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SUFFOLK (/ˈsʌfək/ ) is an East Anglian county of historic origin in England. It has borders with Norfolk
Norfolk
to the north, Cambridgeshire to the west and Essex
Essex
to the south. The North Sea
North Sea
lies to the east. The county town is Ipswich
Ipswich
; other important towns include Lowestoft
Lowestoft
, Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds
, Newmarket and Felixstowe , one of the largest container ports in Europe.

The county is low-lying with very few hills, and is largely arable land with the wetlands of the Broads in the north. The Suffolk
Suffolk
Coast and Heaths are an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Administration * 1.2 Archaeology
Archaeology

* 2 Economy * 3 Geography * 4 Demography

* 5 Notable people

* 5.1 St Edmund

* 6 Education

* 6.1 Primary, secondary and further education * 6.2 Tertiary education

* 7 Culture

* 7.1 Suffolk
Suffolk
Day * 7.2 Dialect

* 7.3 Sport

* 7.3.1 Football * 7.3.2 Horse racing * 7.3.3 Speedway * 7.3.4 Cricket

* 7.4 Arts * 7.5 Suffolk
Suffolk
in popular culture

* 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of Suffolk

ADMINISTRATION

By the fifth century, the Angles
Angles
(after whom East Anglia
East Anglia
and England are named) had established control of the region. The Angles
Angles
later became the "north folk" and the "south folk", from which developed the names "Norfolk" and "Suffolk". Suffolk
Suffolk
and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia
East Anglia
, which later merged with Mercia
Mercia
and then Wessex
Wessex
.

Suffolk
Suffolk
was originally divided into four separate Quarter Sessions divisions. In 1860, the number of divisions was reduced to two. The eastern division was administered from Ipswich
Ipswich
and the western from Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds
. Under the Local Government Act 1888 , the two divisions were made the separate administrative counties of East Suffolk
Suffolk
and West Suffolk ; Ipswich
Ipswich
became a county borough . A few Essex
Essex
parishes were also added to Suffolk: Ballingdon-with-Brundon and parts of Haverhill and Kedington.

On 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972
Local Government Act 1972
, East Suffolk, West Suffolk, and Ipswich
Ipswich
were merged to form the unified county of Suffolk. The county was divided into several local government districts : Babergh , Forest Heath , Ipswich
Ipswich
, Mid Suffolk , St. Edmundsbury , Suffolk Coastal , and Waveney . This act also transferred some land near Great Yarmouth to Norfolk. As introduced in Parliament, the Local Government Act would have transferred Newmarket and Haverhill to Cambridgeshire and Colchester
Colchester
from Essex; such changes were not included when the act was passed into law.

In 2007, the Department for Communities and Local Government referred Ipswich
Ipswich
Borough Council 's bid to become a new unitary authority to the Boundary Committee . The Boundary Committee consulted local bodies and reported in favour of the proposal. It was not, however, approved by the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government.

Beginning in February 2008, the Boundary Committee again reviewed local government in the county, with two possible options emerging. One was that of splitting Suffolk
Suffolk
into two unitary authorities – Ipswich
Ipswich
and Felixstowe and Rural Suffolk; and the other, that of creating a single county-wide controlling authority – the "One Suffolk" option. In February 2010, the then-Minister Rosie Winterton announced that no changes would be imposed on the structure of local government in the county as a result of the review, but that the government would be: "asking Suffolk
Suffolk
councils and MPs to reach a consensus on what unitary solution they want through a countywide constitutional convention". Following the May 2010 general election , all further moves towards any of the suggested unitary solutions ceased on the instructions of the incoming Coalition government , and the administrative structures of the county are, therefore, unchanged. See also: Local Government Act 2010 and List of schools in Suffolk

ARCHAEOLOGY

West Suffolk, like nearby East Cambridgeshire, is renowned for archaeological finds from the Stone Age
Stone Age
, the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
, and the Iron Age
Iron Age
. Bronze Age
Bronze Age
artefacts have been found in the area between Mildenhall and West Row, in Eriswell and in Lakenheath . Many bronze objects, such as swords, spearheads, arrows, axes, palstaves , knives, daggers, rapiers, armour, decorative equipment (in particular for horses), and fragments of sheet bronze, are entrusted to St. Edmundsbury heritage service, housed at West Stow just outside Bury St. Edmunds. Other finds include traces of cremations and barrows .

In the east of the county is Sutton Hoo
Sutton Hoo
, the site of one of England's most significant Anglo-Saxon archaeological finds, a ship burial containing a collection of treasures including a Sword of State , gold and silver bowls, and jewellery and a lyre .

ECONOMY

The majority of agriculture in Suffolk
Suffolk
is either arable or mixed . Farm sizes vary from anything around 80 acres (32 hectares) to over 8,000. Soil types vary from heavy clays to light sands. Crops grown include:winter wheat , winter barley , sugar beet , oilseed rape , winter and spring beans and linseed , although smaller areas of rye and oats can be found growing in areas with lighter soils along with a variety of vegetables.

The continuing importance of agriculture in the county is reflected in the Suffolk Show , which is held annually in May at Ipswich. Although latterly somewhat changed in nature, this remains primarily an agricultural show .

Below is a chart of regional gross value added of Suffolk
Suffolk
at current basic prices published by _Office for National Statistics_ with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

YEAR REGIONAL GROSS VALUE ADDED AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY SERVICES

1995 7,113 391 2,449 4,273

2000 8,096 259 2,589 5,248

2003 9,456 270 2,602 6,583

SOURCE

See also: Companies based in Suffolk
Suffolk

Well-known companies in Suffolk
Suffolk
include Greene King and Branston Pickle in Bury St Edmunds. Birds Eye
Birds Eye
has its largest UK factory in Lowestoft, where all its meat products and frozen vegetables are processed. Huntley "> Sheep grazing among the ruins of Bury St Edmunds Abbey , Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds
in 1920 See also: List of settlements in Suffolk
Suffolk
by population and Geology of Suffolk

There are several towns in the county with Ipswich
Ipswich
being the largest and most populous. At the time of the 2011 census, a population of 730,000 lived in the county with 133,384 living in Ipswich. The table below shows all towns with over 20,000 inhabitants.

RANK TOWN POPULATION BOROUGH/DISTRICT COUNCIL

1 Ipswich
Ipswich
133,384 (2011) Ipswich
Ipswich
Borough Council

2 Lowestoft
Lowestoft
71,000 (2011) Waveney Council

3 Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds
42,000 (2011) St Edmundsbury Council

4 Haverhill 27,041 (2011) St Edmundsbury Council

5 Felixstowe 23,689 (2011) Suffolk Coastal Council

6 Newmarket 20,384 (2011) Forest Heath District Council

Located in the East of England
England
, much of Suffolk
Suffolk
is low-lying, founded on Pleistocene
Pleistocene
sand and clays . These rocks are relatively unresistant and the coast is eroding rapidly. Coastal defences have been used to protect several towns, but several cliff-top houses have been lost to coastal erosion and others are under threat. The continuing protection of the coastline and the estuaries , including the Blyth , Alde and Deben , has been, and remains, a matter of considerable discussion.

The coastal strip to the East contains an area of heathland known as "The Sandlings" which runs almost the full length of the coastline. Suffolk
Suffolk
is also home to nature reserves, such as the RSPB
RSPB
site at Minsmere , and Trimley Marshes , a wetland under the protection of Suffolk Wildlife Trust .

The west of the county lies on more resistant Cretaceous
Cretaceous
chalk . This chalk is responsible for a sweeping tract of largely downland landscapes that stretches from Dorset
Dorset
in the south west to Dover
Dover
in the south east and north through East Anglia
East Anglia
to the Yorkshire Wolds . The chalk is less easily eroded so forms the only significant hills in the county. The highest point in the county is Great Wood Hill , the highest point of the Newmarket Ridge , near the village of Rede , which reaches 128 metres (420 ft).

The county flower is the oxlip .

DEMOGRAPHY

According to estimates by the Office for National Statistics , the population of Suffolk
Suffolk
in 2014 was 738,512, split almost evenly between males and females. Roughly 22% of the population was aged 65 or older, and 90.84% were "White British".

Historically, the county's population has mostly been employed as agricultural workers. An 1835 survey showed Suffolk
Suffolk
to have 4,526 occupiers of land employing labourers, 1,121 occupiers not employing labourers, 33,040 labourers employed in agriculture, 676 employed in manufacture, 18,167 employed in retail trade or handicraft, 2,228 'capitalists, bankers etc.', 5,336 labourers (non-agricultural), 4,940 other males aged over 20, 2,032 male servants and 11,483 female servants. The same publication records the total population of the county at 296,304.

Most English counties have nicknames for people from that county, such as a Tyke from Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and a Yellowbelly from Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
; the traditional nickname for people from Suffolk
Suffolk
is 'Suffolk Fair-Maids', or 'Silly Suffolk', referring respectively to the supposed beauty of its female inhabitants in the Middle Ages, and to the long history of Christianity in the county and its many fine churches (from Anglo-Saxon _selige_, originally meaning holy). _For a full list of settlements see the list of places in Suffolk
Suffolk
_ See also: List of settlements in Suffolk by population

NOTABLE PEOPLE

_ Gainsborough's Mr and Mrs Andrews _ (1748–49), housed at the National Gallery in London, depicts the Suffolk
Suffolk
landscape of his time. See also: People from Suffolk
Suffolk

In the arts, Suffolk
Suffolk
is noted for having been the home to two of England's best regarded painters, Thomas Gainsborough
Thomas Gainsborough
and John Constable – the Stour Valley area is branded as "Constable Country" – and one of its most noted composers, Benjamin Britten . Other artists of note from Suffolk
Suffolk
include the cartoonist Carl Giles (a bronze statue of his character "Grandma" to commemorate this is located in Ipswich
Ipswich
town centre), poets George Crabbe and Robert Bloomfield , writer and Literary editor Ronald Blythe , actors Ralph Fiennes and the late Bob Hoskins , actress and singer Kerry Ellis , musician and record producer Brian Eno
Brian Eno
, singer Dani Filth , of the Suffolk-based extreme metal group, Cradle of Filth , and singer-songwriter Ed Sheeran . Hip-hop DJ Tim Westwood is originally from Suffolk
Suffolk
and the influential DJ and radio presenter John Peel made the county his home. Contemporary painter, Maggi Hambling , was born, and resides, in Suffolk.

Suffolk's contributions to sport include Formula One
Formula One
magnate Bernie Ecclestone and former England
England
footballers Terry Butcher
Terry Butcher
, Kieron Dyer and Matthew Upson . Due to Newmarket being the centre of British horse racing many jockeys have settled in the county, including Lester Piggott and Frankie Dettori .

Significant ecclesiastical figures from Suffolk
Suffolk
include Simon Sudbury , a former Archbishop of Canterbury ; Tudor-era Catholic prelate Thomas Cardinal Wolsey ; and author, poet and Benedictine monk John Lydgate .

Other significant persons from Suffolk
Suffolk
include the suffragette Dame Millicent Garrett Fawcett ; the captain of _ HMS Beagle _, Robert FitzRoy ; Witch-finder General Matthew Hopkins ; and Britain's first female physician and mayor, Elizabeth Garrett Anderson . Charity leader Sue Ryder settled in Suffolk
Suffolk
and based her charity in Cavendish .

ST EDMUND

King of East Anglia
East Anglia
and Christian martyr St Edmund (after whom the town of Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds
is named) was killed by invading Danes in the year 869. St Edmund was the patron saint of England
England
until he was replaced by St George
St George
in the 13th century. 2006 saw the failure of a campaign to have St Edmund named as the patron saint of England, but in 2007 he was named patron saint of Suffolk, with St Edmund's Day falling on 20 November. His flag is flown in Suffolk
Suffolk
on that day.

EDUCATION

PRIMARY, SECONDARY AND FURTHER EDUCATION

See also: List of schools in Suffolk

Suffolk
Suffolk
has a comprehensive education system with fourteen independent schools. Unusually for the UK, some of Suffolk
Suffolk
has a 3-tier school system in place with primary schools (ages 5–9), middle schools (ages 9–13) and upper schools (ages 13–16). However, a 2006 Suffolk County Council study concluded that Suffolk should move to the 2-tier school system used in the majority of the UK. For the purpose of conversion to 2-tier, the 3-tier system has been divided into 4 geographical area groupings and corresponding phases. The first phase was the conversion of schools in Lowestoft
Lowestoft
and Haverhill in 2011, followed by schools in north and west Suffolk
Suffolk
in 2012. The remainder of the changeovers to 2-tier will take place from 2013, for those schools that stay within Local government control, and not become Academies and/or free schools . The majority of schools thus now (2013) operate the more common primary to high school (11–16). Many of the county's upper schools have a sixth form and most further education colleges in the county offer A-level courses. In terms of school population, Suffolk's individual schools are large with the Ipswich
Ipswich
district with the largest school population and Forest Heath the smallest, with just two schools. In 2013, a letter said that "...nearly a fifth of the schools inspected were judged inadequate. This is unacceptable and now means that Suffolk
Suffolk
has a higher proportion of pupils educated in inadequate schools than both the regional and national averages."

The Royal Hospital School near Ipswich
Ipswich
is the largest independent boarding school in Suffolk.

The Castle Partnership Academy Trust in Haverhill is the county's only All-through Academy Chain. Comprising Castle Manor Academy and Place Farm Primary Academy, the Academy Trust supports all-through education and provides opportunities for young people aged 3 to 18.

Sixth form colleges in the county include Lowestoft
Lowestoft
Sixth Form College and One in Ipswich. Suffolk
Suffolk
is home to four further education colleges: Lowestoft
Lowestoft
College , Easton ">

* ^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding * ^ includes hunting and forestry * ^ includes energy and construction * ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured

REFERENCES

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Suffolk
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Suffolk
to decide locally; no change for Norfolk
Norfolk
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Suffolk
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EXTERNAL LINKS

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