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The Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
(Arabic: قناة السويس‎ qanāt as-suwēs) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the Red Sea
Red Sea
through the Isthmus of Suez. Constructed by the Suez Canal Company
Suez Canal Company
between 1859 and 1869, it was officially opened on November 17, 1869. The canal offers watercraft a shorter journey between the North Atlantic
Atlantic
and northern Indian Oceans via the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and Red seas by avoiding the South Atlantic
Atlantic
and southern Indian oceans, in turn reducing the journey by approximately 7,000 kilometres (4,300 mi). It extends from the northern terminus of Port Said
Port Said
to the southern terminus of Port Tewfik
Port Tewfik
at the city of Suez. Its length is 193.30 km (120.11 mi), including its northern and southern access channels. In 2012, 17,225 vessels traversed the canal (47 per day).[1] The original canal was a single-lane waterway with passing locations in the Ballah Bypass and the Great Bitter Lake.[2] It contains no locks system, with seawater flowing freely through it. In general, the canal north of the Bitter Lakes
Bitter Lakes
flows north in winter and south in summer. South of the lakes, the current changes with the tide at Suez.[3] The canal is owned and maintained by the Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
Authority[4] (SCA) of Egypt. Under the Convention of Constantinople, it may be used "in time of war as in time of peace, by every vessel of commerce or of war, without distinction of flag".[5] In August 2014, construction was launched to expand and widen the Ballah Bypass for 35 km (22 mi) to speed the canal's transit time. The expansion was planned to double the capacity of the Suez Canal
Canal
from 49 to 97 ships a day.[6] At a cost of $8.4 billion, this project was funded with interest-bearing investment certificates issued exclusively to Egyptian entities and individuals. The "New Suez Canal", as the expansion was dubbed, was opened with great fanfare in a ceremony on 6 August 2015.[7] On February 24, 2016, the Suez Canal Authority
Suez Canal Authority
officially opened the new side channel. This side channel, located at the northern side of the east extension of the Suez
Suez
Canal, serves the East Terminal for berthing and unberthing vessels from the terminal. As the East Container Terminal is located on the Canal
Canal
itself, before the construction of the new side channel it was not possible to berth or unberth vessels at the terminal while the convoy was running.[8]

Contents

1 Precursors

1.1 2nd millennium BCE 1.2 Canals dug by Necho, Darius I
Darius I
and Ptolemy 1.3 Receding Red Sea
Red Sea
and the dwindling Nile 1.4 Old Cairo
Old Cairo
to the Red Sea 1.5 Repair by al-Ḥākim 1.6 Conception by Venice 1.7 Napoleon's discovery of an ancient canal

2 History

2.1 Interim period 2.2 Construction by the Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
Company 2.3 Company rule after opening 2.4 Suez
Suez
Crisis 2.5 Arab–Israeli wars of 1967 and 1973 2.6 Bypass expansion 2.7 Timeline 2.8 Leadership

3 Layout and operation

3.1 Capacity 3.2 Navigation 3.3 Operation 3.4 Convoy sailing 3.5 Canal
Canal
crossings

4 Alternative routes

4.1 Cape Agulhas 4.2 Northern Sea Route 4.3 Negev
Negev
desert railroad

5 Environmental impact 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Precursors[edit] Main article: Canal
Canal
of the Pharaohs Ancient west–east canals were built to facilitate travel from the Nile
Nile
River to the Red Sea.[9][10][11] One smaller canal is believed to have been constructed under the auspices of Senusret II[12] or Ramesses II.[9][10][11] Another canal, probably incorporating a portion of the first,[9][10] was constructed under the reign of Necho II, but the only fully functional canal was engineered and completed by Darius I.[9][10][11] 2nd millennium BCE[edit] The legendary Sesostris
Sesostris
(likely either Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Senusret II
Senusret II
or Senusret III of the Twelfth dynasty of Egypt[12][13]) may have started work on an ancient canal joining the Nile
Nile
with the Red Sea
Red Sea
(1897 BC – 1839 BC), when an irrigation channel was constructed around 1850 BC that was navigable during the flood season, leading into a dry river valley east of the Nile
Nile
River Delta named Wadi Tumelat.[14] (It is said that in ancient times the Red Sea
Red Sea
reached northward to the Bitter Lakes[9][10] and Lake Timsah.[15][16]) In his Meteorology, Aristotle
Aristotle
wrote:

One of their kings tried to make a canal to it (for it would have been of no little advantage to them for the whole region to have become navigable; Sesostris
Sesostris
is said to have been the first of the ancient kings to try), but he found that the sea was higher than the land. So he first, and Darius afterwards, stopped making the canal, lest the sea should mix with the river water and spoil it.[17]

Strabo
Strabo
wrote that Sesostris
Sesostris
started to build a canal, and Pliny the Elder wrote:

165. Next comes the Tyro tribe and, the harbour of the Daneoi, from which Sesostris, king of Egypt, intended to carry a ship-canal to where the Nile
Nile
flows into what is known as the Delta; this is a distance of over 60 miles. Later the Persian king Darius had the same idea, and yet again Ptolemy II, who made a trench 100 feet wide, 30 feet deep and about 35 miles long, as far as the Bitter Lakes.[18]

In the second half of the 19th century, French cartographers discovered the remnants of an ancient north–south canal past the east side of Lake Timsah
Lake Timsah
and ending near the north end of the Great Bitter Lake.[19] This proved to be the celebrated canal made by the Persian king Darius I, as his stele commemorating its construction was found at the site. (This ancient, second canal may have followed a course along the shoreline of the Red Sea
Red Sea
when it once extended north to Lake Timsah.[16][19]) In the 20th century the northward extension of this ancient canal was discovered, extending from Lake Timsah
Lake Timsah
to the Ballah Lakes.[20] This was dated to the Middle Kingdom of Egypt
Egypt
by extrapolating the dates of ancient sites along its course.[20] The reliefs of the Punt expedition under Hatshepsut, 1470 BC, depict seagoing vessels carrying the expeditionary force returning from Punt. This suggests that a navigable link existed between the Red Sea and the Nile.[21] Recent excavations in Wadi Gawasis
Wadi Gawasis
may indicate that Egypt's maritime trade started from the Red Sea
Red Sea
and did not require a canal.[citation needed] Evidence seems to indicate its existence by the 13th century BC during the time of Ramesses II.[9][22][23][24] Canals dug by Necho, Darius I
Darius I
and Ptolemy[edit] Remnants of an ancient west–east canal through the ancient Egyptian cities of Bubastis, Pi-Ramesses, and Pithom
Pithom
were discovered by Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
and his engineers and cartographers in 1799.[10][25][26][27][28] According to the Histories of the Greek historian Herodotus,[29] about 600 BC, Necho II
Necho II
undertook to dig a west–east canal through the Wadi Tumilat
Wadi Tumilat
between Bubastis
Bubastis
and Heroopolis,[10] and perhaps continued it to the Heroopolite Gulf
Heroopolite Gulf
and the Red Sea.[9] Regardless, Necho is reported as having never completed his project.[9][10] Herodotus
Herodotus
was told that 120,000 men perished in this undertaking, but this figure is doubtless exaggerated.[30] According to Pliny the Elder, Necho's extension to the canal was about 57 English miles,[10] equal to the total distance between Bubastis
Bubastis
and the Great Bitter Lake, allowing for winding through valleys.[10] The length that Herodotus
Herodotus
tells, of over 1000 stadia (i.e., over 114 miles (183 km)), must be understood to include the entire distance between the Nile
Nile
and the Red Sea[10] at that time. With Necho's death, work was discontinued. Herodotus
Herodotus
tells that the reason the project was abandoned was because of a warning received from an oracle that others would benefit from its successful completion.[10][31] Necho's war with Nebuchadnezzar II
Nebuchadnezzar II
most probably prevented the canal's continuation. Necho's project was completed by Darius I
Darius I
of Persia, who ruled over Ancient Egypt
Egypt
after it had been conquered by his predecessor Cambyses II.[32] It may be that by Darius's time a natural[10] waterway passage which had existed[9] between the Heroopolite Gulf
Heroopolite Gulf
and the Red Sea[33] in the vicinity of the Egyptian town of Shaluf[10] (alt. Chalouf[34] or Shaloof[16]), located just south of the Great Bitter Lake,[10][16] had become so blocked[9] with silt[10] that Darius needed to clear it out so as to allow navigation[10] once again. According to Herodotus, Darius's canal was wide enough that two triremes could pass each other with oars extended, and required four days to traverse. Darius commemorated his achievement with a number of granite stelae that he set up on the Nile
Nile
bank, including one near Kabret, and a further one a few miles north of Suez. The Darius Inscriptions read:[35]

Saith King Darius: I am a Persian. Setting out from Persia, I conquered Egypt. I ordered this canal dug from the river called the Nile
Nile
that flows in Egypt, to the sea that begins in Persia. When the canal had been dug as I ordered, ships went from Egypt
Egypt
through this canal to Persia, even as I intended. — Darius Inscription

The canal left the Nile
Nile
at Bubastis. An inscription[36] on a pillar at Pithom
Pithom
records that in 270 or 269 BC, it was again reopened, by Ptolemy II
Ptolemy II
Philadelphus. In Arsinoe,[10] Ptolemy constructed a navigable lock, with sluices, at the Heroopolite Gulf
Heroopolite Gulf
of the Red Sea,[33] which allowed the passage of vessels but prevented salt water from the Red Sea
Red Sea
from mingling with the fresh water in the canal.[37] Receding Red Sea
Red Sea
and the dwindling Nile[edit] The Red Sea
Red Sea
is believed by some historians to have gradually receded over the centuries, its coastline slowly moving southward away from Lake Timsah[15][16] and the Great Bitter Lake.[9][10] Coupled with persistent accumulations of Nile
Nile
silt, maintenance and repair of Ptolemy's canal became increasingly cumbersome over each passing century. Two hundred years after the construction of Ptolemy's canal, Cleopatra seems to have had no west–east waterway passage,[9][10] because the Pelusiac branch
Pelusiac branch
of the Nile, which fed Ptolemy's west–east canal, had by that time dwindled, being choked with silt.[9][10] Old Cairo
Old Cairo
to the Red Sea[edit] By the 8th century, a navigable canal existed between Old Cairo
Old Cairo
and the Red Sea,[9][10] but accounts vary as to who ordered its construction—either Trajan
Trajan
or 'Amr ibn al-'As, or Omar the Great.[9][10] This canal was reportedly linked to the River Nile
Nile
at Old Cairo[10] and ended near modern Suez.[9][38] A geography treatise by Dicuil reports a conversation with an English monk, Fidelis, who had sailed on the canal from the Nile
Nile
to the Red Sea
Red Sea
during a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in the first half of the 8th century[39] The Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliph
Caliph
al-Mansur is said to have ordered this canal closed in 767 to prevent supplies from reaching Arabian detractors.[9][10] Repair by al-Ḥākim[edit] Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah
Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah
is claimed to have repaired the Cairo
Cairo
to Red Sea passageway,[9][10] but only briefly, circa 1000 AD,[9][10] as it soon "became choked with sand."[10] However, we are told that parts of this canal still continued to fill in during the Nile's annual inundations.[9][10] Conception by Venice[edit] The successful 1488 navigation of southern Africa by Bartolomeu Dias opened a direct maritime trading route to India and the spice islands, and forever changed the balance of Mediterranean
Mediterranean
trade. One of the most prominent losers in the new order, as former middlemen, was the former spice trading center of Venice.

Venetian leaders, driven to desperation, contemplated digging a waterway between the Red Sea
Red Sea
and the Nile—anticipating the Suez Canal
Canal
by almost 400 years—to bring the luxury trade flooding to their doors again. But this remained a dream. — Colin Thubron, Seafarers: The Venetians (1980), p. 102

Despite entering negotiations with Egypt's ruling Mamelukes, the Venetian plan to build the canal was quickly put to rest by the Ottoman conquest of Egypt
Egypt
in 1517, led by Sultan Selim I[40] Napoleon's discovery of an ancient canal[edit] During the French campaign in Egypt
Egypt
and Syria
Syria
in late 1798, Napoleon showed an interest in finding the remnants of an ancient waterway passage. This culminated in a cadre of archaeologists, scientists, cartographers and engineers scouring northern Egypt.[41][42] Their findings, recorded in the Description de l'Égypte, include detailed maps that depict the discovery of an ancient canal extending northward from the Red Sea
Red Sea
and then westward toward the Nile.[41][43] Later, Napoleon, who would become French Emperor in 1804, contemplated the construction of a north–south canal to connect the Mediterranean with the Red Sea. But the plan was abandoned because it wrongly concluded that the waterway would require locks to operate. These would be very expensive and take a long time to construct. This decision was based on an erroneous belief that the Red Sea
Red Sea
was 10 m (33 ft) higher than the Mediterranean. The error was the result of using fragmentary survey measurements taken in wartime during Napoleon's Egyptian Expedition.[44] In 1819 the Pacha of Egypt undertook some canal work.[45] However, as late as 1861, the unnavigable ancient route discovered by Napoleon
Napoleon
from Bubastis
Bubastis
to the Red Sea
Red Sea
still channeled water in spots as far east as Kassassin.[10] History[edit] Interim period[edit]

Bathymetric chart, northern Gulf of Suez, route to Cairo, 1856

Although the alleged difference in sea levels could be problematic for construction, the idea of finding a shorter route to the east remained alive. In 1830, F. R. Chesney submitted a report to the British government that stated that there was no difference in altitude and that the Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
was feasible, but his report received no further attention. Lieutenant Waghorn established his "Overland Route", which transported post and passengers to India via Egypt. Linant de Bellefonds, a French explorer of Egypt, became chief engineer of Egypt's Public Works. In addition to his normal duties, he surveyed the Isthmus of Suez
Suez
and made plans for the Suez
Suez
Canal. French Saint-Simonianists showed an interest in the canal and in 1833, Barthélemy Prosper Enfantin
Barthélemy Prosper Enfantin
tried to draw Muhammad Ali's attention to the canal but was unsuccessful. Alois Negrelli, the Austrian railroad pioneer, became interested in the idea in 1836. In 1846, Prosper Enfantin's Société d'Études du Canal
Canal
de Suez
Suez
invited a number of experts, among them Robert Stephenson, Negrelli and Paul-Adrien Bourdaloue to study the feasibility of the Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
(with the assistance of Linant de Bellefonds). Bourdaloue's survey of the isthmus was the first generally accepted evidence that there was no practical difference in altitude between the two seas. Britain, however, feared that a canal open to everyone might interfere with its India trade and therefore preferred a connection by train from Alexandria
Alexandria
via Cairo
Cairo
to Suez, which was eventually built by Stephenson. Construction by the Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
Company[edit]

1881 drawing of the Suez
Suez
Canal

Suez
Suez
Canal, Egypt. early 1900s. Goodyear Archival Collection. Brooklyn Museum

In 1854 and 1856, Ferdinand de Lesseps
Ferdinand de Lesseps
obtained a concession from Sa'id Pasha, the Khedive
Khedive
of Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan, to create a company to construct a canal open to ships of all nations. The company was to operate the canal for 99 years from its opening. De Lesseps had used his friendly relationship with Sa'id, which he had developed while he was a French diplomat in the 1830s. As stipulated in the concessions, Ferdinand convened the International Commission for the piercing of the isthmus of Suez
Suez
(Commission Internationale pour le percement de l'isthme des Suez) consisting of 13 experts from seven countries, among them John Robinson McClean, later President of the Institution of Civil Engineers in London, and again Negrelli, to examine the plans developed by Linant de Bellefonds, and to advise on the feasibility of and the best route for the canal. After surveys and analyses in Egypt and discussions in Paris on various aspects of the canal, where many of Negrelli's ideas prevailed, the commission produced a unanimous report in December 1856 containing a detailed description of the canal complete with plans and profiles.[46] The Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
Company (Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez) came into being on 15 December 1858 and work started on the shore of the future Port Said on 25 April 1859. The excavation took some 10 years using forced labour (corvée) of Egyptian workers during the first years. Some sources estimate that over 30,000 people were working on the canal at any given period, that more than 1.5 million people from various countries were employed, and that thousands of labourers died, many of them from cholera and similar epidemics.[47][48] The British government had opposed the project from the outset to its completion. As one of the diplomatic moves against the canal, it disapproved of the use of "slave labour" of forced workers. The British Empire
British Empire
was the major global naval force and officially condemned the forced work and sent armed Bedouins to start a revolt among workers. Involuntary labour on the project ceased, and the viceroy condemned the corvée, halting the project.[49] Angered by the British opportunism, de Lesseps sent a letter to the British government remarking on the British lack of remorse a few years earlier when forced workers died in similar conditions building the British railway in Egypt. Initially international opinion was skeptical and Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
Company shares did not sell well overseas. Britain, Austria, and Russia did not buy a significant number of shares. However, with assistance from the Cattaui banking family, and their relationship with James de Rothschild of the French House of Rothschild bonds and shares were successfully promoted in France and other parts of Europe.[50] All French shares were quickly sold in France. A contemporary British skeptic claimed "One thing is sure... our local merchant community doesn't pay practical attention at all to this grand work, and it is legitimate to doubt that the canal's receipts... could ever be sufficient to recover its maintenance fee. It will never become a large ship's accessible way in any case."[51]

One of the first traverses in the 19th century

Predominant currents in the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
for June

Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
in February 1934. Air photograph taken by Swiss pilot and photographer Walter Mittelholzer

The canal opened under French control on 17 November 1869. Although numerous technical, political, and financial problems had been overcome, the final cost was more than double the original estimate. The opening was performed by Khedive
Khedive
Isma'il Pasha
Isma'il Pasha
of Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan, and at Ismail's invitation French Empress Eugenie in the Imperial yacht L'Aigle piloted by Napoléon Coste, who was bestowed by the Khedive
Khedive
the Ottoman Order of the Medjidie. The first ship to follow L'Aigle through the canal was the British P&O liner Delta.[52][53] Although L'Aigle was officially the first vessel through the canal, HMS Newport, captained by George Nares, passed through it first. On the night before the canal was due to open, Captain Nares navigated his vessel, in total darkness and without lights, through the mass of waiting ships until it was in front of L'Aigle. When dawn broke, the French were horrified to find that the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
was first in line and that it would be impossible to pass them. Nares received both an official reprimand and an unofficial vote of thanks from the Admiralty
Admiralty
for his actions in promoting British interests and for demonstrating such superb seamanship.[54] An Anchor Line ship, the S.S. Dido, became the first to pass through the Canal
Canal
from South to North[55][56]. After the opening, the Suez Canal Company
Suez Canal Company
was in financial difficulties. The remaining works were completed only in 1871, and traffic was below expectations in the first two years. De Lesseps therefore tried to increase revenues by interpreting the kind of net ton referred to in the second concession (tonneau de capacité) as meaning a ship's cargo capacity and not only the theoretical net tonnage of the "Moorsom System" introduced in Britain by the Merchant Shipping Act in 1854. The ensuing commercial and diplomatic activities resulted in the International Commission of Constantinople establishing a specific kind of net tonnage and settling the question of tariffs in its protocol of 18 December 1873.[57] This was the origin of the Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
Net Tonnage and the Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
Special Tonnage Certificate, both of which are still in use today. Company rule after opening[edit] The canal had an immediate and dramatic effect on world trade. Combined with the American transcontinental railroad completed six months earlier, it allowed the world to be circled in record time. It played an important role in increasing European colonization of Africa. The construction of the canal was one of the reasons for the Panic of 1873, because goods from the Far East were carried in sailing vessels around the Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope
and were stored in British warehouses. As sailing vessels were not adaptable for use through the canal, because the prevailing winds of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
blow from west to east, British entrepôt trade suffered.[58] External debts forced Said Pasha's successor, Isma'il Pasha, to sell his country's share in the canal with the help of both Yacoub Cattaui and Lionel de Rothschild both of whom he was personal friends with for £4,000,000 (about £89.1 million in 2017) to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1875, but French shareholders still held the majority. Lionel de Rothschild agreed to underwrite the loan for the British government after Yacoub Cattaui negotiated the terms and financially engineered the transaction on behalf of Egypt
Egypt
with Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli, who was a personal friend of both Yacoub Cattaui and Lionel de Rothschild. However, the Prime Minister was later accused by William Ewart Gladstone of undermining Britain's constitutional system, because he had not referred to, or obtained consent from Parliament when purchasing the shares with funding from the Rothschilds.[59]

The Canal, ca 1914

The Convention of Constantinople
Convention of Constantinople
in 1888 declared the canal a neutral zone under the protection of the British, who had occupied Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan at the request of Khedive
Khedive
Tewfiq to suppress the Urabi Revolt against his rule. The revolt went on from 1879 to 1882. As a result of British involvement on the side of Khedive
Khedive
Tewfiq, Britain gained control of the canal in 1882. The British defended the strategically important passage against a major Ottoman attack in 1915, during the First World War.[60] Under the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936, the UK retained control over the canal. The canal was again strategically important in the 1939–1945 Second World War, and Italo-German attempts to capture it were repulsed during the North Africa Campaign, during which the canal was closed to Axis shipping. In 1951 Egypt repudiated the treaty and in October 1954 the UK agreed to remove its troops. Withdrawal was completed on 18 July 1956. Suez
Suez
Crisis[edit] Main article: Suez
Suez
Crisis

Smoke rises from oil tanks beside the Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
hit during the initial Anglo-French assault on Port Said, 5 November 1956

Because of Egyptian overtures towards the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States
United States
withdrew their pledge to support the construction of the Aswan Dam. Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser responded by nationalizing the canal on 26 July 1956[61] and transferring it to the Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
Authority, intending to finance the dam project using revenue from the canal. On the same day that the canal was nationalized Nasser also closed the Straits of Tiran
Straits of Tiran
to all Israeli ships.[62] This led to the Suez
Suez
Crisis in which the UK, France, and Israel
Israel
invaded Egypt. According to the pre-agreed war plans under the Protocol of Sèvres, the Israelis invaded the Sinai Peninsula, forcing Egypt
Egypt
to engage them militarily, and allowing the Anglo-French partnership to declare the resultant fighting a threat to stability in the Middle East and enter the war - officially to divide the two forces but in reality to regain the Canal
Canal
and bring down the Nasser government. To save the British from what he thought was a disastrous action and to stop the war from a possible escalation, Canadian Secretary of State for External Affairs Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
proposed the creation of the first United Nations peacekeeping force to ensure access to the canal for all and an Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula. On 4 November 1956, a majority at the United Nations voted for Pearson's peacekeeping resolution, which mandated the UN peacekeepers to stay in Sinai unless both Egypt
Egypt
and Israel
Israel
agreed to their withdrawal. The United States
United States
backed this proposal by putting pressure on the British government through the selling of sterling, which would cause it to depreciate. Britain then called a ceasefire, and later agreed to withdraw its troops by the end of the year. Pearson was later awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. As a result of damage and ships sunk under orders from Nasser the canal was closed until April 1957, when it was cleared with UN assistance.[63] A UN force (UNEF) was established to maintain the free navigability of the canal, and peace in the Sinai Peninsula. According to the historian Abd aI-Azim Ramadan, Nasser's decision to nationalize the Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
was his alone, made without political or military consultation. The events leading up to the nationalization of the Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
Company, as other events during Nasser’s rule, showed Nasser’s inclination to solitary decision making. Ramadan considered Nasser to be far from a rational, responsible leader.[64] Arab–Israeli wars of 1967 and 1973[edit]

Egyptian vehicles crossing the Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
on October 7, 1973, during the Yom Kippur War

Israeli tank crossing the Suez
Suez
Canal, 1973

In May 1967, Nasser ordered the UN peacekeeping forces out of Sinai, including the Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
area. Israel
Israel
objected to the closing of the Straits of Tiran
Straits of Tiran
to Israeli shipping. The canal had been closed to Israeli shipping since 1949, except for a short period in 1951–1952. After the 1967 Six Day War, Israeli forces occupied the Sinai peninsula, including the entire east bank of the Suez
Suez
Canal. Unwilling to allow the Israelis to use the canal, Egypt
Egypt
immediately imposed a blockade which closed the canal to all shipping until 5 June 1975. As a result, 15 cargo ships, known as the "Yellow Fleet", were trapped in the canal for over eight years. In 1973, during the Yom Kippur War, the canal was the scene of a major crossing by the Egyptian army into Israeli-occupied Sinai and a counter-crossing by the Israeli army to Egypt. Much wreckage from this conflict remains visible along the canal's edges.[citation needed] After the Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
the United States
United States
initiated Operation Nimbus Moon. The amphibious assault ship USS Inchon (LPH-12)
USS Inchon (LPH-12)
was sent to the Canal, carrying 12 RH-53D minesweeping helicopters of HM-12. These partly cleared the canal between May and December 1974. She was relieved by the LST USS Barnstable County
USS Barnstable County
(LST1197). The British Royal Navy initiated Operation Rheostat and Task Group 65.2 provided for Operation Rheostat One[65] (six months in 1974), the minehunters HMS Maxton, HMS Bossington, and HMS Wilton, the Fleet Clearance Diving Team (FCDT)[66] and HMS Abdiel, a practice minelayer/MCMV support ship; and for Operation Rheostat Two[67] (six months in 1975) the minehunters HMS Hubberston and HMS Sheraton, and HMS Abdiel. When the Canal
Canal
Clearance Operations were completed, the canal and its lakes were considered 99% clear of mines. The canal was then reopened by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
aboard an Egyptian destroyer, which led the first convoy northbound to Port Said
Port Said
in 1975.[68] At his side stood the Iranian Crown Prince Reza Pahlavi, delegated to represent his father, Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran. The cruiser USS Little Rock was the only American naval ship in the convoy.[69] The UNEF mandate expired in 1979. Despite the efforts of the United States, Israel, Egypt, and others to obtain an extension of the UN role in observing the peace between Israel
Israel
and Egypt, as called for under the Egypt– Israel
Israel
Peace Treaty of 1979, the mandate could not be extended because of the veto by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in the UN Security Council, at the request of Syria. Accordingly, negotiations for a new observer force in the Sinai produced the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO), stationed in Sinai in 1981 in coordination with a phased Israeli withdrawal. It is there under agreements between the United States, Israel, Egypt, and other nations.[70] Bypass expansion[edit] Main article: New Suez
Suez
Canal In the summer of 2014, months after taking office as President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
ordered the expansion of the Ballah Bypass from 61 metres wide to 312 metres wide for 35 kilometers. The project was called the New Suez
Suez
Canal, as it would allow ships to transit the canal in both directions simultaneously.[71][72] The project cost more than $8 billion and was completed within one year. Sisi declared the expanded channel open for business in a ceremony on 6 August 2015.[73] Timeline[edit]

Circa 1799 – Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
conquers Egypt
Egypt
and orders a feasibility analysis. This reports a supposed 10-metre (33 ft) difference in sea levels and a high cost, so the project is put on hold. Circa 1840 – A second survey finds the first analysis incorrect. A direct link between the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
and the Red Sea
Red Sea
is possible and not as expensive as previously estimated. 30 November 1854 – The former French consul in Cairo, Ferdinand Marie de Lesseps, obtains the first license for construction and subsequent operation from the Viceroy for a period of 99 years. 6 January 1856 – de Lesseps is provided with a second, more detailed license.

Container ship Hanjin Kaohsiung transiting the Suez
Suez
Canal

15 December 1858 – de Lesseps establishes the "Compagnie Universelle du Canal
Canal
Maritime de Suez", with Said Pasha acquiring 22% of the Suez Canal
Canal
Company; the majority is controlled by French private holders. 25 April 1859 – construction officially starts. 17 November 1869 – The canal is opened, owned and operated by Suez Canal
Canal
Company. 18 December 1873 – The International Commission of Constantinople establishes the Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
Net Ton and the Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
Special
Special
Tonnage Certificate (as known today) 25 November 1875 – Britain becomes a minority share holder in the company, acquiring 44%, with the remainder being controlled by French business syndicates. 20 May 1882 – Britain invades Egypt, with French assistance, and begins its occupation of Egypt. 25 August 1882 – Britain takes control of the canal. 2 March 1888 – The Convention of Constantinople
Convention of Constantinople
renews the guaranteed right of passage of all ships through the canal during war and peace; these rights were already part of the licenses awarded to de Lesseps, but are recognised as international law. 14 November 1936 – Following a new treaty, Britain theoretically pulls out of Egypt, but establishes the ' Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
Zone' under its control.

USS America (CV-66), an American aircraft carrier in the Suez
Suez
Canal

13 June 1956 – Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
Zone is restored to Egyptian sovereignty, following British withdrawal and years of negotiations. 26 July 1956 – Egypt
Egypt
nationalizes the company; its Egyptian assets, rights and obligations are transferred to the Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
Authority, which compensates the previous owners at the established pre-nationalization price. Egypt
Egypt
closes the canal to Israeli shipping as part of a broader blockade involving the Straits of Tiran
Straits of Tiran
and the Gulf of Aqaba. 31 October 1956 to 24 April 1957 – the canal is blocked to shipping following the Suez
Suez
Crisis, a conflict that leads to Israeli, and later French and British, occupation of the canal zone. 22 December 1956 – The canal zone is restored to Egyptian control, following French and British withdrawal, and the landing of UNEF troops. 5 June 1967 to 10 June 1975 – the canal is blocked by Egypt, following the war with Israel; it becomes the front line during the ensuing War of Attrition
War of Attrition
and the 1973 war, remaining closed to international shipping, until general agreement was near. 1 January 2008 – New rules of navigation passed by the Suez
Suez
Canal Authority come into force. 6 August 2015 – The new canal extensions are opened.

Leadership[edit]

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Ferdinand de Lesseps, developer of the Suez
Suez
Canal

Presidents of the Suez Canal Company
Suez Canal Company
(1858–1956):

Ferdinand de Lesseps
Ferdinand de Lesseps
(15 December 1858 – 7 December 1894) Jules Guichard (17 December 1892 – 17 July 1896) (acting for de Lesseps to 7 December 1894) Auguste-Louis-Albéric, prince d'Arenberg
Auguste-Louis-Albéric, prince d'Arenberg
(3 August 1896 – 1913) Charles Jonnart
Charles Jonnart
(19 May 1913 – 1927) Louis de Vogüé (4 April 1927 – 1 March 1948) François Charles-Roux (4 April 1948 – 26 July 1956)

Chairmen of the Suez Canal Authority
Suez Canal Authority
(1956–present):

Doctor Mohamed Helmy Bahgat Badawy (26 July 1956 – 9 July 1957) Engineer Mahmoud Younis
Mahmoud Younis
(10 July 1957 – 10 October 1965) Engineer Mashhour Ahmed Mashhour (14 October 1965 – 31 December 1983) Engineer Mohamed Ezzat Adel (1 January 1984 – December 1995) Admiral
Admiral
Ahmed Ali Fadel (22 January 1996 – Aug 2012) Admiral
Admiral
Mohab Mamish
Mohab Mamish
(2012 – present)

Layout and operation[edit] When built, the canal was 164 km (102 mi) long and 8 m (26 ft) deep. After several enlargements, it is 193.30 km (120.11 mi) long, 24 m (79 ft) deep and 205 metres (673 ft) wide.[74] It consists of the northern access channel of 22 km (14 mi), the canal itself of 162.25 km (100.82 mi) and the southern access channel of 9 km (5.6 mi).[75] The so-called New Suez
Suez
Canal, functional since 6 August 2015,[76] currently has a new parallel canal in the middle part, with its length over 35 km (22 mi). The current parameters of the Suez Canal, including both individual canals of the parallel section are: depth 23 to 24 metres (75 to 79 ft) and width at least 205 to 225 metres (673 to 738 ft) (that width measured at 11 metres (36 ft) of depth).[77]

[

v t e

]

Suez
Suez
Canal

Legend

km

Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea

W

E

Approaches (Southward convoy waiting area)

0.0

Port Said

0.0

Port Said

lighthouse, fishing harbour, cruise terminal

Port Said
Port Said
(city), former headquarters

Port Said
Port Said
harbour, Port Fuad
Port Fuad
(city),

East Port, SCCT container terminal

E-class turning dock

Shohada 25 January Bridge

51.5

Ballah (former by-pass)

59.9

Eastern lane: second shipping lane, New Suez
Suez
Canal[78]

El Ferdan Railway Bridge

76.5

Ismaïlia, SCA headquarters

Lake Timsah

95.0

Deversoir

Great Bitter Lake

Small Bitter Lake

Ahmed Hamdi Tunnel

overhead powerline

162

Suez, Suez
Suez
Port

Petroleum Dock, Port Tewfik

Gulf of Suez (Northward convoy waiting area)

Red Sea

Legend:

Navigable canal

Anchorage

Dock, industrial or logistical area

Village or town, feature

Railroad (defunct) with swing bridge

Capacity[edit]

Ships moored at El Ballah during transit

See also: Suezmax The canal allows passage of ships up to 20 m (66 ft) draft or 240,000 deadweight tons and up to a height of 68 m (223 ft) above water level and a maximum beam of 77.5 m (254 ft) under certain conditions.[79][80] The canal can handle more traffic and larger ships than the Panama Canal, as Suezmax dimensions are greater than both Panamax
Panamax
and New Panamax. Some supertankers are too large to traverse the canal. Others can offload part of their cargo onto a canal-owned boat to reduce their draft, transit, and reload at the other end of the canal. Navigation[edit] The canal has no locks because of the flat terrain, and the minor sea level difference between each end is inconsequential for shipping. As the canal has no sea surge gates, the ports at the ends would be subject to the sudden impact of tsunamis from the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea and Red Sea, according to a 2012 article in the Journal of Coastal Research.[81] There is one shipping lane with passing areas in Ballah-Bypass near El Qantara and in the Great Bitter Lake. On a typical day, three convoys transit the canal, two southbound and one northbound. The passage takes between 11 and 16 hours at a speed of around 8 knots (15 km/h; 9 mph). The low speed helps prevent erosion of the banks by ships' wakes. By 1955, about two-thirds of Europe's oil passed through the canal. Around 8% of world sea trade is carried via the canal. In 2008, 21,415 vessels passed through the canal and the receipts totaled $5.381 billion,[79] with an average cost per ship of $251,000. New Rules of Navigation
Navigation
came into force on 1 January 2008, passed by the board of directors of the Suez Canal Authority
Suez Canal Authority
(SCA) to organise vessels' transit. The most important amendments include allowing vessels with 62-foot (19 m) draught to pass, increasing the allowed breadth from 32 metres (105 ft) to 40 metres (130 ft) (following improvement operations), and imposing a fine on vessels using divers from outside the SCA inside the canal boundaries without permission. The amendments allow vessels loaded with dangerous cargo (such as radioactive or flammable materials) to pass if they conform with the latest amendments provided by international conventions. The SCA has the right to determine the number of tugs required to assist warships traversing the canal, to achieve the highest degree of safety during transit.[82] Operation[edit] As of July 2015, the canal was too narrow for free two-way traffic, so ships pass in convoys and they use bypasses. The by-passes are 78 km (48 mi) out of 193 km (120 mi) (40%). From north to south, they are: Port Said
Port Said
by-pass (entrances) 36.5 km (23 mi), Ballah by-pass & anchorage, 9 km (6 mi), Timsah by-pass 5 km (3 mi), and the Deversoir by-pass (northern end of the Great Bitter Lake) 27.5 km (17 mi). The bypasses were completed in 1980. Typically, it takes a ship 12 to 16 hours to transit the canal. The canal's 24-hour capacity is about 76 standard ships.[83] In August 2014, Egypt
Egypt
chose a consortium that includes the Egyptian army and global engineering firm Dar Al-Handasah
Dar Al-Handasah
to develop an international industrial and logistics hub in the Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
area,[84] and began the construction of a new canal section from km 60 to km 95 combined with expansion and deep digging of the other 37 km of the canal.[85] This will allow navigation in both directions simultaneously in the 72 km long central section of the canal. These extensions were formally opened on 6 August 2015 by President Al-Sisi.[6][86][87] Convoy sailing[edit]

October 2014: the northbound convoy is waiting in the Great Bitter Lake, the southbound convoy pass

The canal in 2015

Since the canal does not cater to unregulated two-way traffic, all ships transit in convoys on regular times, scheduled on a 24-hour basis. Each day, a single northbound convoy starts at 04:00 from Suez. At dulka lane sections, the convoy uses the eastern route.[88][89][90] Synchronised with this convoy's passage is the southbound convoy. It starts at 03:30 from Port Said
Port Said
and so passes the Northbound convoy in the two-lane section[clarification needed]. Canal
Canal
crossings[edit]

Post-deepening, a capesize bulk carrier approaches the Friendship Bridge

From north to south, the crossings are:

The Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
Bridge (30°49′42″N 32°19′03″E / 30.828248°N 32.317572°E / 30.828248; 32.317572 ( Suez
Suez
Canal Bridge)), also called the Egyptian-Japanese Friendship Bridge, a high-level road bridge at El Qantara. In Arabic, al qantara means "arch". Opened in 2001, it has a 70-metre (230 ft) clearance over the canal and was built with assistance from the Japanese government and by Kajima.[91] El Ferdan Railway Bridge
El Ferdan Railway Bridge
(30°39′25″N 32°20′02″E / 30.657°N 32.334°E / 30.657; 32.334 (El Ferdan Railway Bridge)) 20 km (12 mi) north of Ismailia
Ismailia
(30°35′N 32°16′E / 30.583°N 32.267°E / 30.583; 32.267 (Ismailia)) was completed in 2001 and is the longest swing-span bridge in the world, with a span of 340 m (1100 ft). The previous bridge was destroyed in 1967 during the Arab-Israeli conflict. The current bridge is no longer functional due to the expansion of the Suez
Suez
Canal, as the parallel shipping lane completed in 2015 just east of the bridge lacks a structure spanning it. Pipelines taking fresh water under the canal to Sinai, about 57 km (35 mi) north of Suez, at 30°27.3′N 32°21.0′E / 30.4550°N 32.3500°E / 30.4550; 32.3500 (Fresh-water pipelines). Ahmed Hamdi Tunnel
Ahmed Hamdi Tunnel
(30°5′9″N 32°34′32″E / 30.08583°N 32.57556°E / 30.08583; 32.57556 (Ahmed Hamdi Tunnel)) south of the Great Bitter Lake
Great Bitter Lake
(30°20′N 32°23′E / 30.333°N 32.383°E / 30.333; 32.383 (Great Bitter Lake)) was built in 1983. Because of leakage problems, a new water-tight tunnel[92] was built inside the old one from 1992 to 1995. The Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
overhead powerline crossing (29°59′46″N 32°34′59″E / 29.996°N 32.583°E / 29.996; 32.583 ( Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
overhead powerline crossing)) was built in 1999.

A railway on the west bank runs parallel to the canal for its entire length. Six new tunnels for cars and trains are also planned across the canal.[93] Currently the Ahmed Hamdi is the only tunnel connecting Suez
Suez
to the Sinai. Alternative routes[edit] Cape Agulhas[edit] The main alternative is around Cape Agulhas, the southernmost point of Africa, commonly referred as the Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope
route. This was the only sea route before the canal was constructed, and when the canal was closed. It is still the only route for ships that are too large for the canal. In the early 21st century, the Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
has suffered from diminished traffic due to piracy in Somalia, with many shipping companies choosing to take the long route instead.[94][95] Between 2008 and 2010, it is estimated that the canal lost 10% of traffic due to the threat of piracy, and another 10% due to the financial crisis. An oil tanker going from Saudi Arabia to the United States
United States
has 2,700 mi (4,345 km) longer to go when taking the route south of Africa rather than the canal.[96] Before the canal's opening in 1869, goods were sometimes offloaded from ships and carried overland between the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and the Red Sea.[97] Northern Sea Route[edit]

A graphical comparison between the Northern Sea Route
Northern Sea Route
(blue) and an alternative route through Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
(red)

In recent years, the shrinking Arctic
Arctic
sea ice has made the Northern Sea Route feasible for commercial cargo ships between Europe and East Asia during a six-to-eight-week window in the summer months, shortening the voyage by thousands of miles compared to that through the Suez
Suez
Canal. According to polar climate researchers, as the extent of the Arctic
Arctic
summer ice pack recedes the route will become passable without the help of icebreakers for a greater period each summer.[98][99][100] The Bremen-based Beluga Group
Beluga Group
claimed in 2009 to be the first Western company to attempt using the Northern Sea Route
Northern Sea Route
without assistance from icebreakers, cutting 4000 nautical miles off the journey between Ulsan, Korea
Korea
and Rotterdam, the Netherlands.[101] Negev
Negev
desert railroad[edit] Israel
Israel
has declared that it will construct a railroad through the Negev
Negev
desert to compete with the canal, with construction partly financed by China.[102] Environmental impact[edit] Main article: Lessepsian migration The opening of the canal created the first salt-water passage between the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and the Red Sea. Although the Red Sea
Red Sea
is about 1.2 m (4 ft) higher than the eastern Mediterranean,[103] the current between the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and the middle of the canal at the Bitter Lakes
Bitter Lakes
flows north in winter and south in summer. The current south of the Bitter Lakes
Bitter Lakes
is tidal, varying with the tide at Suez.[3] The Bitter Lakes, which were hypersaline natural lakes, blocked the migration of Red Sea
Red Sea
species into the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
for many decades, but as the salinity of the lakes gradually equalised with that of the Red Sea
Red Sea
the barrier to migration was removed, and plants and animals from the Red Sea
Red Sea
have begun to colonise the eastern Mediterranean. The Red Sea
Red Sea
is generally saltier and more nutrient-poor than the Atlantic, so the Red Sea
Red Sea
species have advantages over Atlantic
Atlantic
species in the less salty and nutrient-rich eastern Mediterranean. Accordingly, most Red Sea
Red Sea
species invade the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
biota, and only few do the opposite. This migratory phenomenon is called Lessepsian migration (after Ferdinand de Lesseps) or "Erythrean invasion". Also impacting the eastern Mediterranean, starting in 1968, was the operation of Aswan High Dam
Aswan High Dam
across the Nile. While providing for increased human development, the project reduced the inflow of freshwater and ended all natural nutrient-rich silt entering the eastern Mediterranean
Mediterranean
at the Nile
Nile
Delta. This provided less natural dilution of Mediterranean salinity and ended the higher levels of natural turbidity, additionally making conditions more like those in the Red Sea.[citation needed] Invasive species originated from the Red Sea
Red Sea
and introduced into the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
by the canal have become a major component of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
ecosystem and have serious impacts on the ecology, endangering many local and endemic species. About 300 species from the Red Sea
Red Sea
have been identified in the Mediterranean, and there are probably others yet unidentified. The Egyptian government's intent to enlarge the canal has raised concerns from marine biologists, fearing that this will worsen the invasion of Red Sea
Red Sea
species.[104] Construction of the canal was preceded by cutting a small fresh-water canal called Sweet Water Canal
Canal
from the Nile
Nile
delta along Wadi Tumilat to the future canal, with a southern branch to Suez
Suez
and a northern branch to Port Said. Completed in 1863, these brought fresh water to a previously arid area, initially for canal construction, and subsequently facilitating growth of agriculture and settlements along the canal.[105] See also[edit]

Egypt
Egypt
portal Transport portal

Kanal İstanbul New Imperialism New Suez
Suez
Canal Panama Canal

Notes[edit]

^ "Yearly Number & Net Tone by Ship Type, Direction & Ship Status". Suez
Suez
Canal. Archived from the original on 2010-02-15. Retrieved Apr 23, 2014.  ^ Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
Authority ^ a b The Red Sea
Red Sea
Pilot. Imray Laurie Norie & Wilson. 1995. p. 266.  ^ "Official Web Site of the Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
Authority".  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ Constantinople Convention of the Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
of 2 March 1888 still in force and specifically maintained in Nasser's Nationalization Act. ^ a b "New Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
project proposed by Egypt
Egypt
to boost trade". Cairo News.Net. Retrieved 7 August 2014.  ^ Tadros, Sherine (6 August 2015). " Egypt
Egypt
Opens New £6bn Suez
Suez
Canal". Sky News. Retrieved 6 August 2015.  ^ " Egypt
Egypt
opens East Port Said
Port Said
side channel for navigation - Xinhua". News.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved March 12, 2016.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). " Suez
Suez
Canal". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 22–25.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Rappoport, S. (Doctor of Philosophy, Basel). History of Egypt (undated, early 20th century), Volume 12, Part B, Chapter V: "The Waterways of Egypt", pages 248–257. London: The Grolier Society. ^ a b c Hassan, F. A. & Tassie, G. J. Site location and history (2003). Kafr Hassan Dawood On-Line, Egyptian Cultural Heritage Organization. Retrieved 8 August 2008. ^ a b Please refer to Sesostris#Modern research. ^ J. H. Breasted
J. H. Breasted
attributes the ancient canal's early construction to Senusret III, up through the first cataract. Please refer to J. H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Part One, Chicago 1906, §§642–648 ^ Fisher, William B.; Smith, Charles Gordon. " Suez
Suez
Canal". www.britannica.com. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 24 May 2017.  ^ a b The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, s.v. " Suez
Suez
Canal" Archived 14 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 14 May 2008. ^ a b c d e Naville, Édouard. "Map of the Wadi Tumilat" (plate image), in The Store-City of Pithom
Pithom
and the Route of the Exodus (1885). London: Trubner and Company. ^ "Meteorology (1.15)". Ebooks.adelaide.edu.au. 25 August 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2011.  ^ The Elder Pliny and John Healey Natural History (6.33.165) Penguin Classics; Reprint edition (5 February 2004) ISBN 978-0-14-044413-1 p. 70 [1] ^ a b Carte hydrographique de l'Basse Egypte et d'une partie de l'Isthme de Suez
Suez
(1855, 1882). Volume 87, page 803. Paris. See [2]. ^ a b Shea, William H. "A Date for the Recently Discovered Eastern Canal
Canal
of Egypt", in Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research',' No. 226 (April 1977), pp. 31–38. ^ Sanford (1938), p. 72; Garrison (1999), p. 36. ^ Hess, Richard S. Rev. of Israel
Israel
in Egypt: The Evidence for the Authenticity of the Exodus Tradition, by James K. Hoffmeier. The Denver Journal 1 (1 January 1998). Retrieved 14 May 2008. ^ Hassan, Fekri A. Kafr Hassan Dawood On-line, 17 August 2003. Retrieved 14 May 2008. ^ (in Spanish) Martínez Babon, Javier. "Consideraciones sobre la Marinay la Guerra durante el Egipto Faraónico" Archived 1 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 14 May 2008. ^ Descriptions de l'Égypte, Volume 11 (État Moderne), containing Mémoire sur la communication de la mer des Indes à la Méditerranée par la mer Rouge et l'Isthme de Sueys, par M. J.M. Le Père, ingénieur en chef, inspecteur divisionnaire au corps impérial des ponts et chaussées, membre de l'Institut d'Égypte, pp. 21–186 ^ Their reports were published in Description de l'Égypte ^ Montet, Pierre. Everyday Life in the Days of Ramesses The Great (1981), page 184. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ^ Silver, Morris. Ancient Economies II (6 April 1998), "5c. Evidence for Earlier Canals." ANCIENT ECONOMIES II. Retrieved 8 August 2008. Economics Department, City College of New York. ^ Herodotus
Herodotus
ii.158. ^ "The figure ‘120,000’ is doubtless exaggerated. Mehemet Ali lost only 10,000 in making the Mahmûdieh Canal
Canal
(from the Nile
Nile
to Alexandria)." remarked W. W. How and J. Wells, A Commentary on Herodotus. ^ According to Herodotus, work on the project was "stayed by a prophetic utterance that he [Necho] was toiling beforehand for the barbarian. The Egyptians call all men of other languages barbarians." (Herodotus, eo. loc..) ^ " Cambyses II
Cambyses II
- king of Persia".  ^ a b Apparently, Ptolemy considered the Great Bitter Lake
Great Bitter Lake
as a northern extension of the Red Sea, whereas Darius had not, because Arsinoe is located north of Shaluf. (See Naville, "Map of the Wadi Tumilat", referenced above.) ^ Please refer to Darius the Great's Suez
Suez
Inscriptions. ^ Jona Lendering. "Darius' Suez
Suez
Inscriptions". Livius.org. Retrieved 24 August 2011.  ^ " Pithom
Pithom
Stele
Stele
- translation of inscription". www.attalus.org.  ^ R. E. Gmirkin, "Berossus and Genesis, Manetho and Exodus: Hellenistic Histories and the Date of the Pentateuch", p. 236 ^ Petermann, A. Karte Der Bai Von Súes (1856). Nach der Engl. Aufnahme v. Comm. Mansell. ^ Tuchman, Barbara Bible and Sword: How the British came to Palestine MacMillan, London (1987) ISBN 0-333-33414-0 ^ Starthern, P (2013) "The Venetians" p. 175 ^ a b Hall, Linda. The Search for the Ancient Suez
Suez
Canal. Kansas City, Missouri. Archived from the original on 2009-02-14.  ^ Please refer to Description de l'Égypte. ^ Descriptions de l'Égypte, Volume 11 (État Moderne), containing Mémoire sur la communication de la mer des Indes à la Méditerranée par la mer Rouge et l'Isthme de Sueys, par M. J.M. Le Père, ingénieur en chef, inspecteur divisionnaire au corps impérial des ponts et chaussées, membre de l'Institut d'Égypte, pp. 21–186 ^ Wilson, The Suez
Suez
Canal ^ "[untitled]". The Hobart Town Gazette. 26 February 1820. p. 2, col. 1. Retrieved 4 May 2017.  ^ Percement de l'isthme de Suez. Rapport et Projet de la Commission Internationale. Documents Publiés par M. Ferdinand de Lesseps. Troisième série. Paris aux bureaux de l'Isthme de Suez, Journal de l'Union des deux Mers, et chez Henri Plon, Éditeur, 1856. On Google Books (french) ^ Arnold. T. Wilson, The Suez
Suez
Canal ^ "Le canal de Suez
Suez
– ARTE". Arte.tv. 13 August 2006. Archived from the original on 19 August 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011.  ^ Oster (2006) ^ There is differing information on the exact amounts ^ (reported by German historian Uwe A. Oster) Archived 19 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "The Suez
Suez
Canal". Russojapanesewar.com. Archived from the original on 30 August 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011.  ^ Haddad, Emily A. (Spring 2005). "Digging to India: Modernity, Imperialism, and the Suez
Suez
Canal". Victorian Studies. Indiana University Press. 47 (3): 363. JSTOR 3830220. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ "The People: Captain Nares". HMS Challenger. University of California, San Diego. Archived from the original on 9 October 2015. Retrieved 30 May 2013.  ^ Glasgow Herald, 17th November 1903 ^ History of the Anchor Line 1852-1911. 1911. Glasgow, UK: John Horn, for Anchor Line. ^ Protocol of the Commission (in french) ^ The economic development of the American nation, p. 356, Reginald Charles McGrane, Ginn & Co., Boston 1950. ^ Stephen J. Lee, Gladstone and Disraeli. Routledge, 107 ^ First World War
First World War
– Willmott, H.P. Dorling Kindersley, 2003, Page 87 ^ "The Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
formally opened to ships". stratscope.com. StratScope. Retrieved 19 May 2017.  ^ "1956: Egypt
Egypt
seizes Suez
Suez
Canal". 26 July 1956 – via news.bbc.co.uk.  ^ The Other Side of Suez
Suez
(documentary) – 2003 ^ Elie Podeh; Onn Winckler (1 December 2004). Rethinking Nasserism: Revolution and Historical Memory in Modern Egypt. University Press of Florida. pp. 105, 106. ISBN 978-0-8130-3137-8. the prominent historian and commentator Abd al-Azim Ramadan, In a series of articles published in AlWafd, subsequently compiled in a hook published in 2000, Ramadan criticized the Nasser cult, .... The events leading up to the nationalization of the Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
Company, as other events during Nasser’s rule, Ramadan wrote, showed Nasser to be far from a rational, responsible leader. ... His decision to nationalize the Suez Canal
Canal
was his alone, made without political or military consultation. ... The source of all this evil. Ramadan noted, was Nasser’s inclination to solitary decision making... the revolutionary regime led by the same individual—Nasser— repeated its mistakes when it decided to expel the international peacekeeping force from the Sinai Peninsula and close the Straits of Tiran
Straits of Tiran
in 1967. Both decisions led to a state of war with Israel, despite the lack of military preparedness  ^ "OPERATION RHEOSTAT ONE - ROYAL NAVY MINESWEEPERS ARRIVE AT PORT SAID TO HELP CLEAR THE SUEZ CANAL [Allocated Title]". www.iwm.org.uk.  ^ "OPERATION RHEOSTAT ONE - FLEET CLEARANCE DIVING TEAM AT WORK ON THE WRECK OF THE MECCA [Allocated Title]". www.iwm.org.uk.  ^ "OPERATION RHEOSTAT TWO - THE SUEZ CANAL IS REOPENED [Allocated Title]". www.iwm.org.uk.  ^ http://www.history.navy.mil/nan/backissues/1970s/1974/sep74.pdf ^ "The Stars and Stripes". 1975-06-07. Archived from the original on 22 June 2015.  ^ (Multinational Force and Observers) ^ Lakshmi, Aiswarya (17 July 2015). " Egypt
Egypt
Completes New Waterway
Waterway
in Suez
Suez
Canal". MarineLink. Retrieved 6 August 2015.  ^ " Egypt
Egypt
completes dredging for new waterway in Suez
Suez
Canal". Al-Ahram. 16 July 2015. Retrieved 6 August 2015.  ^ Knecht, Eric (6 August 2015). "Egypt's Sisi launches nationalist New Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
celebration". Reuters. Retrieved 6 August 2015.  ^ " Canal
Canal
Characteristics". Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
Authority. 2010. Retrieved 2 April 2010.  ^ "Characteristics of the canal". Archived from the original on 9 March 2009.  ^ " Navigation
Navigation
Circular "The New Suez
Suez
Canal" No 5/2015". Suez
Suez
Canal Authority. Retrieved 2015-08-15.  ^ ""Attached Charts" to Navigation
Navigation
Circular "The New Suez
Suez
Canal" No 5/2015" (PDF). Suez
Suez
Canal
Canal
Authority. Retrieved 2015-08-15.  ^ "New Suez
Suez
Canal". Government of Egypt
Egypt
( Suez
Suez
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Canal
Authority). Retrieved 2015-08-12.  ^ a b Suez Canal Authority
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http://www.suezcanal.gov.eg ^ " Canal
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Impacts to the Suez
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Canal". Journal of Coastal Research. 283: 745–759. doi:10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-12A-00002.1. ISSN 0749-0208.  ^ SC News ^ "Traffic system". Egyptian Maritime Data Bank (EMDB). Retrieved 8 February 2013.  ^ Saleh, Stephen Kalin and Yasmine. " Egypt
Egypt
awards Suez
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hub project to consortium that includes army: sources".  ^ http://www.suezcanal.gov.eg/sc.aspx?show=69 ^ Kingsley, Patrick (5 August 2014). " Egypt
Egypt
to build new Suez
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canal" – via www.theguardian.com.  ^ " Egypt
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launches Suez
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References[edit]

Britannica (2007) " Suez
Suez
Canal", in: The new Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th ed., 28, Chicago, Ill. ; London : Encyclopædia Britannica, ISBN 1-59339-292-3 Galil, B.S. and Zenetos, A. (2002). "A sea change: exotics in the eastern Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea", in: Leppäkoski, E., Gollasch, S. and Olenin, S. (eds), Invasive aquatic species of Europe : distribution, impacts, and management, Dordrecht ; Boston : Kluwer Academic, ISBN 1-4020-0837-6, p. 325–336 Garrison, Ervan G. (1999) A history of engineering and technology : artful methods, 2nd ed., Boca Raton, Fla. ; London : CRC Press, ISBN 0-8493-9810-X Karabell, Zachary (2003) Parting the Desert: The Creation of the Suez Canal, Knopf, ISBN 978-0-375-40883-0 Oster, Uwe (2006) Le fabuleux destin des inventions : le canal de Suez, TV documentary produced by ZDF
ZDF
and directed by Axel Engstfeld (Germany) Rathbone, William (1882). Great Britain and the Suez
Suez
Canal. London: Chapman and Hall, Limited.  Sanford, Eva Matthews (1938) The Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world in ancient times, Ronald series in history, New York : The Ronald Press Company, 618 p. Pudney, John. Suez; De Lesseps' Canal. New York: Praeger, 1969. Print. Thomas, Hugh. Suez. [1st U.S ed.]. New York: Harper & Row, 1967. Print. Arrow, Sir Frederick. "A fortnight in Egypt
Egypt
at the opening of the Suez Canal", London : Smith and Ebbs, 1869.

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 139560417 ISNI: 0000 0004 0644 1253 GND: 4058518-9 SELIBR: 163296 BNF: cb119333319 (data) BIBSYS: 90591893 BNE: XX451056

Coordinates: 30°42′18″N 32°20′39″E / 30.70500°N 32.34417°E /

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