin Mosque
Alâeddin Mosque
in Niğde
Niğde
(1220) Great Mosque
Mosque
of Malatya
Malatya
in Eskimalatya
Eskimalatya
(Battalgazi) (1224) Hüsameddin Temurlu castle, caravanseai and medrese in Kalehisar, Alaca
Alaca
(~1250) Havadan Külliye
Külliye
in Develi
Develi
(~1300)

Caravanserais

Ağzıkara Han caravanserai near Aksaray
Aksaray
(1237) Ak Han caravanserai near Denizli
Denizli
(1254) Alaca
Alaca
Han caravanserai in Alacahan (~1280) Alara Han caravanserai near Manavgat Alay Han caravanserai near Aksaray
Aksaray
(1190) Altınapa Han caravanserai between Beyşehir
Beyşehir
and Konya
Konya
(1201) Angit Han caravanserai between Konya
Konya
and Akşehir
Akşehir
(1201) Burma Han caravanserai in Divriği
Divriği
(13th century) Çakallı Han caravanserai near Samsun
Samsun
(~1250) Çardak
Çardak
Han (Hanabad) caravanserai in Çardak
Çardak
(1230) Çay Han
Çay Han
caravanserai in Çay
Çay
(1279) Dokuzun Han caravanserai in Konya
Konya
(1210) Eğirdir
Eğirdir
Han caravanserai in Eğirdir
Eğirdir
(1238) Ertokuş Han caravanserai near Eğirdir
Eğirdir
(1224) Eshab-i Kehf Han caravanserai near Afşin– Elbistan
Elbistan
(~1225) Evdir Han caravanserai near Antalya
Antalya
(1224) Ezinepazar Han caravanserai near Amasya
Amasya
(1246) Goncalı Akhan caravanserai between Konya
Konya
and Aksaray Hatun Han caravanserai between Amasya
Amasya
and Tokat Hekim Han
Hekim Han
caravanserai in Hekimhan
Hekimhan
(1220) Horozlu Han caravanserai near Konya
Konya
(1249) Incir Han caravanserai near Bucak (1239) Kadın Han
Kadın Han
caravanserai in Kadınhanı
Kadınhanı
(1223) Karatay Han caravanserai near Pınarbaşı (1241) Kargı Han caravanserai near Antalya
Antalya
(1246) Kesikköprü Han caravanserai near Kırşehir
Kırşehir
(1268) Kırkgöz Han caravanserai near Antalya
Antalya
(1246) Kızılören Han caravanserai near Konya
Konya
(1206) Kuruçeşme Han caravanserai near Konya
Konya
(1210) Melleç Han caravanserai near Anamur
Anamur
(13th century) Mirçinge Han caravanserai near Divriği
Divriği
(13th century) Obruk Han caravanserai near Konya
Konya
(1230) Öresin Han caravanserai near Aksaray
Aksaray
(~1275) Pazar Han caravanserai near Tokat
Tokat
(1239) Zazadın Han caravanserai near Konya
Konya
(1236) Şarapsa Han caravanserai near Alanya
Alanya
(1246) Sarı Han caravanserai near Ürgüp
Ürgüp
(1249) Sevserek Han caravanserai between Malatya
Malatya
and Pötürge
Pötürge
(13th century) Sultan
Sultan
Han caravanserai between Konya
Konya
and Aksaray
Aksaray
(1229) Sultan
Sultan
Han caravanserai near Bünyan
Bünyan
between Kayseri
Kayseri
and Sivas
Sivas
(1236) Susuz Han caravanserai near Bucak (1246)

Anatolian beyliks

Tzachas
Tzachas
(1081 - 1092)

Founder Tzachas Capital İzmir

Chronology

1082 Submitted to the Seljuks of Turkey

Important centers and extension:

Ephesus Lesbos Chios

Shah-Armens
Shah-Armens
(1100–1207)

Founder Sökmen el Kutbi Capital Ahlat

Chronology

1207 Submitted to the Ayyoubids

Important centers and extension:

Silvan Malazgirt Erciş Adilcevaz Başkale Eleşkirt Van Tatvan Bitlis Muş Hani

Dynasty:

Sökmen el Kutbi (1100–1112) Ibrahim bin Sökmen (? - ?) Ahmed bin Ibrahim (? - ?) Sökmen the Second (1128–1185) Seyfeddin Begtimur (1185–1193) Aksungur (1193–1197) Muhammed bin Begtimur (1185–1207)

Important works:

Ahlat
Ahlat
Tombs

Artuqids
Artuqids
(1102 - )

Ancestors Eksük and his son Artuk, from Döğer Oghuz Türkmen clan Founder Muinüddin Sökmen Bey Capitals Three branches in Hasankeyf, Mardin
Mardin
and Harput

Important centers and extension:

Diyarbakır Hasankeyf Silvan Mardin Midyat Harput Palu Aleppo
Aleppo
(temporarily in 1117)

Hasankeyf
Hasankeyf
Dynasty or Sökmenli Dynasty:

Müinüddin Sökmen Bey (1102–1104) Sökmenli Ibrahim Bey (1104–1131)

Mardin
Mardin
Dynasty or Ilgazi Dynasty:

Necmeddin Ilgazi (1106–1122) Hüsameddin Timurtaş (1122–1154) Necmeddin Alp (1154–1176)

Harput
Harput
Dynasty:

Belek Bey (1112–1124) Nureddin Muhammed (? - ?) Sökmen the Second (? - ?)

Important works:

Artuqid Palace in Diyarbakır Widescale extension of Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
City Walls Malabadi Bridge Hasankeyf
Hasankeyf
Bridge Sökmenli Nasirüddevle Bîmaristan-ı Farukî Medical Center (Darüşşifa) in Silvan (1108) Emineddin (brother of Ilgazi) Medical Center (Darüşşifa) in Mardin (built between 1122) Great Mosque
Mosque
of Silvan Great Mosque
Mosque
of Mardin Older Great Mosque
Mosque
of Midyat
Midyat
(Cami-i Kebir) Great Mosque
Mosque
of Kızıltepe Great Mosque
Mosque
of Harput Artuqid Caravanserai
Caravanserai
in Mardin Ibrahim Shah Caravanserai
Caravanserai
near Keban
Keban
between Elazığ
Elazığ
and Çemişgezek

Danishmends
Danishmends
(1071–1178)

Founder Danishmend Gazi Capitals Sivas Niksar

Chronology

1175 Capital city of Sivas
Sivas
incorporated into the Seljuk Sultanate
Sultanate
of Rum 1178 Malatya
Malatya
branch incorporated into the Seljuk Sultanate

Important centers and extension:

Sivas Niksar Malatya Kayseri Tokat Amasya Kastamonu Ankara

Dynasty:

Danishmend Gazi
Danishmend Gazi
(1071–1105) Emir Gazi Gümüştekin (1105–1134) Melik Mehmed (1134–1146) Yağıbasan (1146–1164) Melik Ismail (1164–1175)

Important works:

Great Mosque
Mosque
of Niksar Great Mosque
Mosque
of Kayseri Kayseri
Kayseri
Kölük Mosque Danishmend Gazi
Danishmend Gazi
Tomb (Melik Gazi Tomb) in Niksar Denishmend Melik Mehmed Gazi Tomb in Kayseri

Mengujekids
Mengujekids
(1071–1277)

Founder Mengücek Bey Capitals Erzincan, later also Divriği

Important centers and extension:

Erzincan Divriği Kemah Şebinkarahisar

Dynasty:

Mengücek Bey (1071–1118) Mengücekli Ishak Bey (1118–1120) 1120–1142 Temporarily incorporated into the Beylik of Danishmends

Erzincan
Erzincan
and Kemah Branch

Mengücekli Davud Shah (1142- ?) 1228 Incorporation into the Seljuk Sultanate
Sultanate
of Rum

Divriği
Divriği
Branch

Mengücekli Süleyman Shah (1142- ?) 1277 Beylik destroyed by Abaka

Important works:

Divriği
Divriği
Great Mosque
Mosque
and Divriği
Divriği
Turan Melek Sultan
Sultan
Medical Center (Darüşşifa) (1229) Kale Mosque
Mosque
in Divriği

Saltukids
Saltukids
(1072–1202)

Founder Saltuk Bey Capital Erzurum

Chronology

1202 Incorporation into the Seljuk Sultanate
Sultanate
of Rum

Important centers and extension:

Erzurum Tercan

Dynasty:

Saltuk Bey (1072–1102) Ali bin Ebu'l-Kâsım (1102 - ~1124) Ziyâüddin Gazi (~1124–1132) Izzeddin Saltuk (1132–1168) Nâsırüddin Muhammed (1168–1191) Mama Hatun
Mama Hatun
(1191–1200) Melikshah bin Muhammed (1200–1202)

Important works:

Great Mosque
Mosque
of Erzurum Emir Saltuk Tomb in Erzurum Mama Hatun
Mama Hatun
Caravanserai
Caravanserai
in Tercan Mama Hatun
Mama Hatun
Tomb in Tercan Kale Mosque
Mosque
in Erzurum Erzurum
Erzurum
Medical Center (Darüşşifa) (1147)

Aydinids
Aydinids
(1307–1425)

Founder Aydınoğlu Mehmed Bey Capitals Birgi, later Ayasluğ

Important centers and extension:

Tire İzmir Alaşehir Aydın Sakız/ Chios
Chios
(between 1336–1344)

Dynasty:

Aydınoğlu Mehmed Bey (1307–1334) Umur Beg
Umur Beg
(1334–1348) Aydınoğlu Hızır Bey (? - ?) Aydınoğlu Isa Bey (- 1390)

Events

1390 First period of incorporation (by marriage) into the Ottoman Empire under Bayezid I
Bayezid I
the Thunderbolt 1402–1414 Second period of Beylik reconstituted by Tamerlane
Tamerlane
to Aydınoğlu Musa Bey (1402–1403) Aydınoğlu Umur Bey (1403–1405) İzmiroğlu Cüneyd Bey (1405–1425 with intervals) 1425 Second and last incorporation (by conquest) into the Ottoman realm under Murad II

Important works:

Isabey Mosque
Mosque
in Selçuk
Selçuk
(1375)

Isfendiyarids
Isfendiyarids
(~1300–1461)

Founder Şemseddin Yaman Candar, commander of the Seljuk Sultanate
Sultanate
of Rum Capital Kastamonu

Chronology

1392 Incorporation (by conquest) of Kastamonu
Kastamonu
branch into the Ottoman Empire under Bayezid I

Important centers and extension:

Sinop Eflani Çankırı Kalecik Tosya Araç Samsun
Samsun
(temporarily)

Dynasty:

Candaroğlu Süleyman Pasha (1309 - ~1340) Candaroğlu Ibrahim Bey (1340–1345) Candaroğlu Adil Bey (1340–1361) Celaleddin Bayezid (1361–1385) Candaroğlu Süleyman Pasha the Second (1384–1392)

Sinop Dynasty or Isfendiyarid Dynasty :

Isfendiyar Bey (1385–1440) Taceddin Ibrahim Bey (1440–1443) Kemaleddin Ismail Bey (1443–1461)

Chronology

1461 Incorporation (by surrender) of Sinop branch into the Ottoman Empire under Mehmed II

Chobanids (1227–1309)

Founder Hüsamettin Çoban Bey, commander from Kayı Oghuz clan of the Seljuk Sultanate
Sultanate
of Rum Capital Kastamonu

Chronology

1309 Incorporation (by conquest) into the Beylik of Isfendiyarids

Important centers and extension:

Kastamonu Taşköprü

Dynasty:

Hüsamettin Çoban Bey (1309 - ?) Alp Yürek (? - ?) Muzafferüddin Yavlak Arslan (? - ?) Çobanoğlu Mahmud Bey (? - 1309)

Dulkadirids
Dulkadirids
(1348- ~1525)

Ancestor Hasan Dulkadir Founder Zeyneddin Karaca Bey Capital Elbistan

Chronology

1443–1525 Increasingly tributary and gradually incorporated into the Ottoman Empire

Important centers and extension:

Maraş Malatya Harput Kayseri Antep

Dynasty:

Zeyneddin Karaca Bey (1348–1348) Dulkadiroğlu Halil Bey (1348–1386) Sûli Bey (1386–1396) Nâsıreddin Mehmed Bey (1396–1443) Dulkadiroğlu Süleyman Bey (1443–1454) Melik Arslan (?-?) Shah Budak (?-1492) Şahsuvar (?-?) Alaüddevle Bozkurt Bey (1492–1507) Şahsuvaroğlu Ali Bey (1507- ~1525)

Eretnids
Eretnids
(1328–1381)

Founder Eretna Bey, brother-in-law of the Ilkhanid
Ilkhanid
governor for Anatolia, Timurtash Capital Sivas, later Kayseri

Chronology

1326 Beylik replaced by Mehmed Bey's chancellor Kadı Burhaneddin

Important centers and extension:

Sivas Kayseri Niğde Tokat Amasya Erzincan Şebinkarahisar Niksar

Dynasty:

Eretna Bey (1328–1352) Gıyasüddin Mehmed Bey (1352–1365) Alâeddin Ali Bey (1365–1380) Mehmed Bey the Second (1380–1381)

Eshrefids
Eshrefids
(1288–1326)

Founder Seyfeddin Süleyman Bey, regent to the Seljuk Sultanate
Sultanate
of Rum Capital Beyşehir

Chronology

1326 Beylik destroyed by Demirtaş, the Ilkhanid
Ilkhanid
governor for Anatolia

Important centers and extension:

Beyşehir Akşehir Bolvadin

Dynasty:

Seyfeddin Süleyman Bey (1288–1302) Eşrefoğlu Mehmed Bey (1302–1320) Eşrefoğlu Süleyman Bey the Second (1320–1326)

Important works:

Eşrefoğlu Mosque
Mosque
in Beyşehir
Beyşehir
(1299)

Germiyanids
Germiyanids
(1300–1429)

Ancestor Kerimüddin Alişir Founder Germiyanlı Yakub Bey the First Capital Kütahya

Important centers and extension:

Kula (District), Manisa Simav Yenicekent Yenicekent
Yenicekent
( Beylik of Lâdik
Beylik of Lâdik
between 1300–1368)

Dynasty:

Germiyanlı Yakub Bey the First (1300–1340) Germiyanlı Mehmed Bey (1340–1361) Germiyanlı Süleyman Shah (1361–1387)

Chronology

1390 First period of incorporation (by legation) into the Ottoman Empire under Murad I 1402–1414 Second period of Beylik restituted by Tamerlane
Tamerlane
to Germiyanoğlu Yakub Bey the Second (1402–1429) 1414 Recognition of Ottoman sovereignty by Germiyanoğlu Yakub Bey the Second under Mehmed I 1429 Second and last incorporation (by legation) into the Ottoman realm under Murad II

Hamidids
Hamidids
(~1280–1374)

Ancestors Hamid and his son Ilyas Bey, frontier rulers under Seljuk Sultanate
Sultanate
of Rum Founder Hamidoğlu Feleküddin Dündar Bey Capital Isparta

Chronology

1374 Incorporation (by sale of territories) into the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
under Murad I
Murad I
and also partially to the Karamanid dynasty.

Important centers and extension:

Eğirdir Uluborlu Gölhisar Korkuteli
Korkuteli
and Antalya
Antalya
transferred in 1301 to Dündar Bey's brother Tekeoğlu Yunus Bey

Dynasty:

Hamidoğlu Feleküddin Dündar Bey (~1280–1324) Hamidoğlu Hızır Bey (1324–1330) Hamidoğlu Necmeddin Ishak Bey (? - ?) Hamidoğlu Muzafferüddin Mustafa Bey (? - ?) Hamidoğlu Hüsameddin Ilyas Bey (? - ?) Hamidoğlu Kemaleddin Hüseyin Bey (? - 1391)

Karamanids
Karamanids
(~1250–1487)

Ancestor Nure Sûfi from Afshar Oghuz clan Founder Kerimeddin Karaman
Karaman
Bey Capitals successively Ereğli Ermenek Larende
Larende
(Karaman) Konya Mut

Chronology

1398–1402 First incorporation (by conquest) into the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
under Bayezid I 1402–1414 Second period of Beylik restituted by Tamerlane 1414–1487 Gradual second incorporation into the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
under Mehmed I, Murad II
Murad II
and Mehmed II.

Dynasty:

Kerîmeddin Karaman
Karaman
(1256–1261) Mehmet I (1261–1283) Güneri (1283–1300) Bedreddin Mahmut (1300–1308) Yahşı Han (1308–1312) Bedreddin Ibrahim I (1312–1333) Alâeddin Halil Mirza (1333–1348) Bedreddin Ibrahim I, 2nd reign (1348–1349) Fahreddin Ahmed (1349–1350) Şemseddin (1350–1351) Burhaneddin Musa (1351–1356) Seyfeddin Süleyman (1356–1357) Alâeddin Ali (1357–1398) Nasreddin Mehmed Bey (1398–1399) Sultanzâde Mehmet II (1398–1399, 1402–1420, 1421–1423) Bengi Alâeddin Ali (1418–1424) Ibrahim II (1424–1464) Sultanzâde Ishak (1464) Sultanzâde Pîr Ahmed (1464–1469) Kasım (1469–1483) Turgutoğlu Mahmud Bey (1483–1487)

Karasids
Karasids
(1303–1360)

Ancestor Melik Danişmend Gazi Founder Karesi Bey Capital Balıkesir

Chronology

1374 Incorporation (by conquest) into the Ottoman Beylik under Orhan
Orhan
and Murad I

Important centers and extension:

Aydıncık Bergama Edremit Bigadiç Ezine

Dynasty:

Karesi Bey (1307–1328) Demir Han (1328–1345) Yahşı Han (1328–1345) Süleyman Bey (1345–1360)

Ladik (~1300–1368)

Ancestor Germiyanlı Ali Bey Founder Inanç Bey Capital Denizli

Chronology

1368 Re-incorporation (by conquest) into the Beylik of Germiyan

Important centers and extension:

Denizli

Dynasty:

Inanç Bey (~1300 - ~1314) Murad Arslan (~1314 - ?) Inançoğlu Ishak Bey (? - ~1360) Süleyman Bey (1345–1368)

Menteshe
Menteshe
(~1261–1424)

Founder Menteshe
Menteshe
Bey Capitals Beçin castle and nearby Milas, later also Balat

Important centers and extension

present-day Muğla
Muğla
Province Muğla Finike Kaş Çameli Acıpayam Tavas Bozdoğan Çine temporarily Aydın
Aydın
and Güzelhisar, also Rhodes
Rhodes
between 1300–1314

Dynasty:

Menteshe
Menteshe
Bey (~1261 - ~1282) Mesut (~1282 - ~1320) Orhan
Orhan
(~1320 - ~1340) Ibrahim (~1340 - ~1360)

Chronology

1360 Division between the three sons of Ibrahim Bey: Musa, Mehmed, Ahmed 1390 First incorporation into the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
under Bayezid I
Bayezid I
the Thunderbolt 1402–1414 Beylik reconstituted by Tamerlane
Tamerlane
to Ilyas Bey 1414 Recognition of Ottoman suzereignty under Mehmed I 1424 Final incorporation into the Ottoman realm under Murad II

Important works:

Firuz Bey Mosque
Mosque
in Milas İlyas Bey Mosque
Mosque
in Didim Great Mosque
Mosque
of Muğla
Muğla
(1344) Vakıflar Hamam (Turkish bath) in Muğla
Muğla
(1334)

Pervâneoğlu
Pervâneoğlu
(1261–1322)

Ancestor Mühezzibeddin Ali Kâşî (vizier of the Seljuk Sultanate
Sultanate
of Rum) Founder Süleyman Pervâne Capital Sinop

Chronology

1516 Incorporation into the Beylik of Isfendiyarids

Important centers and extension:

Sinop

Dynasty:

Süleyman Pervâne
Pervâne
(1261–1277) Pervâneoğlu
Pervâneoğlu
Mehmed Bey (1277–1296) Pervâneoğlu
Pervâneoğlu
Mesud Bey (1296–1300) Pervâneoğlu
Pervâneoğlu
Gazi Çelebi (1300–1326)

Important works

Muîneddin Pervâne
Pervâne
Medical Center (Darüşşifa) in Tokat
Tokat
(1276) Pervâne
Pervâne
Medrese in Sinop Durağan
Durağan
Han caravanserai in Durağan
Durağan
(1266) Eğret Han caravanserai near İhsaniye
İhsaniye
(1278) Pervâne
Pervâne
Bey Medrese in Closed Bazaar in Kayseri Mosque
Mosque
in Merzifon

Ramadanids
Ramadanids
(1352–1516)

Founder Ramazan Bey from Yüreğir
Yüreğir
Oghuz clan Capitals Adana

Chronology

1516 Icorporation (by submission) into the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
under Selim I 1516–1608 Dynasty members as Beys of Ottoman sanjak of Adana
Adana
until 1608.

Important centers and extension:

Adana Tarsus

Dynasty:

Ibrahim Bey (1344-?) Ahmed Bey (?-1416) Ibrahim Bey (1416–1417) Hamza Bey (1417–1427) Mehmed Bey (1427-?) Eyluk Bey (? - ?) Dündar Bey (? - ?) Omer Bey (?-1490) Giyas al-Din Halil Bey (1490–1511) Hahmud Bey (1511–1516) Selim Bey (?-?) Kubad Bey (1517-?)

Sahib Ataids
Sahib Ataids
(1275–1341)

Founder Sahib Ata Fahreddin Ali, vizier of the Seljuk Sultanate
Sultanate
of Rum Capital Afyonkarahisar

Chronology

1341 Incorporation into the Beylik of Germiyan

Important centers and extension:

Akşehir Beyşehir Sandıklı Denizli

Dynasty

Sahib Ata Fahreddin Ali (1275–1288) and sons Nusreddin Ahmed (1288–1341)

Important works:

Sâhib Ata Caravanserai
Caravanserai
in Sultandağı

Sarukhanids
Sarukhanids
(1302–1410)

Founder Saruhan Bey Capital Manisa

Important centers and extension:

Demirci Nif (Kemalpaşa) Akhisar Gördes Menemen

Dynasty

Saruhan Bey (1302–1345) Fahreddin Ilyas Bey Muzafferuddin Ishak Bey (-1388) Hızır Shah (1388–1390)

Chronology

1390 First period of incorporation (by submission) into the Ottoman Empire under Bayezid I
Bayezid I
the Thunderbolt 1402–1410 Second period of Beylik restituted by Tamerlane
Tamerlane
to Saruhanoğlu Orhan Bey (1402–1403) Hızır Shah (1403–1410) 1410 Second and last incorporation (by conquest) into the Ottoman realm under Mehmed I

Teke (1301–1423)

Ancestors Hamidoğlu dynasty Founder Tekeoğlu Yunus Bey Capitals Antalya Korkuteli

Important centers and extension:

Antalya
Antalya
(lost to the Kingdom of Cyprus
Kingdom of Cyprus
between 1361–1373) Teke Peninsula

Dynasty:

Tekeoğlu Yunus Bey (1301-?) Tekeoğlu Mehmud Bey (?-1327) Tekeoğlu Hızır Bey (? - ?) Tekeoğlu Dadı Bey (?-?) Zincirkıran Mehmed Bey (~1360 - ~1375) Tekeoğlu Osman Bey (~1375–1390)

Chronology

1390 First period of incorporation (by conquest) into the Ottoman Empire under Bayezid I
Bayezid I
the Thunderbolt 1402–1423 Second period of Beylik restituted by Tamerlane
Tamerlane
to Tekeoğlu Osman Bey (1402–1423) 1423 Second and last incorporation (by conquest) into the Ottoman realm under Murad II

Important works:

Yivli Minare Mosque
Mosque
in Antalya
Antalya
(~1375)

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House of Seljuq

Early Seljuqids

Seljuk Mikail Arslan Isra'il Musa Yabghu

Sultans of the Seljuq Empire
Seljuq Empire
(1037–1194)

Toghrul-Beg Alp Arslan Malik-Shah I Mahmud I Barkiyaruq Malik-Shah II Muhammad I Mahmud II and Ahmad Sanjar Dawud Toghrul II Masud Malik-Shah III Muhammad II Suleiman-Shah Arslan-Shah Toghrul III

Governors of Khorasan (1040–1118)

Chaghri-Beg Alp Arslan Arslan-Shah Toghan-Shah Arslan-Argun Ahmad Sanjar

Governors of Kerman (1048–1188)

Qawurd-Beg Kerman-Shah Husein Sultan-Shah Turan-Shah I Iran-Shah Arslan-Shah I Muhammad-Shah I Toghrul-Shah Bahram-Shah Arslan-Shah II Turan-Shah II Muhammad-Shah II

Governors of Damascus (1078–1105)

Atsiz ibn Uvaq Tutush I Duqaq Tutush II Begtash

Governors of Aleppo
Aleppo
(1094–1117)

Tutush I Radwan Alp Arslan Sultan-Shah

Sultans of Rum (1092–1307)

Qutalmish Suleyman I Kilij Arslan I Malik-Shah Mesud I Kilij Arslan II Kaykhusraw I Suleiman II Kilij Arslan III Kaykaus I Kayqubad I Kaykhusraw II Kaykaus II Kilij Arslan IV Kayqubad II Kaykhusraw III Mesud II Kayqubad III

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States in late medieval Anatolia
Anatolia
(after 1071)

Muslim states

Ahis Akkoyunlu Alaiye Artuqids Aydınids Canik Chobanids Çubukoğulları Danishmends Dilmaç Beylik of Dulkadir Eretnids Erzincan Eshrefids Germiyanids Hacıemir Hamidids İnal Isfendiyarids Kadi Burhan al-Din Kara Koyunlu Karamanids Karasids Ladik Mengujekids Menteshe Ottoman Empire Pervâneoğlu Ramazanids Shah-Armens Sultanate
Sultanate
of Rum Sahib Ataids Saltukids Sarukhanids Tacettinids Tanrıbermiş Teke Tzachas

Christian
Christian
states

Byzantine Empire Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Empire of Nicaea Empire of Trebizond Knights Hospitaller Latin Empire Philaretos Brachamios Zaccaria family

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Histo

.