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Suffolk
Suffolk
(/ˈsʌfək/) is an East Anglian county of historic origin in England. It has borders with Norfolk
Norfolk
to the north, Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
to the west and Essex
Essex
to the south. The North Sea
North Sea
lies to the east. The county town is Ipswich; other important towns include Lowestoft, Bury St Edmunds, Newmarket and Felixstowe, one of the largest container ports in Europe.[2] The county is low-lying with very few hills, and is largely arable land with the wetlands of the Broads in the north. The Suffolk
Suffolk
Coast and Heaths are an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Administration 1.2 Archaeology

2 Economy 3 Geography 4 Demography 5 Notable people

5.1 St Edmund

6 Education

6.1 Primary, secondary and further education 6.2 Tertiary education

7 Culture

7.1 Arts 7.2 Dialect 7.3 Sport

7.3.1 Football 7.3.2 Horse racing 7.3.3 Speedway 7.3.4 Cricket

7.4 Suffolk
Suffolk
in popular culture

8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Suffolk Administration[edit] By the fifth century, the Angles
Angles
(after whom East Anglia
East Anglia
and England are named) had established control of the region. The Angles
Angles
later became the "north folk" and the "south folk", from which developed the names "Norfolk" and "Suffolk".[3] Suffolk
Suffolk
and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, which later merged with Mercia
Mercia
and then Wessex. Suffolk
Suffolk
was originally divided into four separate Quarter Sessions divisions. In 1860, the number of divisions was reduced to two. The eastern division was administered from Ipswich
Ipswich
and the western from Bury St Edmunds. Under the Local Government Act 1888, the two divisions were made the separate administrative counties of East Suffolk
Suffolk
and West Suffolk;[4] Ipswich
Ipswich
became a county borough. A few Essex
Essex
parishes were also added to Suffolk: Ballingdon-with- Brundon
Brundon
and parts of Haverhill and Kedington. On 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, East Suffolk, West Suffolk, and Ipswich
Ipswich
were merged to form the unified county of Suffolk. The county was divided into several local government districts: Babergh, Forest Heath, Ipswich, Mid Suffolk, St. Edmundsbury, Suffolk
Suffolk
Coastal, and Waveney. This act also transferred some land near Great Yarmouth
Great Yarmouth
to Norfolk. As introduced in Parliament, the Local Government Act would have transferred Newmarket and Haverhill to Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
and Colchester
Colchester
from Essex; such changes were not included when the act was passed into law.[5] In 2007, the Department for Communities and Local Government
Department for Communities and Local Government
referred Ipswich
Ipswich
Borough Council's bid to become a new unitary authority to the Boundary Committee.[6] The Boundary Committee consulted local bodies and reported in favour of the proposal. It was not, however, approved by the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government. Beginning in February 2008, the Boundary Committee again reviewed local government in the county, with two possible options emerging. One was that of splitting Suffolk
Suffolk
into two unitary authorities – Ipswich
Ipswich
and Felixstowe
Felixstowe
and Rural Suffolk; and the other, that of creating a single county-wide controlling authority – the "One Suffolk" option.[7] In February 2010, the then-Minister Rosie Winterton announced that no changes would be imposed on the structure of local government in the county as a result of the review, but that the government would be: "asking Suffolk
Suffolk
councils and MPs to reach a consensus on what unitary solution they want through a countywide constitutional convention".[8] Following the May 2010 general election, all further moves towards any of the suggested unitary solutions ceased on the instructions of the incoming Coalition government, and the administrative structures of the county are, therefore, unchanged.[9] See also: Local Government Act 2010
Local Government Act 2010
and List of schools in Suffolk Archaeology[edit] West Suffolk, like nearby East Cambridgeshire, is renowned for archaeological finds from the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age. Bronze Age
Bronze Age
artefacts have been found in the area between Mildenhall and West Row, in Eriswell
Eriswell
and in Lakenheath.[10] Many bronze objects, such as swords, spearheads, arrows, axes, palstaves, knives, daggers, rapiers, armour, decorative equipment (in particular for horses), and fragments of sheet bronze, are entrusted to St. Edmundsbury heritage service, housed at West Stow
West Stow
just outside Bury St. Edmunds. Other finds include traces of cremations and barrows. In the east of the county is Sutton Hoo, the site of one of England's most significant Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
archaeological finds, a ship burial containing a collection of treasures including a Sword of State, gold and silver bowls, and jewellery and a lyre.[11] Economy[edit] The majority of agriculture in Suffolk
Suffolk
is either arable or mixed. Farm sizes vary from anything around 80 acres (32 hectares) to over 8,000. Soil types vary from heavy clays to light sands. Crops grown include:winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, oilseed rape, winter and spring beans and linseed, although smaller areas of rye and oats can be found growing in areas with lighter soils along with a variety of vegetables. The continuing importance of agriculture in the county is reflected in the Suffolk
Suffolk
Show, which is held annually in May at Ipswich. Although latterly somewhat changed in nature, this remains primarily an agricultural show.[12] Below is a chart of regional gross value added of Suffolk
Suffolk
at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[fn 1] Agriculture[fn 2] Industry[fn 3] Services[fn 4]

1995 7,113 391 2,449 4,273

2000 8,096 259 2,589 5,248

2003 9,456 270 2,602 6,583

Source[13]

See also: Companies based in Suffolk Well-known companies in Suffolk
Suffolk
include Greene King and Branston Pickle in Bury St Edmunds. Birds Eye
Birds Eye
has its largest UK factory in Lowestoft, where all its meat products and frozen vegetables are processed. Huntley & Palmers biscuit company has a base in Sudbury. The UK horse racing industry is based in Newmarket. There are two USAF bases in the west of the county close to the A11. Sizewell
Sizewell
B nuclear power station is at Sizewell
Sizewell
on the coast near Leiston. Bernard Matthews Farms
Bernard Matthews Farms
have some processing units in the county, specifically Holton. Southwold
Southwold
is the home of Adnams Brewery. The Port of Felixstowe
Felixstowe
is the largest container port in the United Kingdom. Other ports are at Lowestoft
Lowestoft
and Ipswich, run by Associated British Ports. BT has its main research and development facility at Martlesham Heath. Geography[edit]

Sheep grazing among the ruins of Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds
Abbey, Bury St Edmunds in 1920

See also: List of settlements in Suffolk by population
List of settlements in Suffolk by population
and Geology of Suffolk There are several towns in the county with Ipswich
Ipswich
being the largest and most populous. At the time of the 2011 census, a population of 730,000 lived in the county with 133,384 living in Ipswich. The table below shows all towns with over 20,000 inhabitants.

Rank Town Population Borough/District council

1 Ipswich 133,384 (2011) Ipswich
Ipswich
Borough Council

2 Lowestoft 71,000 (2011) Waveney
Waveney
Council

3 Bury St Edmunds 42,000 (2011) St Edmundsbury
St Edmundsbury
Council

4 Haverhill 27,041 (2011) St Edmundsbury
St Edmundsbury
Council

5 Felixstowe 23,689 (2011) Suffolk Coastal
Suffolk Coastal
Council

6 Newmarket 20,384 (2011) Forest Heath
Forest Heath
District Council

Located in the East of England,[14] much of Suffolk
Suffolk
is low-lying, founded on Pleistocene
Pleistocene
sand and clays. These rocks are relatively unresistant and the coast is eroding rapidly. Coastal defences
Coastal defences
have been used to protect several towns, but several cliff-top houses have been lost to coastal erosion and others are under threat. The continuing protection of the coastline and the estuaries, including the Blyth, Alde and Deben, has been, and remains, a matter of considerable discussion.[15] The coastal strip to the East contains an area of heathland known as "The Sandlings" which runs almost the full length of the coastline.[16] Suffolk
Suffolk
is also home to nature reserves, such as the RSPB
RSPB
site at Minsmere, and Trimley Marshes, a wetland under the protection of Suffolk
Suffolk
Wildlife Trust. The west of the county lies on more resistant Cretaceous
Cretaceous
chalk. This chalk is responsible for a sweeping tract of largely downland landscapes that stretches from Dorset
Dorset
in the south west to Dover
Dover
in the south east and north through East Anglia
East Anglia
to the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Wolds. The chalk is less easily eroded so forms the only significant hills in the county. The highest point in the county is Great Wood Hill, the highest point of the Newmarket Ridge, near the village of Rede, which reaches 128 metres (420 ft). The county flower is the oxlip.[17]

Demography[edit] According to estimates by the Office for National Statistics, the population of Suffolk
Suffolk
in 2014 was 738,512, split almost evenly between males and females. Roughly 22% of the population was aged 65 or older, and 90.84% were "White British".[18] Historically, the county's population has mostly been employed as agricultural workers. An 1835 survey showed Suffolk
Suffolk
to have 4,526 occupiers of land employing labourers, 1,121 occupiers not employing labourers, 33,040 labourers employed in agriculture, 676 employed in manufacture, 18,167 employed in retail trade or handicraft, 2,228 'capitalists, bankers etc.', 5,336 labourers (non-agricultural), 4,940 other males aged over 20, 2,032 male servants and 11,483 female servants.[19] The same publication records the total population of the county at 296,304. Most English counties have nicknames for people from that county, such as a Tyke from Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and a Yellowbelly from Lincolnshire; the traditional nickname for people from Suffolk
Suffolk
is ' Suffolk
Suffolk
Fair-Maids', or 'Silly Suffolk', referring respectively to the supposed beauty of its female inhabitants in the Middle Ages, and to the long history of Christianity in the county and its many fine churches (from Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
selige, originally meaning holy).[citation needed]

For a full list of settlements see the list of places in Suffolk See also: List of settlements in Suffolk
Suffolk
by population

Notable people[edit]

Gainsborough's Mr and Mrs Andrews
Mr and Mrs Andrews
(1748–49), housed at the National Gallery in London, depicts the Suffolk
Suffolk
landscape of his time.

See also: People from Suffolk In the arts, Suffolk
Suffolk
is noted for having been the home to two of England's best regarded painters, Thomas Gainsborough[20] and John Constable – the Stour Valley area is branded as "Constable Country"[21] – and one of its most noted composers, Benjamin Britten.[22] Other artists of note from Suffolk
Suffolk
include the cartoonist Carl Giles
Carl Giles
(a bronze statue of his character "Grandma" to commemorate this is located in Ipswich
Ipswich
town centre), poets George Crabbe[23] and Robert Bloomfield,[24] writer and Literary editor Ronald Blythe, actors Ralph Fiennes[25] and Bob Hoskins, actress and singer Kerry Ellis, musician and record producer Brian Eno,[26] singer Dani Filth, of the Suffolk-based extreme metal group, Cradle of Filth, singer-songwriter Ed Sheeran, and coloratura soprano Christina Johnston. Hip-hop
Hip-hop
DJ Tim Westwood
Tim Westwood
is originally from Suffolk
Suffolk
and the influential DJ and radio presenter John Peel
John Peel
made the county his home.[27] Contemporary painter, Maggi Hambling, was born, and resides, in Suffolk. Suffolk's contributions to sport include Formula One
Formula One
magnate Bernie Ecclestone and former England
England
footballers Terry Butcher, Kieron Dyer and Matthew Upson. Due to Newmarket being the centre of British horse racing many jockeys have settled in the county, including Lester Piggott and Frankie Dettori. Significant ecclesiastical figures from Suffolk
Suffolk
include Simon Sudbury, a former Archbishop of Canterbury;[28] Tudor-era Catholic prelate Thomas, Cardinal Wolsey;[29] and author, poet and Benedictine monk John Lydgate.[30] Other significant persons from Suffolk
Suffolk
include the suffragette Dame Millicent Garrett Fawcett;[31] the captain of HMS Beagle, Robert FitzRoy;[32] Witch-finder General Matthew Hopkins;[33] educationist Hugh Catchpole;[34][35] and Britain's first female physician and mayor, Elizabeth Garrett Anderson.[36] Charity leader Sue Ryder settled in Suffolk
Suffolk
and based her charity in Cavendish. St Edmund[edit] King of East Anglia
East Anglia
and Christian martyr St Edmund (after whom the town of Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds
is named) was killed by invading Danes in the year 869. St Edmund was the patron saint of England
England
until he was replaced by St George
St George
in the 13th century. 2006 saw the failure of a campaign to have St Edmund named as the patron saint of England, but in 2007 he was named patron saint of Suffolk, with St Edmund's Day falling on 20 November. His flag is flown in Suffolk
Suffolk
on that day. Education[edit] Primary, secondary and further education[edit] See also: List of schools in Suffolk Suffolk
Suffolk
has a comprehensive education system with fourteen independent schools. Unusually for the UK, some of Suffolk
Suffolk
has a 3-tier school system in place with primary schools (ages 5–9), middle schools (ages 9–13) and upper schools (ages 13–16). However, a 2006 Suffolk County Council
Suffolk County Council
study concluded that Suffolk
Suffolk
should move to the 2-tier school system used in the majority of the UK.[37] For the purpose of conversion to 2-tier, the 3-tier system has been divided into 4 geographical area groupings and corresponding phases. The first phase was the conversion of schools in Lowestoft
Lowestoft
and Haverhill in 2011, followed by schools in north and west Suffolk
Suffolk
in 2012. The remainder of the changeovers to 2-tier will take place from 2013, for those schools that stay within Local government control, and not become Academies and/or free schools. The majority of schools thus now (2013) operate the more common primary to high school (11–16). Many of the county's upper schools have a sixth form and most further education colleges in the county offer A-level
A-level
courses. In terms of school population, Suffolk's individual schools are large with the Ipswich
Ipswich
district with the largest school population and Forest Heath the smallest, with just two schools. In 2013, a letter said that "...nearly a fifth of the schools inspected were judged inadequate. This is unacceptable and now means that Suffolk
Suffolk
has a higher proportion of pupils educated in inadequate schools than both the regional and national averages."[38] The Royal Hospital School
The Royal Hospital School
near Ipswich
Ipswich
is the largest independent boarding school in Suffolk. Other boarding schools within Suffolk include Culford School, Framlingham
Framlingham
College, Barnardiston Hall Prepatory School, Saint Felix School and Finborough School. The Castle Partnership Academy Trust in Haverhill is the county's only All-through Academy Chain. Comprising Castle Manor Academy
Castle Manor Academy
and Place Farm Primary Academy, the Academy Trust supports all-through education and provides opportunities for young people aged 3 to 18. Sixth form colleges in the county include Lowestoft
Lowestoft
Sixth Form College and One in Ipswich. Suffolk
Suffolk
is home to four further education colleges: Lowestoft
Lowestoft
College, Easton & Otley College, Suffolk
Suffolk
New College (Ipswich) and West Suffolk
West Suffolk
College (Bury St Edmunds). Tertiary education[edit] The county has one university, with branches spread across different towns. University of Suffolk
University of Suffolk
was, prior to August 2016, known as University
University
Campus Suffolk. Up until it became independent it was a collaboration between the University
University
of Essex
Essex
and the University
University
of East Anglia
East Anglia
which sponsored its formation and validated its degrees.[39][40] UOS accepted its first students in September 2007. Until then Suffolk
Suffolk
was one of only four counties in England
England
which did not have a University
University
campus.[39] The University of Suffolk
University of Suffolk
was granted Taught Degree Awarding Powers by the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education in November 2015, and in May 2016 it was awarded University
University
status by the Privy Council and renamed The University
University
of Suffolk
Suffolk
on 1 August 2016.[41][42] The University
University
operates at five sites with its central hub in Ipswich. Others include Lowestoft, Bury St. Edmunds, and Great Yarmouth
Great Yarmouth
in Norfolk.[43] The University
University
operates two academic faculties and in 2016/17 had 5,080 students. Some 30% of the student body are classed as mature students and 68% of University
University
students are female.[44] Culture[edit] Arts[edit] Founded in 1948 by Benjamin Britten, the annual Aldeburgh Festival
Aldeburgh Festival
is one of the UK's major classical music festivals. Originating in Aldeburgh, it has been held at the nearby Snape Maltings
Snape Maltings
since 1967.[45] Since 2006, Henham Park, has been home to the annual Latitude Festival. This mainly open-air festival, which has grown considerably in size and scope, includes popular music, comedy, poetry and literary events. The FolkEast festival is held at Glemham Hall
Glemham Hall
in August[46] and attracts international acoustic, folk and roots musicians whilst also championing local businesses, heritage and crafts. In 2015 it was also home to the first instrumental festival of musical instruments and makers.[47] More recently, LeeStock Music Festival has been held in Sudbury.[48] A celebration of the county, " Suffolk
Suffolk
Day", was instigated in 2017.[49] Dialect[edit] The Suffolk dialect is very distinctive. Epenthesis and yod-dropping is common, along with non-conjugation of verbs. Sport[edit] Football[edit] The county's sole professional football club is Ipswich
Ipswich
Town. Formed in 1878, the club were Football League champions in 1961–62, FA Cup winners in 1977–78 and UE FA Cup
FA Cup
winners in 1980–81.[50] Ipswich Town currently play in the Football League Championship, the second tier of English football. The next highest ranked teams in Suffolk
Suffolk
are Leiston, Lowestoft
Lowestoft
Town and Needham Market, who all participate in the Isthmian League Premier Division, the seventh tier of English football. Horse racing[edit] The town of Newmarket is the headquarters of British horseracing – home to the largest cluster of training yards in the country and many key horse racing organisations including the National Stud,[51] and Newmarket Racecourse. Tattersalls
Tattersalls
bloodstock auctioneers and the National Horseracing Museum
National Horseracing Museum
are also in the town.[52][53] Point to point racing takes place at Higham and Ampton.[54] Speedway[edit] Speedway racing has been staged in Suffolk
Suffolk
since at least the 1950s, following the construction of the Foxhall Stadium, just outside Ipswich, home of the Ipswich
Ipswich
Witches. The Witches are currently members of the Premier League, the UK's second division.[55] National League team Mildenhall Fen Tigers
Mildenhall Fen Tigers
are also from Suffolk.[56] Cricket[edit] Suffolk
Suffolk
C.C.C. compete in the Eastern Division of the Minor Counties Championship.[57] The club has won the championship three times outright and has shared the title one other time as well as winning the MCCA Knockout Trophy once.[58] Home games are played in Bury St Edmunds, Copdock, Exning, Framlingham, Ipswich
Ipswich
and Mildenhall.[59] Suffolk
Suffolk
in popular culture[edit] Novels set in Suffolk
Suffolk
include parts of David Copperfield
David Copperfield
by Charles Dickens, The Fourth Protocol, by Frederick Forsyth, Unnatural Causes by P.D. James, Dodie Smith's The Hundred and One Dalmatians, The Rings of Saturn by W. G. Sebald,[60] and among Arthur Ransome's children's books, We Didn't Mean to Go to Sea, Coot Club
Coot Club
and Secret Water
Secret Water
take place in part in the county. Roald Dahl's short story The Mildenhall Treasure is set in Mildenhall.[61] A TV series about a British antiques dealer, Lovejoy, was filmed in various locations in Suffolk.[62] The reality TV Series Space Cadets was filmed in Rendlesham Forest, although the producers fooled participants into believing that they were in Russia.[63] Several towns and villages in the county have been used for location filming of other television programmes and cinema films. These include the BBC Four TV series Detectorists,[64] an episode of Kavanagh QC, and the films Iris and Drowning by Numbers. The Rendlesham Forest
Rendlesham Forest
Incident is one of the most famous UFO
UFO
events in England
England
and is sometimes referred to as "Britain's Roswell".[65] The song "Castle on the Hill" by singer-songwriter Ed Sheeran
Ed Sheeran
was referred to by him as "a love letter to Suffolk", with lyrical reference to his hometown of Framlingham
Framlingham
and Framlingham Castle.[66][67] See also[edit]

List of places of interest in Suffolk List of Lords Lieutenant of Suffolk List of High Sheriffs of Suffolk Custos Rotulorum of Suffolk – Keepers of the Rolls Suffolk (UK Parliament constituency) – Historical list of MPs for Suffolk
Suffolk
constituency Suffolk
Suffolk
Youth Orchestra Healthcare in Suffolk Suffolk
Suffolk
Constabulary Suffolk
Suffolk
Police and Crime Commissioner

Notes[edit]

^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding ^ includes hunting and forestry ^ includes energy and construction ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Suffolk.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Suffolk.

Suffolk
Suffolk
County Council BBC Suffolk Suffolk
Suffolk
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Images of Suffolk
Suffolk
at the English Heritage Archive

Neighbouring counties

Norfolk

Cambridgeshire

Suffolk

North Sea

Essex

v t e

Ceremonial county of Suffolk

Boroughs or districts

Babergh Forest Heath Ipswich Mid Suffolk St Edmundsbury Suffolk
Suffolk
Coastal Waveney

Major settlements

Aldeburgh Beccles Brandon Bungay Bury St Edmunds Carlton Colville Clare Eye Felixstowe Framlingham Hadleigh Halesworth Haverhill Ipswich Kesgrave Leiston Lowestoft Mildenhall Needham Market Newmarket Orford Saxmundham Southwold Stowmarket Sudbury Woodbridge See also: List of civil parishes in Suffolk

Topics

Flag Parliamentary constituencies Places Places of interest Population of major settlements SSSIs Country houses Grade I listed buildings Grade II* listed buildings History Lord Lieutenants High Sheriffs Schools Museums Windmills

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1974–1996 ←   Ceremonial counties of England   → current

Bedfordshire Berkshire Bristol Buckinghamshire Cambridgeshire Cheshire Cornwall Cumbria Derbyshire Devon Dorset Durham East Riding of Yorkshire East Sussex Essex Gloucestershire Greater London Greater Manchester Hampshire Herefordshire Hertfordshire Isle of Wight Kent Lancashire Leicestershire Lincolnshire City of London Merseyside Norfolk Northamptonshire Northumberland North Yorkshire Nottinghamshire Oxfordshire Rutland Shropshire Somerset South Yorkshire Staffordshire Suffolk Surrey Tyne and Wear Warwickshire West Midlands West Sussex West Yorkshire Wiltsh

.