SUFISM or _TAṣAWWUF_ (
Arabic: التصوف), which is often
defined as "
Islamicmysticism ," "the inward dimension of
or "the phenomenon of mysticism within
Islam," is a mystical trend
Islam"characterized ... values, ritual practices, doctrines and
institutions" which began very early on in
Islamichistory and which
represents "the main manifestation and the most important and central
crystallization of" mystical practice in Islam. Although the
overwhelming majority of Sufis, both pre-modern and modern, have been
adherents of Sunni
Islam, there nevertheless also developed certain
Sufipractice within the ambit of
late medieval period.
Sufismhave been referred to as "Sufis" (/ˈsuːfi/
; صُوفِيّ ; _ṣūfī_), an
Arabicword which is believed by
historians to have originally indicated the "woollen clothes
(_ṣūf_) or rough garb" worn by the early
Historically, they have often belonged to different _ṭuruq _ or
"orders"—congregations formed around a grand master referred to as a
_mawla _ who traces a direct chain of teachers back to the Islamic
Muhammad. These orders meet for spiritual sessions
(_majalis_) in meeting places known as _zawiyas _, _khanqahs _, or
_tekke_. They strive for _ihsan _ (perfection of worship) as detailed
in a hadith : "
Ihsanis to worship
Allahas if you see Him; if you
can't see Him, surely He sees you."
on to Muhammad, like
Abu Bakr." Sufis regard
al-Kāmil _, the primary perfect man who exemplifies the morality of
God, and regard
Muhammadas their leader and prime spiritual guide.
Sufiorders trace many of their original precepts from Muhammad
through his son-in-law
Aliwith the notable exception of the
Naqshbandi, who claim to trace their origins from
the first Rashid Caliph,
Abu Bakr. The orders largely follow one of
the four madhhabs (jurisprudent schools of thought) of Sunni
maintain a Sunni aqidah (creed).
Classical Sufis were characterized by their asceticism , especially
by their attachment to dhikr , the practice of repeating the names of
God, often performed after prayers. They gained adherents among a
Muslimsas a reaction against the worldliness of the early
Umayyad Caliphate(661–750). and have spanned several continents
and cultures over a millennium, originally expressing their beliefs in
Arabicbefore spreading into Persian , Turkish , and
of other languages. According to
William Chittick, "In a broad
Sufismcan be described as the interiorization, and
Islamicfaith and practice."
* 1 Terminology
* 2 Etymology
* 3 History
* 3.1 Origins
* 3.2 As an
* 3.3 Formalization of doctrine
* 3.4 Growth of influence
* 3.5 Present
* 4 Aims and objectives
* 4.1 Teachings
* 4.4 Traditional
* 4.5 Traditional and Neo-
* 5 Theoretical perspectives
* 5.1 Contributions to other domains of scholarship
* 6 Devotional practices
* 6.4 Visitation
* 7 Persecution
* 7.1 History
* 7.2 Current attacks
* 188.8.131.52 Timeline
* 7.2.2 Kashmir,
* 7.2.3 Somalia
* 7.2.4 Mali
* 7.2.8 Dagestan
* 8 Prominent Sufis
* 8.1 Abul Hasan ash-
Junayd of Baghdad
* 8.8 Ahmed Ullah Maizbhandari
* 8.9 Rabi\'a al-\'Adawiyya
* 9.2 Chishti
* 9.4 Mawlawiyya
* 9.6.1 Khālidīyyā
* 9.6.2 Sülaymānīyyā
* 9.6.3 Haqqānīyyā
* 9.6.4 Naqshbandia Mujaddidia Najmiya Riyaziya
* 9.8 Nurbakshi
* 9.10 Qadiri
* 9.11 Sarwari Qadri
* 9.12 Maizbhandari
* 10 Symbols associated with the
* 11 Reception
* 11.1 Critique of Sufism\'s anti-materialistic aspects
* 11.2 Perception outside
* 11.3 Influence on
* 12 In popular culture
* 12.1 Films
* 12.2 Music
* 12.3 Literature
* 13 Gallery
* 14 See also
* 15 References
* 16 Bibliography
* 17 External links
The term _Sufism_ came into being, not by
Islamictexts or Sufis
themselves but by British Orientalists who wanted to create an
artificial divide between what they found attractive in Islamic
Islamicspirituality) and the negative stereotypes
that were present in Britain about Islam. These British orientalists,
therefore, fabricated a divide that was previously non-existent. The
term _Sufism_ has, however, persisted especially in the Western world
Muslimshave used the
Arabicword _taṣawwuf_ to
identify the practice of Sufis. Mainstream scholars of
Sufismas the name for the inner or esoteric dimension of
Islam which is supported and complemented by outward or exoteric
practices of Islam, such as
Sharia. In this view, "it is absolutely
necessary to be a Muslim" to be a true Sufi, because Sufism's "methods
are inoperative without" Muslim "affiliation". However, Islamic
scholars themselves are not by any means in agreement about the
meaning of the word "sufi".
Sufis themselves claim that Tasawwuf is an aspect of
Sharia, inseparable from
Islamand an integral part of
and practice. Classical
Sufischolars have defined Tasawwuf as "a
science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it
away from all else but God". Traditional Sufis such as Bayazid
Haji Bektash Veli
Haji Bektash Veli,
Junayd of Baghdad, and
Sufismas purely based upon the tenets of Islam
and the teachings of Muhammad.
The original meaning of _sufi_ seems to have been "one who wears wool
(_ṣūf_)", and Encyclopaedia of
Islamcalls other etymological
hypotheses "untenable". Woollen clothes were traditionally
associated with ascetics and mystics.
Al-Qushayriand Ibn Khaldun
both rejected all possibilities other than _ṣūf_ on linguistic
Another explanation traces the lexical root of the word to _ṣafā_
_(صفاء)_, which in
Arabicmeans "purity". These two explanations
were combined by the
Sufial-Rudhabari (d. 322 AH), who said, "The
Sufiis the one who wears wool on top of purity".
Others have suggested that the word comes from the term _ahl
aṣ-ṣuffah_ ("the people of the bench"), who were a group of
impoverished companions of
Muhammadwho held regular gatherings of
dhikr . These men and women who sat at al-Masjid an-Nabawi are
considered by some to be the first Sufis.
History of Sufism
Aliis considered to be the "Father of Sufism" in
Sufiorders are based on the _bayʿah_ (pledge of allegiance) that
was given to
Sahabah. By pledging allegiance to
Sahabahhad committed themselves to the service of God.
Islamicbelief, by pledging allegiance to Muhammad, the
Sahaba have pledged allegiance to God.
Verily, those who give Bai'âh (pledge) to you (O Muhammad) they are
giving Bai'âh (pledge) to Allâh. The Hand of Allâh is over their
hands. Then whosoever breaks his pledge, breaks it only to his own
harm, and whosoever fulfils what he has covenanted with Allâh, He
will bestow on him a great reward. -
Sufis believe that by giving bayʿah (pledging allegiance) to a
Sufishaykh, one is pledging allegiance to
therefore a spiritual connection between the seeker and
established. It is through
Muhammadthat Sufis aim to learn about,
understand and connect with God.
Aliis regarded as one of the major
figures amongst the Sahaba who have directly pledged allegiance to
Muhammadand Sufis maintain that through Ali, knowledge about Muhammad
and a connection with
Muhammadmay be attained. Such a concept may be
understood by the hadith, which Sufis regard to be authentic, in which
Muhammadsaid, "I am the city of knowledge and
Aliis its gate".
Eminent Sufis such as
AliHujwiri refer to
Alias having a very high
ranking in Tasawwuf. Furthermore,
Junayd of Baghdadregarded
sheikh of the principals and practices of Tasawwuf.
Sufismhold that in its early stages of development
Sufismeffectively referred to nothing more than the internalization
of Islam. According to one perspective, it is directly from the
Qur'an, constantly recited, meditated, and experienced, that Sufism
proceeded, in its origin and its development. Other practitioners
have held that
Sufismis the strict emulation of the way of
through which the heart's connection to the Divine is strengthened.
Modern academics and scholars have rejected early orientalist
theories asserting a non-
Islamicorigin of Sufism, The consensus is
that it emerged in
Western Asia. Many have asserted
unique within the confines of the
Islamicreligion and contend that
Sufismdeveloped from people like
Bayazid Bastami, who, in his utmost
reverence to the sunnah , refused to eat a watermelon because he did
not find any proof that
Muhammadever ate it. According to the late
Muhammadibn al-Hanafiyyah (died
c. 716) was the first person to be called a "Sufi".
Important contributions in writing are attributed to Uwais al-Qarani
Hasan of Basra,
Said ibn al-Musayyib.
Ruwaym, from the second generation of Sufis in Baghdad, was also an
influential early figure, as was
Junayd of Baghdad; a number of
early practitioners of
Sufismwere disciples of one of the two.
Sufismhad a long history already before the subsequent
Sufiteachings into devotional orders
(_tarîqât_) in the early Middle Ages. The
Naqshbandiorder is a
notable exception to general rule of orders tracing their spiritual
lineage through Muhammad's grandsons, as it traces the origin of its
Muhammadto the first
Over the years
Sufiorders have influenced and have been adopted by
various Shi'i movements, especially Isma\'ilism , which led to the
Safaviyyaorder's conversion to
spread of Twelverism throughout Iran.
Sufiorders include Ba
Burhaniyya, Chishti ,
Naqshbandi, Ni\'matullāhī ,
Qalandariyya, Rifa\'i , Sarwari Qadiri ,
Tijaniyyah, Zinda Shah Madariya , and others.
AS AN ISLAMIC DISCIPLINE
Existing in both Sunni and
Sufismis not a distinct sect,
as is sometimes erroneously assumed, but a method of approaching or
a way of understanding the religion, which strives to take the
regular practice of the religion to the "supererogatory level"
through simultaneously "fulfilling ... religious duties" and finding
a "way and a means of striking a root through the 'narrow gate' in the
depth of the soul out into the domain of the pure arid unimprisonable
Spirit which itself opens out on to the Divinity."
As a mystic and ascetic aspect of Islam, it is considered as the part
Islamicteaching that deals with the purification of the inner
self. By focusing on the more spiritual aspects of religion, Sufis
strive to obtain direct experience of
Godby making use of "intuitive
and emotional faculties" that one must be trained to use. Tasawwuf is
regarded as a science of the soul that has always been an integral
part of Orthodox Islam. In his _Al-Risala al-Safadiyya_, ibn
Taymiyyah describes the Sufis as those who belong to the path of the
Sunna and represent it in their teachings and writings.
Sufiinclinations and his reverence for Sufis like
Abdul-Qadir Gilanican also be seen in his hundred-page commentary on
_Futuh al-ghayb_, covering only five of the seventy-eight sermons of
the book, but showing that he considered tasawwuf essential within the
life of the
In his commentary, Ibn Taymiyya stresses that the primacy of the
Shariaforms the soundest tradition in tasawwuf, and to argue this
point he lists over a dozen early masters, as well as more
contemporary shaykhs like his fellow Hanbalis , al-Ansari al-Harawi
and Abdul-Qadir, and the latter's own shaykh, Hammad al-Dabbas the
upright. He cites the early shaykhs (shuyukh al-salaf) such as
Al-Fuḍayl ibn ‘Iyāḍ,
Ibrahim ibn Adham, Ma`ruf al-Karkhi ,
Junayd of Baghdad, and others of the early teachers, as
Abdul-Qadir Gilani, Hammad, Abu al-Bayan and others of the
later masters— that they do not permit the followers of the Sufi
path to depart from the divinely legislated command and prohibition.
Al-Ghazalinarrates in _Al-Munqidh min al-dalal_:
The vicissitudes of life, family affairs and financial constraints
engulfed my life and deprived me of the congenial solitude. The heavy
odds confronted me and provided me with few moments for my pursuits.
This state of affairs lasted for ten years but wherever I had some
spare and congenial moments I resorted to my intrinsic proclivity.
During these turbulent years, numerous astonishing and indescribable
secrets of life were unveiled to me. I was convinced that the group of
Aulia (holy mystics) is the only truthful group who follow the right
path, display best conduct and surpass all sages in their wisdom and
insight. They derive all their overt or covert behaviour from the
illumining guidance of the holy Prophet, the only guidance worth quest
FORMALIZATION OF DOCTRINE
In the eleventh-century, Sufism, which had previously been a less
"codified" trend in
Islamicpiety, began to be "ordered and
crystallized" into orders which have continued until the present day.
All these orders were founded by a major
Islamicsaint , and some of
the largest and most widespread included the
Abdul-Qadir Gilani), the Rifa\'iyya (after Ahmed al-Rifa\'i ), the
Moinuddin Chishti), the
Shadhili), and the
Naqshband Bukhari ). Contrary to popular perception in the West,
however, neither the founders of these orders nor their followers ever
considered themselves to be anything other than orthodox Sunni
Muslims, and in fact all of these orders were attached to one of the
four orthodox legal schools of Sunni Islam. Thus, the Qadiriyya
Hanbali, with its founder,
Abdul-Qadir Gilani, being a
Hanbalijurist; the Chishtiyya was
Hanafi; the Shadiliyya
Maliki; and the
Hanafi. Thus, it
is precisely because it is historically proven that "many of the most
eminent defenders of
Islamicorthodoxy, such as
Ghazali, and the Sultan Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn (
Saladin) were connected
with Sufism" that the popular studies of writers like
continuously disregarded by scholars as conveying the fallacious image
that "Sufism" is somehow distinct from "Islam."
Towards the end of the first millennium, a number of manuals began to
be written summarizing the doctrines of
Sufismand describing some
Sufipractices. Two of the most famous of these are now
available in English translation: the _
Kashfal-Mahjûb _ of Ali
Hujwiri and the _Risâla_ of
Two of al-
Ghazali's greatest treatises are the _Revival of Religious
Sciences_ and what he termed "its essence", the _Kimiya-yi sa\'ādat
_. He argued that
Sufismoriginated from the
Qur'anand thus was
compatible with mainstream
Islamicthought and did not in any way
IslamicLaw—being instead necessary to its complete
fulfillment. Ongoing efforts by both traditionally trained Muslim
scholars and Western academics are making al-Ghazali's works more
widely available in English translation, allowing English-speaking
readers to judge for themselves the compatibility of
Sufidoctrine. Several sections of the _Revival of Religious Sciences_
have been published in translation by the
IslamicTexts Society. An
abridged translation (from an
Urdutranslation) of _The Alchemy of
Happiness_ was published by Claud Field (ISBN 978-0935782288 ) in
1910. It has been translated in full by
MuhammadAsim Bilal (2001).
GROWTH OF INFLUENCE
Afaq KhojaMausoleum near
Sufismbecame "an incredibly important part of Islam"
and "one of the most widespread and omnipresent aspects of Muslim
Islamiccivilization from the early medieval period onwards,
when it began to permeate nearly all major aspects of Sunni Islamic
life in regions stretching from
The rise of
Islamiccivilization coincides strongly with the spread
Sufi philosophyin Islam. The spread of
Sufismhas been considered
a definitive factor in the spread of Islam, and in the creation of
Islamiccultures, especially in Africa and Asia. The
Sudanare one of the strongest
adherents of Sufism.
Sufipoets and philosophers such as Khoja Akhmet
Attar of Nishapur
Attar of Nishapur(c. 1145 – c. 1221) greatly
enhanced the spread of
Sufismalso played a role in creating and
propagating the culture of the Ottoman world, and in resisting
European imperialism in North Africa and South Asia.
Between the 13th and 16th centuries,
Sufismproduced a flourishing
intellectual culture throughout the
Islamicworld, a "Golden Age"
whose physical artifacts survive. In many places a person or group
would endow a waqf to maintain a lodge (known variously as a _zawiya
_, _khanqah _, or _tekke_) to provide a gathering place for Sufi
adepts, as well as lodging for itinerant seekers of knowledge. The
same system of endowments could also pay for a complex of buildings,
such as that surrounding the
Süleymaniye Mosquein Istanbul,
including a lodge for
Sufiseekers, a hospice with kitchens where
these seekers could serve the poor and/or complete a period of
initiation, a library, and other structures. No important domain in
the civilization of
Islamremained unaffected by
Sufismcontinued to remain a crucial part of daily
the twentieth century , when its historical influence upon Islamic
civilization began to be undermined by modernism as well as be
combated by the rise of
Timothy Winterhas remarked: " classical, mainstream, medieval Sunni
Islam... 'orthodox Islam' would not ... without Sufism," and that
the classical belief in
Sufismbeing an essential component of Islam
has only weakened in some quarters of the
Islamicworld "a generation
or two ago" with the rise of
Salafism. In the modern world, the
classical interpretation of Sunni orthodoxy , which sees in
essential dimension of
Islamalongside the disciplines of
jurisprudence and theology , is represented by institutions such as
Zaytuna College, with Al-Azhar's
current Grand Imam
Ahmed el-Tayebrecently defining "Sunni orthodoxy"
as being a follower "of any of the four schools of thought (
Hanbali) and ... of the
Sufismof Imam Junayd
Baghdadin doctrines, manners and purification." Mawlānā
Ba \'Alawiyya ,
Naqshbandi, Mujaddidi ,
Ashrafi Family, Saifiah (Naqshbandiah),
Uwaisi. The relationship of
Sufiorders to modern societies is
usually defined by their relationship to governments.
Persiatogether have been a center for many
and orders. The
Bektashiwere closely affiliated with the Ottoman
Janissariesand is the heart of Turkey's large and mostly liberal
Alevi population. It has spread westwards to
Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia,
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina,
and, more recently, to the United States via Albania.
Sufismis popular in such African countries as
Senegal, where it is seen as a mystical
expression of Islam.
Sufismis traditional in
Moroccobut has seen a
growing revival with the renewal of
spiritual teachers such as
Hamza al Qadiri al Boutchichi. Mbacke
suggests that one reason
Sufismhas taken hold in
it can accommodate local beliefs and customs, which tend toward the
The life of the Algerian
Abdelkader El Djezairi
Abdelkader El Djezairiis
instructive in this regard. Notable as well are the lives of Amadou
El Hadj Umar Tallin
West Africa, and
Imam Shamilin the
Caucasus. In the twentieth century, some Muslims
Sufisma superstitious religion that holds back Islamic
achievement in the fields of science and technology.
A number of Westerners have embarked with varying degrees of success
on the path of Sufism. One of the first to return to
official representative of a
Sufiorder, and with the specific purpose
Sufismin Western Europe, was the Swedish -born wandering
René Guénon, the French scholar, became a Sufi
in the early twentieth century and was known as
Yahya. His manifold writings defined the practice of
Islambut also pointed to the universality of its message.
Other spiritualists, such as
George Gurdjieff, may or may not conform
to the tenets of
Sufismas understood by orthodox Muslims.
Sufiteachers who have been active in the West in
recent years include
Inayat Khan, Nazim
Irina Tweedie, Idries
Nahid Angha, and
Sufiacademics and publishers include Llewellyn
Nuh Ha Mim Keller
Nuh Ha Mim Keller, Abdullah
Nooruddeen Durkee, Waheed
Omer Tarin, Ahmed abdu r Rashid and
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The tomb of
Multan, Pakistan. Known for
Multanis often called the City of Saints.
Muslimsbelieve that they are on the pathway to
hope to become close to
Paradise—after death and after the
Last Judgment—Sufis also believe that it is possible to draw closer
Godand to more fully embrace the divine presence in this life.
The chief aim of all Sufis is to seek the pleasing of
to restore within themselves the primordial state of _fitra _,
described in the Quran. In this state nothing one does defies God, and
all is undertaken with the single motivation of _ishq _.
To Sufis, the outer law consists of rules pertaining to worship,
transactions, marriage, judicial rulings, and criminal law—what is
often referred to, broadly, as "qanun ". The inner law of Sufism
consists of rules about repentance from sin, the purging of
contemptible qualities and evil traits of character, and adornment
with virtues and good character.
Entrance of Sidi Boumediene
to honor the 12th-century
To the Sufi, it is the transmission of divine light from the
teacher's heart to the heart of the student, rather than worldly
knowledge, that allows the adept to progress. They further believe
that the teacher should attempt inerrantly to follow the Divine Law.
Moojan Momen"one of the most important doctrines of
Sufismis the concept of _al-Insan al-Kamil_ "the Perfect Man". This
doctrine states that there will always exist upon the earth a "
(Pole or Axis of the Universe)—a man who is the perfect channel of
Godto man and in a state of wilayah (sanctity, being under
the protection of Allah). The concept of the
Qutbis similar to
that of the Shi\'i Imam . However, this belief puts
"direct conflict" with
ShiaIslam, since both the
Qutb(who for most
Sufiorders is the head of the order) and the Imam fulfill the role of
"the purveyor of spiritual guidance and of Allah's grace to mankind".
The vow of obedience to the Shaykh or
Qutbwhich is taken by Sufis is
considered incompatible with devotion to the Imam".
As a further example, the prospective adherent of the Mevlevi Order
would have been ordered to serve in the kitchens of a hospice for the
poor for 1001 days prior to being accepted for spiritual instruction,
and a further 1,001 days in solitary retreat as a precondition of
completing that instruction. The Darbar Sharif of Shams Ali
Qalandar, located in
Hujra Shah Muqeem,
Some teachers, especially when addressing more general audiences, or
mixed groups of
Muslimsand non-Muslims, make extensive use of parable
, allegory , and metaphor . Although approaches to teaching vary
Sufismas a whole is primarily concerned
with direct personal experience, and as such has sometimes been
compared to other, non-
Islamicforms of mysticism (e.g., as in the
Sufibelieve that to reach the highest levels of success in
Sufismtypically requires that the disciple live with and serve the
teacher for a long period of time. An example is the folk story about
Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari, who gave his name to the Naqshbandi
Order. He is believed to have served his first teacher, Sayyid
MuhammadBaba As-Samasi, for 20 years, until as-Samasi died. He is
said to then have served several other teachers for lengthy periods of
time. He is said to have helped the poorer members of the community
for many years and after this concluded his teacher directed him to
care for animals cleaning their wounds, and assisting them.
His aspiration preceded all other aspirations, his existence
preceded nothingness, and his name preceded the Pen, because he
existed before all peoples. There is not in the horizons, beyond the
horizons or below the horizons, anyone more elegant, more noble, more
knowing, more just, more fearsome, or more compassionate, than the
subject of this tale. He is the leader of created beings, the one
"whose name is glorious Ahmad".
Mansur Al-Hallaj ”
Muhammadis an exceptionally strong practice within
Sufism. Sufis have historically revered
Muhammadas the prime
personality of spiritual greatness. The
Sufipoet Saadi Shirazi
stated, "He who chooses a path contrary to that of the prophet , shall
never reach the destination. O Saadi, do not think that one can treat
that way of purity except in the wake of the chosen one ." Rumi
attributes his self-control and abstinence from worldly desires as
qualities attained by him through the guidance of Muhammad. Rumi
states, "I 'sewed' my two eyes shut from this world and the next –
this I learned from Muhammad."
greatest man and states, "Muhammad's wisdom is uniqueness (_fardiya_)
because he is the most perfect existent creature of this human
species. For this reason, the command began with him and was sealed
with him. He was a Prophet while Adam was between water and clay, and
his elemental structure is the Seal of the Prophets." Attar of
Nishapurclaimed that he praised
Muhammadin such a manner that was
not done before by any poet, in his book the _Ilahi-nama_. Fariduddin
Attar stated, "
Muhammadis the exemplar to both worlds, the guide of
the descendants of Adam. He is the sun of creation, the moon of the
celestial spheres, the all-seeing eye...The seven heavens and the
eight gardens of paradise were created for him, he is both the eye and
the light in the light of our eyes." Sufis have historically stressed
the importance of Muhammad's perfection and his ability to intercede.
The persona of
Muhammadhas historically been and remains an integral
and critical aspect of
Sufibelief and practice.
recorded to have been so devoted to the sunnah of
refused to eat a watermelon due to the fact that he could not
Muhammadever ate one. The name of
Arabiccalligraphy. Sufis believe the name of
Muhammadis holy and
In the 13th century, a
Al-Busiri, wrote the
_al-Kawākib ad-Durrīya fī Madḥ Khayr al-Barīya_ (The Celestial
Lights in Praise of the Best of Creation) commonly referred to as
_Qaṣīdat al-Burda _ ("Poem of the Mantle"), in which he extensively
praised Muhammad. This poem is still widely recited and sung amongst
Sufigroups all over the world.
SufiBeliefs About Muhammad
According to Ibn Arabi,
Islamis the best religion because of
Ibn Arabiregards that the first entity that was brought
into existence is the reality or essence of
Muhammadas the supreme human
being and master of all creatures.
Muhammadis therefore the primary
role-model for human beings to aspire to emulate.
that God's attributes and names are manifested in this world and that
the most complete and perfect display of these divine attributes and
names are seen in Muhammad.
Ibn Arabibelieves that one may see God
in the mirror of Muhammad, meaning that the divine attributes of God
are manifested through Muhammad.
Ibn Arabimaintains that
the best proof of
Godand by knowing
Muhammadone knows God. Ibn
Arabi also maintains that
Muhammadis the master of all of humanity in
both this world and the afterlife. In this view,
Islamis the best
Sufis maintain that
Al-Insān al-Kāmil. Sufis believe
that aid and support may be received from Muhammad, even today. Sufis
Muhammadlistens to them when they call upon him. Sufis
strive towards having a relationship with
Muhammadand seeking to see
Muhammadin a dream is a common
SUFISM AND ISLAMIC LAW
Sufis believe the sharia (exoteric "canon"), tariqa (esoteric
"order") and haqiqa ("truth") are mutually interdependent. Sufism
leads the adept, called _salik _ or "wayfarer", in his _sulûk_ or
"road" through different stations (_maqaam _) until he reaches his
goal, the perfect tawhid , the existential confession that
Ibn Arabisays, "When we see someone in this Community who claims to
be able to guide others to God, but is remiss in but one rule of the
Sacred Law—even if he manifests miracles that stagger the
mind—asserting that his shortcoming is a special dispensation for
him, we do not even turn to look at him, for such a person is not a
sheikh, nor is he speaking the truth, for no one is entrusted with the
GodMost High save one in whom the ordinances of the Sacred
Law are preserved. (_Jamiʿ karamat al-awliyaʾ_)".
Amman Message, a detailed statement issued by 200 leading
Islamicscholars in 2005 in
Amman, and adopted by the
political and temporal leaderships at the Organisation of the Islamic
Conference summit at Mecca in December 2005, and by six other
Islamicscholarly assemblies including the International
FiqhAcademy of Jeddah, in July 2006, specifically recognized
the validity of
Sufismas a part of Islam—however the definition of
Sufismcan vary drastically between different traditions (what may be
intended is simple tazkiah as opposed to the various manifestations of
TRADITIONAL ISLAMIC THOUGHT AND SUFISM
The literature of
Sufismemphasizes highly subjective matters that
resist outside observation, such as the subtle states of the heart.
Often these resist direct reference or description, with the
consequence that the authors of various
Sufitreatises took recourse
to allegorical language. For instance, much
Sufi poetryrefers to
Islamexpressly forbids. This usage of indirect
language and the existence of interpretations by people who had no
Sufismled to doubts being cast over the validity
Sufismas a part of Islam. Also, some groups emerged that
considered themselves above the
method of bypassing the rules of
Islamin order to attain salvation
directly. This was disapproved of by traditional scholars.
For these and other reasons, the relationship between traditional
Sufismis complex and a range of scholarly
Islamhas been the norm. Some scholars, such as
Al-Ghazali, helped its propagation while other scholars opposed it.
William Chittickexplains the position of
Sufismand Sufis this way:
In short, Muslim scholars who focused their energies on understanding
the normative guidelines for the body came to be known as jurists, and
those who held that the most important task was to train the mind in
achieving correct understanding came to be divided into three main
schools of thought: theology, philosophy, and Sufism. This leaves us
with the third domain of human existence, the spirit. Most
devoted their major efforts to developing the spiritual dimensions of
the human person came to be known as Sufis.
TRADITIONAL AND NEO-SUFI GROUPS
_ The mausoleum (gongbei _) of
Sufiorders, which are in majority, emphasize the
Sufismas a spiritual discipline within Islam. Therefore, the
Islamiclaw) and the
Sunnahare seen as crucial
Sufiaspirant. One proof traditional orders assert is that
almost all the famous
Sufimasters of the past Caliphates were experts
Shariaand were renowned as people with great Iman (faith) and
excellent practice. Many were also Qadis (
Sharialaw judges) in
courts. They held that
Sufismwas never distinct from
fully comprehend and practice
Sufismone must be an observant Muslim.
"Neo-Sufism," "pseudo-Sufism," and "universal Sufism" are terms used
to denote forms of
Sufismthat do not require adherence to Shariah, or
the Muslim faith. The terms are not always accepted by those it is
applied to. For example, the Afghan-Scottish teacher
been described as a neo-
Sufiby the Gurdjieffian James Moore . The
SufiOrder in the West was founded by
Inayat Khan, teaching the
essential unity of all faiths, and accepting members of all creeds.
Sufism Reorientedis an offshoot of it charted by the syncretistic
Meher Baba. The Golden
SufiCenter exists in England,
Switzerland and the United States. It was founded by Llewellyn
Vaughan-Lee to continue the work of his teacher
herself a practitioner of both
Hinduismand neo-Sufism. Other Western
Sufiorganisations include the
SufiFoundation of America and the
International Association of Sufism.
Sufipractices may differ from traditional forms, for
instance having mixed-gender meetings and less emphasis on the Qur'an.
The works of
Al-Ghazalifirmly defended the concepts of Sufism
Islamicscholars have recognized two major branches
within the practice of Sufism, and use this as one key to
differentiating among the approaches of different masters and
On the one hand there is the order from the signs to the Signifier
(or from the arts to the Artisan). In this branch, the seeker begins
by purifying the lower self of every corrupting influence that stands
in the way of recognizing all of creation as the work of God, as God's
active Self-disclosure or theophany. This is the way of Imam
Al-Ghazaliand of the majority of the
On the other hand, there is the order from the Signifier to His
signs, from the Artisan to His works. In this branch the seeker
experiences divine attraction (_jadhba _), and is able to enter the
order with a glimpse of its endpoint, of direct apprehension of the
Divine Presence towards which all spiritual striving is directed. This
does not replace the striving to purify the heart, as in the other
branch; it simply stems from a different point of entry into the path.
This is the way primarily of the masters of the
Contemporary scholars may also recognize a third branch, attributed
to the late Ottoman scholar
Said Nursiand explicated in his vast
Qur'ancommentary called the
Risale-i Nur. This approach entails
strict adherence to the way of Muhammad, in the understanding that
this wont, or _sunnah _, proposes a complete devotional spirituality
adequate to those without access to a master of the
CONTRIBUTIONS TO OTHER DOMAINS OF SCHOLARSHIP
Sufismhas contributed significantly to the elaboration of
theoretical perspectives in many domains of intellectual endeavor. For
instance, the doctrine of "subtle centers" or centers of subtle
cognition (known as _
Lataif-e-sitta_) addresses the matter of the
awakening of spiritual intuition. In general, these subtle centers or
_latâ'if_ are thought of as faculties that are to be purified
sequentially in order to bring the seeker's wayfaring to completion. A
concise and useful summary of this system from a living exponent of
this tradition has been published by
MuhammadEmin Er .
Sufi psychologyhas influenced many areas of thinking both within and
outside of Islam, drawing primarily upon three concepts. Ja\'far
al-Sadiq (both an imam in the
Shiatradition and a respected scholar
and link in chains of
Sufitransmission in all
that human beings are dominated by a lower self called the nafs
(soul), a faculty of spiritual intuition called the qalb (heart), and
ruh (spirit). These interact in various ways, producing the spiritual
types of the tyrant (dominated by _nafs_), the person of faith and
moderation (dominated by the spiritual heart), and the person lost in
God(dominated by the _ruh_).
Of note with regard to the spread of
Sufi psychologyin the West is
Robert Frager, a
Sufiteacher authorized in the
order. Frager was a trained psychologist, born in the United States,
who converted to
Islamin the course of his practice of
wrote extensively on
Sufi metaphysicsare also noteworthy areas of
Sufigathering engaged in
The devotional practices of Sufis vary widely. This is because an
acknowledged and authorized master of the
Sufipath is in effect a
physician of the heart, able to diagnose the seeker's impediments to
knowledge and pure intention in serving God, and to prescribe to the
seeker a course of treatment appropriate to his or her maladies. The
Sufischolars is that the seeker cannot self-diagnose,
and that it can be extremely harmful to undertake any of these
practices alone and without formal authorization.
Prerequisites to practice include rigorous adherence to
(ritual prayer in its five prescribed times each day, the fast of
Ramadan, and so forth). Additionally, the seeker ought to be firmly
grounded in supererogatory practices known from the life of Muhammad
(such as the "sunna prayers"). This is in accordance with the words,
attributed to God, of the following, a famous
My servant draws near to Me through nothing I love more than that
which I have made obligatory for him. My servant never ceases drawing
near to Me through supererogatory works until I love him. Then, when I
love him, I am his hearing through which he hears, his sight through
which he sees, his hand through which he grasps, and his foot through
which he walks.
It is also necessary for the seeker to have a correct creed (_Aqidah
_), and to embrace with certainty its tenets. The seeker must also,
of necessity, turn away from sins, love of this world, the love of
company and renown, obedience to satanic impulse, and the promptings
of the lower self. (The way in which this purification of the heart is
achieved is outlined in certain books, but must be prescribed in
detail by a
Sufimaster.) The seeker must also be trained to prevent
the corruption of those good deeds which have accrued to his or her
credit by overcoming the traps of ostentation, pride, arrogance, envy,
and long hopes (meaning the hope for a long life allowing us to mend
our ways later, rather than immediately, here and now).
Sufipractices, while attractive to some, are not a _means_ for
gaining knowledge. The traditional scholars of
Sufismhold it as
absolutely axiomatic that knowledge of
Godis not a psychological
state generated through breath control. Thus, practice of "techniques"
is not the cause, but instead the _occasion_ for such knowledge to be
obtained (if at all), given proper prerequisites and proper guidance
by a master of the way. Furthermore, the emphasis on practices may
obscure a far more important fact: The seeker is, in a sense, to
become a broken person, stripped of all habits through the practice of
(in the words of Imam
Al-Ghazali) solitude, silence, sleeplessness,
Magic may have also been a part of some
Sufipractices, notably in
India. The practice of magic intensified during the declining years
Sufiorders grew steadily in wealth and in
political influence while their spirituality gradually declined and
they concentrated on saint veneration, miracle working, magic and
Dhikr The name of
Allahas written on the
disciple's heart, according to the Sarwari Qadri Order
Dhikris the remembrance of
Allahcommanded in the Qur\'an for all
Muslimsthrough a specific devotional act, such as the repetition of
divine names, supplications and aphorisms from hadith literature and
the Qur'an. More generally, dhikr takes a wide range and various
layers of meaning. This includes dhikr as any activity in which the
Muslim maintains awareness of Allah. To engage in dhikr is to practice
consciousness of the Divine Presence and love , or "to seek a state of
Muhammadas the very embodiment of
Allah(65:10–11). Some types of dhikr are prescribed for
Muslimsand do not require
Sufiinitiation or the prescription of
Sufimaster because they are deemed to be good for every seeker
under every circumstance.
Dhikrmay slightly vary among each order. Some
engage in ritualized dhikr ceremonies, or sema .
forms of worship such as: recitation , singing (the most well known
Qawwalimusic of the Indian subcontinent), instrumental
music , dance (most famously the
Sufi whirlingof the
incense , meditation , ecstasy , and trance .
Sufiorders stress and place extensive reliance upon Dhikr. This
the heartbeats). The basic idea in this practice is to visualize the
Allahas having been written on the disciple's heart.
The practice of _muraqaba_ can be likened to the practices of
meditation attested in many faith communities. The word _muraqaba_ is
derived from the same root (_r-q-b_) occurring as one of the 99 Names
Godin the Qur\'an , al-Raqîb, meaning "the Vigilant" and attested
in verse 4:1 of the Qur\'an . Through _muraqaba_, a person watches
over or takes care of the spiritual heart, acquires knowledge about
it, and becomes attuned to the Divine Presence, which is ever
While variation exists, one description of the practice within a
Naqshbandilineage reads as follows:
He is to collect all of his bodily senses in concentration, and to
cut himself off from all preoccupation and notions that inflict
themselves upon the heart. And thus he is to turn his full
GodMost High while saying three times: "_Ilahî
anta maqsûdî wa-ridâka matlûbî_—my God, you are my Goal and
Your good pleasure is what I seek". Then he brings to his heart the
Name of the Essence—Allâh—and as it courses through his heart he
remains attentive to its meaning, which is "Essence without likeness".
The seeker remains aware that He is Present, Watchful, Encompassing of
all, thereby exemplifying the meaning of his saying (may
and grant him peace): "
Godas though you see Him, for if you
do not see Him, He sees you". And likewise the prophetic tradition:
"The most favored level of faith is to know that
Godis witness over
you, wherever you may be".
Whirling Dervishes, at
Sufi whirling(or _
Sufispinning_) is a form of Sama or physically
active meditation which originated among Sufis, and which is still
practised by the
SufiDervishes of the Mevlevi order. It is a
customary dance performed within the _sema_, through which dervishes
(also called _semazens_, from Persian سماعزن) aim to reach the
source of all perfection, or kemal. This is sought through abandoning
one's nafs , egos or personal desires, by listening to the music,
God, and spinning one's body in repetitive circles, which
has been seen as a symbolic imitation of planets in the Solar System
orbiting the sun. As explained by Sufis:
In the symbolism of the
Semaritual, the semazen's camel's hair hat
(sikke) represents the tombstone of the ego; his wide, white skirt
(_tennure_) represents the ego's shroud. By removing his black cloak
(_hırka_), he is spiritually reborn to the truth. At the beginning of
the Sema, by holding his arms crosswise, the semazen appears to
represent the number one, thus testifying to God's unity. While
whirling, his arms are open: his right arm is directed to the sky,
ready to receive God's beneficence; his left hand, upon which his eyes
are fastened, is turned toward the earth. The semazen conveys God's
spiritual gift to those who are witnessing the Sema. Revolving from
right to left around the heart, the semazen embraces all humanity with
love. The human being has been created with love in order to love.
Rumisays, "All loves are a bridge to Divine
love. Yet, those who have not had a taste of it do not know!"
Sufism(i.e. devotional practices that have achieved
currency in world cultures through
Sufiinfluence), one common
practice is to visit or make pilgrimages to the tombs of saints,
renowned scholars, and righteous people. This is a particularly common
practice in South Asia, where famous tombs include such saints as Mir
Kulob, Tajikistan; Afāq Khoja , near Kashgar
, China; Lal Shahbaz
Pakistan; Bawaldin Zikrya in
Delhi, India; and
Likewise, in Fez , Morocco, a popular destination for such pious
visitation is the
Zaouia Moulay Idriss II
Zaouia Moulay Idriss IIand the yearly visitation to
see the current
Sheikhof the Qadiri Boutchichi
Hamza al Qadiri al Boutchichito celebrate the
usually televised on Moroccan National television). The purpose of
such visitations is usually two-fold, first and foremost the aim is to
receive spiritual guidance and blessings from the saint who rests in
the shrine, which helps the seeker in his or her own path towards
enlightenment. Secondly, the saint is also approached for intercession
in prayers, be it in worldly matters or religious.
Persecution of Sufis and
Sufismhas included destruction of Sufi
shrines and mosques, suppression of orders, and discrimination against
adherents in a number of Muslim countries. The Turkish Republican
state banned all
Sufiorders and abolished their institutions in 1925
after Sufis opposed the new secular order. The Iranian Islamic
Republic has harassed
ShiaSufis, reportedly for their lack of support
for the government doctrine of "governance of the jurist " (i.e., that
Shiitejurist should be the nation's political leader).
In most other Muslim countries, attacks on Sufis and especially their
shrines have come from adherents of puritanical schools of thought who
believe that practices such as celebration of the birthdays of Sufi
saints , and dhikr ("remembrance" of God) ceremonies are bid‘ah or
impure innovation, and polytheistic (Shirk ).
AliDede the Bosnian's book Three Hundred Sixty
Safavid dynastyof Iran, "both the wandering dervishes of
'low' Sufism" and "the philosopher-ulama of 'high'
relentless pressure" from powerful cleric Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi
(d1110/1699). Majlesi—"one of the most powerful and influential"
TwelverShiʿi _ulama_ "of all time"—was famous for (among other
things), suppression of Sufism, which he and his followers believed
paid insufficient attention to Shariah law. Prior to Majlesi's rise,
Sufismhad been "closely linked".
In 1843, the
Sufiwere forced to flee Mecca and Medina and
According to a 2005 article in _
Before the first world war there were almost 100,000 disciples of the
Mevlevi orderthroughout the Ottoman empire. But in 1925, as part of
his desire to create a modern, western-orientated, secular state,
Atatürk banned all the different
Sufiorders and closed their tekkes.
Pious foundations were suspended and their endowments expropriated;
Sufihospices were closed and their contents seized; all religious
titles were abolished and dervish clothes outlawed. In 1937, Atatürk
went even further, prohibiting by law any form of traditional music,
especially the playing of the ney, the Sufis' reed flute.
It has been suggested that this section be split out into another
article. (Discuss ) (June 2017)_
In recent years, shrines, and sometimes mosques, have been damaged or
destroyed in many parts of the Muslim world. Some
been killed as well.
AliGomaa , a
Sufischolar and Grand Mufti of
al-Azhar University , has criticized the destruction of shrines and
public property as unacceptable.
Tomb of Syed Abdul Rahim Shah Bukhari, constructed by Mughal
Since March 2005, 209 people have been killed and 560 injured in 29
different terrorist attacks targeting shrines devoted to
Pakistan, according to data compiled by the Center for Islamic
Research Collaboration and Learning (CIRCLe, a think-tank based in
Rawalpindi). At least as of 2010, the attacks have increased each
SufismBarelvis dominate Pakistan's religious landscape, and
are victims of the anti-
Suficampaigns of the
author John R. Schmidt.
Barelviare the "two major
sub-sects" of Sunni
South Asiathat have
clashed—sometimes violently—since the late 1970s in Pakistan. It
is not clear whether Sufis are being persecuted by
state banned militant organizations, since both groups have been
accused of anti-
In 2005, militant organizations began attacking "symbols" of the
Barelvicommunity such as mosques, prominent religious leaders, and
* 19 March: a suicide bomber kills at least 35 people and injured
many more at the shrine of Pir Rakhel Shah in remote village of
Fatehpur located in Jhal Magsi District of
Balochistan. The dead
Shiaand Sunni devotees.
* 27 May: As many as 20 people are killed and 100 injured when a
suicide-bomber attacks a gathering at
Bari ImamShrine during the
annual festival. The dead were mainly Shia. According to the police
members of Sipah-i-Sahaba
were involved. Sipah-e-Sahaba
Pakistan(SSP), were arrested from
Thanda Pani and police seized two hand grenades from their custody.
* 11 April: A suicide-bomber attacked a celebration of the birthday
Mawlid) in Karachi's Nishtar Park organised by the
Jamaat Ahle Sunnat. 57 died including almost the entire
leadership of the Sunni Tehrik; over 100 were injured. Three people
Lashkar-e-Jhangviwere put on trial for the bombing.
Nishtar Park bombing)
* 18 December: The shrine of Abdul Shakoor Malang Baba is demolished
* March 3: ten villagers killed in a rocket attack on the
400-year-old shrine of Abu Saeed Baba. Lashkar-e-
* 17 February: Agha Jee shot and killed in Peshwar, the fourth faith
healer killed over several months in Pakistan. Earlier Pir Samiullah
was killed in Swat by the Taliban 16 December 2008. His dead body was
later exhumed and desecrated. Pir Rafiullah was kidnapped from
Nowshera and his beheaded body was found in Matani area of Peshawar.
Pir Juma Khan was kidnapped from Dir Lower and his beheaded body was
found near Swat.
Faithhealing is associated with
Pakistanand suppressing it has been a cause of "extremist" Muslims
Pakistani faith healers are known as pirs, a term that applies to the
SufiMuslim saints. Under Sufism, those descendants are
thought to serve as conduits to God. The popularity of pirs as a
viable healthcare alternative stems from the fact that, in much of
rural Pakistan, clinics don't exist or are dismissed as unreliable.
For the urban wealthy, belief in a pir's powers is either something
passed down through the generations, or a remedy of last resort, a
kind of Pakistani laetrile .
* March 5: The shrine of Rahman Baba, "the most famous
language poet", razed to the ground by Taliban militants "partly
because local women had been visiting the shrine".
* 8 March: Attack on shrine of "famous
Sufipoet" Rahman Baba
(1653–1711) in Peshawar. "The high intensity device almost destroyed
the grave of the Rehman Baba and the gates of a mosque, canteen and
conference hall situated in the spacious Rehman Baba Complex. Police
said the bombers had tied explosives around the pillars of the tombs,
to pull down the mausoleum".
* May 8: shrine of Shaykh Omar Baba destroyed.
* 12 June: Mufti Sarfraz Ahmed Naeemi killed by suicide bomber in
Lahore. A leading Sunni
Pakistanhe was well known
for his moderate views and for publicly denouncing the Taliban's
beheadings and suicide bombings as "un-Islamic".
* 22 June: Taliban militants blow up the Mian Umar Baba shrine in
Peshawar. No fatalities reported.
* 1 July: Multiple bombings of Data Durbar Complex
Lahore, Punjab. Two suicide bombers blew themselves up killing at
least 50 people and injuring 200 others.
* 7 October: 10 people killed, 50 injured in a double suicide
bombing attack on Abdullah Shah Ghazi shrine in Karachi
* 7 October: The tomb of Baba Fariddudin Ganj Shakkar in Pakpattan
is attacked. Six people were killed and 15 others injured.
* 25 October: 6 killed, and at least 12 wounded in an attack on the
shrine of 12th-century saint, Baba Farid Ganj Shakar in Pakpattan.
* 14 December: Attack on Ghazi Baba shrine in Peshawar, 3 killed.
* 3 February: Remote-controlled device is triggered as food is being
distributed among the devotees outside the Baba Haider Saieen shrine
in Lahore, Punjab. At least three people were killed and 27 others
* 3 April: Twin suicide attack leaves 42 dead and almost a hundred
injured during the annual Urs festival at shrine of 13th century Sufi
saint Sakhi Sarwar (a.k.a. Ahmed Sultan) in the Dera Ghazi Khan
district of Punjab province. Tehrik-i-Taliban
responsibility for the attack.
* 21 June: Bomb kills three people and injures 31 others at the
Pinza Piran shrine in Hazarkhwani in
Peshawar. "A police official
said the bomb was planted in a donkey-cart that went off in the
afternoon when a large number of people were visiting the popular
* 12 November: Bomb kills 52 and injures over a hundred at Shah
* 17 February: An
ISISbomb kills 80 people and injures a further
250 at a
Sehwanin southern Pakistan.
In this predominately Muslim, traditionally
Sufiregion, some six
places of worship have been either completely or partially burnt in
"mysterious fires" in several months leading up to November 2012. The
most prominent victim of damage was the Dastageer Sahib
Srinagarwhich burned in June 2012, injuring 20. While investigators
have so far found no sign of arson, according to journalist Amir Rana
the fires have occurred within the context of a surging Salafi
movement which preaches that "Kashmiri tradition of venerating the
tombs and relics of saints is outside the pale of Islam".
Mourners outside the burning shrine cursed the Salafis for creating
an atmosphere of hate, some Salafis began posting incendiary messages
on Facebook, terming the destruction of the shrine a "divine act of
Under the Al-Shabab rule in Somali,
Suficeremonies were banned and
shrines destroyed. As the power of Al-Shabab has waned, however, Sufi
ceremonies are said to have "re-emerged". Ahlu Sunna Waljama\'a Sufi
militants, backed by
Ethiopiaand the federal government , control
parts of central Somalia and some cities in the southern regions of
In the ancient city of Timbuktu, sometimes called "the city of 333
UNESCOreports that as many as half of the city's shrines
"have been destroyed in a display of fanaticism", as of July 2012. A
Ansar Dinehas stated that "the destruction is a divine
order", and that the group had plans to destroy every single Sufi
shrine in the city, "without exception". In
Kidal, as well
SalafiIslamists have destroyed musical instruments and
driven musicians into "economic exile" away from Mali.
International Criminal Court Chief Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda
described the Islamists' actions as a "war crime".
A manuscript from
Timbuktubelonging to Al-Mukhtar ibn Aḥmad ibn
Abi Bakr al-Kunti al-Kabir
A manuscript from
Timbuktubelonging to Baba ibn Ahmad al-Alawi
A May 2010 ban by the ministry of awqaf (religious endowments) of
Sufidhikr gatherings (devoted to the remembrance of
God, and including dancing and religious songs) has been described as
a "another victory for extreme
Salafithinking at the expense of
Egypt's moderate Sufism". Clashes followed at
Mosqueand al-Sayyida Zeinab mosques between members of
and security forces who forced them to evacuate the two shrines. In
2009, the moulid of al-Sayyida Zeinab, Muhammad's granddaughter, was
banned ostensibly over concern over the spread of swine flu but also
at the urging of Salafis.
According to Gaber Qassem, deputy of the
14 shrines have been violated in
Egyptsince the January 2011
revolution. According to
SheikhTarek El-Rifai, head of the Rifai Sufi
Order, a number of Salafis have prevented
Sufiprayers in Al-Haram.
SheikhRifai said that the order's lawyer has filed a report at the
Al-Haram police station to that effect. In early April 2011, a Sufi
march from Al-Azhar
Al-Hussein Mosquewas followed by a
massive protest before Al-Hussein Mosque, "expressing outrage at the
IslamicResearch Centre of Egypt,
led by Grand Imam of Al-Azhar Ahmed El-Tayeb, has also denounced the
attacks on the shrines. According to the Muslim Brotherhood website
ikhwanweb.com, in 2011 "a memorandum was submitted to the Armed
Forces" citing 20 "encroachments" on
In the aftermath of the 2011 Libyan Civil War , several Sufi
religious sites in
Libyawere deliberately destroyed or damaged. In
the weeks leading up to September 2012, "armed groups motivated by
their religious views" attacked
Sufireligious sites across the
country, "destroying several mosques and tombs of
leaders and scholars". Perpetrators were described as "groups that
have a strict
Islamicideology where they believe that graves and
shrines must be desecrated." Libyan Interior Minister Fawzi Abdel
A'al, was quoted as saying, "If all shrines in
Libyaare destroyed so
we can avoid the death of one person , then that is a price we are
ready to pay."
In September 2012, three people were killed in clashes between
residents of Rajma, 50 kilometres (31 mi) southeast of Benghazi, and
Salafist Islamists trying to destroy a
Sufishrine in Rajma, the Sidi
al-Lafi mausoleum. In August 2012 the United Nations cultural agency
UNESCOurged Libyan authorities to protect
Sufimosques and shrines
from attacks by
Islamichardliners "who consider the traditional
mystical school of
Islamheretical". The attacked have "wrecked
mosques in at least three cities and desecrated many graves of revered
Tunisian Sufis largely adher to the
Shadiliyyaorder. Despite the
Salafismand extremists in Tunisia,
Sufismis still largely
ingrained in its culture. Media site
Al-Monitorreported that 39 Sufi
shrines were destroyed or desecrated from the 2011 revolution to
January 2013. For Tunisians
Sufismis a way of collective healing and
progress. The polling agency Sigma indicated that 43.1% Tunisians
Sufishrine at least once per year.
Tunisiaexceed the number of mosques.
Said Atsayev—also known as
SheikhSaid Afandi al-Chirkavi—a
SufiMuslim spiritual leader in Dagestan Russia,
was killed by a suicide bombing August 28, 2012 along with six of his
followers. His murder follows "similar religiously motivated killings"
in Dagestan and regions of ex-Soviet Central Asia, targeting religious
leaders—not necessarily Sufi—who disapprove of violent jihad.
Afandi had survived previous attempts on his life and was reportedly
in the process of negotiating a peace agreement between the Sufis and
Matthijs van den Bosdiscusses the status of
19th and 20th century. According to
Seyed Mostafa Azmayesh, an
Sufismand the representative of the
outside Iran, a campaign against the Sufis in
Iran(or at least Shia
Sufis) began in 2005. Several books were published arguing that
because Sufis follow their own spiritual leaders they do not believe
Islamicstate's theocratic principle of the governance of the
jurist and should therefore be treated as second-class citizens, not
allowed to have government jobs, or be fired if they do. Since then
the Ni\'matullāhī order—Iran's largest
Sufiorder—has come under
increasing state pressure. Three of its khanqahs have been demolished.
Officials accused it of not having building permits and of narcotics
possession—charges which the Sufis reject.
The government of
Iranis considering an outright ban on Sufism,
according to the 2009 Annual Report of the United States Commission on
International Religious Freedom. It also reports:
In February 2009, at least 40 Sufis in
Isfahanwere arrested after
protesting the destruction of a
Sufiplace of worship; all were
released within days.
In January, Jamshid Lak, a Gonabadi
Dervishfrom the Nematollahi Sufi
order was flogged 74 times after being convicted in 2006 of slander
following his public allegation of ill-treatment by a Ministry of
In late December 2008, after the closure of a
Sufiplace of worship,
authorities arrested without charge at least six members of the
Gonabadi Dervishes on
Kish Islandand confiscated their books and
computer equipment; their status is unknown.
In November 2008, Amir
AliMohammad Labaf was sentenced to a
five-year prison term, 74 lashes, and internal exile to the
southeastern town of Babak for spreading lies, based on his membership
in the Nematollahi Gonabadi
In October, at least seven
Muslimsin Isfahan, and five others
Karaj, were arrested because of their affiliation with the
Sufiorder; they remain in detention.
In November 2007, clashes in the western city of
security forces and followers of a mystic
Sufiorder resulted in
dozens of injuries and the arrests of approximately 180
The clashes occurred after authorities began bulldozing a Sufi
monastery. It is unclear how many remain in detention or if any
charges have been brought against those arrested. During the past
year, there were numerous reports of Shi'a clerics and prayer leaders,
Sufismand the activities of Sufi
Muslimsin the country in both sermons and public statements.
In 2009 the mausoleum of the 19th century
Sufiprayer house were bulldozed.
Not all Sufis in
Iranhave been subject to government pressure. Sunni
dervish orders—such as the Qhaderi dervishes—in the
Sunni-populated parts of the country are thought by some to be seen as
allies of the government against Al-Qaeda.
ABUL HASAN ASH-SHADHILI
_ Geometric tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz
Shirazi's tomb in
Shiraz A manuscript of
, Shams al-Ma\'arif _ (The Book of the Sun of Gnosis), was written by
Ahmad al-Buniduring the 12th century.
Abul Hasan ash-
Shadhili(died 1258), the founder of the Shadhiliyya
order, introduced _dhikr jahri_ (the remembrance of
opposed to the silent _dhikr_). He taught that his followers need not
abstain from what
Islamhas not forbidden, but to be grateful for what
Godhas bestowed upon them, in contrast to the majority of Sufis, who
preach to deny oneself and to destroy the ego-self (_nafs _) and its
worldly desires. These two ways are sometimes referred to as "Order of
Patience" (Tariqus-Sabr), as opposed to the "Order of Gratitude"
Shadhilialso gave eighteen valuable _hizbs _
(litanies) to his followers out of which the notable _Hizb al-Bahr_
is recited worldwide even today.
Abdul-Qadir Gilani(1077–1166) was a Persian
Qadiriyyawas his patronym. Gilani spent his
early life in Na'if, the town of his birth. There, he pursued the
Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhzoomigave Gilani lessons
in fiqh . He was given lessons about
Abu Bakribn Muzaffar.
He was given lessons about
Sufispiritual instructor was Abu'l-Khair Hammad ibn
Muslim al-Dabbas. After completing his education, Gilani left Baghdad.
He spent twenty-five years as a reclusive wanderer in the desert
regions of Iraq. In 1127, Gilani returned to
Baghdadand began to
preach to the public. He joined the teaching staff of the school
belonging to his own teacher,
Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhzoomi, and was
popular with students. In the morning he taught hadith and tafsir ,
and in the afternoon he held discourse on the science of the heart and
the virtues of the Qur'an.
Ahmad al-TijaniABU AL-ʿABBâS AHMAD IBN MUHAMMAD AT-TIJâNî or
AHMED TIJANI (1735–1815), in
Arabicسيدي أحمد التجاني
(_Sidi Ahmed Tijani_), is the founder of the
was born in a Berber family, in
Aïn Madhi, present-day Algeria
and died in Fez,
Moroccoat the age of 80.
Bayazid Bastamiis a very well recognized and influential Sufi
personality. Bastami was born in 804 in
Bastam. Bayazid is regarded
for his devout commitment to the
Sunnahand his dedication to
Islamicprincipals and practices.
AliIbn \'Arabi (or Ibn al-'Arabi) AH 561- AH
638 (July 28, 1165 – November 10, 1240) is considered to be one of
the most important
Sufimasters, although he never founded any order
(_tariqa_). His writings, especially al-Futuhat al-Makkiyya and Fusus
al-hikam, have been studied within all the
Sufiorders as the clearest
expression of _tawhid_ (Divine Unity), though because of their
recondite nature they were often only given to initiates. Later those
who followed his teaching became known as the school of _wahdat
al-wujud_ (the Oneness of Being). He himself considered his writings
to have been divinely inspired. As he expressed the Way to one of his
close disciples, his legacy is that 'you should never ever abandon
your servant-hood (_ʿubudiyya_), and that there may never be in your
soul a longing for any existing thing'.
JUNAYD OF BAGHDAD
Junayd of Baghdad(830–910) was one of the great early Sufis. His
order was Junaidia, which links to the golden chain of many Sufi
orders. He laid the groundwork for sober mysticism in contrast to that
of God-intoxicated Sufis like al-Hallaj,
Bayazid Bastamiand Abusaeid
Abolkheir. During the trial of al-Hallaj, his former disciple, the
Caliph of the time demanded his fatwa. In response, he issued this
fatwa: "From the outward appearance he is to die and we judge
according to the outward appearance and
Godknows better". He is
referred to by Sufis as Sayyid-ut Taifa—i.e., the leader of the
group. He lived and died in the city of Baghdad.
Sufiprayer book from the Chishti order
Moinuddin Chishtiwas born in 1141 and died in 1236. Also known as
Gharīb Nawāz "Benefactor of the Poor", he is the most famous Sufi
saint of the Chishti Order.
Moinuddin Chishtiintroduced and
established the order in the Indian subcontinent. The initial
spiritual chain or silsila of the Chishti order in India, comprising
Moinuddin Chishti, Bakhtiyar Kaki, Baba Farid,
successive person being the disciple of the previous one), constitutes
Sufisaints of Indian history. Moinuddin Chishtī turned
towards India, reputedly after a dream in which
to do so. After a brief stay at Lahore, he reached
MuhammadGhori , and settled down there. In
Ajmer, he attracted a substantial following, acquiring a great deal of
respect amongst the residents of the city. Moinuddin Chishtī
SufiSulh-e-Kul (peace to all) concept to promote
AHMED ULLAH MAIZBHANDARI
Ahmed Ullah Maizbhanderiwas born on January 15, 1826, corresponding
to Magh 1, 1233 of the Bengali calendar year.
Ibn Arabiwas said to have predicted the birth of Ahamed Ullah
Maizbhanderi, 586 years earlier. The
Tarika-e-Maizbhandariis an order
established in the Bangladesh in the 19th century by the Gausul Azam
SufiSyed Ahmadullah Maizbhandari (1826 AD − 1906 AD), 27th
descendent of Muhammad. The Maizbhandari
Tariqaor Maizbhandari Sufi
Order is based on seven methods to follow which make a man in perfect
one with moral control and self purification. They are divided into
two parts like Destruction of human instincts (Fana-E Salasa) and
Death of Aptitude (Mout-E Arba).
Rabi\'a al-\'Adawiyya (died 801) was a flautist, mystic, and pilgrim
who represents the distinctly countercultural elements of Sufism,
especially with regards to the status and power of women. Prominent
Hasan of Basrais said to have castigated himself before
her superior merits and sincere virtues. Rabi'a was born either a
slave or a servant of very poor origin, released by her master when he
awoke one night to see the light of sanctity shining above her head.
Rabi'a al-Adawiyya is known for her teachings and emphasis on the
centrality of the love of
Godto a holy life. Running down the
Basra, Iraq, she proclaimed:
"O God! If I worship You for fear of Hell, burn me in Hell, and if I
worship You in hope of Paradise, exclude me from Paradise. But if I
worship You for Your Own sake, grudge me not Your everlasting Beauty."
— Rabi'a al-Adawiyya
She died in
Jerusalemand is thought to have been buried in the
Chapel of the Ascension .
Mansur Al-Hallaj(died 922) is renowned for his claim, _Ana-l-Haqq_
("I am The Truth"). His refusal to recant this utterance, which was
regarded as apostasy , led to a long trial. He was imprisoned for 11
years in a
Baghdadprison, before being tortured and publicly
dismembered on March 26, 922. He is still revered by Sufis for his
willingness to embrace torture and death rather than recant. It is
said that during his prayers, he would say "O Lord! You are the guide
of those who are passing through the Valley of Bewilderment. If I am a
heretic, enlarge my heresy".
Tariqa _ "TARIQAT" IN THE FOUR SPIRITUAL STATIONS:
The Four Stations, sharia , tariqa, haqiqa . The fourth station,
marifa , which is considered "unseen", is actually the center_ of the
_haqiqa_ region. It is the essence of all four stations.
The term _Tariqa_ is used for a school or order of Sufism, or
especially for the mystical teaching and spiritual practices of such
an order with the aim of seeking ḥaqīqah (ultimate truth). A tariqa
has a murshid (guide) who plays the role of leader or spiritual
director. The members or followers of a tariqa are known as murīdīn
(singular murīd), meaning "desirous", viz. "desiring the knowledge of
Godand loving God".
Bektashi Orderwas founded in the 13th century by the Islamic
Haji Bektash Veli
Haji Bektash Veli, and greatly influenced during its fomulative
period by the Hurufi
Alial-'Ala in the 15th century and reorganized
Balım Sultanin the 16th century.
Chishti Order(Persian : چشتیہ) was founded by
Abu Ishaq Shami("the Syrian"; died 941) who brought Sufism
to the town of Chisht , some 95 miles east of
Afghanistan. Before returning to the Levant, Shami initiated, trained
and deputized the son of the local
Emir(Khwaja) Abu Ahmad
966). Under the leadership of Abu Ahmad's descendants, the
_Chishtiyya_ as they are also known, flourished as a regional mystical
Kubrawiyaorder is a
Sufiorder ("tariqa ") named after its
Najmuddin Kubra. The
founded in the 13th century by
Bukharain 1221, they committed
genocide and killed nearly the whole population.
Kubra was among those killed by the Mongols.
Mevlevi Orderis better known in the West as the "whirling
Mourideis a large
Sufiorder most prominent in
The Gambia, with headquarters in the holy city of Touba,
Naqshbandiorder is one of the major
Sufiorders of Islam,
previously known as Siddiqiyya as the order stems from Mohammad
through Abū Bakr as-Șiddīq. It is considered by some to be a
"sober" order known for its silent dhikr (remembrance of God) rather
than the vocalized forms of dhikr common in other orders. The word
"_Naqshbandi_" (نقشبندی) is Persian , taken from the name of
the founder of the order,
Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari. Some have
said that the translation means "related to the image-maker", some
also consider it to mean "Pattern Maker" rather than "image maker",
and interpret "Naqshbandi" to mean "Reformer of Patterns", and others
consider it to mean "Way of the Chain" or "
Main article: Khālidīyyā
SufiOrder is a branch of the
Silsilat al-dhahab. It begins from the time of
continues until the time of Shaykh Ismail ash-Shirwani
Main article: Sülaymānīyyā
Sülaymānī Ṭarīqah is an offshoot of _
Ṭarīqah _ founded by Sülaymān Hilmi Silistrevī in
was estimated that there were more than two million followers in
Turkeyin the early 1990s. They are the most active branch in the
private Hāfīz education in
Main article: Haqqānī-Naqshbadīyyā
Haqqānīyyā Ṭarīqah is an offshoot of _
Ṭarīqah _ founded by
Shaykh Nazim al-Qubrusiin order to spread the
Sufiteachings and the Unity of belief in
Godthat is present in all
religions and spiritual paths as announced by its .
Naqshbandia Mujaddidia Najmiya Riyaziya
Main article: Naqshbandia Mujaddidia Najmiya Riyaziya
The NAQSHBANDIA MUJADDIDIA NAJMIYA RIYAZIYA Golden Chain is a
lineage spiritual masters of the _
related to each other going back to
Muhammad. It was founded by Syed
Naqshbandiin 1933 in Fatehpur ,
Ni'matullāhīorder is the most widespread
Sufiorder of Persia
today. It was founded by Shah Ni\'matullah
established and transformed from his inheritance of the Ma\'rufiyyah
circle. There are several suborders in existence today, the most
known and influential in the West following the lineage of Dr. Javad
Nurbakhsh who brought the order to the West following the 1979
Main article: Noorbakshia
The "Noorbakshia" (
Arabic: ش) also called NUBAKSHIA is an
Islamicsect and the
Sufiorder and way that claims to trace its
direct spiritual lineage and chain (silsilah) to the
Ali, by way of Imam
AliAl-Ridha . This order
became famous as Nurbakshi after Shah Syed
Qahistani who was attached with
Uwaiysi)_ order claim to be founded 1,400 years ago by
Uwais al-Qarnifrom Yemen. Uways received the teachings of Islam
inwardly through his heart and lived by the principles taught by him,
although he had never physically met Muhammad. At times
say of him, "I feel the breath of the Merciful, coming to me from
Yemen." Shortly before
Muhammaddied, he directed Umar (second Caliph)
Ali(the fourth Caliph) to take his cloak to Uwais. "According to
AliHujwiri , Farid ad-Din
Attar of Nishapur
Attar of Nishapurand
Ghader Bagheri, the first recipient of Muhammad's cloak was Uwais
al-Qarni. The 'Original Cloak' as it is known is thought to have
passed down the generations from the prophet
Abrahamto Muhammad, to
Uwais al-Qarni, and so on."
The Oveyssi order exists today in various forms and in different
countries. According to Dr. Alan Godlas of the University of Georgia's
Department of Religion, a
SufiOrder or tariqa known as the Uwaysi is
"very active", having been introduced in the West by the 20th century
Sufi, Shah Maghsoud Angha. The Uwaysi Order is a Shi'i branch of the
Pakistanseveral branches of owaisi silsila exist, notably the
Qalandarowaisi, qadri, noshahi with followers
present all over the world, articles on tasawuf are given on order's
Godlas writes that there are two recent and distinct contemporary
branches of the Uwaysi Order in the West:
UwaiysiTarighat, led by Shah Maghsoud Sadegh Angha's daughter,
Nahid Angha, and her husband Shah Nazar Seyed Ali
Kianfar . Dr. Angha and Dr. Kianfar went on to found another the
International Association of Sufism(IAS) which operates in California
and organizes international
There is also an international non-profit organization, the MTO
Shahmaghsoudi led by Salaheddin
AliNader Angha has over five-hundred
thousand students with centers spanning five continents. With the use
of modern technology and reach of the internet, weekly webcasts of the
order's lecture and zekr sessions are broadcast live through the
order's official website.
The Qadiri Order is one of the oldest
SufiOrders. It derives its
Abdul-Qadir Gilani(1077–1166), a native of the Iranian
province of Gīlān . The order is one of the most widespread of the
Sufiorders in the
Islamicworld, and can be found in
Balkansand much of East and
West Africa. The
not developed any distinctive doctrines or teachings outside of
mainstream Islam. They believe in the fundamental principles of Islam,
but interpreted through mystical experience.
The Sarwari Qadri order was founded by
Sultan Bahu which branched
out of the
Qadiriyyahorder. Hence, it follows the same approach of
the order but unlike most
Sufiorders, it does not follow a specific
dress code, seclusion, or other lengthy exercises. Its mainstream
philosophy is related directly to the heart and contemplating on the
Allahi.e. the word الله (Allah, God) as written on own
SufiOrder is a liberated
Sufismorder established in the Bangladesh in the 19th century by the
Gausul Azam Shah
SufiSyed Ahmadullah Maizbhandari (1826 AD − 1906
AD), 27th descendent of Ahmad Mustaba
Senussiis a religious-political
Sufiorder established by Muhammad
Senussifounded this movement
due to his criticism of the Egyptian ulema . Originally from Mecca,
Senussileft due to pressure from Wahhabis to leave and settled in
Cyrenaicawhere he was well received. Idris bin
Senussiwas later recognized as
Cyrenaica and eventually
became King of
Libya. The monarchy was abolished by Muammar Gaddafi
but, a third of Libyan still claim to be Senussi.
Sufiorder founded by Abu-l-Hassan ash-
Murids (followers) of the
Shadhiliyyaare often known as Shadhilis.
Arabic: سهروردية) is a Sufi
order founded by
Abu al-Najib al-Suhrawardi(1097–1168). The order
was formalized by his nephew,
Shahab al-Din Abu Hafs Umar Suhrawardi.
Tijaniyyahorder attach a large importance to culture and
education, and emphasize the individual adhesion of the disciple
SYMBOLS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SUFI ORDERS
The symbolic emblem of the
Seal of the
Ma Yuanzhang, the
SufiGrand Master, in
Allah's essence within a disciple's heart, associated with the
Sarwari Qadri Order
Mirror calligraphy, symbolizing the
Bektashi Orderof the
Symbol of the
Safaviyyastar from ceiling of Shah Mosque,
A symbol from the
Mughal Empire: an amulet comprising magic squares,
Quranic verses (including _Al-Baqara 255 (Throne Verse) _ (2:255)
running around the frame), and invocations to God, with a depiction of
Zulfiqarat the center
CRITIQUE OF SUFISM\'S ANTI-MATERIALISTIC ASPECTS
Certain aspects of
Sufi philosophyare controversial and often
debated, chief among them is the anti-materialistic strain within its
ethos. Gamal Marzouq, Professor of
IslamicPhilosophy in Ain-Shams
University, in his paper titled "The effect of
first emergence of
IslamicSufism", has highlighted the monastic and
anti-materialist trends within Sufism, calling attention to their
"abandoning materialism and living only for praying, something similar
Qurancalls out monasticism as a human invention not
Godin the verse 57:27: "monasticism, which they
innovated; We did not prescribe it for them...". Furthermore, there is
much emphasis on physical laws of the universe within the Quran,
urging believers to study and understand the "signs" of
physical world (e.g. verse 2:164), which precludes the possibility of
avoiding or shunning the material world. Ibrahim B. Syed has called
attention to the fact that the only definition of the word _alim_ in
the Quran, a word commonly understood to mean "religious leader"
today, is actually referring to scientists, indicating the high
importance afforded by the
Quranto the material world and the act of
engaging with it, so as to understand God's universe. There are also
the active aspects of the Quran's teachings which urge believers to
seek to improve the human condition and work to establish the laws of
Godwithin human society (verse 22:41), a mission that does not fit
well with the hermetic and monastic tendencies within Sufism.
PERCEPTION OUTSIDE ISLAM
Sufiperformance on a Friday in
Sufimysticism has long exercised a fascination upon the Western
world, and especially its Orientalist scholars. Figures like Rumi
have become well known in the United States, where
as a peaceful and apolitical form of Islam. Orientalists have
proposed a variety of diverse theories pertaining to the nature of
Sufism, such as it being influenced by
Neoplatonismor as an Aryan
historical reaction against "Semitic " cultural influence. Hossein
Nasr states that the preceding theories are false according to the
point of view of Sufism.
IslamicInstitute in Mannheim, Germany, which works towards the
Europeand Muslims, sees
Sufismas particularly suited
for interreligious dialogue and intercultural harmonisation in
democratic and pluralist societies; it has described
symbol of tolerance and humanism —nondogmatic, flexible and
non-violent. According to
Philip Jenkins, a Professor at Baylor
University, "the Sufis are much more than tactical allies for the
West: they are, potentially, the greatest hope for pluralism and
democracy within Muslim nations." Likewise, several governments and
organisations have advocated the promotion of
Sufismas a means of
combating intolerant and violent strains of
Islam. For example, the
Chinese and Russian governments openly favor
Sufismas the best means
of protecting against Islamist subversion. The British government,
especially following the
7 July 2005 London bombings
7 July 2005 London bombings, has favoured
Sufigroups in its battle against
Muslim extremistcurrents. The
RAND Corporation, an American think-tank, issued a major
report titled "Building Moderate Muslim Networks," which urged the US
government to form links with and bolster Muslim groups that opposed
Islamist extremism. The report stressed the
Sufirole as moderate
traditionalists open to change, and thus as allies against violence.
News organisations such as the BBC, Economist and Boston Globe have
Sufismas a means to deal with violent Muslim extremists.
Idries Shahstates that
Sufismis universal in nature, its roots
predating the rise of
Islamand Christianity. Shah's views have
however been rejected by modern scholars. Such modern trends of
neo-Sufis in Western countries allow non-
"instructions on following the
Sufipath", not without opposition by
Muslimswho consider such instruction outside the sphere of Islam.
INFLUENCE ON JUDAISM
Islamare monotheistic. There is evidence that
Sufismdid influence the development of some schools of Jewish
philosophy and ethics. In the first writing of this kind, we see
"Kitab al-Hidayah ila Fara'iḍ al-Ḳulub", _
Duties of the Heart_,
Bahya ibn Paquda. This book was translated by Judah ibn Tibbon
Hebrewunder the title "Ḥōḇōṯ Ha-lleḇāḇōṯ".
The precepts prescribed by the
Torahnumber 613 only; those dictated
by the intellect are innumerable.
It is noteworthy that in the ethical writings of the Sufis Al-Kusajri
and Al-Harawi there are sections which treat of the same subjects as
those treated in the "Ḥovot ha-Lebabot" and which bear the same
titles: e.g., "Bab al-Tawakkul"; "Bab al-Taubah"; "Bab
al-Muḥasabah"; "Bab al-Tawaḍu'"; "Bab al-Zuhd". In the ninth gate,
Baḥya directly quotes sayings of the Sufis, whom he calls
_Perushim_. However, the author of the _Ḥōḇōṯ
Ha-lleḇāḇōṯ_ did not go so far as to approve of the asceticism
of the Sufis, although he showed a marked predilection for their
Abrahambar Hiyya teaches the asceticism of the
Sufis. His distinction with regard to the observance of
various classes of men is essentially a Sufic theory. According to it
there are four principal degrees of human perfection or sanctity;
namely: 1. of "Shari'ah", i.e., of strict obedience to all ritual
Islam, such as prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, almsgiving,
ablution, etc., which is the lowest degree of worship, and is
attainable by all 2. of _Ṭariqah_, which is accessible only to a
higher class of men who, while strictly adhering to the outward or
ceremonial injunctions of religion, rise to an inward perception of
mental power and virtue necessary for the nearer approach to the
Divinity 3. of "Ḥaḳikah", the degree attained by those who,
through continuous contemplation and inward devotion, have risen to
the true perception of the nature of the visible and invisible; who,
in fact, have recognized the Godhead, and through this knowledge have
succeeded in establishing an ecstatic relation to it; and 4. of the
"Ma'arifah", in which state man communicates directly with the Deity.
Abrahamben Moses ben Maimon , the son of the
Maimonides, believed that
Sufipractices and doctrines continue the
tradition of the Biblical prophets. See Sefer Hammaspiq,
"Happerishuth", Chapter 11 ("Ha-mmaʿaḇāq") s.v. hithbonen efo
be-masoreth mufla'a zo, citing the Talmudic explanation of Jeremiah
13:27 in Chagigah 5b; in Rabbi Yaakov Wincelberg's translation, "The
Way of Serving God" (Feldheim), p. 429 and above, p. 427. Also see
ibid., Chapter 10 ("Iqquḇim"), s.v. wa-halo yoḏeʾaʿ atta; in
"The Way of Serving God", p. 371.
AbrahamMaimuni's principal work is originally composed in
Arabicand entitled "כתאב כפאיה אלעאבדין"
_Kitāb Kifāyah al-'Ābidīn_ ("A Comprehensive Guide for the
Servants of God"). From the extant surviving portion it is conjectured
that Maimuni's treatise was three times as long as his father's Guide
for the Perplexed. In the book, Maimuni evidences a great appreciation
for, and affinity to, Sufism. Followers of his path continued to
foster a Jewish-
Sufiform of pietism for at least a century, and he is
rightly considered the founder of this pietistic school, which was
The followers of this path, which they called, interchangeably,
Hasidism (not to be confused with the
JewishHasidic movement) or
Sufism(Tasawwuf), practiced spiritual retreats, solitude, fasting and
sleep deprivation. The
JewishSufis maintained their own brotherhood ,
guided by a religious leader—like a
AbrahamMaimuni's two sons, Obadyah and David, continued to lead this
Maimonideswrote _Al-Mawala Al
Hawdiyya_ ("The Treatise of the Pool")—an ethico-mystical manual
based on the typically
Suficomparison of the heart to a pool that
must be cleansed before it can experience the Divine.
IN POPULAR CULTURE
* In _
The Jewel of the Nile_ (1985), the eponymous Jewel is a Sufi
* In _Hideous Kinky _ (1998), Julia (
Kate Winslet) travels to
Sufismand a journey to self-discovery.
* In _
Monsieur Ibrahim_ (2003),
Omar Sharif's character professes
to be a Muslim in the
* _Bab\'Aziz _ (2005), a film by Tunisian director
draws heavily on the
Sufitradition, containing quotes from
Rumiand depicting an ecstatic
Play media Friday evening ceremony at Dargah Salim Chisti,
Abida Parveen, a Pakistani
Sufisinger is one of the foremost
Sufimusic, together with Nusrat Fateh
considered the finest
Sufivocalists of the modern era. Sanam Marvi
another Pakistani singer has recently gained recognition for her Sufi
A. R. Rahman
A. R. Rahman, the Oscar-winning Indian musician, has several
compositions which draw inspiration from the
Sufigenre; examples are
the filmi qawwalis _Khwaja Mere Khwaja_ in the film _
_Arziyan_ in the film _
Delhi6 _ and _Kun Faya Kun_ in the film
Bengali singer Lalan
Fakirand Bangladesh's national poet Kazi Nazrul
Junoon , a band from
Pakistan, created the genre of
combining elements of modern hard rock and traditional folk music with
Rabbi Shergillreleased a
Sufirock song called "Bulla Ki
Jaana ", which became a chart-topper in
Madonna , on her 1994 record _Bedtime Stories _, sings a song called
"Bedtime Story " that discusses achieving a high unconsciousness
level. The video for the song shows an ecstatic
Sufiritual with many
Arabiccalligraphy and some other
her 1998 song "Bittersweet", she recites Rumi's poem by the same name.
In her 2001 Drowned World Tour, Madonna sang the song "Secret" showing
rituals from many religions, including a
American rock band mewithoutYou draw heavily on all of the Abrahamic
religions in their music, with a heavy focus on Sufism. Their 2009
album _It\'s All Crazy! It\'s All False! It\'s All a Dream! It\'s
Alright _ is based on the teaching of
Loreena McKennitt's record _
The Mask and Mirror_
(1994) has a song called "The Mystic's Dream" that is influenced by
Sufimusic and poetry.
Tori Amosmakes a reference to Sufis in her song "Cruel".
Mercan Dede, a Turkish composer and Azam
Ali, an Iranian-American
Sufisminto their music and performances.
British folk singer Richard Thompson is a long-time Sufi.
A 17th-century miniature of
figure , currently in the
Topkapı PalaceMuseum Library
The Persian poet
Rumi, who was born in present-day Afghanistan, has
become one of the most widely read poets in the United States, thanks
largely to the interpretative translations published by Coleman Barks
Elif Şafak's novel _The Forty Rules of Love_ is a fictionalized
account of Rumi's encounter with the Persian dervish
Furthermore, between 1910 and 1911 one of the first
called _Hikmet_ , was published in
Ahmad Hilmi of Filibe.
Another Sufi-oriented journal was published in
Egyptbetween 1931 and
1934. _Al-Maʿrifa_ informed among others about
Sufimoral and wisdom.
Sultan Bahuof the Sarwari Qadiri
The Golden Chain of the
Khwaja Ghulam Faridat
Great Mosque of Touba, home of the
Sufiorder of Senegal
Haqqani AnjumanFaquiri Huzra Mubarak in Bagmari,
County:Ind ), established in 1876 by Maulana
Walitomb, south of Karima,
An illustration of
Ibrahima Fall, leader of the
Sufishaikh to kings
Mazar e Soltani,
Gonabad County. Shrine of four Qutbs
(masters) of the
Mausoleum of Makhdoom Shah Daulat (d. 1608). Ibrahim Khan, the Mughal
Bihar, completed his mausoleum in 1616 during the reign
The shrine of Shah Arzani constructed during the reign of the Mughal
Pir Dastgir from the
Sheykh of the
Index of Sufism-related articles
* List of modern
List of Sufi saints
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Qamar-ul Huda (2003), _Striving for Divine Union:
Spiritual Exercises for Suhraward Sufis_, RoutledgeCurzon, pp. 1–4
* ^ _A_ _B_ Martin Lings, _What is Sufism?_ (Lahore: Suhail
Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15
* ^ Titus Burckhardt, _Art of Islam: Language and Meaning_
(Bloomington: World Wisdom, 2009), p. 223
* ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, _The Essential Seyyed Hossein Nasr_, ed.
William C. Chittick (Bloomington: World Wisdom, 2007), p. 74
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Massington, L. , Radtke, B., Chittick,
W.C., Jong, F. de., Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin,
Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: _Encyclopaedia of
Islam, Second Edition_, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E.
Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs.
* ^ Martin Lings, _What is Sufism?_ (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005;
first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.12: "Mystics on the other
Sufismis a kind of mysticism-are by definition concerned
above all with 'the mysteries of the Kingdom of Heaven'"
* ^ Knysh, Alexander D., “Ṣūfism and the Qurʾān”, in:
_Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān_, General Editor: Jane Dammen
McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC.
* ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, _The Essential Seyyed Hossein Nasr_, ed.
William C. Chittick (Bloomington: World Wisdom, 2007), pp. 74-75
* ^ Editors, The (2014-02-04). "tariqa Islam". Britannica.com.
Retrieved 29 May 2015.
* ^ Glassé 2008 , p. 499.
* ^ Bin Jamil Zeno,
Muhammad(1996). _The Pillars of
Darussalam. pp. 19–. ISBN 978-9960-897-12-7 .
* ^ Gamard 2004 , p. 171.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Fitzpatrick & Walker 2014 , p. 446.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Kabbani,
MuhammadHisham (2004). _Classical
IslamicSupreme Council of America. p.
557. ISBN 1-930409-23-0 .
* ^ Schimmel, Annemarie (2014-11-25). "
Britannica.com. Retrieved 2015-05-29.
* ^ _A
Prayerfor Spiritual Elevation and Protection_ (2007) by
Muhyiddin Ibn 'Arabi, Suha Taji-Farouki
* ^ _A_ _B_ G. R Hawting (2002). _The First Dynasty of Islam: The
Umayyad CaliphateAD 661-750_. Taylor & Francis. ISBN
* ^ Sells 1996 , p. 1.
* ^ Chittick 2007 , p. 22.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Chittick (2008), p.6
* ^ Alan Godlas, University of Georgia, _Sufism\'s Many Paths_,
* ^ Guénon 2001 .
* ^ Glassé 2008 , p. 500.
* ^ _World
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Chittick 2007 .
* ^ Chittick (2008), p.3,4,11
* ^ Ahmed Zarruq, Zaineb Istrabadi, Hamza Yusuf Hanson. _The
Principles of Sufism_. Amal Press. 2008.
* ^ _Corrections of Popular Versions of Poems From Rumi\'s Divan_
* ^ Ibrahim Gamard, _
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Nasr, Seyyed
Hossein Nasr(1993-01-01). _An
IslamicCosmological Doctrines_. ISBN 9780791415153 .
Retrieved 17 January 2015.
* ^ William C. Chittick (2009). "Sufism. Sūfī Thought and
Practice". In John L. Esposito. _The Oxford Encyclopedia of the
IslamicWorld_. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Massington, L. , Radtke, B., Chittick, W.C., Jong, F.
de., Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O.
Hunwick. "Taṣawwuf". In P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E.
van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. _Encyclopaedia of Islam_ (2nd ed.). Brill.
(Subscription required (help)). CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter
(link )CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link )
* ^ _A_ _B_ Rashid Ahmad Jullundhry, _Qur'anic Exegesis in
Classical Literature_, pg. 56.
The Other Press,
2010. ISBN 9789675062551
* ^ _The
SufiTradition Guidebook of Daily Practices and
Devotions_, p. 83,
MuhammadHisham Kabbani, Shaykh
* ^ "
Sufismin Islam". Mac.abc.se. Archived from the original on
April 17, 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
* ^ The Bloomsbury Companion to
IslamicStudies by Clinton Bennett,
* ^ "Origin of sufism – Qadiri".
SufiWay. 2003. Retrieved 13
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Khalifa
Alibin Abu Talib - Ali, The Father of Sufism
- Alim.org". Retrieved 27 September 2014.
* ^ _Taking Initiation (Bay`ah)_,
MuhammadHisham Kabbani, _Classical
Islamand the Naqshbandi
IslamicSupreme Council of America, p. 644
* ^ "Taking Initiation (Bay`ah) The
Order of America:
Sufismand Spirituality". _naqshbandi.org_.
* ^ Shaykh Tariq Knecht, _Journal of a
SufiOdyssey_, Tauba Press
* ^ IslamOnline.net Archived July 24, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
* ^ Massignon, Louis. _Essai sur les origines du lexique technique
de la mystique musulmane_. Paris: Vrin, 1954. p. 104.
Imam Birgivi, _The Path of Muhammad_, WorldWisdom, ISBN
* ^ _A_ _B_ Encyclopædia Britannica, Retrieved on August 1st,
* ^ Nasr, Hossein (1993). _An Introduction to
Doctrines_. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-1515-3 .
* ^ Ridgeon, Lloyd (2010). _Morals and
Mysticismin Persian Sufism:
A History of Sufi-Futuwwat in Iran_. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-97058-0
. , p. 32
Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary, translated by William
McGuckin de Slane .
Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain
and Ireland. Sold by
Institut de France
Institut de Franceand
Royal Library of Belgium.
Vol. 3, p. 209.
* ^ Ahmet T. Karamustafa, _Sufism: The Formative Period_, pg. 58.
University of California Press
University of California Press, 2007.
* ^ J. Spencer Trimingham, _The
SufiOrders in Islam_, Oxford
University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-512058-5 .
* ^ Daftary Farhad 2013 A History of Shi'i
IslamNew York NY
I.B. Tauris and Co ltd. page 28 ISBN 9780300035315 4/8/2015
* ^ _A_ _B_ _The Jamaat Tableegh and the Deobandis_ by Sajid Abdul
Kayum, Chapter 1: Overview and Background.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ "Dr. Jonathan AC Brown - What is
Sufism?". youtube.com. 13 May 2015.
* ^ Trimingham (1998), p. 1
* ^ Faridi, Shaikh Shahidullah. "The Meaning of Tasawwuf".
_www.masud.co.uk_. Retrieved 2017-05-12.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, _The Essential Seyyed Hossein
Nasr_, ed. William C. Chittick (Bloomington: World Wisdom, 2007), p.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Martin Lings, _What is Sufism?_ (Lahore: Suhail
Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.16
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Is orthodox
Islampossible without Sufism? -
AbdalHakim Murad (Dr. Timothy Winter)". youtube.com. 13 May
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Profile of
Muslim 500_". _The Muslim 500: The World's Most Influential Muslims_.
* ^ Massington, L. , Radtke, B., Chittick, W.C., Jong, F. de.,
Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O.
Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: _Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second
Edition_, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van
Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs; _q.v._ "Hanafi," "Hanbali," and "Maliki," and
under "mysticism in..." for each.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Titus Burckhardt, _Introduction to
(Bloomington: World Wisdom, 2008, p. 4, note 2
* ^ Martin Lings, _What is Sufism?_ (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005;
first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), pp. 16-17
* ^ "Caner Dagli, "Rumi, the Qur\'an, and Heterodoxy," note on
Facebook". facebook.com. 6 January 2015.
* ^ Rozina Ali, "The Erasure of
Islamfrom the Poetry of Rumi,"
_The New Yorker_, Jan. 5 2017
* ^ The most recent version of the _Risâla_ is the translation of
Alexander Knysh, _Al-Qushayri's Epistle on Sufism: Al-risala
Al-qushayriyya Fi 'ilm Al-tasawwuf_ (ISBN 978-1859641866 ). Earlier
translations include a partial version by Rabia Terri Harris (_Sufi
Book of Spiritual Ascent_) and complete versions by Harris, and
Barbara R. Von Schlegell.
* ^ "Home". Fons Vitae. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
* ^ The Alchemy of Happiness at archive.org
* ^ "Dr. Jonathan AC Brown - What is Sufism?". youtube.com. 27
* ^ For the pre-modern era, see Vincent J. Cornell, _Realm of the
Saint: Power and Authority in Moroccan Sufism_, ISBN 978-0-292-71209-6
; and for the colonial era, Knut Vikyr, _
Sufiand Scholar on the
MuhammadB. Oali Al-Sanusi and His Brotherhood_, ISBN
* ^ Leonard Lewisohn, _The Legacy of Medieval Persian Sufism_,
* ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, _Islam: Religion, History, and
Civilization_, HarperSanFrancisco, 2003. (Ch. 1)
* ^ Dina Le Gall, _A Culture of Sufism: Naqshbandis in the Ottoman
World, 1450–1700_, ISBN 978-0-7914-6245-4 .
* ^ Arthur F. Buehler, _
SufiHeirs of the Prophet: The Indian
Naqshbandiyyaand the Rise of the Mediating
* ^ Victor Danner, _The
IslamicTradition: An introduction_. Amity
House. February 1988.
* ^ "
Islamin the Modern World, by Seyyed Hossein Nasr, reviewed by
Zachary Markwith" (PDF).
* ^ Jonathan A.C. Brown, Misquoting
Publications, 2015), p. 254
* ^ Masatoshi Kisaichi, "The Burhami order and
in modern Egypt." _Popular Movements and Democratization in the
IslamicWorld_, pg. 57. Part of the New Horizons in
series. Ed. Masatoshi Kisaichi. London: Routledge, 2006. ISBN
* ^ Babou 2007 , p. 184–6.
* ^ Mbacké & Hunwick 2005 .
* ^ Chodkiewicz 1995 , p. introduction.
* ^ "
oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
* ^ "Sufism, Sufis, and
SufiOrders: Sufism\'s Many Paths".
uga.edu. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
* ^ Abul Hasan ash-
Shadhili(1993). _The School of the
IslamicTexts Society. ISBN 978-0-946621-57-6 .
MuhammadEmin Er, _Laws of the Heart: A Practical Introduction
SufiPath_, Shifâ Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9815196-1-6
* ^ Abdullah Nur ad-Din Durkee, _The School of the Shadhdhuliyyah,
Volume One: Orisons_; see also Shaykh
978-1-930409-23-1 , which reproduces the spiritual lineage (_silsila_)
of a living
* ^ _A_ _B_ Momen, Moojan (1985). _An Introduction to Shiʻi Islam:
The History and Doctrines of
TwelverShiʻism_. Yale University Press.
ISBN 978-0-300-03531-5 . , page 209
* ^ Mohammad Najib-ur-Rehman Madzillah-ul-Aqdus (2015). _Sultan
Bahoo: The Life and Teachings_. Sultan ul Faqr Publications. ISBN
* ^ See
MuhammadEmin Er, _Laws of the Heart: A Practical
Introduction to the
SufiPath_, Shifâ Publishers, 2008, ISBN
978-0-9815196-1-6 , for a detailed description of the practices and
preconditions of this sort of spiritual retreat.
* ^ See examples provided by Muzaffar Ozak in _Irshad: Wisdom of a
SufiMaster_, addressed to a general audience rather than specifically
to his own students.
* ^ Shaykh
MuhammadHisham Kabbani, _Classical
SufiTradition_, ISBN 978-1-930409-23-1
* ^ Carl W. Ernst (2010), p. 125
* ^ _A_ _B_ Carl W. Ernst, _The Cambridge Companion to Muhammad_,
Muḥammad as the Pole of Existence, Cambridge University Press, p.
* ^ Gholamreza Aavani, _Glorification of the Prophet
the Poems of Sa'adi_, p. 4
* ^ Gamard 2004 , p. 169.
* ^ Ibn Arabi, _The Seals of Wisdom (Fusus al-Hikam)_, Aisha Bewley
* ^ Fariduddin Attar, _Ilahi-nama – The Book of God_, John Andrew
Boyle (translator), _Thou knowest that none of the poets have sung
such praise save only I._
* ^ Fariduddin Attar, _Ilahi-nama – The Book of God_, John Andrew
* ^ _The Signs of a Sincere Lover_ (PDF), p. 91
* ^ _A_ _B_ Suzanne Pinckney Stetkevych, _The Mantle Odes: Arabic
Praise Poems to the Prophet Muhammad_, Indiana University Press
MuhammadEmin Er, _The Soul of Islam: Essential Doctrines and
Beliefs_, Shifâ Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9815196-0-9 .
* ^ Schimmel 2013 , p. 99.
* ^ (source: )
* ^ The
Amman MessageSummary. Retrieved on Feb 2, 2010.
* ^ Witteveen, Hendrikus Johannes (1 January 1997). "Universal
Sufism". Element – via Google Books.
* ^ Elwell-Sutton, L. P. (May 1975). "
Encounter XLIV (5): 16.
* ^ "Neo-Sufism: The Case of
Idries Shahby James Moore".
gurdjieff-legacy.org. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
* ^ _A_ _B_
MuhammadEmin Er, _Laws of the Heart: A Practical
Introduction to the
SufiOrder_, Shifâ Publishers, 2008, ISBN
* ^ For a systematic description of the diseases of the heart that
are to be overcome in order for this perspective to take root, see
Hamza Yusuf, _Purification of the Heart: Signs, Symptoms and Cures of
the Spiritual Diseases of the Heart_, ISBN 978-1-929694-15-0 .
* ^ Concerning this, and for an excellent discussion of the concept
of attraction (_jadhba_), see especially the Introduction to Abdullah
Nur ad-Din Durkee, _The School of the Shadhdhuliyyah, Volume One:
Orisons_, ISBN 977-00-1830-9 .
MuhammadEmin Er, _al-Wasilat al-Fasila_, unpublished MS.
* ^ Realities of The Heart Lataif
* ^ Schimmel 2013 .
* ^ See especially Robert Frager, _Heart, Self & Soul: The Sufi
Psychology of Growth, Balance, and Harmony_, ISBN 978-0-8356-0778-0 .
* ^ Hakim Moinuddin Chisti, _The Book of
* ^ For an introduction to the normative creed of
by the consensus of scholars, see Hamza Yusuf, _The Creed of Imam
al-Tahawi_, ISBN 978-0-9702843-9-6 , and Ahmad Ibn Muhammad
Maghnisawi, _Imam Abu Hanifa's Al-
FiqhAl-Akbar Explained_, ISBN
* ^ The meaning of _certainty_ in this context is emphasized in
MuhammadEmin Er, _The Soul of Islam: Essential Doctrines and
Beliefs_, Shifâ Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9815196-0-9 .
* ^ See in particular the introduction by T. J. Winter to Abu Hamid
Al-Ghazalion Disciplining the Soul and on
Breaking the Two Desires: Books XXII and XXIII of the Revival of the
Religious Sciences_, ISBN 978-0-946621-43-9 .
* ^ Akbar Ahmed, Diiscovering Islam, Making sense of Muslim History
and Society, ISBN 0-415-28525-9 (Pbk)
* ^ Abdullah Jawadi Amuli, "
Dhikrand the Wisdom Behind It"
* ^ Hakim Moinuddin Chisti _The Book of
* ^ "The
NaqshbandiWay of Dhikr". web.archive.org. Archived from
the original on 1997-05-29. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
* ^ Touma 1996, p.162
* ^ What is Remembrance and what is Contemplation?
* ^ "Muraqaba".
MuhammadEmin Er, _Laws of the Heart: A Practical Introduction
SufiPath_, ISBN 978-0-9815196-1-6 , p. 77.
* ^ "The
Semaof the Mevlevi".
Mevlevi Orderof America. Retrieved
* ^ The
Whirling Dervishesof Rumi
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_
Salafiintolerance threatens Sufis Baher Ibrahim
guardian.co.uk 10 May 2010
* ^ Mir, Tariq. "Kashmir: From
Sufito Salafi". _November 5, 2012_.
Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "
SalafiViolence against Sufis".
Retrieved 24 February 2013.
* ^ Momen, Moojan (1985). _An Introduction to Shiʻi Islam: The
History and Doctrines of
TwelverShiʻism_. Yale University Press.
ISBN 978-0-300-03531-5 . , pages 115–116
* ^ Yadav, Rama Sankar (2007). _Global Encyclopaedia of Education
(4 Vols. Set)_. Global Vision Publishing House. p. 406. ISBN
* ^ Dalrymple, William (5 November 2005). "What goes round...".
_The Guardian_. London.
* ^ _Introduction to Shi'i Islam_, Momen, Moojan, Yale University
Press, 1985 p.14-16
* ^ _A_ _B_ "
Salafidestruction of shrines and public property
unacceptable". Ikhwanweb. 3 April 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Sunni Ittehad Council: Sunni
against Deobandi-Wahhabi terrorism in
Pakistan– by Aarish U. Khan".
lubpak.com. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
* ^ Rana, Amir. "Where sufism stands". _1 August 2010_. Express
Tribune Blogs. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
* ^ John R. Schmidt states, _"although most Deobandis are no more
prone to violence than their Christian fundamentalist counterparts in
the West, every jihadist group based in
Pakistansave one is Deobandi,
as are the Afghan Taliban"._ The Unraveling:
Pakistanin the Age of
Jihad John R. Schmidt 2011
* ^ Behuria, Ashok K. (27 February 2008). "Sects Within Sect: The
Case of Deobandi–
BarelviEncounter in Pakistan". _Strategic
Analysis_. Taylor & Francis. 32 (1): 57–80. doi
* ^ Chakrabarty, Rakhi (Dec 4, 2011). "Sufis strike back". _The
Times of India_. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
* ^ Researcher Amir Rana (a researcher and editor quarterly research
journal Conflict and Peace Studies. What is young
Deobandithemselves are often Sufi, as "
Suficult in Pakistan, is mainly comprised of the Deobandis"
(source: Rana, Amir. "Where sufism stands". _1 August 2010_. Express
Tribune Blogs. Retrieved 4 March 2013. ). Maulana Qasim Nomani, the
Darul Uloom Deoband
Darul Uloom Deobandhas denied either that
his school is anti-sufi or promotes militancy, stating Deoband
scholars like Ashraf
AliThanwi , and others were
Sufisaints as well
and they had their Khanqahs (
Who said we are against Sufism? We very much follow the Sufi
traditions and all of our elders were
Sufipractitioners of Sufi
tradition (source: Ali, Md. "Deoband hits back, rejects "baseless"
charge of radicalizing Muslim youth". _19 October 2011_.
TwoCircles.net. Retrieved 4 March 2013. ) According to the Jamestown
Deobandihave also been victims of sectarian strife.
Deobandileaders and members of Ahle Sunnat wal Jamat
(ASWJ, formerly the banned Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan) have been
assassinated in Karachi in recent years. Police sources say that the
Sunni Tehrik, a
Barelviorganization, is behind most of these
assassinations. (source: Jamal, Arif. "Karachi\'s Deadly Political and
Sectarian Warfare Threatens the Stability of Pakistan\'s Commercial
Capital". _Terrorism Monitor April 20, 2012_. Jamestown Foundation.
Retrieved 4 March 2013. ) * ^ Timeline: Persecution of religious
minorities DAWN.COM 4 November 2012
* ^ "Pakistani
_May 27, 2005_. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
* ^ Azeem, Munawer (14 August 2011). "Two involved in Bari Imam
suicide attack arrested". _Dawn_. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
* ^ Raja, Mudassir (31 July 2011). "
Bari ImamShrine attack 2005:
Police await suspects on judicial remand in another case". _Express
Tribune_. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
Bari Imamblast: Masterminds belong to LJ linked group By
Shahzad Malik 14 June 2005
* ^ Three LJ activists indicted in Nishtar Park blast case, Dawn
(newspaper) , 2 September 2009
* ^ Tanoli, Ishaq (5 February 2012). "Six years on, Nishtar Park
carnage trial remains inconclusive". _Dawn_. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ "single The Jamestown
Foundation". Jamestown.org. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
* ^ PESHAWAR: Another faith healer shot dead in
Hazrat Bacha dawn.com 18 February 2009
FaithHealing and Skepticism in Pakistan: Challenges and
Instability Ryan Shaffer csicop.org Volume 36.6, November/December
* ^ Rodriguez, Alex (29 March 2012). "In Pakistan, faith healers
have no shortage of believers". _Los Angeles Times_.
* ^ Terrorism Monitor Brief, March 19, 2009
* ^ And now Sunni vs Sunni Riaz ul Hassan circa July 2010
* ^ Al-Alawi, Irfan. "Urbanised
Islambehind Pakistan\'s Sufi
shrine bombings". _15 March 2011_. Lapidomedia. Retrieved 26 February
* ^ "Sarfraz Naeemi". lubpak.com. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
* ^ Express Tribune, June 22, 2010
* ^ Haque, Jahanzaib (October 7, 2010). "Twin suicide attacks at
Abdullah Shah Ghazi shrine". _Express Tribune_. Retrieved 5 March
* ^ "Blast at Baba Farid\'s shrine kills six". _Express Tribune_.
October 26, 2010. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
* ^ "Extremist Deobandis\' attack on Ghazi Baba shrine in
Peshawar". lubpak.com. 14 December 2010. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
* ^ Masood, Salman; Gillani, Waqar (April 3, 2011). "Blast at
PakistanShrine Kills Dozens". _New York Times_.
* ^ "Three killed in
Peshawarshrine blast". _The News_. 22 June
2012. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
* ^ "Attack on Shah Noorani shrine in
Pakistankills dozens". _Al
Jazeera_. 12 November 2016. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
* ^ "
Pakistanshrine blast: 100 killed,
responsibility", _Hindustan Times_, 17 February 2017
* ^ Boone, Jon. "
Pakistanlaunches crackdown after Isis attack
kills 75 at shrine".
* ^ "Clashes follow fire at
Sufishrine". _BBC News_. 25
June 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Rana, Amir. "Kashmir:
Conflict". Pulitzer Center. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
* ^ Ahmad, Mukhtar (June 25, 2012). "Fire destroys historic shrine,
triggering anger in Kashmir". _CNN_. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
* ^ "
SalafiIslamists destroying shrines courtesy
of Saudi Arabia and Qatar". _Modern Tokyo Times_. 26 August 2012.
Retrieved 24 February 2013.
* ^ "Al Shabab of Somalia Destroy the Graves of
YouTube". youtube.com. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
* ^ "
Sufismre-emerges in Somalia as al-Shabab\'s control wanes".
BBC News. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
* ^ Timbuktu\'s Destruction: Why Islamists Are Wrecking Mali\'s
Cultural Heritage By Ishaan Tharoortime.com July 02, 2012
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