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SUDANESE ARABIC is the variety of Arabic
Arabic
spoken throughout Sudan
Sudan
. Some of the tribes in Sudan
Sudan
still have similar accents to the ones in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Unique phonological characteristics * 3 Influence of Nubian languages * 4 Regional variation * 5 Greetings in Sudanese Arabic
Arabic
* 6 Assenting - saying yes * 7 See also

* 8 References

* 8.1 English * 8.2 French * 8.3 German * 8.4 Arabic
Arabic

* 9 External links

HISTORY

In 1889 the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain claimed that the Arabic
Arabic
spoken in Sudan
Sudan
was "a pure but archaic Arabic". The pronunciation of certain letters was like Hijazi, and not Egyptian, such as g being the pronunciation for the Arabic letter Qāf and J being the pronunciation for Jim .

UNIQUE PHONOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Sudanese Arabic
Arabic
is distinct from Egyptian Arabic and does not share some of the characteristic properties of that dialect despite the overall similarity of the two dialects. Sudanese Arabic
Arabic
is more closely related to Hejazi Arabic
Arabic

The Arabic
Arabic
letter ج maintains an archaic pronunciation in Sudanese (other dialects typically have , or , while Egyptian Arabic has ).

Sudanese Arabic
Arabic
also maintains an archaic rendering of qaf as ( Voiced uvular plosive ) while Egyptian (like some other modern Urban dialects) renders it as . The uvular rendering of qaf has been lost in nearly every other Arabic
Arabic
dialect and is also considered a relic.

Also peculiar to Sudanese is the quality of the Arabic
Arabic
vowel transliterated as _u/ū_; this is usually transliterated as _o_ in materials on Sudanese because the sound ranges from ɵ~o rather than the typical ʊ~u.

In addition to differences in pronunciation, Sudanese Arabic
Arabic
also uses some different words when compared to Egyptian Arabic. For example, the interrogative pronoun "what" in Sudan
Sudan
is _shinu_ rather than "eh" as in Egyptian Arabic.

INFLUENCE OF NUBIAN LANGUAGES

In northern and central parts of Sudan, Sudanese colloquial Arabic has been influenced by the Nubian language , which in ancient times was the dominant language in Southern Egypt and Northern Sudan. Many of the agricultural and farming terms in Sudanese Arabic
Arabic
were adopted from Nubian.

* Sudanese Arabic
Arabic
_angareb_ < Nobiin: _àngàréé_ "wooden bed" * Sudanese Arabic
Arabic
_kadēsa_ < Nobiin: _kàdíís_ "cat" versus Standard Arabic
Arabic
_qiṭṭ_ and _hirr_ (and derivatives of the same, i.e. diminutive _hurayrah_ "housecat, kitten").

REGIONAL VARIATION

Because of the varying influence of local languages in different parts of Sudan, there is considerable regional variation in Arabic spoken throughout the country. Sudanese Arabic
Arabic
typically refers to Arabic
Arabic
spoken mostly in northern parts of Sudan. The other most commonly mentioned derivative of Sudanese Arabic
Arabic
is Juba Arabic , a pidgin of Arabic
Arabic
spoken in South Sudan
Sudan
, which is much more heavily influenced by other local languages.

GREETINGS IN SUDANESE ARABIC

In northern Sudan, greetings are typically extended, and involve multiple questions about the other person's health, their family etc. When greeting someone you know informally, it is common to begin with the word _o_, followed by the person's first name: _Ō, Khalafalla_ or _Ō, kēf ya Khalafalla_.

Formal greetings often begin with the universal _As-salām ˤalaykom_ and the reply, _Wa ˤalaykom as-salām_, an exchange common to Muslims everywhere. However, other greetings typical to Sudan
Sudan
include _Izzēyak_ (to men) or _Izzēyik_ (to women). A rather informal way to say "How are you", is _Inta shadīd? Inti shadīda?_ "Are you well? (to a male and a female, respectively)", the response to which is usually _al-Hamdo lillāh_ "Praise God" assuming you are indeed feeling well, _ma batal_ "not bad" or _nosnos_ "half-half)" if feeling only okay or _taˤban showayya_ "a little tired" if not so well. Of course, there can be many other responses but these are used in everyday language.

Other everyday greetings include _kwayyis(a), alhamdulilah_ "Good, thanks to allah", _Kēf al-usra?_ "how is the family?" or _kēf al awlād?_ "how are the children". For friends, the question _Kēf?_ can also be formed using the person's first name, prefixed by _ya_, for example; _kēf ya Yōsif?_ "How are you, Joseph?". Another standard response in addition to _al-hamdu lillāh_ is _Allāh ybarik fik_ "God's blessing upon you". Additional greetings are appropriate for particular times and are standard in most varieties of Arabic, such as _Sabāh al-khēr? / Sabāh an-Nōr_.

Sudanese that know each other well will often use many of these greetings together, sometimes repeating themselves. It is also common to shake hands on first meeting, sometimes simultaneously slapping or tapping each other on the left shoulder before the handshake (particularly for good friends). Handshakes in Sudan
Sudan
can often last as long as greetings.

ASSENTING - SAYING YES

The Sudanese Arabic
Arabic
word for "yes" depends on the tribe; _aye_ is widely used, similar to the Scottish aye, although _aywa_ or _na‘am_ are also commonly used.

SEE ALSO

* Nubi language * Juba Arabic

REFERENCES

* _ This article incorporates text from_ Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland, Volume 17_, by Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland, JSTOR (Organization), a publication from 1888 now in the public domain in the United States._

* ^ Sudanese Arabic
Arabic
at _ Ethnologue _ (18th ed., 2015) * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Sudanese Arabic". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland, JSTOR (Organization) (1888). _Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland, Volume 17_. p. 11. Retrieved 2011-05-08. * ^ Bruce Ingham, "Some Characteristics of Meccan Speech", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 34, No. 2. (1971), pp. 273–297.

* Arlette Roth, 1969–1972, _Lexique des parlers arabes tchado-soudanais. An Arabic-English-French lexicon of dialects spoken in the Chad- Sudan
Sudan
area compiled by Arlette Roth-Laly_, Paris: Editions du Centre Nationale de la recherche scientifique.

ENGLISH

* Victoria Bernal, 1991, _Cultivating Workers, Peasants and Capitalism in a Sudanese Village_, New York: Colombia University Press, see glossary of Sudanese Arabic
Arabic
words pp 203–206. * James Dickins. 2008. Online Arabic/English Dictionary of Sudanese Arabic, and English/ Arabic
Arabic
Dictionary of Sudanese Arabic
Arabic
available at http://www.leeds.ac.uk/arts/profile/40000/479/james_dickins. * James Dickins. 2007a. _Sudanese Arabic: Phonematics and Syllable Structure_. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. * James Dickins. 2007b. _Khartoum Arabic_. In _The Encyclopedia of Arabic
Arabic
Language and Linguistics_ (Vol. 2) (K. Versteegh et al. eds.). Leiden: Brill. pp. 559–571, available at http://www.languages.salford.ac.uk/staff/KhartoumArabicArticleDickins.pdf * James Dickins, 2006. _The Verb Base in Central Urban Sudanese Arabic_. In _Grammar as a Window onto Arabic
Arabic
Humanism: A Collection of Articles in Honour of Michael G. Carter_ (L. Edzard and Janet Watson, eds.). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. pp. 155–195. * Elizabeth M. Bergman, 2004. _Spoken Sudanese Arabic, Grammar, Dialogues and Glossary_, Springfield, VA, Dunwoody Press. * Abdel-Hadi Mohammed Omer, 1984, _ Arabic
Arabic
in the Sudanese setting: A Sociolinguistic study (Language Planning, Diglossia, Standardisation)_, Unpublished dissertation, Indiana University (available on Proquest). * Andrew and Janet Persson with Ahmad Hussein, 1979, _Sudanese Colloquial Arabic
Arabic
for beginners_, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Horsleys Green, High Wycombe, United Kingdom: This book is a good introduction to Sudanese colloquial Arabic
Arabic
as spoken in Khartoum. Text is in both Arabic
Arabic
and Latin scripts, making it accessible to those that do not read Arabic
Arabic
but want basic conversational skills. * Alan S. Kaye, 1976, _Chadian and Sudanese Arabic
Arabic
in the light of comparative Arabic
Arabic
dialectology_, Mouton: The Hague, ISBN 90-279-3324-3 . * El Rashid Abubakr, 1970, _The noun phrase in the spoken Arabic
Arabic
of Sudan_, Unpublished dissertation, University of London, UK. * J. Spenser Trimmingham, 1946, _ Sudan
Sudan
Colloquial Arabic_, London, Oxford University Press, G. Cumberlege. * Vincent Llewllyn Grifiths a foreigner's guide to polite phrases in common use among sophisticated Arabic
Arabic
speaking population of Northern Sudan_, Khartoum, published by the Sudan
Sudan
Government. * S. Hillelson, 1935, _ Sudan
Sudan
Arabic
Arabic
texts_, Cambridge, UK: The University Press.

FRENCH

* Michel Baumer, 1968, _Les noms vernaculaires soudanais utiles à l'écologiste_, Unpublished dissertation, Université de Montpelier, France.

GERMAN

* Randolph Galla, 1997, _Kauderwelsch, Sudanesisch-Arabisch Wort für Wort,_ Reise Know How-Verlag, Bielefeld, 1. Auflage, ISBN 3-89416-302-X * Stefan Reichmuth, 1983, _Der arabische Dialekt der Šukriyya in Ostsuda