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The Sudetes
Sudetes
/suːˈdiːtiːz/ are a mountain range in Central Europe. They are also known as the Sudeten after their German name and Sudety in Czech and Polish. The range stretches from eastern Germany
Germany
(West Lusatian Hill Country and Uplands) by Tripoint
Tripoint
to south-western Poland
Poland
and to northern Czech Republic. The highest peak of the range is Sněžka
Sněžka
(Polish: Śnieżka) in the Krkonoše
Krkonoše
(Polish: Karkonosze) mountains on the Czech Republic– Poland
Poland
border, which is 1,603 metres (5,259 ft) in elevation. The current geomorphological unit in the Czech part of the mountain range is Krkonošsko-jesenická subprovincie ("Krkonoše-Jeseníky"). It is separated from the Carpathian Mountains by the Moravian Gate. The highest parts of the Sudetes
Sudetes
are protected by national parks;[1] Karkonosze and Stołowe in Poland
Poland
and Krkonoše in the Czech Republic. The Krkonoše
Krkonoše
Mountains (also called the Giant Mountains) have experienced growing tourism for winter sports during the past ten years. Their skiing resorts are becoming a budget alternative to the Alps.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Subdivisions 3 Climate 4 Vegetation 5 Geology

5.1 Bedrock 5.2 Volcanism and thermal waters 5.3 Uplift and landforms

6 History

6.1 Sudetes
Sudetes
and "Sudetenland"

7 Economy and tourism

7.1 Notable towns

8 Image gallery 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links

Etymology[edit] The name Sudetes
Sudetes
is derived from Sudeti montes, a Latinization of the name Soudeta ore used in the Geographia by the Greco-Roman writer Ptolemy
Ptolemy
(Book 2, Chapter 10) c. AD 150 for a range of mountains in Germania
Germania
in the general region of the modern Czech republic. There is no consensus about which mountains he meant, and he could for example have intended the Ore Mountains, joining the modern Sudetes
Sudetes
to their west, or even (according to Schütte) the Bohemian Forest (although this is normally considered to be equivalent to Ptolemy's Gabreta forest.[2] The modern Sudetes
Sudetes
are probably Ptolemy's Askiburgion mountains.[3] Ptolemy
Ptolemy
wrote "Σούδητα" in Greek, which is a neuter plural. Latin
Latin
mons, however, is a masculine, hence Sudeti. The Latin
Latin
version, and the modern geographical identification, is likely to be a scholastic innovation, as it is not attested in classical Latin literature. The meaning of the name is not known. In one hypothetical derivation, it means Mountains of Wild Boars, relying on Indo-European *su-, "pig". A better etymology perhaps is from Latin
Latin
sudis, plural sudes, "spines", which can be used of spiny fish or spiny terrain. Subdivisions[edit] The Sudetes
Sudetes
are usually divided into:

Eastern Sudetes
Eastern Sudetes
(Czech: Jeseníky) in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and Poland

Oderské vrchy
Oderské vrchy
(Nízký Jeseník) Hrubý Jeseník
Hrubý Jeseník
(High Ash) Mountains with Mt. Praděd, 1,491 m (4,892 ft) Opawskie Mountains Golden Mountains Śnieżnik Mountains Hanušovická vrchovina

Central Sudetes, in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and Poland

Orlické Mountains with Mt. Velká Deštná, 1,115 m (3,658 ft) Bystrzyckie Mountains Bardzkie Mountains Table Mountains Owl Mountains Krucze Mountains Stone Mountains Waldenburg Mountains Ślęża
Ślęża
massif

Western Sudetes, in Germany, the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and Poland

Ještěd-Kozákov Ridge Jizera Mountains Kaczawskie Mountains Krkonoše
Krkonoše
(Giant Mountains) with Mt. Sněžka, 1,603 m (5,259 ft) Lusatian Mountains Rudawy Janowickie Lusatian Highlands

Sudeten Foreland

High Sudetes
Sudetes
(Polish: Wysokie Sudety, Czech: Vysoké Sudety, German: Hohe Sudeten) is together name for the Krkonoše, Hrubý Jeseník
Hrubý Jeseník
and Śnieżnik mountain ranges. The Sudetes
Sudetes
also comprise larger basins like the Jelenia Góra
Jelenia Góra
and the Kłodzko
Kłodzko
Valley. Climate[edit] The highest mountains, those located along the Czech-Polish border have annual precipitations around 1500 mm.[4] The Stołowe Mountains that reach 919 m have precipitations ranging from 750 mm at lower locations to 920 mm in the upper parts with July being the rainiest month.[5] Snow cover at the Stołowe Mountains
Stołowe Mountains
typically last 70 to 95 days depending on altitude.[5] Vegetation[edit]

A view from Zygmuntówka refuge, Góry Sowie

Settlement, logging and clearance has left forest pockets in the foothills with dense and continuous forest being found in the upper parts of the mountains.[1] Due to logging in the last centuries little remains of the broad-leaf trees like beech, sycamore, ash and littleleaf linden that were once common in the Sudetes. Instead Norway spruce was planted in their place in the early 19th century, in some places amounting to monocultures.[1] To provide more space for spruce plantations various peatlands were drained in the 19th and 20th century.[5] Some spruce plantations have suffered severe damage as the seeds used came from lowland specimens that were not adapted to mountain conditions.[1] Silver fir grow naturally in the Sudetes
Sudetes
being more widespread in past times, before clearance since the Late Middle Ages and subsequent industrial pollution reduced the stands.[6] The higher mountains of the Sudetes
Sudetes
lie above the timber line which is made up of Norway spruce.[4][7] Spruces in wind-exposed areas display features such as flag tree disposition of branches, tilted stems and elongated stem cross sections.[8] Forest-free areas above the timber line have increased historically by deforestation[9] yet lowering of the timber line by human activity is minimal.[7] Areas above the timber line appear discontinuously as "islands" in the Sudetes.[4] At Krkonoše
Krkonoše
the timer line lies at c. 1230 m a.s.l. while to the southeast in the Hrubý Jeseník
Hrubý Jeseník
mountains it lie at c. 1310 m a.s.l.[4] Part of the Hrubý Jeseník
Hrubý Jeseník
mountains have been above the timber line for no less than 5000 years.[4] Many arctic-alpine and alpine vascular plants have a disjunct distribution being notably absent from the central Sudetes
Sudetes
despite suitable habitats. Possibly this is the result a warm period during the Holocene
Holocene
(last 10,000 years) which wiped out cold-adapted vascular plants in the medium-sized mountains of the cetral Sudetes
Sudetes
where there was no higher ground that could serve as refugia.[9][A] Besides altitude the distribution of some alpine plants is influenced by soil. This is the case of Aster alpinus
Aster alpinus
that grows preferentially on calcareous ground.[9] Other alpine plants such as Cardamine amara, Epilobium anagallidifolium, Luzula sudetica and Solidago virgaurea occur beyond their altitudinal zonation in very humid areas.[9] Peatlands are common in the mountains occurring on high plateaus or in valley bottoms. Fens occur at slopes.[5] Geology[edit] Bedrock[edit] The igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Sudetes
Sudetes
originated during the Variscan orogeny
Variscan orogeny
and its aftermath.[10] The Sudetes
Sudetes
are the northeasternmost accessible part of Variscan orogen as in the North European Plain the orogen is buried beneath sediments.[11] Plate tectonic movements during the Variscan orogeny
Variscan orogeny
assembled together four major and two to three lesser tectonostratigraphic terranes.[12][B] The assemblage of the terranes ought to have involved the closure of at least two ocean basins containing oceanic crust and marine sediments.[13] This is reflected in the ophiolites, MORB-basalts, blueschists and eclogites that occur in-between terranes.[12] Various terranes of the Sudetes
Sudetes
are likely extensions of the Armorican terrane while other terranes may be the fringes of the ancient Baltica continent.[11] Once the main phase of deformation of the orogeny was over sedimentary basins that formed in-between metamorphic rock massifs were filled by sedimentary rock in the Devonian
Devonian
and Carboniferous
Carboniferous
periods.[13] Also during and after sedimentation large granitic plutons intruded the crust. Viewed in a map today these plutons make up about 15% the Sudetes.[10][13] Granites are of S-type.[11] The granites and grantic-gneisses of Izera
Izera
in the west Sudetes
Sudetes
are disassociated from orogeny and thought to have formed during rifting along a passive continental margin.[14][C] The Karkonosze Granite, also in the west Sudetes, have been dated to have formed c. 318 million years ago at the beginning of the Variscan orogeny.[15] The Karkonosze Granite is intruded by somewhat younger lamprophyre dykes.[15] A NW-SE to WNW-ESE oriented strike-slip fault —the Intra-Sudetic fault— runs through the length of the Sudetes.[13] The Intra-Sudetic fault is parallel with the Upper Elbe
Elbe
fault and Middle Odra fault.[11] Volcanism and thermal waters[edit] There are remnants of lava flows and volcanic plugs in the Sudetes.[16] The volcanic rocks making up these outcrops are of mafic chemistry and include basanite and represent episodes of volcanism in the Oligocene
Oligocene
and Miocene
Miocene
periods[D] that affected not only the Sudetes
Sudetes
but also parts of the Sudetic foreland being part of a SW-NE oriented Bohemo-Silesian Belt of volcanic rocks.[16] Mantle xenoliths have been recovered from the lavas of a volcano at Ještěd-Kozákov Ridge in the Czech western Sudetes.[17] These pyroxenite xenoliths arrived to surface from approximate depths of 35, 70 and 73 km and indicate a complex history for the mantle beneath the Sudetes.[17] There are thermal springs in the Sudetes
Sudetes
with measured temperatures of 29 to 44 °C. Drilling has revealed the existence of waters at 87 °C at depths of 2000 m. These modern waters are believed to be associated to the Late Cenozoic
Cenozoic
volcanism in Central Europe.[18] Uplift and landforms[edit]

Escarpment
Escarpment
at Szczeliniec Wielki, Stołowe Mountains.

The Sudetes
Sudetes
forms the NE border of the Bohemian Massif.[11] In detail the Sudetes
Sudetes
is made up of a series of massifs that are rectangular and rhomboid in plan view.[19] These mountains corresponds to horsts and domes separated by basins, including grabens.[20] The mountains took their present form after the Late Mesozoic retreat of the seas from the area which left the Sudetes
Sudetes
subject to denudation for at least 65 million years.[19] This meant that during the Late Cretaceous and Early Cenozoic
Cenozoic
8 to 4 km of rock was eroded from the top of what is now the Sudetes.[21] Concurrently with the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
denudation the climate cooled due to the northward drift of Europe. The collision between Africa and Europe has resulted in the deformation and uplift of the Sudetes.[19] As such the uplift is related to the contemporary rise of the Alps
Alps
and Carpathians.[19][22][E] Uplift was accomplished by the creation or reactivation of numerous faults leading to a reshaping of the relief by renewed erosion.[10] Various "hanging valleys" attest to this uplift.[22]

Tor landform made up of granite in the Sudetes.

Weathering
Weathering
during the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
led to the formation of an etchplain developed in parts of Sudetes. While this etchplain has been eroded various landforms and weathering mantles have been suggested to attest its former existence.[10] At present the mountain range shows a remarkable diversity of landforms.[19] Some of the landforms present are escarpments, inselbergs, bornhardts, granitic domes, tors, flared slopes and weathering pits.[10] Various escarpments have originated from faults and may reach hights of up to 500 m.[22] During the Quaternary glaciations parts of the Sudetes
Sudetes
remained free from glacier ice developing permafrost soils and periglacial landforms such as rock glaciers, nivation hollows, patterned ground, blockfields, solifluction landforms, blockstreams, tors and cryoplanation terraces.[7] The occurrence or not of these periglacial landforms depends on altitude, the steepness and direction of slopes and the underlying rock type.[7] Geological research has been hampered by the multinational geography of the Sudetes
Sudetes
with and the limitation of studies to state boundaries.[22][F] History[edit]

Karpacz

Vang stave church

The area around the Sudetes
Sudetes
had by the 12th century been relatively densely settled[1] with agriculture and settlements expanding further in the High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
from the 13th century onward.[5] As this trend went on thinning of forest and deforestation had turned clearly unsustainable by the 14th century.[6] In the 15th and 16th centuries agriculture had reached the inner part of Stołowe Mountains
Stołowe Mountains
in the Central Sudetes.[1] Destruction and degradation of the Sudetes
Sudetes
forest peaked in the 16th and 17th centuries[6] with demand of firewood coming from glasshouses that operated through the area in the early modern period.[1] Some limited form of forest management begun in the 18th century[6] while in the industrial age demand for firewood was sustained by metallurgic industries in the settlements and cities around the mountains.[1] In the 19th century the Central Sudetes
Central Sudetes
had an economic boom with sandstone quarrying and a flourishing tourism industry centered on the natural scenery. Despite of this there was at least since the 1880s a trend of depopulation of villages and hamlets which continued into the 20th century.[23] Since World War II
World War II
various areas that were cleared of forest have been re-naturalized.[23] Industrial activity across Europe has caused considerable damage to the forests as acid rain and heavy metals has arrived with westerly and southwesterly winds.[1] Silver firs have proven particularly vulnerable to industrial soil contamination.[6] Sudetes
Sudetes
and "Sudetenland"[edit]

Project Riese, Owl Mountains

After World War I
World War I
the name Sudetenland
Sudetenland
came into use to describe areas of the First Czechoslovak Republic
First Czechoslovak Republic
with large ethnic German populations. In 1918 the short-lived rump state of German-Austria proclaimed a Province of the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
in northern Moravia
Moravia
and Austrian Silesia
Austrian Silesia
around the city of Opava
Opava
(Troppau). The term was used in a wider sense when on 1 October 1933 Konrad Henlein founded the Sudeten German Party
Sudeten German Party
and in Nazi German parlance Sudetendeutsche (Sudeten Germans) referred to all indigenous ethnic Germans in Czechoslovakia. They were heavily clustered in the entire mountainous periphery of Czechoslovakia—not only in the former Moravian Provinz Sudetenland
Sudetenland
but also along the northwestern Bohemian borderlands with German Lower Silesia, Saxony
Saxony
and Bavaria, in an area formerly called German Bohemia. In total the German minority population of pre- World War II
World War II
Czechoslovakia numbered around 20% of the total national population. Sparking a "Sudeten Crisis", Hitler got his future enemies to concede the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
with most of the Czechoslovak border fortifications
Czechoslovak border fortifications
in the 1938 Munich Agreement, leaving the remainder of Czechoslovakia shorn of its natural borders and buffer zone, finally occupied by Germany
Germany
in March 1939. After being annexed by Nazi Germany, much of the region was redesignated as the Reichsgau Sudetenland. After World War II, most of the German population within the Polish and Czechoslovak Sudetes
Sudetes
was forcibly expelled on the basis of the Potsdam Agreement
Potsdam Agreement
and the Beneš decrees. A considerable proportion of the Czechoslovak populace thereafter strongly objected to the use of the term Sudety. In the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
the designation Krkonošsko-jesenická subprovincie is used officially and in maps etc. usually only the discrete Czech names for the individual mountain ranges (e.g. Krkonoše) appear, as under Subdivisions above. Economy and tourism[edit]

Winter
Winter
in the Karkonosze. Polish refuge - Samotnia (1195 m a.s.l.)

Part of the economy of the Sudetes
Sudetes
is dedicated to tourism. Coal mining towns like Wałbrzych
Wałbrzych
have re-oriented their economies towards tourism since the decline of mining in the 1980s.[24] As of 2000 scholar Krzysztof R. Mazurski judged that the Sudetes, much like the Poland's Baltic coast and the Carpathians, were unlikely to attract much foreign tourism.[24] Sandstone
Sandstone
has been quarried in Sudetes during the 19th and 20th centuries.[23] Likewise volcanic rock has also been quarried.[16] Sandstone
Sandstone
labyrinths have been a notable tourist attraction since the 19th century with considerable investments being done in projecting trails some of which involve rock engineering.[23] In the Sudetes
Sudetes
there are many spa towns with sanatoria. In many places the developed tourist base - hotels, guest houses, ski infrastructure. The nearest international airport is in Wrocław
Wrocław
- Copernicus Airport Wrocław. Notable towns[edit] Notable towns in this area include:

Jelenia Góra
Jelenia Góra
(Poland) Karpacz
Karpacz
(Poland) Szklarska Poręba
Szklarska Poręba
(Poland) Świeradów-Zdrój
Świeradów-Zdrój
(Poland) Kłodzko
Kłodzko
(Poland) Polanica-Zdrój
Polanica-Zdrój
(Poland) Duszniki-Zdrój
Duszniki-Zdrój
with Zieleniec (Poland) Kudowa-Zdrój
Kudowa-Zdrój
(Poland) Lądek-Zdrój
Lądek-Zdrój
(Poland) Sokołowsko
Sokołowsko
(Poland) Harrachov
Harrachov
(Czech Republic) Špindlerův Mlýn
Špindlerův Mlýn
(Czech Republic) Žacléř
Žacléř
(Czech Republic) Vrchlabí
Vrchlabí
(Czech Republic) Zittau
Zittau
(Germany)

Image gallery[edit]

Śnieżne Kotły

Śnieżne Kotły

Pielgrzymy

"Hell" on Szczeliniec Wielki, Table Mountains

Góry Sokole

Góry Sokole

Rudawy Janowickie

Starościńskie Skały in Rudawy Janowickie

Colourful lakelets

Stołowe Mountains

Stołowe Mountains

Stołowe Mountains

Stołowe Mountains

Stołowe Mountains

Małe Organy Myśliborskie

Ostrzyca

Tripoint
Tripoint
of Germany, Czech Republic, and Poland

See also[edit]

Mount Ślęża Main Sudetes
Sudetes
Trail Książ Wambierzyce Kłodzko
Kłodzko
Fortress Srebrna Góra Chojnik Niesytno Castle Grüssau Abbey Izera
Izera
railway Lower Silesian Voivodeship Tourism in Poland Crown of Polish Mountains

Notes[edit]

^ Not to be confused with a glacial refugium. ^ Geologist Tom McCann lists the main Variscan terranes that make up much of the Sudetes
Sudetes
as the Moldanubian, Góry-Sowie-Klodzko, Teplá Barriandian, Lusatia- Izera
Izera
terrane, Brunovistulian terrane. The first three lie in the central Sudetes
Sudetes
while the last two in the west and central Sudetes.[13] ^ Contrary to this case S-type granites are typically thought to come into existence concurrently or slightly after orogeny.[14] ^ Some volcanic rocks may be as young as of Early Pliocene
Pliocene
age.[16] ^ Fission track dating yields various possibilities about the Late Cenozoic
Cenozoic
uplift of the Sudetes. Possibly the last uplift pulse begun 7 to 5 million years ago.[21] ^ Alfred Jahn's geomorphological studies of the Polish Sudetes
Sudetes
in 1953 and 1980 exemplify this.[22]

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i Mazurski, Krzysztof R. (1986). "The destruction of forests in the polish Sudetes
Sudetes
Mountains by industrial emissions". Forest Ecology and Management. 17: 303–315. doi:10.1016/0378-1127(86)90158-1.  ^ Schütte, Ptolemy's maps of northern Europe, a reconstruction of the prototype, p. 141  ^ Schütte, Ptolemy's maps of northern Europe, a reconstruction of the prototype, p. 56  ^ a b c d e Treml, Václav; Jankovská, Vlasta; Libor, Petr (2008). " Holocene
Holocene
dynamics of the alpine timberline in the High Sudetes". Biologia. 63 (1): 73–80. doi:10.2478/s11756-008-0021-3.  ^ a b c d e Glina, Bartłomiej; Malkiewicz, Małgorzata; Mendyk, Łukasz; Bogacz, Adam; Woźniczka, Przemysław (2016). "Human‐affected disturbances in vegetation cover and peatland development in the late Holocene
Holocene
recorded in shallow mountain peatlands (Central Sudetes, SW Poland)". Boreas. 46: 294–307. doi:10.1111/bor.12203.  ^ a b c d e Barzdajn, Wladyslaw (2004). "Rehabilitation of silver fir ( Abies alba
Abies alba
Mill) populations in the Sudetes". Report of the second (20–22 September 2001, Valsaín, Spain) and third (17–19 October 2002, Kostrzyca, Poland) meetings (Report). pp. 45–51.  ^ a b c d Křížek, M. (2007). " Periglacial
Periglacial
landforms above the alpine timberline in the High Sudetes" (PDF). In Goudie, A.S.; Kalvoda, J. Geomorphological variations. Praha: ProGrafiS Publ. pp. 313–338.  ^ Wistuba, Małgorzata; Papciak, Tomasz; Malik, Ireneusz; Barnaś, Agnieszka; Polowy, Marta; Pilorz, Wojciech (2014). "Wzrost dekoncentryczny świerka pospolitego jako efekt oddziaływania dominującego kierunku wiatru (przykład z Hrubégo Jeseníka, Sudety Wschodnie)" [Eccentric growth of Norway spruce
Norway spruce
trees as a result of prevailing winds impact (example from Hrubý Jeseník, Eastern Sudetes)]. Studia i Materiały CEPL w Rogowie (in Polish). 40 (3): 63–73.  ^ a b c d Kwiatkowski, Paweł; Krahulec, František (2016). "Disjunct Distribution Patterns in Vascular Flora of the Sudetes". Ann. Bot. Fennici. 53: 91–102. doi:10.5735/085.053.0217.  ^ a b c d e Migoń, Piotr (1996). "Evolution of granite landscapes in the Sudetes
Sudetes
(Central Europe): some problems of interpretation". Proceedings of the Geologists' Association. 107: 25–37. doi:10.1016/s0016-7878(96)80065-4.  ^ a b c d e Mazur, Stanisław; Alexandrowski, Paweł; Kryza, Ryszard; Oberc-Dziedzic, Teresa (2006). "The Variscan Orogen in Poland". Geological Quarterly. 50 (1): 89–118.  ^ a b Mazur, S.; Aleksandrowski, P. (2002). "Collage tectonics in the northeasternmost part of the Variscan Belt: the Sudetes, Bohemian Massif". Geological Society, London, Special
Special
Publications. 201: 237–277.  ^ a b c d e McCann, Tom (2008). "Sudetes". In McCann, Tom. The Geology of Central Europe. Volume 1: Pre-Cambrian and Palaeozoic. London: The Geological Society. p. 496. ISBN 978-1-86239-245-8.  ^ a b Oberc-Dziedzic, T.; Pin, C.; Kryza, R. (2005). "Early Palaeozoic crustal melting in an extensional setting: petrological and Sm–Nd evidence from the Izera
Izera
granite-gneisses, Polish Sudetes". International Journal of Earth Sciences. 94 (3): 354–368. doi:10.1007/s00531-005-0507-y.  ^ a b Awdankiewicz, Marek; Awdankiewicz, Honorata; Kryza, Ryszard; Rodinov, Nickolay (2009). "SHRIMP zircon study of a micromonzodiorite dyke in the Karkonosze Granite, Sudetes
Sudetes
(SW Poland): age constraints for late Variscan magmatism in Central Europe". Geological Magazine. 147 (1): 77–85. doi:10.1017/S001675680999015X.  ^ a b c d Birkenmajer, Krzysztof; Pécskay, Zóltan; Grabowski, Jacek; Lorenc, Marek W.; Zagożdżon, Paweł P. (2002). "Radiometric dating of the Tertiary volcanics in Lower Silesia, Poland. II. K-Ar and palaeomagnetic data from Neogene basanites near Lądek Zdrój, Sudetes Mts". Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae. 72: 119–129.  ^ a b Ackerman, Lukáš; Petr, Špaček; Medaris, Jr., Gordon; Hegner, Ernst; Svojtka, Martin; Ulrych, Jaromír (2012). "Geochemistry and petrology of pyroxenite xenoliths from Cenozoic
Cenozoic
alkaline basalts, Bohemian Massif" (PDF). Journal of Geosciences. 57: 199–219. doi:10.3190/jgeosci.125.  ^ Dowgiałło, Jan (2000). "The Sudetic geothermal region of Poland–new findings and further prospects" (PDF). Proceedins of the World Geothermal Congress. World Geothermal Congress. Kyushu–Tohoku, Japan. pp. 1089–1094.  ^ a b c d e Migoń, Piotr (2011). "Geomorphic Diversity of the Sudetes - Effects of the structure and global change superimposed". Geographia Polonica. 2: 93–105.  ^ Migoń, Piotr (1997). "Tertiary etchsurfaces in the Sudetes Mountains, SW Poland: a contribution to the pre-Quaternary morphology of Central Europe". In Widdowson, M. Palaeosurfaces: Recognition, Reconstruction and Palaeoenvironmental Interpretation. Geological Society Special
Special
Publication. London: The Geological Society.  ^ a b Aramowicz, Aleksander; Anczkiewicz, Aneta A.; Mazur, Stanisław (2006). "Fission-track dating of apatite from the Góry Sowie
Góry Sowie
Massif, Polish Sudetes, NE Bohemian Massif: implications for post-Variscan denudation and uplift" (PDF). N. Jb. Miner. Abh. 182 (3): 221–229. doi:10.1127/0077-7757/2006/0046.  ^ a b c d e Różycka, Milena; Migoń, Piotr (2017). "Tectonic geomorphology of the Sudetes
Sudetes
Mountains (Central Europe) — A review and re-apprisal". Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae. 87: 275–300. doi:10.14241/asgp.2017.016.  ^ a b c d Migoń, Piotr; Latocha, Agnieszka (2013). "Human interactions with the sandstone landscape of central Sudetes". Applied Geography. 42: 206–216. doi:10.1016/j.apgeog.2013.03.015.  ^ a b Mazurski, Krzysztof R. (2000). "Geographical perspectives on Polish tourism". GeoJournal. 50 (2/3): 173–179. doi:10.1023/a:1007180910552. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Sudetes.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sudetes.

Orographic map with Sudetes
Sudetes
highlighted (in French) Orographic map with Sudetes
Sudetes
highlighted (in English)

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Province

Upper Silesia Lower Silesia

Sudetenland New Silesia Austrian Silesia Eastern Silesia

Current

Jeseník District Moravian–Silesian Region Niederschlesischer Oberlausitzkreis / Görlitz

Voivodeships

Lower Silesian Lubusz Voivodeships Opole Silesian

EP constituencies

Lower Silesian and Opole Silesian

Economy

Bielski Okręg Przemysłowy Katowice urban area Legnicko-Głogowski Okręg Miedziowy Lower Silesian Coal Basin Upper Silesian Coal Basin

Industrial Region Ostrava-Karviná / Rybnik Coal Areas

Upper Silesian metropolitan area Tourism

Society

Culture

Architecture

Familok

Regional costume (Śląskie stroje ludowe)

Cuisine

Black noodles Bryja Ciapkapusta Dumplings Galert Hauskyjza Karminadle Kołocz Kreple Krupniok (Kaszanka) Makówki Moczka Modra kapusta Siemieniotka Szałot Wodzionka Żur śląski

Religion

Evangelical Church in Berlin, Brandenburg and Silesian Upper Lusatia Silesian Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Poland Roman Catholic Church Pentecostal Church in Poland

Sport

Football Association Moravian–Silesian Football League National football team Silesian Stadium

Languages

Silesian

Bytom Cieszyn Jabłonków Lach Lower Namysłów Niemodlin Opole Prudnik Sulkovian Syców Texas

Czech German

Silesian German (Lower Silesian)

Moravian Polish

Symbols

Coats of arms Flags

Unofficial anthems

Schlesien Unvergessene Heimat Schlesierlied Slezská hymna

Other topics

Demographics Landsmannschaft Schlesien Silesian Autonomy Movement Silesians

Category Portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 239935387 GND: 4118871-8 BNF: cb1205

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