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The Kedah
Kedah
Sultanate is a Muslim dynasty located in the Malay Peninsula. Originally an independent state, it became a British Protectorate in 1909. Its monarchy was abolished after it was added to the Malayan Union
Malayan Union
but was restored and added to the Malayan Union's successor, the Federation of Malaya. The information regarding the formation of this sultanate and the history before and after its creation comes from the " Kedah
Kedah
Annals". The Kedah
Kedah
Annals were written in the eighteenth century, over a millennium after the formation of the Kedah
Kedah
Kingdom. It describes the first king of Kedah
Kedah
as arriving on the shores of Kedah
Kedah
as a result of an attack by a mythical gigantic beast. It states that the nation was founded by the offspring of Alexander the Great; who maintained ties with Rome throughout his reign (oddly two centuries after the decline of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
due to sacks by the Visigoths and Vandals in 410 and 455). The Kedah
Kedah
Annals also provide us with very unreliable information regarding the sultans of Kedah. Listing the first sultan of Kedah
Kedah
as Sultan
Sultan
Mudzafar Shah I centuries before the partitioning of the Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
into distinct sultanates and almost three centuries prior to the contradictory claims of the Terengganu
Terengganu
Inscription Stone. This claim also directly contradicts the fact that the Buddhist Srivijaya
Srivijaya
kingdom was in direct control of Kedah
Kedah
at the time that Sultan
Sultan
Mudzafar Shah I allegedly converted the region to a sultanate.

Contents

1 History

1.1 The king from Gemeron 1.2 Conversion to Islam

2 List of rulers

2.1 Hindu
Hindu
era 2.2 Islamic era

3 Culture

3.1 Nobat

4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Kedah

Map of the early Kadaha kingdom and the Early transpeninsular routeway

Ancient artefact found in Kedah

Around 170 CE a group of native refugees of Hindu
Hindu
faith arrived at Kedah, joining them soon were peoples from nearby islands and from the northern Mon-Khmer
Mon-Khmer
region.[citation needed] Ancient Kedah
Kedah
covered the areas of Kuala Bahang, Kuala Bara, Kuala Pila and Merpah, and the inhabitants of Kedah
Kedah
appointed Tun Derma Dewa and Tun Perkasa as their village chiefs. The king from Gemeron[edit] In 630 CE, Maharaja
Maharaja
Derbar Raja of Gemeron (now known as Bandar Abbas) in Persia
Persia
was defeated in battle and escaped to Sri
Sri
Lanka, and he was later blown off course by a storm to the remote shores of Kuala Sungai Qilah, Kedah.[citation needed] The inhabitants of Kedah
Kedah
found him to be a valiant and intelligent person, and they made him the king of Kedah. In 634 CE, a new kingdom was formed in Kedah
Kedah
consisting of Persian royalty and native Malay of Hindu
Hindu
faith, the capital was Langkasuka.[citation needed] Conversion to Islam[edit] Based on the account given in Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa
Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa
(also known as the Kedah
Kedah
Annals), the Sultanate of Kedah
Kedah
started in year 1136 when King Phra Ong Mahawangsa converted to Islam
Islam
and adopted the name Sultan
Sultan
Mudzafar Shah. However, an Acehnese account gave a date of 1474 for the year of conversion to Islam
Islam
by the ruler of Kedah. This later date accords with an account in the Malay Annals where a raja of Kedah visited Malacca
Malacca
during the reign of its last sultan seeking the honour of the royal band that marks the sovereignty of a Muslim ruler.[1] List of rulers[edit] The list of rulers of Kedah
Kedah
as given here is based to some extent on the Kedah
Kedah
Annals beginning with the Hindu
Hindu
ruler Durbar Raja I. According to the Kedah
Kedah
Annals, the 9th Kedah
Kedah
Maharaja
Maharaja
Derbar Raja converted to Islam
Islam
and changed his name to Sultan
Sultan
Muzaffar Shah, thereby started the Kedah
Kedah
Sultanate.[2] The historicity and the dating of the list of rulers however is questionable as Kedah
Kedah
may have remained Hindu-Buddhist until the 15th century when its king converted to Islam.[3] Hindu
Hindu
era[edit] The following is a list of kings of Kadaram, nine in total. Each used the Hindu
Hindu
title of Sri
Sri
Paduka
Paduka
Maharaja. The exact dates of each king's reign are not known.

Durbar Raja I (330–390) Diraja Putra (390-440) Maha Dewa I (440-465) Karna Diraja (465-512) Karma (512-580) Maha Dewa II (580-620) Maha Dewa III (620-660) Diraja Putra II (660-712) Darma Raja (712-788) Maha Jiwa (788-832) Karma II (832-880) Darma Raja II (880-956) Durbar Raja II (956–1136; succeeded as Sultan
Sultan
of Kedah, see below)

Source for the list of sultans is the Muzium Negeri Kedah, Alor Setar, Malaysia. "The sultans of Kedah".[citation needed]

Islamic era[edit] The beginning of the use of the title sultan in Kedah
Kedah
is attributed to a visit by a Muslim scholar from Yemen, Sheikh Abdullah bin Ja'afar Quamiri, to Durbar Raja II's palace at Bukit Mariam in 1136.[citation needed] The audience resulted in the king's conversion to Islam. He adopted the name "Mudzaffar Shah" and established the sultanate of Kedah, which continues to rule today.[2] The source for the list of sultans given here is the official genealogy given for the Sultan
Sultan
of Kedah.[4] There are however discrepancies with the Kedah
Kedah
Annals as it lists only 5 sultans from the first convert Mudzaffar Shah to Sulaiman Shah who was captured by Aceh in 1619, in contrast to the twelve listed here. The rest of the list largely follows as that given in the Kedah
Kedah
Annals with the exception of a few changes and more recent updates in the 20th and 21th century.[5]

Sultans of Kedah

Number Sultan Reign

1 Mudzaffar Shah I 1136–1179

2 Mu'adzam Shah l 1179–1201

3 Muhammad Shah l 1201–1236

4 Mudzaffar Shah II 1236–1280

5 Mahmud Shah I 1280– 1321

6 Ibrahim Shah l 1321– 1373

7 Sulaiman Shah I 1373–1422

8 Ataullah Muhammad Shah I 1422–1472

9 Muhammad Jiwa Zainal Adilin Mu'adzam Shah I 1472–1506

10 Mahmud Shah II 1506–1546

11 Mudzaffar Shah III 1546–1602

12 Sulaiman Shah II 1602–1625

13 Rijaluddin Muhammad Shah l 1625–1651

14 Muhyiddin Mansur Shah 1651–1661

15 Dzhuiaddin Mukarram Shah I 1661–1687

16 Ataullah Muhammad Shah II 1687–1698

17 Abdullah Mu'adzam Shah 1698–1706

18 Ahmad Tajuddin Halim Shah I 1706–1709

19 Muhammad Jiwa Zainal Adilin Mu'adzam Shah II 1710–1778

20 Abdullah Mukarram Shah l 1778–1797

21 Ahmad Tajuddin Halim Shah II 1797–1843

22 Zainal Rashid Al-Mu'adzam Shah I 1843–1854

23 Ahmad Tajuddin Mukarram Shah 1854–1879

24 Zainal Rashid Mu'adzam Shah II 1879–1881

25 Abdul Hamid Halim Shah ll 1881–1943

26 Badlishah Shah 1943–1958

27 Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah 1958–2017

28 Mahmud Sallehuddin Mu'adzam Shah 2017- present

Culture[edit] Nobat[edit] The Nobat musical instruments of Nagara and Nepiri were introduced to Kedah
Kedah
by Maharaja
Maharaja
Derbar Raja. The instrument is also called semambu. The band is led by the king, and it consists of drums, a gong, a flute and a trumpet. Today, Nobat is a Royal orchestra, played only during royal ceremonies such as inaugurations, weddings, and funerals. The building which houses the instruments and where the ensemble rehearses is known as the Balai Nobat, literally the Office of Nobat, in Alor Setar city proper. See also[edit]

Bujang Valley Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa Sultanate of Johor Sultanate of Malacca Sultanate of Singgora List of Sunni Muslim dynasties

Notes[edit]

^ Winstedt, Richard (December 1936). "Notes on the History of Kedah". Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 14 (3 (126)): 155–189.  ^ a b "Kedah: Intro and Background". Go2Travelmalaysia.com. Capslock Sdn Bhd. Retrieved 4 March 2011.  ^ "The Development of Kedah's Early History Based on Archeological Finds". MyKedah.  ^ Kedah
Kedah
State Public Library (2003). "The genealogy of His Highnesses". Our Sultan. Retrieved 29 August 2010.  ^ R. O. Winstedt (December 1938). "The Kedah
Kedah
Annals". Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 16 (2 (131)): 31–35. 

References[edit]

Mohammad Isa Othman, Politik Tradisional Kedah
Kedah
1681–1942, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kuala Lumpur, 1990

External links[edit]

List of Kedah
Kedah
sultans [1][permanent dead link] (in Malay) Nobat

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Rulers of the States and federal territories of Malaysia

Sultan

Johor Sultan
Sultan
Ibrahim Kedah Tuanku Sallehuddin Kelantan Sultan
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Sultan
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