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Sullivan's Island is a town and island in Charleston County, South Carolina, United States, at the entrance to Charleston Harbor, with a population of 1,791 at the 2010 census.[3] The town is part of the Charleston metropolitan area, and is considered a very affluent suburb of Charleston. Sullivan's Island was the point of entry for approximately 40 percent of the 400,000 enslaved Africans brought to British North America; it has been likened to Ellis Island, the 19th-century reception point for immigrants in New York City.[4] During the American Revolution, the island was the site of a major battle at Fort Sullivan on June 28, 1776, since renamed Fort Moultrie
Fort Moultrie
in honor of the American commander at the battle. On September 23, 1989, Hurricane Hugo
Hurricane Hugo
came ashore near Sullivan's Island; few people were prepared for the destruction that followed in its wake. The eye of the hurricane passed directly over Sullivan's Island. The Ben Sawyer Bridge
Ben Sawyer Bridge
was a casualty, breaking free of its locks. Before the storm was over, one end of the bridge was in the water and the other was pointing skyward. Sullivan's Island police chief, Jack Lilien, was the last person to leave the island before the bridge gave way.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Fort Moultrie

2 Geography 3 Airport 4 Demographics

4.1 Ethnicity

5 Literary references 6 Other references 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

History[edit]

Circa 1900 building on Sullivan's Island, renovated for use as condominiums

The island was known as O'Sullivan's Island,[clarification needed] named for Captain Florence O'Sullivan, who was stationed here as a lookout in the late 17th century. O'Sullivan was captain of one of the ships in the first fleet to establish English and Irish settlement at Charleston. In 1671, he became surveyor general. He appears in the earliest record of Irish immigration to the Carolinas, mentioned as being taken on "at Kingsayle (Kinsale) in Ireland". Sullivan's Island was used as a quarantine station for African captives before they were disembarked at Charleston, the port of entry for over 40% of the estimated 400,000 slaves transported from Africa to the Britain's North American Colonies, making it the largest slave port in North America. It is estimated that nearly half of all African Americans have ancestors who passed through Sullivan's Island.

"There is no suitable memorial, or plaque, or wreath or wall, or park or skyscraper lobby," writer Toni Morrison
Toni Morrison
said in 1989.[5] "There's no 300-foot tower, there's no small bench by the road."

On July 26, 2008, the Toni Morrison
Toni Morrison
Society dedicated a small bench on Sullivan's Island to the memory of the Africans forced into slavery [5] ; the memorial was privately funded.[6] In 2009, the National Park Service installed a commemorative marker at Fort Moultrie describing the Sullivan's Island Quarantine Station. Albert Wheeler Todd, an architect from Charleston, designed a town hall for the island.[7] The Atlanticville Historic District, Battery Gadsden, Battery Thomson, Fort Moultrie
Fort Moultrie
Quartermaster and Support Facilities Historic District, Moultrieville Historic District, Dr. John B. Patrick House, Sullivan's Island Historic District, and U.S. Coast Guard Historic District
U.S. Coast Guard Historic District
are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[8] Fort Moultrie[edit]

The Moultrie Flag
Moultrie Flag
(also known as the Liberty Flag) being raised over Fort Moultrie, after its successful defense against British invaders

On June 28, 1776, an incomplete fort was held by colonial forces under Colonel
Colonel
William Moultrie against an onslaught by the British under General
General
Sir Henry Clinton's army sailing with Commodore Sir Peter Parker's men-of-war. The British cannon had no effect on the sand-filled palmetto log walls of the fort; only the shots that came over the walls took any lives. During this battle, a flag designed by Moultrie flew over the fortress; it was dark blue with a crescent moon on it bearing the word "liberty". When this flag was shot down, Sergeant William Jasper reportedly picked it up and held it aloft, rallying the troops until a new standard could be provided. Because of the importance of this pivotal battle that flag became symbolic of liberty in South Carolina, the South, and the nation as a whole. The Battle of Sullivan's Island
Battle of Sullivan's Island
was commemorated by the addition of a white palmetto tree to the flag used to rally that day, the Moultrie Flag; this became the basis of the flag of South Carolina. The victory is celebrated and June 28 is known as Carolina Day. The history of the island has been dominated by Fort Moultrie, which, until its closure in the late 1940s, served as the base of command for the defense of Charleston. After World War II, the Department of Defense concluded that such coastal defense installations were no longer needed given current technology and style of war. Geography[edit] Sullivan's Island is located along the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
near the center of Charleston County. The town is bordered to the west by the entrance to Charleston Harbor, to the north by Cove Inlet and the Intracoastal Waterway, and to the east by Breach Inlet and Swinton Creek. The Ben Sawyer Bridge connects Sullivan's Island to Mount Pleasant to the north. A bridge spanning Breach Inlet connects it to Isle of Palms to the east. By road it is 9 miles (14 km) north and then west into Charleston. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the town of Sullivan's Island has a total area of 3.4 square miles (8.9 km2), of which 2.5 square miles (6.5 km2) is land and 0.93 square miles (2.4 km2), or 27.36%, is water.[3] Airport[edit] The town of Sullivan's Island is served by the Charleston International Airport. It is located in the City
City
of North Charleston and is about 12 miles (20 km) northwest of Sullivan's Island. It is the busiest passenger airport in South Carolina
South Carolina
(IATA: CHS, ICAO: KCHS). The airport shares runways with the adjacent Charleston Air Force Base. Charleston Executive Airport
Charleston Executive Airport
is a smaller airport located in the John's Island section of the city of Charleston and is used by noncommercial aircraft. Both airports are owned and operated by the Charleston County Aviation Authority. Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Census Pop.

1960 1,358

1970 1,426

5.0%

1980 1,867

30.9%

1990 1,623

−13.1%

2000 1,911

17.7%

2010 1,791

−6.3%

Est. 2016 1,936 [9] 8.1%

U.S. Decennial Census[10]

The beach at Sullivan's Island

As of the census[1] of 2000, there were 1,911 people, 797 households, and 483 families residing in the town. The population density was 787.2 people per square mile (303.6/km²). There were 1,045 housing units at an average density of 430.5 per square mile (166.0/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 98.74% White, 0.63% African American, 0.05% Native American, 0.16% Asian, and 0.42% from race were 0.84% of the population. . There were 797 households out of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.9% were married couples living together, 7.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.3% were non-families. 29.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.01. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.0% under the age of 18, 5.0% from 18 to 24, 29.0% from 25 to 44, 31.0% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 100.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $72,955, and the median income for a family was $96,455. Males had a median income of $58,571 versus $41,029 for females. The per capita income for the town was $49,427. About 1.4% of families and 4.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.2% of those under age 18 and 0.9% of those age 65 or over. Sullivan's Island has some of the highest per capita real estate costs in the United States. Although not the most expensive in the region, home values on Sullivan's Island, based on the small size of the island and number of regular residents, makes it one of the priciest locations. Ethnicity[edit] As of 2016 the largest self-reported ancestries/ethnicities in Sullivan's Island, South Carolina
South Carolina
were:

Largest ancestries (2016) Percent

English 19.5%

German 14.0%

Irish 12.6%

"American" 11.5%

French 10.0%

Scottish 6.0%

Italian 3.4%

Russian 2.8%

Polish 2.0%

Dutch 1.6%

[11] Literary references[edit]

The writer Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe
was stationed at Fort Moultrie
Fort Moultrie
from November 1827 to December 1828.[12] The island is a setting for much of his short story "The Gold-Bug" (1843). In Poe's short story "The Balloon-Hoax", a gas balloon is reported to have made a trip from Great Britain to Sullivan's Island in three days. The town library, situated in a refurbished military battery, is named after the poet, and streets such as Raven (after his narrative poem "The Raven" (1845)) and Gold Bug avenues commemorate his works. His poem Annabel Lee is said to be written about a girl Poe fell in love with when stationed in Fort Moultrie
Fort Moultrie
during the war.[13] The novel Sullivan's Island by Dorothea Benton Frank, is set here. Pat Conroy
Pat Conroy
set his semi-autobiographical memoir The Boo
The Boo
(1970) and the novel Beach Music (1995) here. In Lawrence Hill's novel, The Book of Negroes, the main character, Aminata Diallo, passes through Sullivan's Island in 1757 at the age of 11 after being kidnapped in Mali
Mali
and sold into slavery.

Other references[edit]

Charleston Light

E. Lee Spence, a pioneer underwater archaeologist, was a longtime resident of Sullivan's Island. In the 1960s and 1970s, he discovered many shipwrecks along its shores. Those discoveries included the Civil War blockade runners Flora, Beatrice, Stono, Flamingo, Prince Albert, and the Celt (also known as the Colt). In 1981, adventure novelist and marine archaeologist Clive Cussler
Clive Cussler
and his organization the National Underwater and Marine Agency discovered the wreck of the blockade runner Raccoon off Sullivan's Island. For most of its history, the town, located on the southwest half of the island, was known as "Moultrieville". Later, Atlanticville, a community on the north-east of the islands, merged with Moultrieville and together the two became the town of Sullivan's Island. In 1962, the new Charleston Light
Charleston Light
was built. In May 2006, the Town
Town
of Sullivan's Island became the first municipality in South Carolina
South Carolina
to ban smoking in all public places. The ordinance passed 4-2 and the ban went into effect in June.[14] Several districts and properties on Sullivans' Island have been listed in the National Register of Historic Places: Atlanticville Historic District,[15] Moultrieville Historic District,[16] Sullivans Island Historic District,[17] Fort Moultrie
Fort Moultrie
Historic District,[18] U. S. Coast Guard Historic District,[19] Battery Gadsden[20] and Battery Thomson.[21] See also[edit]

American Revolution
American Revolution
portal South Carolina
South Carolina
portal Islands portal

Battle of Sullivan's Island John Henry Devereux, a South Carolina
South Carolina
architect who had the largest mansion on the island

References[edit]

^ a b "American FactFinder". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.  ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States
United States
Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.  ^ a b "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Census Summary File
File
1 (G001): Sullivan's Island town, South Carolina". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved June 30, 2015.  ^ "African Slave Traditions Live On in U.S.", CNN. ^ Morrison, Toni. "a bench by the road". uuworld.org. Retrieved 2014-04-15.  ^ Lee, Felicia R. (July 28, 2008). "Bench of Memory at Slavery's Gateway". The New York Times.  ^ The Buildings of Charleston: A Guide to the City's Architecture By Jonathan H. Poston, page 316 ^ National Park Service
National Park Service
(2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.  ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.  ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.  ^ https://factfinder.census.gov/bkmk/table/1.0/en/ACS/16_5YR/DP02/1600000US4570090 ^ Sova, Dawn B. Edgar Allan Poe: A to Z. New York: Checkmark Books, 2001: 98. ISBN 0-8160-4161-X. ^ "Chasing Poe's ghost in Charleston". Baltimore Sun. October 7, 2014.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-07-19. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ "SCDAH". Nationalregister.sc.gov. 2007-09-06. Retrieved 2014-04-15.  ^ "SCDAH". Nationalregister.sc.gov. 2007-09-06. Retrieved 2014-04-15.  ^ "SCDAH". Nationalregister.sc.gov. 2007-09-06. Retrieved 2014-04-15.  ^ "SCDAH". Nationalregister.sc.gov. 2007-09-06. Retrieved 2014-04-15.  ^ "SCDAH". Nationalregister.sc.gov. 1973-06-19. Retrieved 2014-04-15.  ^ "SCDAH". Nationalregister.sc.gov. 1974-06-25. Retrieved 2014-04-15.  ^ "SCDAH". Nationalregister.sc.gov. 1974-06-25. Retrieved 2014-04-15. 

Further reading[edit]

Gadsden Cultural Center; McMurphy, Make; Williams, Sullivan (October 4, 2004). Sullivan's Island/Images of America. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-7385-1678-3.  "Hurricane Hugo: A Landmark in Time" (2009). The Post and Courier, Charleston, SC-Evening Post Publishing Company. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-9825154-0-2.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sullivan's Island, South Carolina.

Official website The Island Eye News, local Sullivan's Island publication Real Estate Listings, Homes On Sullivan's Island for Sale

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Charleston County, South Carolina, United States

County seat: Charleston

Cities

Charleston‡ Folly Beach Goose Creek‡ Isle of Palms North Charleston‡

Towns

Awendaw Hollywood James Island Kiawah Island Lincolnville‡ McClellanville Meggett Mount Pleasant Ravenel Rockville Seabrook Island Sullivan's Island Summerville‡

CDP

Ladson‡

Unincorporated communities

Adams Run Edisto Island‡ Johns Island

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

v t e

Immigration to the United States
United States
and related topics

Relevant colonial era, United States
United States
and international laws

Colonial era

Nationality law in the American Colonies Plantation Act 1740

18th century

Naturalization Act 1790 / 1795 / 1798

19th century

Naturalization Law 1802 Civil Rights Act of 1866 14th Amendment (1868) Naturalization Act 1870 Page Act (1875) Immigration Act of 1882 Chinese Exclusion (1882) Scott Act (1888) Immigration Act of 1891 Geary Act
Geary Act
(1892)

1900–1949

Naturalization Act 1906 Gentlemen's Agreement (1907) Immigration Act of 1907 Immigration Act 1917 (Asian Barred Zone) Emergency Quota Act
Emergency Quota Act
(1921) Cable Act
Cable Act
(1922) Immigration Act 1924 Tydings–McDuffie Act
Tydings–McDuffie Act
(1934) Filipino Repatriation Act (1935) Nationality Act of 1940 Bracero Program (1942–1964) Magnuson Act
Magnuson Act
(1943) War Brides Act (1945) Luce–Celler Act (1946)

1950–1999

UN Refugee Convention (1951) Immigration and Nationality Act 1952 / 1965 Refugee Act
Refugee Act
(1980) Immigration Reform and Control Act (1986) American Homecoming Act
American Homecoming Act
(1989) Immigration Act 1990 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) (1996) Nicaraguan Adjustment and Central American Relief Act (NACARA) (1997) American Competitiveness and Workforce Improvement Act (ACWIA) (1998)

21st century

American Competitiveness in the 21st Century Act (AC21) (2000) Legal Immigration Family Equity Act (LIFE Act) (2000) H-1B Visa Reform Act (2004) REAL ID Act
REAL ID Act
(2005) Secure Fence Act (2006) DACA (2012) Executive Order 13769
Executive Order 13769
(2017) Executive Order 13780
Executive Order 13780
(2017)

Visas and policies

Visa policy

Permanent residence Visa Waiver Program Temporary protected status Asylum Green Card Lottery

US-VISIT Security Advisory Opinion E-Verify Section 287(g) National Origins Formula

Government organizations

Department of Homeland Security Immigration and Customs Enforcement U.S. Border Patrol U.S. Customs and Border Protection Immigration and Naturalization Service
Immigration and Naturalization Service
(INS) Board of Immigration Appeals

Supreme Court cases

United States
United States
v. Wong Kim Ark (1898) United States
United States
v. Bhagat Singh Thind (1923) United States
United States
v. Brignoni-Ponce (1975) Chamber of Commerce v. Whiting
Chamber of Commerce v. Whiting
(2011)

Related issues and events

Economic impact Eugenics in the United States Guest worker program Human trafficking Human smuggling

Coyotaje

Immigration reform Immigration reduction Mexico– United States
United States
barrier Labor shortage March for America Illegal immigrant population Reverse immigration 2006 protests Unaccompanied minors from Central America List of people deported from the United States

Geography

Mexico– United States
United States
border Canada– United States
United States
border United States
United States
Border Patrol interior checkpoints

Proposed legislation

DREAM Act
DREAM Act
(2001–2010) H.R. 4437 (2005) McCain–Kennedy (2005) SKIL (2006) Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act 2006 STRIVE Act (2007) Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act 2007 Uniting American Families Act
Uniting American Families Act
(2000–2013) Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act of 2013 SAFE Act (2015) RAISE Act
RAISE Act
(2017)

Immigration stations and points of entry

Angel Island Castle Garden East Boston Ellis Island Sullivan's Island Washington Avenue

Operations

"Wetback" (1954) "Peter Pan" (1960–1962) "Babylift" (1975) "Gatekeeper" (1994) "Endgame" (2003–2012) "Front Line" (2004–2005) "Streamline" (2005–present) "Return to Sender" (2006–2007) "Jump Start" (2006–2008) "Phalanx" (2010–2016)

State legislation

California DREAM Act
DREAM Act
(2006–2010) Arizona SB 1070
Arizona SB 1070
(2010) Alabama HB 56 (2011)

Non-governmental organizations

Arizona Border Recon Coalition for Humane Immigrant Rights of Los Angeles Coalition for Comprehensive Immigration Reform National Immigration Forum Center for Community Change We Are America Alliance CASA of Maryland Mexica Movement Mexicans Without Borders Federation for American Immigration Reform Minuteman Project Minuteman Civil Defense Corps California Coalition for Immigration Reform Save Our State Center for Immigration Studies National Korean American Service & Education Consortium (NAKASEC) NumbersUSA Negative Population Growth Migration Policy Institute Utah Compact Center for Migration S

.