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In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix ) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word. Common examples are case endings, which indicate the grammatical case of nouns, adjectives, and verb endings, which form the conjugation of verbs. An ''inflectional suffix'' is sometimes called a desinence or a grammatical suffix or ending. Inflection changes the grammatical properties of a word within its syntactic category. Derivational suffixes can be divided into two categories: class-changing derivation and class-maintaining derivation. Particularly in the study of Semitic languages, suffixes are called afformatives, as they can alter the form of the words. In Indo-European studies, a distinction is made between suffixes and endings (see Proto-Indo-European root). Suffixes can carry grammatical information or lexical information. A word-final segment that is somewhere between a free morpheme and a bound morpheme is known as a suffixoidKremer, Marion. 1997. ''Person reference and gender in translation: a contrastive investigation of English and German''. Tübingen: Gunter Narr, p. 69, note 11. or a semi-suffixMarchand, Hans. 1969. ''The categories and types of present-day English word-formation: A synchronic-diachronic approach''. Munich: Beck, pp. 356 ff. (e.g., English ''-like'' or German ''-freundlich'' "friendly").


Productivity


Suffixes can carry grammatical information (inflectional suffixes) or lexical information (derivational/lexical suffixes'').'' An inflectional suffix is sometimes called a desinence or a grammatical suffix.


Examples





English


:''Girls''—where the suffix ''-s'' marks the plurality. :''He makes''—where suffix ''-s'' marks the third person singular present tense. :''It closed''—where the suffix ''-ed'' marks the past tense.


French


:''De beaux jours''—where the suffix ''-x'' marks the plural. :''Elle est passablement jolie''—where the suffix ''-e'' marks the feminine form of the adjective.


German


:''mein Computer''—where the lack of suffixes is because its case, nominative, is "unmarked" :''meines Computers''—genitive case :''meinem Computer''—dative case :''meinen Computer''—accusative case


Russian


:''мой компьютер—''where the lack of suffixes is because its case, nominative, is "unmarked" :''моего компьютера''—genitive case :''моему компьютеру''—dative case :''мой компьютер''—accusative case :''за-туш-и-ть свечу''—where first word has -и- suffix, -ть ending (infinitive form); second word with ending -у (accusative case, singular, feminine). :''добр-о-жел-а-тель-н-ый''—добр- root, -о- interfix, -жел- root, verbal -a- interfix, nominal -тель suffix, adjectival -н- suffix, adjectival -ый ending (nominative case, singular, masculine).


Inflectional suffixes


Inflection changes the grammatical properties of a word within its syntactic category. In the example: :I was hoping the cloth wouldn't fade, but it has faded quite a bit. the suffix ''-ed'' inflects the root-word ''fade'' to indicate past participle. Inflectional suffixes do not change the word class of the word after the inflection. Inflectional suffixes in Modern English include:


Verbs


*-s third person singular present tense *-ed past tense *-t past tense *-ing progressive/continuous aspect *-en past participle


Nouns


*-s plural number *-en plural number (irregular)


Adjectives and Adverbs


*-er comparative degree *-est superlative degree


Derivation


Derivational suffixes can be divided into two categories: class-changing derivation and class-maintaining derivation.Jackson and Amvela(2000): Word, Meaning and Vocabulary- An Introduction to Modern English Lexicology. London, Athenaeum Press, p.88 In English, they include * -ise/-ize (usually changes nouns into verbs) * -fy (usually changes nouns into verbs) * -ly (usually changes adjectives into adverbs, but also some nouns into adjectives) * -ful (usually changes nouns into adjectives) * -able/-ible (usually changes verbs into adjectives) * -hood (usually class-maintaining, with the word class remaining a noun) * -ess (usually class-maintaining, with the word class remaining a noun) * -ness (usually changes adjectives into nouns) * -less (usually changes nouns into adjectives) * -ism (usually class-maintaining, with the word class remaining a noun) * -ment (usually changes verbs into nouns) * -ist (usually class-maintaining, with the word class remaining a noun) * -al (usually changes nouns into adjectives) * -ish (usually changes nouns into adjectives/ class-maintaining, with the word class remaining an adjective) * -oid (usually changes nouns into adjectives) * -like (usually changes nouns into adjectives) * -ity (usually changes adjectives into nouns) * -tion (usually changes verbs into noun) * -logy/-ology (usually class-maintaining, with the word class remaining a noun) * -ant (usually changes verbs into nouns, often referring to a human agent)


Synthetic languages


Many synthetic languages—Czech, German, Finnish, Latin, Hungarian, Russian, Turkish, etc.—use many endings.

References



External links

*{{Commonscatinline|Suffixes Category:Affixes