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Sufism
Sufism
or Taṣawwuf[1] (Arabic: الْتَّصَوُّف; personal noun: صُوفِيّ ṣūfiyy/ṣūfī, مُتَصَوّف mutaṣawwuf), which is often defined as " Islamic
Islamic
mysticism",[2] "the inward dimension of Islam",[3][4] or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",[5][6] is a mystical trend in Islam
Islam
"characterized ... [by particular] values, ritual practices, doctrines and institutions"[7] which began very early in Islamic
Islamic
history[5] and represented "the main manifestation and the most important and central crystallization of" mystical practice in Islam.[8] Practitioners of Sufism
Sufism
have been referred to as "Sufis" (Arabic plurals: صُوفِيَّة ṣūfiyyah; صُوفِيُّون ṣūfiyyūn; مُتَصَوُّفََة mutaṣawwufah; مُتَصَوُّفُون mutaṣawwufūn), an Arabic
Arabic
word which is believed by historians to have originally indicated the "woollen clothes (ṣūf) or rough garb" worn by the early Islamic
Islamic
mystics.[5] Historically, they have often belonged to different ṭuruq or "orders"—congregations formed around a grand master referred to as a mawla who traces a direct chain of teachers back to the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.[9] These orders meet for spiritual sessions (majalis) in meeting places known as zawiyas, khanqahs, or tekke.[10] They strive for ihsan (perfection of worship) as detailed in a hadith: " Ihsan
Ihsan
is to worship Allah
Allah
as if you see Him; if you can't see Him, surely He sees you."[11] Rumi
Rumi
stated: "The Sufi
Sufi
is hanging on to Muhammad, like Abu Bakr."[12] Sufis regard Muhammad
Muhammad
as al-Insān al-Kāmil, the primary perfect man who exemplifies the morality of God,[13] and regard Muhammad
Muhammad
as their leader and prime spiritual guide. All Sufi
Sufi
orders trace many of their original precepts from Muhammad through his son-in-law Ali
Ali
with the notable exception of the Naqshbandi, who claim to trace their origins from Muhammad
Muhammad
through the first Rashid Caliph, Abu Bakr.[14] Although the overwhelming majority of Sufis, both pre-modern and modern, were and are adherents of Sunni Islam, there also developed certain strands of Sufi
Sufi
practice within the ambit of Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
during the late medieval period.[5] Most of them follow one of the four madhhabs (jurisprudential schools of thought) of Sunni Islam
Islam
and maintain a Sunni aqidah (creed).[15] Sufis were characterized by their asceticism, especially by their attachment to dhikr, the practice of remembrance of God, often performed after prayers.[16] They gained adherents among a number of Muslims
Muslims
as a reaction against the worldliness of the early Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
(661–750)[17] and have spanned several continents and cultures over a millennium, originally expressing their beliefs in Arabic
Arabic
before spreading into Persian, Turkish, and Urdu
Urdu
among dozens of other languages.[18] According to William Chittick, "In a broad sense, Sufism
Sufism
can be described as the interiorization, and intensification of Islamic
Islamic
faith and practice."[19]

Contents

1 Terminology 2 Etymology 3 History

3.1 Origins 3.2 As an Islamic
Islamic
discipline 3.3 Formalization of doctrine 3.4 Growth of influence 3.5 Present

4 Aims and objectives

4.1 Teachings 4.2 Muhammad

4.2.1 Sufi
Sufi
beliefs about Muhammad

4.3 Sufism
Sufism
and Islamic
Islamic
law 4.4 Traditional Islamic
Islamic
thought and Sufism 4.5 Traditional and Neo- Sufi
Sufi
groups

5 Theoretical perspectives

5.1 Contributions to other domains of scholarship

6 Devotional practices of Sufis

6.1 Dhikr 6.2 Muraqaba 6.3 Sufi
Sufi
whirling

7 Saints

7.1 Visitation 7.2 Miracles

8 Persecution 9 Prominent Sufis

9.1 Rabi'a al-'Adawiyya 9.2 Bayazid Bastami 9.3 Junayd of Baghdad 9.4 Mansur Al-Hallaj 9.5 Abdul-Qadir Gilani 9.6 Ibn Arabi 9.7 Moinuddin Chishti 9.8 Abul Hasan ash-Shadhili 9.9 Ahmad al-Tijani

10 Major Sufi
Sufi
orders

10.1 Bektashi 10.2 Chishti 10.3 Kubrawiya 10.4 Mawlawiyya 10.5 Muridiyya 10.6 Naqshbandi 10.7 Nimatullahi 10.8 Qadiri 10.9 Senussi 10.10 Shadiliyya 10.11 Suhrawardiyya 10.12 Tijaniyya

11 Symbols associated with the Sufi
Sufi
Orders 12 Reception

12.1 Perception outside Islam 12.2 Influence on Judaism

13 In popular culture

13.1 Music 13.2 Literature

14 Gallery 15 See also 16 References 17 Bibliography 18 External links

Terminology[edit] The term Sufism
Sufism
came into being, not by Islamic
Islamic
texts or Sufis themselves but by British Orientalists who wanted to create an artificial divide between what they found attractive in Islamic civilisation (i.e. Islamic
Islamic
spirituality) and the negative stereotypes that were present in Britain about Islam. These British orientalists, therefore, fabricated a divide that was previously non-existent.[20] The term Sufism
Sufism
has, however, persisted especially in the Western world ever since. Historically, Muslims
Muslims
have used the originally Arabic
Arabic
word taṣawwuf (تصوف) to identify the practice of Sufis.[1] Mainstream scholars of Islam
Islam
define Tasawwuf or Sufism
Sufism
as the name for the inner or esoteric dimension of Islam[21] which is supported and complemented by outward or exoteric practices of Islam, such as Sharia.[22] In this view, "it is absolutely necessary to be a Muslim" to be a true Sufi, because Sufism's "methods are inoperative without" Muslim "affiliation".[23][24] However, Islamic
Islamic
scholars themselves are not by any means in agreement about the meaning of the word "sufi".[25] Sufis themselves claim that Tasawwuf is an aspect of Islam
Islam
similar to Sharia,[1] inseparable from Islam
Islam
and an integral part of Islamic belief and practice.[26] Classical Sufi
Sufi
scholars have defined Tasawwuf as "a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but God".[27] Traditional Sufis such as Bayazid Bastami, Rumi, Haji Bektash Veli, Junayd of Baghdad, Al-Ghazali, and also secound Ali
Ali
Ali
Ali
Sani sayyid Ali
Ali
Hamadani, define Sufism
Sufism
as purely based upon the tenets of Islam
Islam
and the teachings of Muhammad.[25][28][29][30] Etymology[edit] The original meaning of sufi seems to have been "one who wears wool (ṣūf)", and Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
calls other etymological hypotheses "untenable".[31][32] Woollen clothes were traditionally associated with ascetics and mystics.[32] Al-Qushayri
Al-Qushayri
and Ibn Khaldun both rejected all possibilities other than ṣūf on linguistic grounds.[33] Another explanation traces the lexical root of the word to ṣafā (صفاء), which in Arabic
Arabic
means "purity". These two explanations were combined by the Sufi
Sufi
al-Rudhabari (d. 322 AH), who said, "The Sufi
Sufi
is the one who wears wool on top of purity".[34][35] Others have suggested that the word comes from the term ahl aṣ-ṣuffah ("the people of the bench"), who were a group of impoverished companions of Muhammad
Muhammad
who held regular gatherings of dhikr. These men and women who sat at al-Masjid an-Nabawi are considered by some to be the first Sufis.[36][37] History[edit] Main article: History of Sufism Origins[edit]

Ali
Ali
is considered to be the "Father of Sufism" in Islam.[38]

According to Carl W. Ernst the earliest figures of Sufism
Sufism
is the Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
himself and his companions (Sahabah).[39] Sufi
Sufi
orders are based on the "bay‘ah" (بَيْعَة bay‘ah, مُبَايَعَة mubāya‘ah "pledge, allegiance") that was given to Muhammad
Muhammad
by his Ṣahabah. By pledging allegiance to Muhammad, the Sahabah
Sahabah
had committed themselves to the service of God. According to Islamic
Islamic
belief, by pledging allegiance to Muhammad, the Sahabah
Sahabah
have pledged allegiance to God.[40][41][39]

Verily, those who give Bai'âh (pledge) to you (O Muhammad) they are giving Bai'âh (pledge) to Allâh. The Hand of Allâh is over their hands. Then whosoever breaks his pledge, breaks it only to his own harm, and whosoever fulfils what he has covenanted with Allâh, He will bestow on him a great reward. — [Translation of Quran, 48:10]

Sufis believe that by giving bayʿah (pledging allegiance) to a legitimate Sufi
Sufi
shaykh, one is pledging allegiance to Muhammad; therefore, a spiritual connection between the seeker and Muhammad
Muhammad
is established. It is through Muhammad
Muhammad
that Sufis aim to learn about, understand and connect with God.[42] Ali
Ali
is regarded as one of the major figures amongst the Sahaba who have directly pledged allegiance to Muhammad, and Sufis maintain that through Ali, knowledge about Muhammad
Muhammad
and a connection with Muhammad
Muhammad
may be attained. Such a concept may be understood by the hadith, which Sufis regard to be authentic, in which Muhammad
Muhammad
said, "I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate".[43] Eminent Sufis such as Ali
Ali
Hujwiri refer to Ali
Ali
as having a very high ranking in Tasawwuf. Furthermore, Junayd of Baghdad regarded Ali
Ali
as sheikh of the principals and practices of Tasawwuf.[38] Practitioners of Sufism
Sufism
hold that in its early stages of development Sufism
Sufism
effectively referred to nothing more than the internalization of Islam.[44] According to one perspective, it is directly from the Qur'an, constantly recited, meditated, and experienced, that Sufism proceeded, in its origin and its development.[45] Other practitioners have held that Sufism
Sufism
is the strict emulation of the way of Muhammad, through which the heart's connection to the Divine is strengthened.[46] Modern academics and scholars have rejected early orientalist theories asserting a non- Islamic
Islamic
origin of Sufism,[47] The consensus is that it emerged in Western Asia. Many have asserted Sufism
Sufism
to be unique within the confines of the Islamic
Islamic
religion, and contend that Sufism developed from people like Bayazid Bastami, who, in his utmost reverence to the sunnah, refused to eat a watermelon because he did not find any proof that Muhammad
Muhammad
ever ate it.[25][48] According to the late medieval mystic Jami, Abd- Allah
Allah
ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah (died c. 716) was the first person to be called a "Sufi".[33] Important contributions in writing are attributed[by whom?] to Uwais al-Qarani, Hasan of Basra, Harith al-Muhasibi
Harith al-Muhasibi
and Said ibn al-Musayyib. Ruwaym, from the second generation of Sufis in Baghdad, was also an influential early figure,[49][50] as was Junayd of Baghdad; a number of early practitioners of Sufism
Sufism
were disciples of one of the two.[51] Sufism
Sufism
had a long history already before the subsequent institutionalization of Sufi
Sufi
teachings into devotional orders (tarîqât) in the early Middle Ages.[52] The Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
order is a notable exception to general rule of orders tracing their spiritual lineage through Muhammad's grandsons, as it traces the origin of its teachings from Muhammad
Muhammad
to the first Islamic
Islamic
Caliph, Abu Bakr.[14] Over the years, Sufi
Sufi
orders have influenced and been adopted by various Shi'i movements, especially Isma'ilism, which led to the Safaviyya
Safaviyya
order's conversion to Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
from Sunni Islam
Islam
and the spread of Twelverism throughout Iran.[53] Sufi
Sufi
orders include Ba 'Alawiyya, Badawiyya, Bektashi, Burhaniyya, Chishti, Khalwati, Mevlevi, Naqshbandi, Ni'matullāhī, Uwaisi, Qadiriyya, Qalandariyya, Rifa'i, Sarwari Qadiri, Shadhiliyya, Suhrawardiyya, Tijaniyyah, Zinda Shah Madariya, and others.[54] As an Islamic
Islamic
discipline[edit]

Dancing dervishes, by Kamāl ud-Dīn Behzād
Kamāl ud-Dīn Behzād
(c. 1480/1490)

Existing in both Sunni and Shia
Shia
Islam, Sufism
Sufism
is not a distinct sect, as is sometimes erroneously assumed, but a method of approaching or a way of understanding the religion, which strives to take the regular practice of the religion to the "supererogatory level" through simultaneously "fulfilling ... [the obligatory] religious duties"[5] and finding a "way and a means of striking a root through the 'narrow gate' in the depth of the soul out into the domain of the pure arid unimprisonable Spirit which itself opens out on to the Divinity."[55][2] As a mystic and ascetic aspect of Islam, it is considered as the part of Islamic
Islamic
teaching that deals with the purification of the inner self. By focusing on the more spiritual aspects of religion, Sufis strive to obtain direct experience of God
God
by making use of "intuitive and emotional faculties" that one must be trained to use.[56] Tasawwuf is regarded as a science of the soul that has always been an integral part of Orthodox Islam.[57] In his Al-Risala al-Safadiyya, ibn Taymiyyah describes the Sufis as those who belong to the path of the Sunna and represent it in their teachings and writings. Ibn Taymiyya's Sufi
Sufi
inclinations and his reverence for Sufis like Abdul-Qadir Gilani
Abdul-Qadir Gilani
can also be seen in his hundred-page commentary on Futuh al-ghayb, covering only five of the seventy-eight sermons of the book, but showing that he considered tasawwuf essential within the life of the Islamic
Islamic
community. In his commentary, Ibn Taymiyya stresses that the primacy of the Sharia
Sharia
forms the soundest tradition in tasawwuf, and to argue this point he lists over a dozen early masters, as well as more contemporary shaykhs like his fellow Hanbalis, al-Ansari al-Harawi and Abdul-Qadir, and the latter's own shaykh, Hammad al-Dabbas the upright. He cites the early shaykhs (shuyukh al-salaf) such as Al-Fuḍayl ibn ‘Iyāḍ, Ibrahim ibn Adham, Ma`ruf al-Karkhi, Sirri Saqti, Junayd of Baghdad, and others of the early teachers, as well as Abdul-Qadir Gilani, Hammad, Abu al-Bayan and others of the later masters— that they do not permit the followers of the Sufi
Sufi
path to depart from the divinely legislated command and prohibition. Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
narrates in Al-Munqidh min al-dalal:

The vicissitudes of life, family affairs and financial constraints engulfed my life and deprived me of the congenial solitude. The heavy odds confronted me and provided me with few moments for my pursuits. This state of affairs lasted for ten years, but whenever I had some spare and congenial moments I resorted to my intrinsic proclivity. During these turbulent years, numerous astonishing and indescribable secrets of life were unveiled to me. I was convinced that the group of Aulia (holy mystics) is the only truthful group who follow the right path, display best conduct and surpass all sages in their wisdom and insight. They derive all their overt or covert behaviour from the illumining guidance of the holy Prophet, the only guidance worth quest and pursuit.[citation needed]

Formalization of doctrine[edit]

A Sufi
Sufi
in Ecstasy in a Landscape. Iran, Isfahan
Isfahan
(c. 1650-1660)

In the eleventh-century, Sufism, which had previously been a less "codified" trend in Islamic
Islamic
piety, began to be "ordered and crystallized" into orders which have continued until the present day. All these orders were founded by a major Islamic
Islamic
scholar, and some of the largest and most widespread included the Qadiriyya
Qadiriyya
(after Abdul-Qadir Gilani
Abdul-Qadir Gilani
[d. 1166]), the Rifa'iyya (after Ahmed al-Rifa'i [d. 1182]), the Chishtiyya (after Moinuddin Chishti
Moinuddin Chishti
[d. 1236]), the Shadiliyya
Shadiliyya
(after Abul Hasan ash- Shadhili
Shadhili
[d. 1258]), and the Naqshbandiyya (after Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari
Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari
[d. 1389]).[58] Contrary to popular perception in the West,[59] however, neither the founders of these orders nor their followers ever considered themselves to be anything other than orthodox Sunni Muslims,[59] and in fact all of these orders were attached to one of the four orthodox legal schools of Sunni Islam.[60][61] Thus, the Qadiriyya
Qadiriyya
order was Hanbali, with its founder, Abdul-Qadir Gilani, being a renowned Hanbali
Hanbali
jurist; the Chishtiyya was Hanafi; the Shadiliyya
Shadiliyya
order was Maliki; and the Naqshbandiyya order was Hanafi.[62] Thus, it is precisely because it is historically proven that "many of the most eminent defenders of Islamic
Islamic
orthodoxy, such as Abdul-Qadir Gilani, Ghazali, and the Sultan Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn (Saladin) were connected with Sufism"[63] that the popular studies of writers like Idries Shah are continuously disregarded by scholars as conveying the fallacious image that "Sufism" is somehow distinct from "Islam."[64][65][63][66] Towards the end of the first millennium, a number of manuals began to be written summarizing the doctrines of Sufism
Sufism
and describing some typical Sufi
Sufi
practices. Two of the most famous of these are now available in English translation: the Kashf
Kashf
al-Mahjûb of Ali
Ali
Hujwiri and the Risâla of Al-Qushayri.[67] Two of al-Ghazali's greatest treatises are the Revival of Religious Sciences and what he termed "its essence", the Kimiya-yi sa'ādat. He argued that Sufism
Sufism
originated from the Qur'an
Qur'an
and thus was compatible with mainstream Islamic
Islamic
thought and did not in any way contradict Islamic
Islamic
Law—being instead necessary to its complete fulfillment. Ongoing efforts by both traditionally trained Muslim scholars and Western academics are making al-Ghazali's works more widely available in English translation, allowing English-speaking readers to judge for themselves the compatibility of Islamic
Islamic
Law and Sufi
Sufi
doctrine. Several sections of the Revival of Religious Sciences have been published in translation by the Islamic
Islamic
Texts Society.[68] An abridged translation (from an Urdu
Urdu
translation) of The Alchemy of Happiness was published by Claud Field (ISBN 978-0935782288) in 1910. It has been translated in full by Muhammad
Muhammad
Asim Bilal (2001).[69] Growth of influence[edit]

A Mughal miniature
Mughal miniature
dated from the early 1620s depicting the Mughal emperor Jahangir
Jahangir
(d. 1627) preferring a Sufi
Sufi
saint to his contemporary, the King of England
King of England
James I
James I
(d. 1625); the picture is inscribed in Persian: "Though outwardly shahs stand before him, he fixes his gazes on dervishes."

Historically, Sufism
Sufism
became "an incredibly important part of Islam" and "one of the most widespread and omnipresent aspects of Muslim life" in Islamic
Islamic
civilization from the early medieval period onwards,[60][70] when it began to permeate nearly all major aspects of Sunni Islamic
Islamic
life in regions stretching from India
India
and Iraq
Iraq
to the Balkans
Balkans
and Senegal.[55] The rise of Islamic
Islamic
civilization coincides strongly with the spread of Sufi philosophy
Sufi philosophy
in Islam. The spread of Sufism
Sufism
has been considered a definitive factor in the spread of Islam, and in the creation of integrally Islamic
Islamic
cultures, especially in Africa[71] and Asia. The Senussi
Senussi
tribes of Libya
Libya
and the Sudan
Sudan
are one of the strongest adherents of Sufism. Sufi
Sufi
poets and philosophers such as Khoja Akhmet Yassawi, Rumi, and Attar of Nishapur
Attar of Nishapur
(c. 1145 – c. 1221) greatly enhanced the spread of Islamic
Islamic
culture in Anatolia, Central Asia, and South Asia.[72][73] Sufism
Sufism
also played a role in creating and propagating the culture of the Ottoman world,[74] and in resisting European imperialism in North Africa and South Asia.[75] Between the 13th and 16th centuries, Sufism
Sufism
produced a flourishing intellectual culture throughout the Islamic
Islamic
world, a "Golden Age" whose physical artifacts survive.[citation needed] In many places a person or group would endow a waqf to maintain a lodge (known variously as a zawiya, khanqah, or tekke) to provide a gathering place for Sufi
Sufi
adepts, as well as lodging for itinerant seekers of knowledge. The same system of endowments could also pay for a complex of buildings, such as that surrounding the Süleymaniye Mosque
Süleymaniye Mosque
in Istanbul, including a lodge for Sufi
Sufi
seekers, a hospice with kitchens where these seekers could serve the poor and/or complete a period of initiation, a library, and other structures. No important domain in the civilization of Islam
Islam
remained unaffected by Sufism
Sufism
in this period.[76] Present[edit] Sufism
Sufism
continued to remain a crucial part of daily Islamic
Islamic
life until the twentieth century, when its historical influence upon Islamic civilization began to be undermined by modernism[77] as well as be combated by the rise of Salafism
Salafism
and Wahhabism.[55][78] Islamic scholar Timothy Winter has remarked: "[In] classical, mainstream, medieval Sunni Islam
Islam
... [the idea of] 'orthodox Islam' would not ... [have been possible] without Sufism", and that the classical belief in Sufism
Sufism
being an essential component of Islam
Islam
only weakened in some quarters of the Islamic
Islamic
world "a generation or two ago", with the rise of Salafism.[60] In the modern world, the classical interpretation of Sunni orthodoxy, which sees in Sufism
Sufism
an essential dimension of Islam alongside the disciplines of jurisprudence and theology, is represented by institutions such as Egypt's Al-Azhar University
Al-Azhar University
and Zaytuna College, with Al-Azhar's current Grand Imam Ahmed el-Tayeb recently defining "Sunni orthodoxy" as being a follower "of any of the four schools of [legal] thought (Hanafi, Shafi’i, Maliki
Maliki
or Hanbali) and ... [also] of the Sufism
Sufism
of Imam Junayd of Baghdad
Junayd of Baghdad
in doctrines, manners and [spiritual] purification."[61]

Mawlānā Rumi's tomb, Konya, Turkey

Current Sufi
Sufi
orders include Alians, Bektashi
Bektashi
Order, Mevlevi Order, Ba 'Alawiyya , Chishti Order, Jerrahi, Naqshbandi, Mujaddidi, Ni'matullāhī, Qadiriyya, Qalandariyya, Sarwari Qadiriyya, Shadhiliyya, Suhrawardiyya, Saifiah (Naqshbandiah), and Uwaisi.[54] The relationship of Sufi
Sufi
orders to modern societies is usually defined by their relationship to governments.[79] Turkey and Persia
Persia
together have been a center for many Sufi
Sufi
lineages and orders. The Bektashi
Bektashi
were closely affiliated with the Ottoman Janissaries
Janissaries
and are the heart of Turkey's large and mostly liberal Alevi population. They have spread westwards to Cyprus, Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Republic of Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, and, more recently, to the United States, via Albania. Sufism
Sufism
is popular in such African countries as Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, and Senegal, where it is seen as a mystical expression of Islam.[80] Sufism
Sufism
is traditional in Morocco, but has seen a growing revival with the renewal of Sufism
Sufism
under contemporary spiritual teachers such as Hamza al Qadiri al Boutchichi. Mbacke suggests that one reason Sufism
Sufism
has taken hold in Senegal
Senegal
is because it can accommodate local beliefs and customs, which tend toward the mystical.[81] The life of the Algerian Sufi
Sufi
master Abdelkader El Djezairi
Abdelkader El Djezairi
is instructive in this regard.[82] Notable as well are the lives of Amadou Bamba
Amadou Bamba
and El Hadj Umar Tall in West Africa, and Sheikh
Sheikh
Mansur and Imam Shamil
Imam Shamil
in the Caucasus. In the twentieth century, some Muslims
Muslims
have called Sufism
Sufism
a superstitious religion which holds back Islamic
Islamic
achievement in the fields of science and technology.[83] A number of Westerners have embarked with varying degrees of success on the path of Sufism. One of the first to return to Europe
Europe
as an official representative of a Sufi
Sufi
order, and with the specific purpose to spread Sufism
Sufism
in Western Europe, was the Swedish-born wandering Sufi
Sufi
Ivan Aguéli. René Guénon, the French scholar, became a Sufi
Sufi
in the early twentieth century and was known as Sheikh
Sheikh
Abdul Wahid Yahya. His manifold writings defined the practice of Sufism
Sufism
as the essence of Islam, but also pointed to the universality of its message. Other spiritualists, such as George Gurdjieff, may or may not conform to the tenets of Sufism
Sufism
as understood by orthodox Muslims. Other noteworthy Sufi
Sufi
teachers who have been active in the West in recent years include Bawa Muhaiyaddeen, Inayat Khan, Nazim Al-Haqqani, Javad Nurbakhsh, Bulent Rauf, Irina Tweedie, Idries Shah, Muzaffer Ozak, Nahid Angha, and Ali
Ali
Kianfar. Currently active Sufi
Sufi
academics and publishers include Llewellyn Vaughan-Lee, Nuh Ha Mim Keller, Abdullah Nooruddeen Durkee, Waheed Ashraf, Omer Tarin, Ahmed abdu r Rashid and Timothy Winter. Aims and objectives[edit]

The tomb of Rukn-e-Alam
Rukn-e-Alam
located in Multan, Pakistan. Known for its Sufi
Sufi
tombs, Multan
Multan
is often called the City of Saints.

While all Muslims
Muslims
believe that they are on the pathway to Allah
Allah
and hope to become close to God
God
in Paradise—after death and after the Last Judgment—Sufis also believe that it is possible to draw closer to God
God
and to more fully embrace the divine presence in this life.[84] The chief aim of all Sufis is to seek the pleasing of God
God
by working to restore within themselves the primordial state of fitra.[85] To Sufis, the outer law consists of rules pertaining to worship, transactions, marriage, judicial rulings, and criminal law—what is often referred to, broadly, as "qanun". The inner law of Sufism consists of rules about repentance from sin, the purging of contemptible qualities and evil traits of character, and adornment with virtues and good character.[86] Teachings[edit]

Entrance of Sidi Boumediene Mosque
Mosque
in Tlemcen, Algeria, built to honor the 12th-century Sufi
Sufi
master Abu Madyan

To the Sufi, it is the transmission of divine light from the teacher's heart to the heart of the student, rather than worldly knowledge, that allows the adept to progress. They further believe that the teacher should attempt inerrantly to follow the Divine Law.[87] According to Moojan Momen "one of the most important doctrines of Sufism
Sufism
is the concept of al-Insan al-Kamil "the Perfect Man". This doctrine states that there will always exist upon the earth a "Qutb" (Pole or Axis of the Universe)—a man who is the perfect channel of grace from God
God
to man and in a state of wilayah (sanctity, being under the protection of Allah). The concept of the Sufi
Sufi
Qutb
Qutb
is similar to that of the Shi'i Imam.[88][89] However, this belief puts Sufism
Sufism
in "direct conflict" with Shia
Shia
Islam, since both the Qutb
Qutb
(who for most Sufi
Sufi
orders is the head of the order) and the Imam fulfill the role of "the purveyor of spiritual guidance and of Allah's grace to mankind". The vow of obedience to the Shaykh
Shaykh
or Qutb
Qutb
which is taken by Sufis is considered incompatible with devotion to the Imam".[88] As a further example, the prospective adherent of the Mevlevi Order would have been ordered to serve in the kitchens of a hospice for the poor for 1001 days prior to being accepted for spiritual instruction, and a further 1,001 days in solitary retreat as a precondition of completing that instruction.[90]

The Darbar Sharif of Shams Ali
Ali
Qalandar, located in Hujra Shah Muqeem, Pakistan

Some teachers, especially when addressing more general audiences, or mixed groups of Muslims
Muslims
and non-Muslims, make extensive use of parable, allegory, and metaphor.[91] Although approaches to teaching vary among different Sufi
Sufi
orders, Sufism
Sufism
as a whole is primarily concerned with direct personal experience, and as such has sometimes been compared to other, non- Islamic
Islamic
forms of mysticism (e.g., as in the books of Hossein Nasr). Many Sufi
Sufi
believe that to reach the highest levels of success in Sufism
Sufism
typically requires that the disciple live with and serve the teacher for a long period of time.[92] An example is the folk story about Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari, who gave his name to the Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
Order. He is believed to have served his first teacher, Sayyid Muhammad
Muhammad
Baba As-Samasi, for 20 years, until as-Samasi died. He is said to then have served several other teachers for lengthy periods of time. He is said to have helped the poorer members of the community for many years and after this concluded his teacher directed him to care for animals cleaning their wounds, and assisting them.[93] Muhammad[edit]

“ His [Muhammad's] aspiration preceded all other aspirations, his existence preceded nothingness, and his name preceded the Pen, because he existed before all peoples. There is not in the horizons, beyond the horizons or below the horizons, anyone more elegant, more noble, more knowing, more just, more fearsome, or more compassionate, than the subject of this tale. He is the leader of created beings, the one "whose name is glorious Ahmad"[Quran 61:6]. —Mansur Al-Hallaj[94]

Devotion to Muhammad
Muhammad
is an exceptionally strong practice within Sufism.[95] Sufis have historically revered Muhammad
Muhammad
as the prime personality of spiritual greatness. The Sufi
Sufi
poet Saadi Shirazi stated, "He who chooses a path contrary to that of the prophet [Muhammad], shall never reach the destination. O Saadi, do not think that one can treat that way of purity except in the wake of the chosen one [Muhammad]."[96] Rumi
Rumi
attributes his self-control and abstinence from worldly desires as qualities attained by him through the guidance of Muhammad. Rumi
Rumi
states, "I 'sewed' my two eyes shut from [desires for] this world and the next – this I learned from Muhammad."[97] Ibn Arabi
Ibn Arabi
regards Muhammad
Muhammad
as the greatest man and states, "Muhammad's wisdom is uniqueness (fardiya) because he is the most perfect existent creature of this human species. For this reason, the command began with him and was sealed with him. He was a Prophet while Adam was between water and clay, and his elemental structure is the Seal of the Prophets."[98] Attar of Nishapur
Attar of Nishapur
claimed that he praised Muhammad
Muhammad
in such a manner that was not done before by any poet, in his book the Ilahi-nama.[99] Fariduddin Attar stated, " Muhammad
Muhammad
is the exemplar to both worlds, the guide of the descendants of Adam. He is the sun of creation, the moon of the celestial spheres, the all-seeing eye...The seven heavens and the eight gardens of paradise were created for him, he is both the eye and the light in the light of our eyes."[100] Sufis have historically stressed the importance of Muhammad's perfection and his ability to intercede. The persona of Muhammad
Muhammad
has historically been and remains an integral and critical aspect of Sufi
Sufi
belief and practice.[95] Bayazid Bastami
Bayazid Bastami
is recorded to have been so devoted to the sunnah of Muhammad
Muhammad
that he refused to eat a watermelon due to the fact that he could not establish that Muhammad
Muhammad
ever ate one.[101]

The name of Muhammad
Muhammad
in Arabic
Arabic
calligraphy. Sufis believe the name of Muhammad
Muhammad
is holy and sacred.[citation needed]

In the 13th century, a Sufi
Sufi
poet from Egypt, Al-Busiri, wrote the al-Kawākib ad-Durrīya fī Madḥ Khayr al-Barīya (The Celestial Lights in Praise of the Best of Creation) commonly referred to as Qaṣīdat al-Burda ("Poem of the Mantle"), in which he extensively praised Muhammad.[102] This poem is still widely recited and sung amongst Sufi
Sufi
groups all over the world.[102] Sufi
Sufi
beliefs about Muhammad[edit] According to Ibn Arabi, Islam
Islam
is the best religion because of Muhammad.[13] Ibn Arabi
Ibn Arabi
regards that the first entity that was brought into existence is the reality or essence of Muhammad
Muhammad
(al-ḥaqīqa al-Muhammadiyya). Ibn Arabi
Ibn Arabi
regards Muhammad
Muhammad
as the supreme human being and master of all creatures. Muhammad
Muhammad
is therefore the primary role-model for human beings to aspire to emulate.[13] Ibn Arabi believes that God's attributes and names are manifested in this world and that the most complete and perfect display of these divine attributes and names are seen in Muhammad.[13] Ibn Arabi
Ibn Arabi
believes that one may see God
God
in the mirror of Muhammad, meaning that the divine attributes of God
God
are manifested through Muhammad.[13] Ibn Arabi maintains that Muhammad
Muhammad
is the best proof of God
God
and by knowing Muhammad
Muhammad
one knows God.[13] Ibn Arabi
Ibn Arabi
also maintains that Muhammad
Muhammad
is the master of all of humanity in both this world and the afterlife. In this view, Islam
Islam
is the best religion, because Muhammad
Muhammad
is Islam.[13] Sufis maintain that Muhammad
Muhammad
is Al-Insān al-Kāmil. Sufis believe that aid and support may be received from Muhammad, even today. Sufis believe that Muhammad
Muhammad
listens to them when they call upon him. Sufis strive towards having a relationship with Muhammad
Muhammad
and seeking to see Muhammad
Muhammad
in a dream is a common Sufi
Sufi
practice. Sufism
Sufism
and Islamic
Islamic
law[edit]

Tomb of Salim Chishti, Fatehpur Sikri, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India

Sufis believe the sharia (exoteric "canon"), tariqa (esoteric "order") and haqiqa ("truth") are mutually interdependent.[103] Sufism
Sufism
leads the adept, called salik or "wayfarer", in his sulûk or "road" through different stations (maqaam) until he reaches his goal, the perfect tawhid, the existential confession that God
God
is One.[104] Ibn Arabi says, "When we see someone in this Community who claims to be able to guide others to God, but is remiss in but one rule of the Sacred Law—even if he manifests miracles that stagger the mind—asserting that his shortcoming is a special dispensation for him, we do not even turn to look at him, for such a person is not a sheikh, nor is he speaking the truth, for no one is entrusted with the secrets of God Most High save one in whom the ordinances of the Sacred Law are preserved. (Jamiʿ karamat al-awliyaʾ)".[105] The Amman
Amman
Message, a detailed statement issued by 200 leading Islamic scholars in 2005 in Amman, and adopted by the Islamic
Islamic
world's political and temporal leaderships at the Organisation of the Islamic Conference summit at Mecca in December 2005, and by six other international Islamic
Islamic
scholarly assemblies including the International Islamic
Islamic
Fiqh
Fiqh
Academy of Jeddah, in July 2006, specifically recognized the validity of Sufism
Sufism
as a part of Islam—however the definition of Sufism
Sufism
can vary drastically between different traditions (what may be intended is simple tazkiah as opposed to the various manifestations of Sufism
Sufism
around the Islamic
Islamic
world).[106] Traditional Islamic
Islamic
thought and Sufism[edit]

Tomb of Mir Sayyid Ali
Ali
Hamadani, Kulob, Tajikistan.

The literature of Sufism
Sufism
emphasizes highly subjective matters that resist outside observation, such as the subtle states of the heart. Often these resist direct reference or description, with the consequence that the authors of various Sufi
Sufi
treatises took recourse to allegorical language. For instance, much Sufi poetry
Sufi poetry
refers to intoxication, which Islam
Islam
expressly forbids. This usage of indirect language and the existence of interpretations by people who had no training in Islam
Islam
or Sufism
Sufism
led to doubts being cast over the validity of Sufism
Sufism
as a part of Islam. Also, some groups emerged that considered themselves above the Sharia
Sharia
and discussed Sufism
Sufism
as a method of bypassing the rules of Islam
Islam
in order to attain salvation directly. This was disapproved of by traditional scholars. For these and other reasons, the relationship between traditional Islamic
Islamic
scholars and Sufism
Sufism
is complex and a range of scholarly opinion on Sufism
Sufism
in Islam
Islam
has been the norm. Some scholars, such as Al-Ghazali, helped its propagation while other scholars opposed it. William Chittick
William Chittick
explains the position of Sufism
Sufism
and Sufis this way:

In short, Muslim scholars who focused their energies on understanding the normative guidelines for the body came to be known as jurists, and those who held that the most important task was to train the mind in achieving correct understanding came to be divided into three main schools of thought: theology, philosophy, and Sufism. This leaves us with the third domain of human existence, the spirit. Most Muslims
Muslims
who devoted their major efforts to developing the spiritual dimensions of the human person came to be known as Sufis.[25]

Traditional and Neo- Sufi
Sufi
groups [edit]

The mausoleum (gongbei) of Ma Laichi
Ma Laichi
in Linxia City, China

The traditional Sufi
Sufi
orders, which are in majority, emphasize the role of Sufism
Sufism
as a spiritual discipline within Islam. Therefore, the Sharia
Sharia
(traditional Islamic
Islamic
law) and the Sunnah
Sunnah
are seen as crucial for any Sufi
Sufi
aspirant. One proof traditional orders assert is that almost all the famous Sufi
Sufi
masters of the past Caliphates were experts in Sharia
Sharia
and were renowned as people with great Iman (faith) and excellent practice. Many were also Qadis ( Sharia
Sharia
law judges) in courts. They held that Sufism
Sufism
was never distinct from Islam
Islam
and to fully comprehend and practice Sufism
Sufism
one must be an observant Muslim. "Neo-Sufism," "pseudo-Sufism," and "universal Sufism" are terms used to denote modern, Western forms or appropriations of Sufism
Sufism
that do not require adherence to Shariah, or the Muslim faith.[107][108] The terms are not always accepted by those it is applied to. For example, the Afghan-Scottish teacher Idries Shah
Idries Shah
has been described as a neo- Sufi
Sufi
by the Gurdjieffian James Moore.[109] The Sufi
Sufi
Order in the West was founded by Inayat Khan, teaching the essential unity of all faiths, and accepting members of all creeds. Sufism Reoriented
Sufism Reoriented
is an offshoot of it charted by the syncretistic teacher Meher Baba. The Golden Sufi
Sufi
Center exists in England, Switzerland and the United States. It was founded by Llewellyn Vaughan-Lee
Llewellyn Vaughan-Lee
to continue the work of his teacher Irina Tweedie, herself a practitioner of both Hinduism and neo-Sufism. Other Western Sufi
Sufi
organisations include the Sufi Foundation of America and the International Association of Sufism. Western Neo- Sufi
Sufi
practices may differ from traditional forms, for instance having mixed-gender meetings and less emphasis on the Qur'an. Theoretical perspectives[edit]

The works of Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
firmly defended the concepts of Sufism
Sufism
within the Islamic
Islamic
faith.

Traditional Islamic
Islamic
scholars have recognized two major branches within the practice of Sufism, and use this as one key to differentiating among the approaches of different masters and devotional lineages.[110] On the one hand there is the order from the signs to the Signifier (or from the arts to the Artisan). In this branch, the seeker begins by purifying the lower self of every corrupting influence that stands in the way of recognizing all of creation as the work of God, as God's active Self-disclosure or theophany.[111] This is the way of Imam Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
and of the majority of the Sufi
Sufi
orders. On the other hand, there is the order from the Signifier to His signs, from the Artisan to His works. In this branch the seeker experiences divine attraction (jadhba), and is able to enter the order with a glimpse of its endpoint, of direct apprehension of the Divine Presence towards which all spiritual striving is directed. This does not replace the striving to purify the heart, as in the other branch; it simply stems from a different point of entry into the path. This is the way primarily of the masters of the Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
and Shadhili orders.[112] Contemporary scholars may also recognize a third branch, attributed to the late Ottoman scholar Said Nursi
Said Nursi
and explicated in his vast Qur'an commentary called the Risale-i Nur. This approach entails strict adherence to the way of Muhammad, in the understanding that this wont, or sunnah, proposes a complete devotional spirituality adequate to those without access to a master of the Sufi
Sufi
way.[113] Contributions to other domains of scholarship[edit] Sufism
Sufism
has contributed significantly to the elaboration of theoretical perspectives in many domains of intellectual endeavor. For instance, the doctrine of "subtle centers" or centers of subtle cognition (known as Lataif-e-sitta) addresses the matter of the awakening of spiritual intuition.[114] In general, these subtle centers or latâ'if are thought of as faculties that are to be purified sequentially in order to bring the seeker's wayfaring to completion. A concise and useful summary of this system from a living exponent of this tradition has been published by Muhammad
Muhammad
Emin Er.[110] Sufi psychology
Sufi psychology
has influenced many areas of thinking both within and outside of Islam, drawing primarily upon three concepts. Ja'far al-Sadiq (both an imam in the Shia
Shia
tradition and a respected scholar and link in chains of Sufi
Sufi
transmission in all Islamic
Islamic
sects) held that human beings are dominated by a lower self called the nafs (soul), a faculty of spiritual intuition called the qalb (heart), and ruh (spirit). These interact in various ways, producing the spiritual types of the tyrant (dominated by nafs), the person of faith and moderation (dominated by the spiritual heart), and the person lost in love for God
God
(dominated by the ruh).[115] Of note with regard to the spread of Sufi psychology
Sufi psychology
in the West is Robert Frager, a Sufi
Sufi
teacher authorized in the Khalwati
Khalwati
Jerrahi order. Frager was a trained psychologist, born in the United States, who converted to Islam
Islam
in the course of his practice of Sufism
Sufism
and wrote extensively on Sufism
Sufism
and psychology.[116] Sufi cosmology
Sufi cosmology
and Sufi metaphysics
Sufi metaphysics
are also noteworthy areas of intellectual accomplishment.[citation needed] Devotional practices of Sufis[edit]

Sufi
Sufi
gathering engaged in Dhikr

The devotional practices of Sufis vary widely. This is because an acknowledged and authorized master of the Sufi
Sufi
path is in effect a physician of the heart, able to diagnose the seeker's impediments to knowledge and pure intention in serving God, and to prescribe to the seeker a course of treatment appropriate to his or her maladies. The consensus among Sufi
Sufi
scholars is that the seeker cannot self-diagnose, and that it can be extremely harmful to undertake any of these practices alone and without formal authorization.[117] Prerequisites to practice include rigorous adherence to Islamic
Islamic
norms (ritual prayer in its five prescribed times each day, the fast of Ramadan, and so forth). Additionally, the seeker ought to be firmly grounded in supererogatory practices known from the life of Muhammad (such as the "sunna prayers"). This is in accordance with the words, attributed to God, of the following, a famous Hadith
Hadith
Qudsi:

My servant draws near to Me through nothing I love more than that which I have made obligatory for him. My servant never ceases drawing near to Me through supererogatory works until I love him. Then, when I love him, I am his hearing through which he hears, his sight through which he sees, his hand through which he grasps, and his foot through which he walks.

It is also necessary for the seeker to have a correct creed (Aqidah),[118] and to embrace with certainty its tenets.[119] The seeker must also, of necessity, turn away from sins, love of this world, the love of company and renown, obedience to satanic impulse, and the promptings of the lower self. (The way in which this purification of the heart is achieved is outlined in certain books, but must be prescribed in detail by a Sufi
Sufi
master.) The seeker must also be trained to prevent the corruption of those good deeds which have accrued to his or her credit by overcoming the traps of ostentation, pride, arrogance, envy, and long hopes (meaning the hope for a long life allowing us to mend our ways later, rather than immediately, here and now). Sufi
Sufi
practices, while attractive to some, are not a means for gaining knowledge. The traditional scholars of Sufism
Sufism
hold it as absolutely axiomatic that knowledge of God
God
is not a psychological state generated through breath control. Thus, practice of "techniques" is not the cause, but instead the occasion for such knowledge to be obtained (if at all), given proper prerequisites and proper guidance by a master of the way. Furthermore, the emphasis on practices may obscure a far more important fact: The seeker is, in a sense, to become a broken person, stripped of all habits through the practice of (in the words of Imam Al-Ghazali) solitude, silence, sleeplessness, and hunger.[120] Magic may have also been a part of some Sufi
Sufi
practices, notably in India.[121][page needed] Dhikr[edit] Main article: Dhikr

The name of Allah
Allah
as written on the disciple's heart, according to the Sarwari Qadri Order

Dhikr
Dhikr
is the remembrance of Allah
Allah
commanded in the Qur'an
Qur'an
for all Muslims
Muslims
through a specific devotional act, such as the repetition of divine names, supplications and aphorisms from hadith literature and the Qur'an. More generally, dhikr takes a wide range and various layers of meaning.[122] This includes dhikr as any activity in which the Muslim maintains awareness of Allah. To engage in dhikr is to practice consciousness of the Divine Presence and love, or "to seek a state of godwariness". The Qur'an
Qur'an
refers to Muhammad
Muhammad
as the very embodiment of dhikr of Allah
Allah
(65:10–11). Some types of dhikr are prescribed for all Muslims
Muslims
and do not require Sufi
Sufi
initiation or the prescription of a Sufi
Sufi
master because they are deemed to be good for every seeker under every circumstance.[123] The Dhikr
Dhikr
may slightly vary among each order. Some Sufi
Sufi
orders[124] engage in ritualized dhikr ceremonies, or sema. Sema
Sema
includes various forms of worship such as: recitation, singing (the most well known being the Qawwali
Qawwali
music of the Indian subcontinent), instrumental music, dance (most famously the Sufi whirling
Sufi whirling
of the Mevlevi order), incense, meditation, ecstasy, and trance.[125] Some Sufi
Sufi
orders stress and place extensive reliance upon Dhikr. This practice of Dhikr
Dhikr
is called Dhikr-e-Qulb (invocation of Allah
Allah
within the heartbeats). The basic idea in this practice is to visualize the Allah
Allah
as having been written on the disciple's heart.[126] Muraqaba[edit] Main article: Muraqaba The practice of muraqaba can be likened to the practices of meditation attested in many faith communities.[127] The word muraqaba is derived from the same root (r-q-b) occurring as one of the 99 Names of God
God
in the Qur'an, al-Raqîb, meaning "the Vigilant"[citation needed] and attested in verse 4:1 of the Qur'an.[non-primary source needed] Through muraqaba, a person watches over or takes care of the spiritual heart, acquires knowledge about it, and becomes attuned to the Divine Presence, which is ever vigilant. While variation exists, one description of the practice within a Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
lineage reads as follows:

He is to collect all of his bodily senses in concentration, and to cut himself off from all preoccupation and notions that inflict themselves upon the heart. And thus he is to turn his full consciousness towards God
God
Most High while saying three times: "Ilahî anta maqsûdî wa-ridâka matlûbî—my God, you are my Goal and Your good pleasure is what I seek". Then he brings to his heart the Name of the Essence—Allâh—and as it courses through his heart he remains attentive to its meaning, which is "Essence without likeness". The seeker remains aware that He is Present, Watchful, Encompassing of all, thereby exemplifying the meaning of his saying (may God
God
bless him and grant him peace): " Worship
Worship
God
God
as though you see Him, for if you do not see Him, He sees you". And likewise the prophetic tradition: "The most favored level of faith is to know that God
God
is witness over you, wherever you may be".[128]

Sufi
Sufi
whirling[edit] Main article: Sufi
Sufi
whirling

Whirling Dervishes, at Rumi
Rumi
Fest 2007

Sufi whirling
Sufi whirling
(or Sufi
Sufi
spinning) is a form of Sama or physically active meditation which originated among Sufis, and which is still practised by the Sufi
Sufi
Dervishes of the Mevlevi order. It is a customary dance performed within the sema, through which dervishes (also called semazens, from Persian سماعزن) aim to reach the source of all perfection, or kemal. This is sought through abandoning one's nafs, egos or personal desires, by listening to the music, focusing on God, and spinning one's body in repetitive circles, which has been seen as a symbolic imitation of planets in the Solar System orbiting the sun.[129] As explained by Sufis:[130]

In the symbolism of the Sema
Sema
ritual, the semazen's camel's hair hat (sikke) represents the tombstone of the ego; his wide, white skirt (tennure) represents the ego's shroud. By removing his black cloak (hırka), he is spiritually reborn to the truth. At the beginning of the Sema, by holding his arms crosswise, the semazen appears to represent the number one, thus testifying to God's unity. While whirling, his arms are open: his right arm is directed to the sky, ready to receive God's beneficence; his left hand, upon which his eyes are fastened, is turned toward the earth. The semazen conveys God's spiritual gift to those who are witnessing the Sema. Revolving from right to left around the heart, the semazen embraces all humanity with love. The human being has been created with love in order to love. Mevlâna Jalâluddîn Rumi
Rumi
says, "All loves are a bridge to Divine love. Yet, those who have not had a taste of it do not know!"

Saints[edit]

A Persian miniature
Persian miniature
depicting the medieval saint and mystic Ahmad Ghazali (d. 1123), brother of the famous Abu Hamid al- Ghazali (d. 1111), talking to a disciple, from the Meetings of the Lovers (1552)

Main article: Wali Walī (Arabic: ولي‎, plural ʾawliyāʾ أولياء) is an Arabic
Arabic
word whose literal meanings include "custodian", "protector", "helper", and "friend."[131] In the vernacular, it is most commonly used by Muslims
Muslims
to indicate an Islamic
Islamic
saint, otherwise referred to by the more literal "friend of God."[132][133][134] In the traditional Islamic
Islamic
understanding of saints, the saint is portrayed as someone "marked by [special] divine favor ... [and] holiness", and who is specifically "chosen by God
God
and endowed with exceptional gifts, such as the ability to work miracles."[135] The doctrine of saints was articulated by Islamic
Islamic
scholars very early on in Muslim history,[136][137][5][138] and particular verses of the Quran
Quran
and certain hadith were interpreted by early Muslim thinkers as "documentary evidence"[5] of the existence of saints. Since the first Muslim hagiographies were written during the period when Sufism
Sufism
began its rapid expansion, many of the figures who later came to be regarded as the major saints in Sunni Islam
Islam
were the early Sufi
Sufi
mystics, like Hasan of Basra
Hasan of Basra
(d. 728), Farqad Sabakhi
Farqad Sabakhi
(d. 729), Dawud Tai
Dawud Tai
(d. 777-81) Rabi'a al-'Adawiyya
Rabi'a al-'Adawiyya
(d. 801), Maruf Karkhi
Maruf Karkhi
(d. 815), and Junayd of Baghdad
Junayd of Baghdad
(d. 910).[54] From the twelfth to the fourteenth century, "the general veneration of saints, among both people and sovereigns, reached its definitive form with the organization of Sufism
Sufism
... into orders or brotherhoods."[139] In the common expressions of Islamic
Islamic
piety of this period, the saint was understood to be "a contemplative whose state of spiritual perfection ... [found] permanent expression in the teaching bequeathed to his disciples."[139] Visitation[edit] Main article: Ziyara In popular Sufism
Sufism
(i.e. devotional practices that have achieved currency in world cultures through Sufi
Sufi
influence), one common practice is to visit or make pilgrimages to the tombs of saints, renowned scholars, and righteous people. This is a particularly common practice in South Asia, where famous tombs include such saints as Ali Sani Sayyid Ali
Ali
Hamadani (Secound Ali) in Kulob, Tajikistan; Afāq Khoja, near Kashgar, China; Lal Shahbaz Qalandar
Qalandar
in Sindh; Ali
Ali
Hajwari in Lahore, Pakistan; Bawaldin Zikrya in Multan
Multan
Pakistan; Moinuddin Chishti in Ajmer, India; Nizamuddin Auliya
Nizamuddin Auliya
in Delhi, India; and Shah Jalal in Sylhet, Bangladesh. Likewise, in Fez, Morocco, a popular destination for such pious visitation is the Zaouia Moulay Idriss II
Zaouia Moulay Idriss II
and the yearly visitation to see the current Sheikh
Sheikh
of the Qadiri Boutchichi Tariqah, Sheikh
Sheikh
Sidi Hamza al Qadiri al Boutchichi to celebrate the Mawlid
Mawlid
(which is usually televised on Moroccan National television).[citation needed] Miracles[edit] Main article: Karamat In Islamic
Islamic
mysticism, karamat (Arabic: کرامات‎ karāmāt, pl. of کرامة karāmah, lit. generosity, high-mindedness[140]) refers to supernatural wonders performed by Muslim saints. In the technical vocabulary of Islamic
Islamic
religious sciences, the singular form karama has a sense similar to charism, a favor or spiritual gift freely bestowed by God.[141] The marvels ascribed to Islamic
Islamic
saints have included supernatural physical actions, predictions of the future, and "interpretation of the secrets of hearts".[141] Historically, a "belief in the miracles of saints (karāmāt al-awliyāʾ, literally 'marvels of the friends [of God]')" has been "a requirement in Sunni Islam."[142] Persecution[edit] Main article: Persecution of Sufis See also: Sufi–Salafi relations Persecution of Sufis
Persecution of Sufis
and Sufism
Sufism
has included destruction of Sufi shrines and mosques, suppression of orders, and discrimination against adherents in a number of Muslim-majority countries. The Turkish Republican state banned all Sufi
Sufi
orders and abolished their institutions in 1925 after Sufis opposed the new secular order. The Iranian Islamic
Islamic
Republic has harassed Shia
Shia
Sufis, reportedly for their lack of support for the government doctrine of "governance of the jurist" (i.e., that the supreme Shiite
Shiite
jurist should be the nation's political leader). In most other Muslim countries, attacks on Sufis and especially their shrines have come from Salafis
Salafis
who believe that practices such as celebration of the birthdays of Sufi
Sufi
saints, and dhikr ("remembrance" of God) ceremonies are bid‘ah or impure innovation, and polytheistic (Shirk).[143][144][145] At least 305 people were killed and more than 100 wounded during a November 2017 attack on a mosque in Sinai.[146][147] Prominent Sufis[edit] Rabi'a al-'Adawiyya[edit]

Depiction of Rabi'a grinding grain from a Persian dictionary

Rabi'a al-'Adawiyya
Rabi'a al-'Adawiyya
or Rabia of Basra
Basra
(died 801) was a mystic who represents countercultural elements of Sufism, especially with regards to the status and power of women. Prominent Sufi
Sufi
leader Hasan of Basra is said to have castigated himself before her superior merits and sincere virtues.[148] Rabi'a was born either a slave or a servant of very poor origin, released by her master when he awoke one night to see the light of sanctity shining above her head.[149] Rabi'a al-Adawiyya is known for her teachings and emphasis on the centrality of the love of God
God
to a holy life.[150] She is said to have proclaimed, running down the streets of Basra, Iraq:

O God! If I worship You for fear of Hell, burn me in Hell, and if I worship You in hope of Paradise, exclude me from Paradise. But if I worship You for Your Own sake, grudge me not Your everlasting Beauty. — Rabi'a al-Adawiyya

She died in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and is thought to have been buried in the Chapel of the Ascension. Bayazid Bastami[edit] Bayazid Bastami
Bayazid Bastami
is a very well recognized and influential Sufi personality. Bastami was born in 804 in Bastam. Bayazid is regarded for his devout commitment to the Sunnah
Sunnah
and his dedication to fundamental Islamic
Islamic
principals and practices. Junayd of Baghdad[edit]

A manuscript of Sufi
Sufi
Islamic
Islamic
theology, Shams al-Ma'arif (The Book of the Sun of Gnosis), was written by the Algerian Sufi
Sufi
master Ahmad al-Buni during the 12th century.

Junayd of Baghdad
Junayd of Baghdad
(830–910) was one of the great early Sufis. His order was Junaidia, which links to the golden chain of many Sufi orders. He laid the groundwork for sober mysticism in contrast to that of God-intoxicated Sufis like al-Hallaj, Bayazid Bastami
Bayazid Bastami
and Abusaeid Abolkheir. During the trial of al-Hallaj, his former disciple, the Caliph of the time demanded his fatwa. In response, he issued this fatwa: "From the outward appearance he is to die and we judge according to the outward appearance and God
God
knows better". He is referred to by Sufis as Sayyid-ut Taifa—i.e., the leader of the group. He lived and died in the city of Baghdad. Mansur Al-Hallaj[edit] Mansur Al-Hallaj
Mansur Al-Hallaj
(died 922) is renowned for his claim, Ana-l-Haqq ("I am The Truth"). His refusal to recant this utterance, which was regarded as apostasy, led to a long trial. He was imprisoned for 11 years in a Baghdad
Baghdad
prison, before being tortured and publicly dismembered on March 26, 922. He is still revered by Sufis for his willingness to embrace torture and death rather than recant. It is said that during his prayers, he would say "O Lord! You are the guide of those who are passing through the Valley of Bewilderment. If I am a heretic, enlarge my heresy".[151] Abdul-Qadir Gilani[edit]

Geometric tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz

Abdul-Qadir Gilani
Abdul-Qadir Gilani
(1077–1166) was a Persian Hanbali
Hanbali
jurist and Sufi based in Baghdad. Qadiriyya
Qadiriyya
was his patronym. Gilani spent his early life in Na'if, the town of his birth. There, he pursued the study of Hanbali
Hanbali
law. Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhzoomi
Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhzoomi
gave Gilani lessons in fiqh. He was given lessons about Hadith
Hadith
by Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
ibn Muzaffar. He was given lessons about Tafsir
Tafsir
by Abu Muhammad
Muhammad
Ja'far, a commentator. His Sufi
Sufi
spiritual instructor was Abu'l-Khair Hammad ibn Muslim al-Dabbas. After completing his education, Gilani left Baghdad. He spent twenty-five years as a reclusive wanderer in the desert regions of Iraq. In 1127, Gilani returned to Baghdad
Baghdad
and began to preach to the public. He joined the teaching staff of the school belonging to his own teacher, Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhzoomi, and was popular with students. In the morning he taught hadith and tafsir, and in the afternoon he held discourse on the science of the heart and the virtues of the Qur'an. Ibn Arabi[edit] Muhyiddin Muhammad
Muhammad
b. ' Ali
Ali
Ibn 'Arabi (or Ibn al-'Arabi) (AH 561 – AH 638; July 28, 1165 – November 10, 1240) is considered to be one of the most important Sufi
Sufi
masters, although he never founded any order (tariqa). His writings, especially al-Futuhat al-Makkiyya and Fusus al-hikam, have been studied within all the Sufi
Sufi
orders as the clearest expression of tawhid (Divine Unity), though because of their recondite nature they were often only given to initiates. Later those who followed his teaching became known as the school of wahdat al-wujud (the Oneness of Being). He himself considered his writings to have been divinely inspired. As he expressed the Way to one of his close disciples, his legacy is that 'you should never ever abandon your servant-hood (ʿubudiyya), and that there may never be in your soul a longing for any existing thing'.[152] Moinuddin Chishti[edit]

A Mughal-era Sufi
Sufi
prayer book from the Chishti order

Moinuddin Chishti
Moinuddin Chishti
was born in 1141 and died in 1236. Also known as Gharīb Nawāz "Benefactor of the Poor", he is the most famous Sufi saint of the Chishti Order. Moinuddin Chishti
Moinuddin Chishti
introduced and established the order in the Indian subcontinent. The initial spiritual chain or silsila of the Chishti order in India, comprising Moinuddin Chishti, Bakhtiyar Kaki, Baba Farid, Nizamuddin Auliya
Nizamuddin Auliya
(each successive person being the disciple of the previous one), constitutes the great Sufi
Sufi
saints of Indian history. Moinuddin Chishtī turned towards India, reputedly after a dream in which Muhammad
Muhammad
blessed him to do so. After a brief stay at Lahore, he reached Ajmer
Ajmer
along with Sultan Shahāb-ud-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
Ghori, and settled down there. In Ajmer, he attracted a substantial following, acquiring a great deal of respect amongst the residents of the city. Moinuddin Chishtī practiced the Sufi
Sufi
Sulh-e-Kul (peace to all) concept to promote understanding between Muslims
Muslims
and non-Muslims.[citation needed] Abul Hasan ash-Shadhili[edit] Abul Hasan ash- Shadhili
Shadhili
(died 1258), the founder of the Shadhiliyya order, introduced dhikr jahri (the remembrance of God
God
out loud, as opposed to the silent dhikr). He taught that his followers need not abstain from what Islam
Islam
has not forbidden, but to be grateful for what God
God
has bestowed upon them,[153] in contrast to the majority of Sufis, who preach to deny oneself and to destroy the ego-self (nafs) and its worldly desires. These two ways are sometimes referred to as "Order of Patience" (Tariqus-Sabr), as opposed to the "Order of Gratitude" (Tariqush-Shukr). Imam Shadhili
Shadhili
also gave eighteen valuable hizbs (litanies) to his followers out of which the notable Hizb al-Bahr[154] is recited worldwide even today. Ahmad al-Tijani[edit] Ahmad al-Tijani Abu al-ʿAbbâs Ahmad ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
at-Tijânî or Ahmed Tijani (1735–1815), in Arabic
Arabic
سيدي أحمد التجاني (Sidi Ahmed Tijani), is the founder of the Tijaniyya
Tijaniyya
Sufi
Sufi
order. He was born in a Berber family,[155][156][157] in Aïn Madhi, present-day Algeria
Algeria
and died in Fez, Morocco
Morocco
at the age of 80. Major Sufi
Sufi
orders[edit] Main articles: Tariqa
Tariqa
and List of Sufi
Sufi
orders

"Tariqat" in the Four Spiritual Stations: The Four Stations, sharia, tariqa, haqiqa. The fourth station, marifa, which is considered "unseen", is actually the center of the haqiqa region. It is the essence of all four stations.

The term Tariqa
Tariqa
is used for a school or order of Sufism, or especially for the mystical teaching and spiritual practices of such an order with the aim of seeking ḥaqīqah (ultimate truth). A tariqa has a murshid (guide) who plays the role of leader or spiritual director. The members or followers of a tariqa are known as murīdīn (singular murīd), meaning "desirous", viz. "desiring the knowledge of knowing God
God
and loving God".[158] Bektashi[edit] Main article: Bektashi The Bektashi Order
Bektashi Order
was founded in the 13th century by the Islamic saint Haji Bektash Veli, and greatly influenced during its fomulative period by the Hurufi Ali
Ali
al-'Ala in the 15th century and reorganized by Balım Sultan
Balım Sultan
in the 16th century. Chishti[edit] Main article: Chishti Order The Chishti Order
Chishti Order
(Persian: چشتیہ‎) was founded by (Khawaja) Abu Ishaq Shami ("the Syrian"; died 941) who brought Sufism
Sufism
to the town of Chisht, some 95 miles east of Herat
Herat
in present-day Afghanistan. Before returning to the Levant, Shami initiated, trained and deputized the son of the local Emir
Emir
(Khwaja) Abu Ahmad Abdal
Abdal
(died 966). Under the leadership of Abu Ahmad's descendants, the Chishtiyya as they are also known, flourished as a regional mystical order. Kubrawiya[edit] Main article: Kubrawiya The Kubrawiya
Kubrawiya
order is a Sufi
Sufi
order ("tariqa") named after its 13th-century founder Najmuddin Kubra. The Kubrawiya
Kubrawiya
Sufi
Sufi
order was founded in the 13th century by Najmuddin Kubra
Najmuddin Kubra
in Bukhara
Bukhara
in modern Uzbekistan.[159] The Mongols
Mongols
had captured Bukhara
Bukhara
in 1221, they committed genocide and killed nearly the whole population. Sheikh Nadjm ed-Din Kubra was among those killed by the Mongols. Mawlawiyya[edit] Main article: Mawlawiyyah The Mevlevi Order
Mevlevi Order
is better known in the West as the "whirling dervishes". Muridiyya[edit] Main article: Muridiyya Mouride
Mouride
is a large Islamic
Islamic
Sufi
Sufi
order most prominent in Senegal
Senegal
and The Gambia, with headquarters in the holy city of Touba, Senegal.[160] Naqshbandi[edit] Main article: Naqshbandi The Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
order is one of the major Sufi
Sufi
orders of Islam, previously known as Siddiqiyya as the order stems from Mohammad through Abū Bakr as-Șiddīq. It is considered by some to be a "sober" order known for its silent dhikr (remembrance of God) rather than the vocalized forms of dhikr common in other orders. The word "Naqshbandi" (نقشبندی) is Persian, taken from the name of the founder of the order, Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari. Some have said that the translation means "related to the image-maker", some also consider it to mean "Pattern Maker" rather than "image maker", and interpret "Naqshbandi" to mean "Reformer of Patterns", and others consider it to mean "Way of the Chain" or "Silsilat al-dhahab". Nimatullahi[edit] Main article: Nimatullahi The Ni'matullāhī
Ni'matullāhī
order is the most widespread Sufi
Sufi
order of Persia today.[citation needed] It was founded by Shah Ni'matullah Wali
Wali
(died 1367), established and transformed from his inheritance of the Ma'rufiyyah circle.[161] There are several suborders in existence today, the most known and influential in the West following the lineage of Dr. Javad Nurbakhsh
Javad Nurbakhsh
who brought the order to the West following the 1979 Revolution in Iran. Qadiri[edit] Main article: Qadiriyyah The Qadiri Order is one of the oldest Sufi
Sufi
Orders. It derives its name from Abdul-Qadir Gilani
Abdul-Qadir Gilani
(1077–1166), a native of the Iranian province of Gīlān. The order is one of the most widespread of the Sufi
Sufi
orders in the Islamic
Islamic
world, and can be found in Central Asia, Turkey, Balkans
Balkans
and much of East and West Africa. The Qadiriyyah
Qadiriyyah
have not developed any distinctive doctrines or teachings outside of mainstream Islam. They believe in the fundamental principles of Islam, but interpreted through mystical experience. Senussi[edit] Main article: Senussi Senussi
Senussi
is a religious-political Sufi
Sufi
order established by Muhammad ibn Ali
Ali
as-Senussi. Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ali
Ali
as- Senussi
Senussi
founded this movement due to his criticism of the Egyptian ulema. Originally from Mecca, as- Senussi
Senussi
left due to pressure from Wahhabis to leave and settled in Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
where he was well received.[162] Idris bin Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Mahdi as- Senussi
Senussi
was later recognized as Emir
Emir
of Cyrenaica[163] and eventually became King of Libya. The monarchy was abolished by Muammar Gaddafi but, a third of Libyan still claim to be Senussi.[citation needed] Shadiliyya[edit] Main article: Shadhili The Shadhili
Shadhili
is a Sufi
Sufi
order founded by Abu-l-Hassan ash-Shadhili. Murids (followers) of the Shadhiliyya
Shadhiliyya
are often known as Shadhilis.[164][165] Suhrawardiyya[edit] Main article: Suhrawardiyya The Suhrawardiyya
Suhrawardiyya
order (Arabic: سهروردية‎) is a Sufi
Sufi
order founded by Abu al-Najib al-Suhrawardi
Abu al-Najib al-Suhrawardi
(1097–1168). The order was formalized by his nephew, Shahab al-Din Abu Hafs Umar Suhrawardi. Tijaniyya[edit] Main article: Tijaniyyah The Tijaniyyah
Tijaniyyah
order attach a large importance to culture and education, and emphasize the individual adhesion of the disciple (murīd). [165] Symbols associated with the Sufi
Sufi
Orders[edit]

The symbolic emblem of the Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
Sufi
Sufi
Order

Seal of the Chishti Order

Grave of Ma Yuanzhang, the Sufi
Sufi
Grand Master, in China

Allah's essence within a disciple's heart, associated with the Sarwari Qadri Order

Mirror calligraphy, symbolizing the Sufi
Sufi
Bektashi Order
Bektashi Order
of the Dervish

Symbol of the Mevlevi Order

Safaviyya
Safaviyya
star from ceiling of Shah Mosque, Isfahan

A symbol from the Mughal Empire: an amulet comprising magic squares, Quranic verses (including Al-Baqara 255 (Throne Verse) (2:255) running around the frame), and invocations to God, with a depiction of Zulfiqar
Zulfiqar
at the center

Reception[edit] Perception outside Islam[edit]

A choreographed Sufi
Sufi
performance on a Friday in Sudan

Sufi
Sufi
mysticism has long exercised a fascination upon the Western world, and especially its Orientalist scholars.[166] Figures like Rumi have become well known in the United States, where Sufism
Sufism
is perceived as a peaceful and apolitical form of Islam.[166][167] Orientalists have proposed a variety of diverse theories pertaining to the nature of Sufism, such as it being influenced by Neoplatonism
Neoplatonism
or as an Aryan historical reaction against "Semitic" cultural influence.[30] Hossein Nasr states that the preceding theories are false according to the point of view of Sufism.[30] The Islamic
Islamic
Institute in Mannheim, Germany, which works towards the integration of Europe
Europe
and Muslims, sees Sufism
Sufism
as particularly suited for interreligious dialogue and intercultural harmonisation in democratic and pluralist societies; it has described Sufism
Sufism
as a symbol of tolerance and humanism—nondogmatic, flexible and non-violent.[168] According to Philip Jenkins, a Professor at Baylor University, "the Sufis are much more than tactical allies for the West: they are, potentially, the greatest hope for pluralism and democracy within Muslim nations." Likewise, several governments and organisations have advocated the promotion of Sufism
Sufism
as a means of combating intolerant and violent strains of Islam.[169] For example, the Chinese and Russian[170] governments openly favor Sufism
Sufism
as the best means of protecting against Islamist subversion. The British government, especially following the 7 July 2005 London bombings, has favoured Sufi
Sufi
groups in its battle against Muslim extremist
Muslim extremist
currents. The influential RAND Corporation, an American think-tank, issued a major report titled "Building Moderate Muslim Networks," which urged the US government to form links with and bolster[171] Muslim groups that opposed Islamist extremism. The report stressed the Sufi
Sufi
role as moderate traditionalists open to change, and thus as allies against violence.[172][173] News organisations such as the BBC, Economist and Boston Globe have also seen Sufism
Sufism
as a means to deal with violent Muslim extremists.[174] Idries Shah
Idries Shah
states that Sufism
Sufism
is universal in nature, its roots predating the rise of Islam
Islam
and Christianity.[175] He quotes Suhrawardi as saying that "this [Sufism] was a form of wisdom known to and practiced by a succession of sages including the mysterious ancient Hermes of Egypt.", and that Ibn al-Farid "stresses that Sufism lies behind and before systematization; that 'our wine existed before what you call the grape and the vine' (the school and the system)..."[176] Shah's views have however been rejected by modern scholars.[47] Such modern trends of neo-Sufis in Western countries allow non- Muslims
Muslims
to receive "instructions on following the Sufi path", not without opposition by Muslims
Muslims
who consider such instruction outside the sphere of Islam.[177][178] Influence on Judaism[edit]

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See also: Jewish
Jewish
philosophy Both Judaism
Judaism
and Islam
Islam
are monotheistic. There is evidence that Sufism did influence the development of some schools of Jewish philosophy
Jewish philosophy
and ethics. In the first writing of this kind, we see "Kitab al-Hidayah ila Fara'iḍ al-Ḳulub", Duties of the Heart, of Bahya ibn Paquda. This book was translated by Judah ibn Tibbon into Hebrew
Hebrew
under the title "Ḥōḇōṯ Ha-lleḇāḇōṯ".[179]

The precepts prescribed by the Torah
Torah
number 613 only; those dictated by the intellect are innumerable.

It is noteworthy that in the ethical writings of the Sufis Al-Kusajri and Al-Harawi there are sections which treat of the same subjects as those treated in the "Ḥovot ha-Lebabot" and which bear the same titles: e.g., "Bab al-Tawakkul"; "Bab al-Taubah"; "Bab al-Muḥasabah"; "Bab al-Tawaḍu'"; "Bab al-Zuhd". In the ninth gate, Baḥya directly quotes sayings of the Sufis, whom he calls Perushim. However, the author of the Ḥōḇōṯ Ha-lleḇāḇōṯ did not go so far as to approve of the asceticism of the Sufis, although he showed a marked predilection for their ethical principles. Abraham ben Moses ben Maimon, the son of the Jewish
Jewish
philosopher Maimonides, believed that Sufi
Sufi
practices and doctrines continue the tradition of the Biblical prophets. See Sefer Hammaspiq, "Happerishuth", Chapter 11 ("Ha-mmaʿaḇāq") s.v. hithbonen efo be-masoreth mufla'a zo, citing the Talmudic explanation of Jeremiah 13:27 in Chagigah 5b; in Rabbi Yaakov Wincelberg's translation, "The Way of Serving God" (Feldheim), p. 429 and above, p. 427. Also see ibid., Chapter 10 ("Iqquḇim"), s.v. wa-halo yoḏeʾaʿ atta; in "The Way of Serving God", p. 371. Abraham Maimuni's principal work is originally composed in Judeo- Arabic
Arabic
and entitled "כתאב כפאיה אלעאבדין" Kitāb Kifāyah al-'Ābidīn ("A Comprehensive Guide for the Servants of God"). From the extant surviving portion it is conjectured that Maimuni's treatise was three times as long as his father's Guide for the Perplexed. In the book, Maimuni evidences a great appreciation for, and affinity to, Sufism. Followers of his path continued to foster a Jewish- Sufi
Sufi
form of pietism for at least a century, and he is rightly considered the founder of this pietistic school, which was centered in Egypt. The followers of this path, which they called, interchangeably, Hasidism (not to be confused with the [later] Jewish
Jewish
Hasidic movement) or Sufism
Sufism
(Tasawwuf), practiced spiritual retreats, solitude, fasting and sleep deprivation. The Jewish
Jewish
Sufis maintained their own brotherhood, guided by a religious leader—like a Sufi
Sufi
sheikh.[180] In popular culture[edit] Music[edit]

Play media

Friday evening ceremony at Dargah Salim Chisti, India

In 2005, Rabbi Shergill
Rabbi Shergill
released a Sufi
Sufi
rock song called "Bulla Ki Jaana", which became a chart-topper in India
India
and Pakistan.[181][182] Literature[edit]

A 17th-century miniature of Nasreddin, a Seljuk satirical figure, currently in the Topkapı Palace
Topkapı Palace
Museum Library

The Persian poet Rumi, who was born in present-day Afghanistan, has become one of the most widely read poets in the United States, thanks largely to the interpretative translations published by Coleman Barks.[183] Elif Şafak's novel The Forty Rules of Love is a fictionalized account of Rumi's encounter with the Persian dervish Shams Tabrizi.[184] Gallery[edit]

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Shrine of Sultan Bahu
Sultan Bahu
of the Sarwari Qadiri

The Golden Chain of the Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
order

Tomb of Khwaja Ghulam Farid
Khwaja Ghulam Farid
at Mithankot

Sufi
Sufi
mosque in Srinagar, Kashmir

The Great Mosque
Mosque
of Touba, home of the Mouride
Mouride
Sufi
Sufi
order of Senegal

Wali
Wali
tomb, south of Karima, Sudan

The Rumi
Rumi
Museum in Konya, Turkey

An illustration of Ibrahima Fall, leader of the Mouride
Mouride
Order

The Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Jahangir
Jahangir
preferring a Sufi
Sufi
shaikh to kings

Mazar e Soltani, Bidokht, Gonabad County. Shrine of four Qutbs (masters) of the Nimatullahi
Nimatullahi
Sufi
Sufi
order

Kaygusuz Abdal

Mausoleum of Makhdoom Shah Daulat (d. 1608). Ibrahim Khan, the Mughal governor of Bihar, completed his mausoleum in 1616 during the reign of the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Jahangir.

The shrine of Shah Arzani constructed during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir

Pir Dastgir from the Mughal Empire

Sheykh of the Rufai
Rufai
Sufi
Sufi
Order

Marabout
Marabout
of West Africa

Tomb or Dargah of Sufi
Sufi
Saint
Saint
Murtuza Quadari located at western side of Bijapur

See also[edit]

Sufism
Sufism
portal

Gülen movement Index of Sufism-related articles List of modern Sufi
Sufi
scholars List of Sufi
Sufi
saints Tawassul World Sufi
Sufi
forum

References[edit]

^ a b c Qamar-ul Huda (2003), Striving for Divine Union: Spiritual Exercises for Suhraward Sufis, RoutledgeCurzon, pp. 1–4  ^ a b Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 ^ Titus Burckhardt, Art of Islam: Language and Meaning (Bloomington: World Wisdom, 2009), p. 223 ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, The Essential Seyyed Hossein Nasr, ed. William C. Chittick (Bloomington: World Wisdom, 2007), p. 74 ^ a b c d e f g Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. ^ Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.12: "Mystics on the other hand-and Sufism
Sufism
is a kind of mysticism-are by definition concerned above all with 'the mysteries of the Kingdom of Heaven'" ^ Knysh, Alexander D., “Ṣūfism and the Qurʾān”, in: Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, The Essential Seyyed Hossein Nasr, ed. William C. Chittick (Bloomington: World Wisdom, 2007), pp. 74-75 ^ Editors, The (2014-02-04). "tariqa Islam". Britannica.com. Retrieved 29 May 2015.  ^ Glassé 2008, p. 499. ^ Bin Jamil Zeno, Muhammad
Muhammad
(1996). The Pillars of Islam
Islam
& Iman. Darussalam. pp. 19–. ISBN 978-9960-897-12-7.  ^ Gamard 2004, p. 171. ^ a b c d e f g Fitzpatrick & Walker 2014, p. 446. ^ a b Kabbani, Muhammad
Muhammad
Hisham (2004). Classical Islam
Islam
and the Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
Sufi
Sufi
Tradition. Islamic
Islamic
Supreme Council of America. p. 557. ISBN 1-930409-23-0.  ^ Schimmel, Annemarie (2014-11-25). " Sufism
Sufism
Islam". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2015-05-29.  ^ A Prayer
Prayer
for Spiritual Elevation and Protection (2007) by Muhyiddin Ibn 'Arabi, Suha Taji-Farouki ^ G. R Hawting (2002). The First Dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
AD 661-750. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-203-13700-0.  ^ Sells 1996, p. 1. ^ Chittick 2007, p. 22. ^ Chittick (2008), p.6 ^ Alan Godlas, University of Georgia, Sufism's Many Paths, 2000. ^ Guénon 2001. ^ Glassé 2008, p. 500. ^ World Sufi
Sufi
Mission  ^ a b c d Chittick 2007. ^ Chittick (2008), p.3,4,11 ^ Ahmed Zarruq, Zaineb Istrabadi, Hamza Yusuf Hanson. The Principles of Sufism. Amal Press. 2008. ^ Corrections of Popular Versions of Poems From Rumi's Divan  ^ Ibrahim Gamard, Rumi
Rumi
and Self-Discovery  ^ a b c Nasr, Seyyed Hossein Nasr
Hossein Nasr
(1993-01-01). An Introduction to Islamic
Islamic
Cosmological Doctrines. ISBN 9780791415153. Retrieved 17 January 2015.  ^ William C. Chittick (2009). "Sufism. Sūfī Thought and Practice". In John L. Esposito. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic
Islamic
World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  ^ a b Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W.C., Jong, F. de., Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick. "Taṣawwuf". In P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
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Hisham Kabbani, Shaykh
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Hisham Kabbani, 2004 ^ " Sufism
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in Islam". Mac.abc.se. Archived from the original on April 17, 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2012.  ^ The Bloomsbury Companion to Islamic
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Studies by Clinton Bennett, p 328 ^ "Origin of sufism – Qadiri". Sufi
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Way. 2003. Retrieved 13 August 2012.  ^ a b "Khalifa Ali
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bin Abu Talib - Ali, The Father of Sufism
Sufism
- Alim.org". Retrieved 27 September 2014.  ^ a b Carl W. Ernst (2003), Tasawwuf [Sufism], Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World  ^ Taking Initiation (Bay`ah), Naqshbandi
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Way  ^ Muhammad
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and the Naqshbandi
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Sufi tradition, Islamic
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Supreme Council of America, p. 644  ^ "Taking Initiation (Bay`ah) The Naqshbandiyya Nazimiyya Sufi
Sufi
Order of America: Sufism
Sufism
and Spirituality". naqshbandi.org. Retrieved 2017-05-12.  ^ Shaykh
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Tariq Knecht, Journal of a Sufi
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Odyssey, Tauba Press  ^ IslamOnline.net Archived July 24, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Massignon, Louis. Essai sur les origines du lexique technique de la mystique musulmane. Paris: Vrin, 1954. p. 104. ^ Imam Birgivi, The Path of Muhammad, WorldWisdom, ISBN 0-941532-68-2 ^ a b [1] Encyclopædia Britannica, Retrieved on August 1st, 2016 ^ Nasr, Hossein (1993). An Introduction to Islamic
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Cosmological Doctrines. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-1515-3.  ^ Ridgeon, Lloyd (2010). Morals and Mysticism
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in Persian Sufism: A History of Sufi-Futuwwat in Iran. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-97058-0. , p. 32 ^ Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary, translated by William McGuckin de Slane. Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. Sold by Institut de France
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and Royal Library of Belgium. Vol. 3, p. 209. ^ Ahmet T. Karamustafa, Sufism: The Formative Period, pg. 58. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007. ^ J. Spencer Trimingham, The Sufi
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Orders in Islam, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-512058-5. ^ Daftary Farhad 2013 A History of Shi'i Islam
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New York NY I.B. Tauris and Co ltd. page 28 ISBN 9780300035315 4/8/2015 ^ a b c The Jamaat Tableegh and the Deobandis by Sajid Abdul Kayum, Chapter 1: Overview and Background. ^ a b c "Dr. Jonathan AC Brown - What is Sufism?". youtube.com. 13 May 2015.  ^ Trimingham (1998), p. 1 ^ Faridi, Shaikh Shahidullah. "The Meaning of Tasawwuf". www.masud.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-05-12.  ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, The Essential Seyyed Hossein Nasr, ed. William C. Chittick (Bloomington: World Wisdom, 2007), p. 76 ^ a b Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.16 ^ a b c "Is orthodox Islam
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possible without Sufism? - Shaykh
Shaykh
Abdal Hakim Murad (Dr. Timothy Winter)". youtube.com. 13 May 2015.  ^ a b "Profile of Sheikh
Sheikh
Ahmad Muhammad
Muhammad
Al-Tayyeb onThe Muslim 500". The Muslim 500: The World's Most Influential Muslims.  ^ Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W.C., Jong, F. de., Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs; q.v. "Hanafi," "Hanbali," and "Maliki," and under "mysticism in..." for each. ^ a b Titus Burckhardt, Introduction to Sufi
Sufi
Doctrine (Bloomington: World Wisdom, 2008, p. 4, note 2 ^ Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), pp. 16-17 ^ "Caner Dagli, "Rumi, the Qur'an, and Heterodoxy," note on Facebook". facebook.com. 6 January 2015.  ^ Rozina Ali, "The Erasure of Islam
Islam
from the Poetry of Rumi," The New Yorker, Jan. 5 2017 ^ The most recent version of the Risâla is the translation of Alexander Knysh, Al-Qushayri's Epistle on Sufism: Al-risala Al-qushayriyya Fi 'ilm Al-tasawwuf (ISBN 978-1859641866). Earlier translations include a partial version by Rabia Terri Harris (Sufi Book of Spiritual Ascent) and complete versions by Harris, and Barbara R. Von Schlegell. ^ "Home". Fons Vitae. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2015.  ^ The Alchemy of Happiness at archive.org ^ "Dr. Jonathan AC Brown - What is Sufism?". youtube.com. 27 December 2015.  ^ For the pre-modern era, see Vincent J. Cornell, Realm of the Saint: Power and Authority in Moroccan Sufism, ISBN 978-0-292-71209-6; and for the colonial era, Knut Vikyr, Sufi
Sufi
and Scholar on the Desert Edge: Muhammad
Muhammad
B. Oali Al-Sanusi and His Brotherhood, ISBN 978-0-8101-1226-1. ^ Leonard Lewisohn, The Legacy of Medieval Persian Sufism, Khaniqahi- Nimatullahi
Nimatullahi
Publications, 1992. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Islam: Religion, History, and Civilization, HarperSanFrancisco, 2003. (Ch. 1) ^ Dina Le Gall, A Culture of Sufism: Naqshbandis in the Ottoman World, 1450–1700, ISBN 978-0-7914-6245-4. ^ Arthur F. Buehler, Sufi
Sufi
Heirs of the Prophet: The Indian Naqshbandiyya and the Rise of the Mediating Sufi
Sufi
Shaykh, ISBN 978-1-57003-783-2. ^ Victor Danner, The Islamic
Islamic
Tradition: An introduction. Amity House. February 1988. ^ " Islam
Islam
in the Modern World, by Seyyed Hossein Nasr, reviewed by Zachary Markwith" (PDF).  ^ Jonathan A.C. Brown, Misquoting Muhammad
Muhammad
(London: Oneworld Publications, 2015), p. 254 ^ Masatoshi Kisaichi, "The Burhami order and Islamic
Islamic
resurgence in modern Egypt." Popular Movements and Democratization in the Islamic World, pg. 57. Part of the New Horizons in Islamic
Islamic
Studies series. Ed. Masatoshi Kisaichi. London: Routledge, 2006. ISBN 9781134150618 ^ Babou 2007, p. 184–6. ^ Mbacké & Hunwick 2005. ^ Chodkiewicz 1995, p. introduction. ^ " Sufism
Sufism
– Oxford Islamic
Islamic
Studies Online". oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 26 August 2015.  ^ "Sufism, Sufis, and Sufi
Sufi
Orders: Sufism's Many Paths". uga.edu. Retrieved 26 August 2015.  ^ Abul Hasan ash- Shadhili
Shadhili
(1993). The School of the Shadhdhuliyyah. Islamic
Islamic
Texts Society. ISBN 978-0-946621-57-6.  ^ Muhammad
Muhammad
Emin Er, Laws of the Heart: A Practical Introduction to the Sufi
Sufi
Path, Shifâ Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9815196-1-6 ^ Abdullah Nur ad-Din Durkee, The School of the Shadhdhuliyyah, Volume One: Orisons; see also Shaykh
Shaykh
Muhammad
Muhammad
Hisham Kabbani, Classical Islam and the Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
Sufi
Sufi
Tradition, ISBN 978-1-930409-23-1, which reproduces the spiritual lineage (silsila) of a living Sufi
Sufi
master. ^ a b Momen, Moojan (1985). An Introduction to Shiʻi Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver
Twelver
Shiʻism. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-03531-5. , page 209 ^ Mohammad Najib-ur-Rehman Madzillah-ul-Aqdus (2015). Sultan Bahoo: The Life and Teachings. Sultan ul Faqr Publications. ISBN 978-969-9795-18-3.  ^ See Muhammad
Muhammad
Emin Er, Laws of the Heart: A Practical Introduction to the Sufi
Sufi
Path, Shifâ Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9815196-1-6, for a detailed description of the practices and preconditions of this sort of spiritual retreat. ^ See examples provided by Muzaffar Ozak in Irshad: Wisdom of a Sufi Master, addressed to a general audience rather than specifically to his own students. ^ Knysh, Alexander. "Sufism". Islamic
Islamic
cultures and societies to the end of the eighteenth century. Irwin, Robert, 1946-. Cambridge. ISBN 9781139056144. OCLC 742957142.  ^ Shaykh
Shaykh
Muhammad
Muhammad
Hisham Kabbani, Classical Islam
Islam
and the Naqshbandi Sufi
Sufi
Tradition, ISBN 978-1-930409-23-1 ^ Carl W. Ernst (2010), p. 125 ^ a b Carl W. Ernst, The Cambridge Companion to Muhammad, Muḥammad as the Pole of Existence, Cambridge University Press, p. 130  ^ Gholamreza Aavani, Glorification of the Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
in the Poems of Sa'adi, p. 4  ^ Gamard 2004, p. 169. ^ Ibn Arabi, The Seals of Wisdom (Fusus al-Hikam), Aisha Bewley  ^ Fariduddin Attar, Ilahi-nama – The Book of God, John Andrew Boyle (translator), Thou knowest that none of the poets have sung such praise save only I.  ^ Fariduddin Attar, Ilahi-nama – The Book of God, John Andrew Boyle (translator)  ^ The Signs of a Sincere Lover (PDF), p. 91  ^ a b Suzanne Pinckney Stetkevych, The Mantle Odes: Arabic
Arabic
Praise Poems to the Prophet Muhammad, Indiana University Press  ^ Muhammad
Muhammad
Emin Er, The Soul of Islam: Essential Doctrines and Beliefs, Shifâ Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9815196-0-9. ^ Schimmel 2013, p. 99. ^ (source: [pp. 778–795 of The Reliance of the Traveller, by Shaykh Nuh Ha Meem Keller]) ^ The Amman Message
Amman Message
Summary. Retrieved on Feb 2, 2010. ^ Witteveen, Hendrikus Johannes (1 January 1997). "Universal Sufism". Element – via Google Books.  ^ Elwell-Sutton, L. P. (May 1975). " Sufism
Sufism
& Pseudo-Sufism". Encounter XLIV (5): 16. ^ "Neo-Sufism: The Case of Idries Shah
Idries Shah
by James Moore". gurdjieff-legacy.org. Archived from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 26 August 2015.  ^ a b Muhammad
Muhammad
Emin Er, Laws of the Heart: A Practical Introduction to the Sufi
Sufi
Order, Shifâ Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9815196-1-6 ^ For a systematic description of the diseases of the heart that are to be overcome in order for this perspective to take root, see Hamza Yusuf, Purification of the Heart: Signs, Symptoms and Cures of the Spiritual Diseases of the Heart, ISBN 978-1-929694-15-0. ^ Concerning this, and for an excellent discussion of the concept of attraction (jadhba), see especially the Introduction to Abdullah Nur ad-Din Durkee, The School of the Shadhdhuliyyah, Volume One: Orisons, ISBN 977-00-1830-9. ^ Muhammad
Muhammad
Emin Er, al-Wasilat al-Fasila, unpublished MS. ^ Realities of The Heart Lataif ^ Schimmel 2013. ^ See especially Robert Frager, Heart, Self & Soul: The Sufi Psychology of Growth, Balance, and Harmony, ISBN 978-0-8356-0778-0. ^ Hakim Moinuddin Chisti, The Book of Sufi
Sufi
Healing, ISBN 978-0-89281-043-7 ^ For an introduction to the normative creed of Islam
Islam
as espoused by the consensus of scholars, see Hamza Yusuf, The Creed of Imam al-Tahawi, ISBN 978-0-9702843-9-6, and Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Maghnisawi, Imam Abu Hanifa's Al- Fiqh
Fiqh
Al-Akbar Explained, ISBN 978-1-933764-03-0. ^ The meaning of certainty in this context is emphasized in Muhammad Emin Er, The Soul of Islam: Essential Doctrines and Beliefs, Shifâ Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9815196-0-9. ^ See in particular the introduction by T. J. Winter to Abu Hamid Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Ghazali, Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
on Disciplining the Soul and on Breaking the Two Desires: Books XXII and XXIII of the Revival of the Religious Sciences, ISBN 978-0-946621-43-9. ^ Akbar Ahmed, Diiscovering Islam, Making sense of Muslim History and Society, ISBN 0-415-28525-9(Pbk) ^ Abdullah Jawadi Amuli, " Dhikr
Dhikr
and the Wisdom Behind It"[permanent dead link] ^ Hakim Moinuddin Chisti The Book of Sufi
Sufi
Healing, ISBN 978-0-89281-043-7 ^ "The Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
Way of Dhikr". web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 1997-05-29. Retrieved 26 August 2015.  ^ Touma 1996, p.162 ^ What is Remembrance and what is Contemplation? Archived 2008-04-15 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Muraqaba". Archived from the original on 2015-06-09.  ^ Muhammad
Muhammad
Emin Er, Laws of the Heart: A Practical Introduction to the Sufi
Sufi
Path, ISBN 978-0-9815196-1-6, p. 77. ^ "The Sema
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of the Mevlevi". Mevlevi Order
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of America. Archived from the original on 2012-12-21. Retrieved 2009-03-26.  ^ The Whirling Dervishes
Whirling Dervishes
of Rumi ^ Hans Wehr, p. 1289 ^ John Renard, Friends of God: Islamic
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Images of Piety, Commitment, and Servanthood (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008); Idem., Tales of God
God
Friends: Islamic
Islamic
Hagiography in Translation (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009), et passim. ^ Radtke, B., Lory, P., Zarcone, Th., DeWeese, D., Gaborieau, M., F. M. Denny, Françoise Aubin, J. O. Hunwick and N. Mchugh, "Walī", in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W. P. Heinrichs. ^ Robert S. Kramer; Richard A. Lobban Jr.; Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban (2013). Historical Dictionary of the Sudan. Historical Dictionaries of Africa (4 ed.). Lanham, Maryland, USA: Scarecrow Press, an imprint of Rowman & Littlefield. p. 361. ISBN 978-0-8108-6180-0. Retrieved 2 May 2015. QUBBA. The Arabic
Arabic
name for the tomb of a holy man... A qubba is usually erected over the grave of a holy man identified variously as wali (saint), faki, or shaykh since, according to folk Islam, this is where his baraka [blessings] is believed to be strongest...  ^ Radtke, B., "Saint", in: Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.. ^ J. van Ess, Theologie und Gesellschaft im 2. und 3. Jahrhundert Hidschra. Eine Geschichte des religiösen Denkens im frühen Islam, II (Berlin-New York, 1992), pp. 89-90 ^ B. Radtke and J. O’Kane, The Concept of Sainthood in Early Islamic Mysticism
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Bibliography[edit]

Babou, Cheikh Anta (2007). " Sufism
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in History, Theory, and Culture. ABC-Clio.  Gamard, Ibrahim (2004). Rumi
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and Islam: Selections from His Stories, Poems, and Discourses, Annotated & Explained. SkyLight Paths Publishing. ISBN 978-1-59473-002-3.  Glassé, Cyril (2008). The New Encyclopedia of Islam. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7425-6296-7.  Guénon, René (2001). Insights Into Islamic
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Esoterism and Taoism. Sophia Perennis. ISBN 978-0-900588-43-3.  Mbacké, Khadim; Hunwick, John O. (2005). Sufism
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Key books

Crucial Sunni books

al-Irshad al- Aqidah
Aqidah
al-Tahawiyyah

Buyruks Kitab al Majmu Masnavi Nahj al-Balagha Epistles of Wisdom Risale-i Nur

Schools

Sunni

Ash'ari Maturidi Traditionalism

Shia

Kaysanites

Mukhtar

Abu Muslim Sunpadh Ishaq al-Turk

Muhammerah

Khurramites

Babak Mazyar Ismail I / Pir Sultan Abdal
Abdal
– Qizilbash / Safavid conversion of Iran
Iran
to Shia
Shia
Islam

al-Muqanna

Zaidiyyah

Jarudi Batriyya Alid dynasties of northern Iran

Hasan al-Utrush

List of extinct Shia
Shia
sects

Dukayniyya Khalafiyya Khashabiyya

Imami Isma'ilism

Batiniyyah

Sevener Qarmatians Hamza / al-Muqtana Baha'uddin / ad-Darazi – Druzes

Musta'li

Hafizi Taiyabi

Nizari

Assassins Nizaris

Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
Badakhshan
Badakhshan
Alevism

Imami Twelver

Theology
Theology
of Twelvers

Ja'fari

Akhbari Shaykhi Usuli

Alevism

Qutb
Qutb
ad-Dīn Haydar – Qalandariyya Baba Ishak
Baba Ishak
– Babai Revolt Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
– Rifa'i-Galibi Order

Ghulat

al-Khaṣībī / ibn Nusayr – Alawites Fazlallah Astarabadi (Naimi) / Imadaddin Nasimi
Imadaddin Nasimi
– Hurufism / Bektashism and folk religion

Independent

Ibadi

ibn Ibāḍ Jābir ibn Zayd

Jabriyyah

Ibn Safwan

Murji'ah Karramiyya Qadariyah

Ma'bad al-Juhani Muʿtazila Bahshamiyya

Khawarij

Azariqa Najdat Sufri

Abu Qurra

Nakkariyyah

Abu Yazid

Haruriyyah

v t e

Islam
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topics

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Hygiene

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Marriage Sex

Marriage contract Mahr Mahram Masturbation Nikah Nikah Mut‘ah Zina

Other aspects

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POWs

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baligh kalam

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studies

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Other areas

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Related topics

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Nondenominational

Islam

Sunni

Hanafi Maliki Hanbali Shafi'i

Shia

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Ahmadi Ibadi Non-denominational Quranism Zahirism Salafism

Wahhabism Ahl al-Hadith

Mahdavia European Islam Nation of Islam

Others

Bábism

Azáli Bábism Bahá'í Faith

Druze Mandaeism Rastafari Samaritanism

Dharmic

Hinduism

Vaishnavism Shaktism Shaivism Ayyavazhi Smartism Balinese

Buddhism

Mahayana

Chan

Zen Thiền Seon

Pure Land Nichiren Madhyamaka Tiantai

Theravada Vajrayana

Tibetan Shingon Newar Bon

Navayana

Others

Dravidian Jainism

Digambara Śvētāmbara

Sikhism Gurung shamanism Bon
Bon
Lamaism Kirant Mundhum

Persian

Manichaeism Yazdânism

Yazidism Ishikism Ali-Illahism Yarsanism

Zoroastrianism

European

Armenian Baltic

Dievturība Druwi Romuva

Caucasian Celtic

Druidry

Germanic Hellenism Italo-Roman Romanian Slavic

Uralic

Finnish Hungarian Uralic

Mari Mordvin Udmurt

Central and Northern Asian

Burkhanism Chuvash Manchu Mongolian Siberian Tengrism

East Asian

Benzhuism Bimoism Bon Cheondoism Confucianism Dongbaism Faism Hmongism Jeungsanism Luoism Meishanism Mileism Muism Neo-Confucianism Ryukyuan religion Shenism Shigongism Shinto Taoism Tenrikyo Wuism Yiguandao

Southeast Asian

Burmese Satsana Phi Malaysian Indonesian

Marapu Kaharingan Kebatinan

Philippine Vietnamese

Caodaism Đạo Mẫu Hoahaoism

African

Traditional

Akan Akamba Baluba Bantu Berber Bushongo Cushitic Dinka Efik Fon and Ewe Guanche Igbo Isoko Lotuko Lozi Lugbara Maasai Mbuti San Serer Tumbuka Waaq Yoruba Zulu

Diasporic

Candomblé Kumina Obeah Quimbanda Palo Santería Umbanda Vodou Voodoo Winti

Other groups

Bathouism Bongthingism Donyi-Polo Kiratism Sanamahism Sarnaism Aboriginal Australian Native American Mesoamerican Hawaiian Polynesian

Recent

Discordianism Eckankar Jediism New Age New Thought Pastafarianism Raëlism Satanism Scientology Thelema Unitarian Universalism Wicca

Historical religions

Prehistoric

Paleolithic

Near East

Arabian Egyptian Mesopotamian Semitic

Canaanite Yahwism

Indo-European

Asia

Proto-Indo-Iranian Armenian Ossetian Vedic Zoroastrianism

Mithraism Zurvanism

Gnosticism

Manichaeism

Europe

Celtic Germanic

Anglo-Saxon Continental Norse

Greek

Gnosticism Neoplatonism

Manichaeism Balkan Roman Slavic

Topics

Aspects

Apostasy / Disaffiliation Behaviour Beliefs Clergy Conversion Deities Entheogens Ethnic religion Denomination Faith Fire Folk religion God Meditation Monasticism

monk nun

Mysticism Mythology Nature Ordination Orthodoxy Orthopraxy Prayer Prophesy Religious experience Ritual

liturgy sacrifice

Spirituality Supernatural Symbols Truth Water Worship

Theism

Animism Deism Dualism Henotheism Monotheism Nontheism Panentheism Pantheism Polytheism Transtheism

Religious studies

Anthropology Cognitive science Comparative Development Evolutionary origin Evolutionary psychology History Philosophy Neurotheology Psychology Sociology Theology Theories Women

Religion
Religion
and society

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Conversion

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Education Fanaticism Freedom

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Fundamentalism Growth Happiness Homosexuality Minorities National church National religiosity levels Religiocentrism Political science Populations Schism Science State Theocracy Vegetarianism Video games Violence

persecution terrorism war

Wealth

Secularism
Secularism
and irreligion

Antireligion Deism Agnosticism Atheism Criticism LaVeyan Satanism Deconstruction Humanistic Judaism Irreligion by country Objectivism Secular humanism Secular theology Secularization Separation of church and state Unaffiliated

Overviews and lists

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Category Portal

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